Bryce (1895)

Notes on the text

Volume I

Note: So far, only the Preliminary pages have been proof-read. The Report itself has been formatted and paginated but not proof-read.

Preliminary pages (i-xxvi)
Table of contents

Introduction (1-6)

Part I (7-18)
Historical sketch

Part II (19-80)
Present condition of secondary education in England

Part III (81-255)
Review of evidence and witnesses' suggestions

Part IV (256-328)
Recommendations

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Preliminary pages (i-xxvi)
Table of contents
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Report (1-328)
Appendices (329-447)
Index (448-451)
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The Bryce Report (1895)
Report of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education

London: HM Stationery Office


[title page]

ROYAL COMMISSION ON SECONDARY EDUCATION



VOL. I

REPORT

OF THE

COMMISSIONERS


PRESENTED TO PARLIAMENT BY COMMAND OF HER MAJESTY

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE,
BY EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE,

PRINTERS TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY
And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from
EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, EAST HARDING STREET, FLEET STREET, E.C.; and
32, ABINGDON STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.; or
JOHN MENZIES & CO., 12, HANOVER STREET, EDINBURGH, and
90, WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW, and
HODGES, FIGGIS, & CO. LIMITED, 104 GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN

1895

[C.-7862.] Price 1s 11d.


[page iii]

COMMISSION

VICTORIA R.

VICTORIA, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender or the Faith, to -

Our right trusty and well-beloved Councillor, James Bryce, Chancellor of Our Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster, Chairman;
Our right trusty and well beloved Councillor, Sir John Tomlinson Hibbert, Knight Commander of Our Most Honourable Order of the Bath;
Our trusty and well-beloved Edward Lyttelton (commonly called the Honourable Edward Lyttelton) Clerk, Master of Arts;
Our trusty and well-beloved Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe, Knight, Doctor or Civil Law, Fellow of the Royal Society;
Our trusty and well-beloved Edward Craig Maclure, Doctor in Divinity, Dean of Our Cathedral Church of Manchester;
Our trusty and well-beloved Andrew Martin Fairbairn, Doctor in Divinity;
Our trusty and well-beloved Richard Claverhouse Jebb, Esquire, Regius Professor of Greek in Our University of Cambridge, Doctor in Letters, Honorary Doctor of Civil Law of Our University of Oxford;
Our trusty and well-beloved Richard Wormell, Esquire, Doctor of Science;
Our trusty and well-beloved Henry Hobhouse, Esquire, Master or Arts, one of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England;
Our trusty and well-beloved Michael Ernest Sadler, Esquire, Master of Arts;
Our trusty and well-beloved Hubert Llewellyn Smith, Esquire, Master of Arts;
Our trusty and well-beloved George Jack Cockburn, Esquire;
Our trusty and well-beloved Charles Fenwick, Esquire;
Our trusty and well-beloved James Henry Yoxall, Esquire;
Our trusty and well-beloved Lucy Caroline Cavendish (commonly called Lady Frederick Cavendish), Widow;
Our trusty and well-beloved Sophie Bryant, Doctor of Science Widow; and
Our trusty and well-beloved Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick, wife of Henry Sidgwick, Esquire, Doctor in Letters, Professor of Moral Philosophy in Our University of Cambridge; Greeting!

Whereas We have deemed it expedient that a Commission should forthwith issue to consider what are the best methods of establishing a well-organised system of Secondary Education in


[page iv]

England, taking into account existing deficiencies, and having regard to such local sources of revenue from endowment or otherwise as are available or may be made available for this purpose, and to make recommendations accordingly;

Now know ye, that We, reposing great trust and confidence in your knowledge and ability, have authorized and appointed, and do by these presents authorize and appoint, you, the said James Bryce; Sir John Tomlinson Hibbert; Edward Lyttelton; Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe; Edward Craig Maclure; Andrew Martin Fairbairn; Richard Claverhouse Jebb; Richard Wormell; Henry Hobhouse; Michael Ernest Sadler; Hubert Llewellyn Smith; George Jack Cockburn; Charles Fenwick; James Henry Yoxall; Lucy Caroline Cavendish; Sophie Bryant; and Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick; to be Our Commissioners for the purpose of the said inquiry.

And for the better effecting the purposes of this Our Commission We do by these Presents give and grant unto you, or any six or more of you, full power to call before you such persons as you shall judge likely to afford you any information upon the subject of this Our Commission; and also to call for, have access to, and examine, all such books, documents, registers, and records, as may afford you the fullest information on the subject; and to inquire of and concerning the premises by all other lawful ways and means whatsoever.

And We do by these Presents will and ordain that this Our Commission shall continue in full force and virtue, and that you, Our said Commissioners, or any six or more of you, may from time to time proceed in the execution thereof, and of every matter and thing therein contained, although the same be not continued from to time by adjournment.

And We do further by these Presents will and ordain that you, or any six or more of you, have liberty to report your proceedings under this Our Commission from time to time, if you shall judge it expedient so to do.

And Our further will and pleasure is that you do, with as little delay as possible, report to Us, under your hands and seals, or under the hands and seals of any six or more of you, your opinion upon the matter herein submitted for your consideration.

And for the purpose of aiding you in your inquiries, We hereby appoint Our trusty and well-beloved William Napier Bruce, Esquire (commonly called the Honourable William Napier Bruce), Barrister-at-Law, to be Secretary to this Our Commission.

Given at Our Court St. James's, the second day of March, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, in the fifty-seventh year of Our reign.

By Her Majesty's Command,    

H. H. ASQUITH.


[page v]

REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction1

PART I

HISTORICAL SKETCH

I Previous Royal Commissions on Education7
II 1. Recommendations of Schools Enquiry Commission8
    2. Recommendations carried out by Endowed Schools Acts8
    3. Recommendations not carried out9
III Progress achieved by Public Agencies
1. System of elementary education9
    Rise of higher grade elementary schools10
    Effect of free education on endowed elementary schools10
2. Work of Science and Art Department11
3. Rise of university colleges and colleges for women11
    University Extension Movement and University local examinations12
4. Technical education organised by county councils12
    Welsh Intermediate Education Act13
IV Work accomplished by voluntary effort
1. Organisation of the teaching profession14
2. Increase of public schools for girls15
V Increase of Interest in Education
1. Extension of the subject-matter of education15
2. Increased activity of administrative departments16
3. Confusion arising from lack of organisation17

PART II

THE PRESENT CONDITION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ENGLAND

AUTHORITIES CONNECTED WITH SECONDARY EDUCATION

A CENTRAL AUTHORITIES

I The Charity Commissioners
1. Jurisdiction19
2. Statutes19
3. Jurisdiction under Charitable Trusts Acts19
4. Jurisdiction under Endowed Schools Acts21
5. Procedure21
6. Inspection of endowed schools24
7. Endowments excluded from jurisdiction under Endowed Schools Acts24
8. Progress under Endowed Schools Acts24
9. Constitution of Charity Commission25


[page vi]

II The Department of Science and Art
10. Changes in its relation to Education Department26
11. Connexion with Secondary Education27
12. Regulations in 189327
13. Recent regulations27
14. Grants other than grants to schools and classes28
15. Relation to Technical Education28
16. Interpretation of Technical Instruction28
17. Endowed schools in connexion with Department28
18. Local distribution of Science and Art grants29
III The Education Department
19. Control over endowments29
20. Other connexions with Secondary Education30
21. Through elementary schools30
22. Through training colleges30
IV The Board of Agriculture
23. Powers and functions31

B LOCAL AUTHORITIES

I County Councils
24. Local Taxation Act, 189032
25. Technical Instruction Acts32
26. Amount applied to education32
27. Grants to schools, colleges, &c.32
23. Conditions under which grants are made33
29. Establishment of new schools34
30. Grants for scholarships34
31. Scholarship regulations34
32. Observations on work done by County Councils34
33. County organisation for administration of grants35
II London
34. Administration of Technical Instruction Acts in London36
III County Borough Councils
35. Appropriation of local taxation grants in boroughs37
36. Rate levied37
37. Grants to schools, colleges, &c.37
38. Scholarships38
39. Grants to school boards38
40. Technical instruction committees38
41. Audit of accounts39

C OTHER EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES

42. Local bodies connected with secondary education39

PUBLIC FINANCIAL RESOURCES AT PRESENT AVAILABLE FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ENGLAND

43. Endowments39
44. Science and Art grants40
45. Grants of Board of Agriculture40
46. Local Taxation Act grant40
47. Rate under Technical Instruction Acts41
48. Rate under Elementary Education Acts41
49 Evening continuation school grants41


[page vii]

EXISTING SECONDARY SCHOOLS

50. Classification of schools41

The present Condition of Endowed Grammar Schools

51. Progress in West Riding42
52. Progress in seven selected counties42
53. Comparative condition of particular schools in 1864 and 189343
54. The great endowed schools44
55. Improved constitution of governing bodies44
56. Unsatisfactory position of smaller endowed schools45
    Inadequacy of existing endowments48

Proprietary Schools

57. Present supply of proprietary schools49

Private Schools

58. Number of private schools51
    General Condition of private schools51

Higher Grade Elementary Schools

59. Three kinds of higher grade elementary schools52
    Higher grade elementary schools under school boards53
    Their geographical distribution53
    Higher grade elementary schools in selected counties54
60. Organised science schools54
61. Evening schools, municipal schools, &c.54

The University Extension Movement

62. Method of teaching55
    Recent developments56
    Relation to Secondary Education56

BODIES WHICH CONDUCT EXAMINATION OR INSPECTION

A Examining Agencies

63. (i) Education Department57
(ii) University local examinations57
(iii) Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board57
(iv) London University58
(v) College of Preceptors58
(vi) Department of Science and Art58
(vii) Examination by order of Charity Commissioners58
(vii) County councils58
(ix) Other examinations58

B Agencies for Inspection of Secondary Schools

64. (i) Education Department59
(ii) Charity Commission59
(iii) Science and Art Department60
(iv) County councils60
(v) Board of Agriculture60
(vi) Universities60
(vii) College of Preceptors60


[page viii]

THE OPERATION OF THE GRANTS MADE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART, AND THEIR RELATION TO GRANTS MADE BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

65. Defects in present system of grants60
    Relation to grants made by county council61

DEFECTS IN THE SUPPLY OF SCHOOLS

66. First grade schools61
67. Second and Third grade schools62
68. Rural districts62

DEFICIENCY OF MEANS FOR TRANSFERRING PUPILS FROM ONE GRADE OF EDUCATION TO ANOTHER

69. Need of scholarships63

DEFECTS OF ORGANISATION

Authorities

70. Central authorities64
71. Local authorities65
72. Observations on the problem presented65

The Relations between Schools

73. Over-lapping from over-supply66
74. Over-lapping from lower school doing work of higher67
75. Over-lapping of technical and secondary schools68
76. Over-lapping from higher school doing work of lower69

Questions connected with the Internal Organisation of Schools

77. Need of training for secondary teachers70
78. Attempts to supply training for secondary teachers71
79. Needs of higher elementary schools72
80. Defects of method of instruction72
81. Tenure of office of teacher73
82. Salaries of assistant teachers73
83. Social distinctions in secondary schools74
84. Religious instruction in secondary schools74

SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATING ESPECIALLY TO THE SECONDARY EDUCATION OF GIRLS

85. Increased interest in education of girls75
86. Endowments for girls75
87. Proprietary schools for girls76
88. Quantity and quality of demand for Secondary Education for girls77
89. Grants for girls under Technical Instruction Acts77
90. Mixed schools78

SUMMARY

91. Enumeration of reforms needed78


[page ix]

PART III

REVIEW OF EVIDENCE, WITH DISCUSSION OF SUGGESTIONS MADE BY CERTAIN WITNESSES

1. Witnesses examined81
2. Written answers to questions issued by Commission83
3. Order of Topics in Part III81
4. Nature of problems84

THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY

5. What it is wanted to do85
6. The Minister of Education86
7. Organisation of Department of Education87

THE CHARITY COMMISSION

Analysis of Evidence

8. Present position of Charity Commission88
9. Changes suggested89
(1) Transfer of powers under Endowed Schools Acts89
(2) Separation of legal and educational functions89
(3) Separation of educational from non-educational charities90
(4) Transfer of Charity Commission to Ministry of Education90
(5) Mr. Stevenson's plan91
10. Reports of Select Committee, 1894, and Departmental Committee 189391

Comparison and Criticism of Proposals

11. Conflict of opinion93
12. Relation of Charity Commission to Secondary Education different from that contemplated by Schools Enquiry Commission93
13. Criticism of plans suggested95
(1) Mr. Stevenson's plan95
(2) Report of Treasury Departmental Committee95
(3) (a-c) Plans for partial transference of functions of Charity Commission96
    (d) Plan for complete transference97

THE SCIENCE AND ART DEPARTMENT

Analysis of Evidence

14. Criticism by witnesses of present system as regards instruction98
15. Criticism by witnesses of present system as it affects organisation100
16. Suggestions of witnesses for re-organisation100

Discussion and Criticism of Evidence

17. Advantages of amalgamation with Ministry of Education101
(1) Educational101
(2) Political and financial102


[page x]

THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

18. Advantages of closer connexion between central administration of Secondary and Elementary Education103

THE COUNCIL TO ASSIST THE MINISTER

Analysis of Evidence

19. Unanimity as to need for Council104
20. Difference of opinion as to relation of Council to Minister105

Criticisms and Conclusions

21. Distinction between teaching and other professions106
22. Distinction between the proposed council and suggested precedents107
23. (a) Proper sphere of council108
    (b) Constitution of council109

THE LOCAL AUTHORITY

Its Place and Purpose

24. Demanded by witnesses110
    By the Schools Enquiry Commission111
    By other Commissions112
25. Problems to be solved113

Areas

26. Areas suggested114
(1) Parliamentary division114
(2) Grouping of counties114
(3) Population115
(4) The administrative county or county borough116

Constituents of the Local Authority

27. Questions involved116
28. Expert members117
(a) Representation of universities117
(b) Teachers118
(c) Managers of schools118
(d) Inspectors119
(e) Persons with special knowledge of industries119
29. Proportion of various elements119
30. Modes of election120
(1) Direct election of representative members120
(2) Indirect election122
31. Mode of election of "expert" members123
(1) Co-optation123
(2) Nomination by central authority124
(3) Election:
    (a) by universities, and university colleges124
    (b) by teachers124
32. Difficulties in the way of election by teachers124
33. Summary125

London

34. Need for special treatment of London125


[page xi]

Area

Alternative suggestions126

Constitution

Three plans suggested126
Observations127

Functions and Powers

35. Constitutive and administrative128
36. Proposal for a provincial authority between the local and central authorities129

C THE SCHOOLS: ORGANISATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

37. Questions involved130

What Secondary Education is

38. Various definitions by witnesses130
    View of the Schools Enquiry Commission131
39. Need for re-consideration of the question132
(1) Standard of age133
(2) Social distinctions133
(3) Growth of technical studies133
(4) Demand for a broad curriculum134
40. Secondary comprehends technical education135

Secondary Schools

41. Classification of schools136
(i) According to origin and constitution137
(ii) According to educational function137
42. "First grade" schools138
    Relative merits of boarding and day schools138
    Value of local schools139
43. "Second grade" schools140
    Types of second grade schools141
    Birmingham grammar schools142
    Organised science school in Leeds central board school142
    Manchester technical school142
    Distinctive features of above types142
4.4. "Third grade" schools143

The Local Authority and the Public Schools

45. Intricacy of the question144

Endowed Schools

46. Suggestion that local authority should initiate schemes for endowed schools144

Other Public Schools

47. Suggestions as to future control of higher grade elementary schools146
    Criticism of proposal to leave them as they are146
    Criticism of the proposal to transfer them to the authority for secondary education147
    A third course147


[page xii]

The Relation of Private and Proprietary Schools to Educational Organisation

48. Agreement as to their claims to consideration147
49. Proposal for a register of schools148
50. Agreement as to conditions on which these schools shall be recognised as efficient149
51. Diversity of opinion as to privileges attached to recognition149
    Safeguards against unfair competition with private schools150
    Suggestion that local authority may take over private or proprietary schools150
52. Suggestion that scholarships should be tenable at private and proprietary schools151
53. Preference expressed for inspection by central authority152
    Agreement as to desirability of sanitary inspection153

Secondary Education in Rural Districts

54. Special difficulties153
55. Suggestions by witnesses153
56. Remarks on failure of upper departments attached to elementary schools154
57. Scheme of the Dick Bequest in Scotland: how far applicable to England154

Supply and Management of Schools

58. Estimates of provision required155
    Remarks on that adopted by Schools Inquiry Commission155
59. General solution of the problem applicable to the whole country is impracticable156
60. Enquiry made by the London Technical Education Board157
61. Governing bodies required for schools or groups of schools157
    Religious instruction in schools158

Co-education in Schools

62. Experience in America and Scotland159
    In England159
63. Advantages and disadvantages160

Examination of Scholars and Inspection of Schools

64. General desire for elasticity161

Leaving Examination of Scholars

65. Desire to maintain existing agencies with certain modifications161
66. Proposals for uniform system162

Inspection and Examination of Schools

67. Mr. Fearon's distinction between official and educational inspection163
68. General agreement in favour of inspection of public schools163
69. Examination in relation to inspection164
70. Educational inspection164.

Authorities for Inspection

71. Question whether inspection should be conducted by the local or central authority165

Authorities for Examination

72. Opinion of teachers favourable to universities as agencies for examination166


[page xiii]

D SCHOLARSHIPS AND EXHIBITIONS

73. General demand for increased provision of scholarships167

Restriction of Scholarships to particular Schools and Classes

74. Interests of poor children not sufficiently secured by restriction to elementary schools168
75. Restriction to particular schools169

Ages

76. Age of award: desire to pass children early into secondary schools169

Value

77. Need for something more than tuition fee170
    Proposals for grading value170

Methods of Award

78. Suggestions for modification of method of pure competition171
    Scholarships for girls172

Need of Organisation

79. Greater uniformity of system required172

Reform of Existing Endowments

80. Suggestions for application of elementary school endowments for scholarships112
81. Evils of scholarship system in the larger endowed schools173
82. Remedies suggested174

Entrance Scholarships at the Universities

83.174

E FINANCE

84. Need for organisation from financial point of view175

Endowments

85. Inadequacy of endowments176
86. Suggested remedies for unequal distribution of endowments176
87. Suggestions with regard to endowments applied in connexion with elementary schools177
88. Apprenticeship charities178

Grants under the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 1890

89. Dangers of uncertainty as to permanence of grants178
90. Desire for removal of educational restrictions179

Rates

91. General view in favour of limited power to levy rates179


[page xiv]

Parliamentary Grants

92. Science and Art grants180
93. Changes suggested181
94. Observations on financial effect of the Regulations of 1894181
95. Opinion of witnesses as to need of further State aid182
    Insufficiency of data for determining the question183

Fees

96. Paucity of evidence tendered in favour of free education183
97. Suggestions for free education to a limited extent184
98. Arguments in favour of free education184
99. Arguments against free education185
100. Conclusion186
101. Estimates of cost of schools of second grade186
102. Considerations to be taken into account187
103. Estimate of cost of schools of third grade188
104. Opinions as to proportion of cost to be borne by parents188

F THE TEACHERS

105. Improvement in position of teachers189
106. Movement in favour of purely professional organisation190
107. Effect of exceptional relation of teaching profession to the State190
108. Danger of too much interference with liberty of teachers191

Registration of Teachers

109. Agreement as to need and aims of registration192
110. Opinions as to qualifications for registration192
111. Opinions as to compulsory registration194
112. Difference of opinion as to basis of register194
    Difference largely due to circumstances which have changed195
    Suggestions for its adjustment196
113. Suggestions for classification of register197
114. Temporary provisions197

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF TEACHERS

115. Antagonistic evidence198
116. General opinion favourable198
    Arguments adduced199

Course of Professional Education

117. Suggestions for theoretical course200
118. Relation of theory and practice201
119. Length of course202

Machinery of Professional Education

120. (a) College for Teachers Observations on English Training Colleges for secondary teachers202
121. (b) Apprenticeship in Schools Observations on the apprenticeship of teachers in England203
122. Suggestions for its development204


[page xv]

(c) Provision of Professional Education by the Universities

123. Agreement as to desirability: difference as to extent205

Secondary Departments of Day Training Colleges

124. Observations on the expediency of training secondary and elementary teachers together207

General relation of the Universities to Professional Education for Teachers

125.208

Cost of Training

126. Difficulty of providing buildings and scholarships without endowment208

Salaries

127. Estimates for salaries submitted by witnesses209
128. Statistics of salaries supplied by witnesses209
129. Suggestions for securing better payment of teachers211
130. Observations on these suggestions211

APPOINTMENT AND DISMISSAL OF THE TEACHING STAFF

131. General agreement with recommendations of Schools Enquiry Commission as to appointment212
132. View of the Charity Commissioners as to dismissal213
133. Advantages and disadvantages of this view213
134. Objections of assistant teachers214
135. Observations on these objections216
136. Suggestions with regard to dismissal217

G THE RELATION OF THE UNIVERSITIES AND UNIVERSITY COLLEGES TO SECONDARY EDUCATION

137. Success of labours of universities and university colleges for improvement of Secondary Education218
138. Danger of over supply of university students218
139. One means by which this danger might be lessened219
140. Gaps in the ladder of education220

Have entrance scholarships, awarded by open competition at the Universities, a good effect on secondary schools?

141. The effects on schools of open competition for entrance partly bad221
142. But largely good222
143. Balance of advantages and disadvantages223
144. Remedy suggested224

Is it desirable to impose a poverty qualification on candidates for entrance scholarships?

145. Advantages and disadvantages of poverty qualification224
146. Difficulties of a poverty clause226


[page xvi]

147. Remedy suggested226
(a) Local action226
148. (b) Reduction in value226
149. (c) Pressure of public opinion227
150. Advantages and disadvantage of local restriction227
151. (a) Between particular school and college228
(b) Between particular district and college229
(c) Between group of schools and college or colleges229

The effect on secondary schools of the age at which it is now customary to matriculate at the University

152. Effect of age of matriculation on secondary schools230
153. Some overlapping between schools and university not disadvantageous230
154. Age of matriculation at Victoria University231
155. And at Oxford and Cambridge231
    Evils attending present late age232
156. And the advantages232
157. A middle view232

How far the present arrangements for the secondary education of girls are correlated with those of the universities

158. Influence of universities on secondary education of girls232

Imperfect correlation between the universities and the modern schools

159.234

The connexion between technological instruction and the universities and university colleges

160. Universities and university colleges, and technological instruction234
161. Present attitude of universities235
162. Danger of overlapping between university colleges and technical institutions235
163. Growth of relation between universities and applied science237

The provision by the universities of teachers for the various types of secondary schools

164. Increasing provision by universities of secondary teachers238
165. But still imperfect for second and third grade schools238

The work of the universities in inspecting schools, and in conducting the local examinations

166. Services rendered by universities239
167. Criticisms240
    Lack of experience of school work; remedies suggested240
168. The danger of "cram" and overpressure241
    Inspection the true remedy241
169. Danger of multitude of examinations242
    Remedy suggested242
170. Objections to simultaneous written examinations242


[page xvii]

    Historical justification of the system242
    But its admitted defects242
    Alternative offered by universities243
171. Objections to examination by external authorities244
    Requires check of inspection244
    Present system a compromise245
172. Alternatives suggested by witnesses246
(a) Method of 'Abiturienten Examen'246
(b) Method of Scottish leaving examinations246
    But both accompanied by inspection246
173. Administrative objection to local examinations247
    Rebutted by experience247
174. Necessary connexion between universities and schools248
175. Summary of relation of universities to secondary education248

The relation of university extension teaching to secondary education

176. Provision for elder scholars from secondary schools249
177. Or within limits of school age249
(a) By offer of university certificate249
(b) The university extension colleges249
178. Provision of travelling teachers for schools250
Lectures no substitute for class teaching250
179. Class work in university extension251
180. Importance of students' associations251
Aims of university extension252
181. Effect of Technical Instruction Act252
182. Provision for needs of secondary school teacher253
183. Educational developments due to university extension253
184. Work of the university extension colleges254

PART IV

RECOMMENDATIONS

I THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY

1. Nature of authority required256
2. Constitution of a department under a minister257
3. An educational council258
4. Constitution of council258
5. Arrangements for transacting business of council259

Relation of existing Authorities to New Central Educational Authority

6. The Charity Commission259
7. The Science and Art Department260

Powers and Functions of the Central Authority for Education

8. To aid in establishment of local authorities260
9. To supervise the performance of their statutory obligations by local authorities260
10. To require local authority to make due provision for Secondary Education261
11. Means for compelling a recalcitrant Authority261
12. To consider and approve schemes for endowments submitted by local authorities262
13. To consider objections to schemes, and direct local enquiries262


[page xviii]

14. To exercise powers of Charity Commission over educational endowments262
15. To supervise and make schemes for schools determined by Educational Council to be "non-local"262
16. To settle questions in dispute between local authorities263
17. To sanction enlargement or union of areas of local authorities263
18. To sanction acquisition of private or proprietary school by a local authority263
19. To appoint officers to conduct local enquiries, and for other purposes263
20. To appoint inspectors, and prepare list of inspectors for selection by local authorities264
21. To publish information, and advise264
    To publish general regulations as to sanitary arrangements264

Functions to be discharged by the Minister with the Aid of the Educational Council

22. Determination of appeals from decisions of local authorities264
23. Appointment of members of local authorities264
24. Framing of regulations for inspection of schools and conduct of examinations265
25. Supervision of "non-local" endowed schools265

Functions of the Educational Council alone

26. To determine whether an endowed school is or is not non-local265
    To keep a register of teachers265
27. Other purposes for which Educational Council might be used by minister265
28. Action of Central Office should be confined within narrow limits266

II LOCAL AUTHORITIES

29. Area of local management266
30. Method of election of local authority267

Areas of Local Authorities

31. The administrative county and county borough267
32. Adjoining areas should have power to unite267
33. Power to local authority of county borough to apply for extension of area268

Constitution of the County Authority

34. Representation of -
(a) County Council268
(b) Universities and university colleges268
    Co-optation268
35. Representation of the teaching profession268
36. Representation of managers of public elementary schools269
37. Size of a county authority269
38. Term of office of members269


[page xix]

Constitution of the County Borough Authority

39. Representation of -
(a) Borough council269
(b) School board269
(c) Universities or university colleges269
    Co-optation269
40. Size of county borough authority269
Term of office of members270

Constitution of a Local Authority for London

41. Its area270
    Special plan for constitution of the authority271

Provisions relating to Local Authorities generally

42. Power to choose chairman from outside271
43. Appointment of women272
44. Right of inspectors or assessors appointed by Central Office to attend meetings272
45. Provision for varying constitution of local authority272

Duties and Functions of Local Authorities

46. Classification of functions272
47. Obligation to make adequate provision for secondary instruction273
48. Obligation to have regard to existing proprietary and private schools274
49. Power to establish new schools274
50. Enforcement of statutory obligation274
51. Appeal of proprietary and private schools against action of local authority275
52. Power to initiate schemes for educational endowments275
53. Supervision of endowed schools within area276
54. Power to make schemes for unendowed public schools276
55. Power to make permanent appropriation by scheme of public funds other than endowments276
56. General power of supervision over all secondary schools277
57. Sanitary inspection278
58. Preparation of list of efficient secondary schools in area278
59. Appointment of inspectors279
60. Character of inspection by local authority279
61. Treatment of inefficient schools279
62. Establishment of scholarships279
63. Supervision of unendowed technical institutes, &c.280
64. Power to aid schools in various ways280
65. Right of representation on governing bodies280
66. Financial powers280

Other Duties and Powers of the Local Authority

67. Right to make representations to the central office281
68. Audit of accounts281
69. Annual report281
70. Power to appoint local committees281
71. Power to co-operate with other local authorities281

III ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE BETTER ORGANISATION OF SCHOOLS

72. Methods of treating question of provision of schools282
73. Classification of schools282


[page xx]

74. General rule for determining provision required cannot be laid down283
75. Combination of schools of first and second "grade"283
76. Determination of curriculum should be left to local authorities284
77. Relation of technical to general secondary schools285
78. Co-education of boys and girls285
79. Preparatory schools: public provision for these may be necessary285

Special kinds of Existing Schools

80. Classification286

Endowed Schools

81. Modification of law regulating the making of schemes286
82. Schools under the Public Schools Act, 1868286
83. Endowments connected with elementary schools287
84. Modern endowments287
85. Endowments excluded from jurisdiction of a local authority287
86. Non-educational endowments288
87. Procedure of Endowed Schools Acts should be limited to endowments288
88. Modification of procedure under Endowed Schools Acts288
89. Schemes laid before Parliament289

Unendowed Schools with a more or less Public Character

(a) Higher Grade Elementary Schools

90. Should be treated as secondary schools289
91. And co-ordinated with other secondary schools in the district290

(b) Organised Science Schools

92. Should be under jurisdiction of local authority290

(c) Evening Schools and Continuation Schools and Technical Schools and Institutes

93. Should be under jurisdiction of local authority290

Recommendations affecting the last preceding kinds of Schools or Institutions

94. Transition should he gradual. Central Office should be called in to adjust disputes as to future management291

Proprietary and Private Schools

95. Principles regulating their treatment292
96. Requirements for recognition as efficient292
97. Conditions of continued recognition293
98. Advantages of recognition293
99. Observations on plan recommended293
100. Right of appeal to Central Office294
101. Permanent or temporary transference of schools to local authority294


[page xxi]

Special Provisions for Rural Districts

102. Need for special treatment295
103. Re-modelling of endowed schools295
104. Upper departments in elementary schools296
105. Other methods296
106. Provision of technical instruction297
107. Scholarships297
108. Co-education of boys and girls297
109. Observations on these recommendations297

Local Governing Bodies of Schools

110. Of endowed schools: representation of local authority298
111. Of unendowed public schools298
112. Provision for election of women298
113. Submission of accounts to local authority299
114. Powers of local governing bodies299
115. Right of head teacher to sit on governing body299

Scholarships and Exhibitions

116. General aim of recommendations299
117. Kinds of scholarships tenable at secondary schools300
118. Provision for fair apportionment between boys and girls300
119. Regulations for scholarships attached to particular schools300
120. Value of scholarships301
121. Provision for augmenting value301
122. Provision of free places in return for public grant302
123. Regard to be had to circumstances of parents302
124. Power of local authority to supervise administration endowments for scholarships302
125. Desirability of co-operation between county and county borough302
126. Need for reform of scholarship system in non-local endowed schools303

Examinations

127. Central Office should regulate, but not conduct examinations304
128. Local authority should have examiners' reports submitted to them304
129. Central authority should promote correlation and interchangeability of various examination certificates304
130. Importance of viva voce examination305

Inspection of Schools

131. Appointment and qualification of inspectors305
132. Sanitary inspection305
133. Administrative and educational inspection306
134. Reports of inspectors306
135. Cost of inspection to be borne by body appointing inspector306

IV FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS

136. Sources of income available307

Endowments

137. Their unequal distribution307
138. Their proper function308


[page xxii]

The Grant under the Customs and Excise Act, 1980

139. Basis of present apportionment should be paid to local authority309
    Adequate provision should be made for technical instruction309

Local Rates

140. Power to levy rate not exceeding 2d. in £310
141. Power to borrow on security of rate311

Fees paid by Scholars

142. Questions to be determined311
    Authority for fixing fees311
143. Considerations to be regarded in fixing fees312
144. Boarding fees312

Parliamentary Grants

145. Grants of Science and Art Department, and of Education Department for evening schools313
146. Points requiring regulation by Central Office313
147. Doubt as to need for further grants314
    Experience must decide315

V QUESTIONS SPECIALLY AFFECTING TEACHERS

Appointment and Dismissal of Assistant Teachers

148. Unwise to apply same method to all schools316
    Plan recommended in "First and Second Grade" schools316
    In other schools317

Payment of Teachers

149. Payment of head teacher317
150. Payment of assistant teachers317
151. Payment of women317

Registration of Teachers

152. General demand for registration318
    Basis and scope of register318
153. Terms of admission319
154. Temporary provisions319
155. Provision for exceptional cases320
156. Arrangement of register320
157. Advantages of registration320
158. Registration fees321

Professional Education of Teachers

159. Methods of securing supply of efficient teachers321
    Course of special preparation desirable322
160. Course should have theoretical and practical side322
    Who should provide it?323
    Relation of universities to the subject323
CONCLUSION324
APPENDIX (see Index)329


[page xxiii]

CONTENTS OF SUBSEQUENT VOLUMES

VOL. II Minutes of Evidence from the 24th April 1894 to the 19th June 1894.

VOL. III Minutes of Evidence from the 20th June 1894 to the 8th August 1894.

VOL. IV Minutes of Evidence from the 2nd October 1894 to the 26th March 1895.

VOL. V Memoranda and Answers to Commissioners' questions.

Memoranda by Royal Commissioners:

On the Age at Entrance into the Universities, by the Hon. and Rev. E. Lyttelton, M.A.,
On the Financial Resources available for Secondary Education, by Mr. R. Hobhouse, M.P.
On the Contributions of Private School Teachers to the Improvement of Educational Methods, by Dr, Wormell, D.Sc.
On Pensions and Provident Funds for Teachers, by Dr. Wormell, D.Sc.; the Hon. and Rev. E. Lyttelton, M.A.; Mr. J. H. Yoxall, M.P.; and Mrs. Bryant, D.Sc.
On the advantage of having the same Central and Local Authorities for Secondary and Elementary Education, by Mr. J. H. Yoxall, M.P.
On the Proportion of the Population receiving a Secondary Education, and the extent to which Public Elementary Schools are used as Preparatory Schools, by Mrs. Henry Sidgwick.
On the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, and on Proceedings thereunder, by the Hon. William N. Bruce, Secretary.
On the future Constitution of the Charity Commission, by Mr. F. S, Stevenson, M.P., Fourth Charity Commissioner.
On the History of Endowed Schools, by Mr. A. F. Leach, Assistant Charity Commissioner.
On the Training of Teachers, by Mr. J. G. Fitch, LL.D.
The Relation which should subsist between Primary and Secondary Schools, by Mr. J. G. Fitch, LL.D.
The Training of Teachers of Secondary Schools in France, by Mr. Herbert Ward, B.A., Oxon., one of H.M. Inspectors of Schools, &c.
On the Registration and Training of Teachers in Secondary Schools in Germany, by Mr. J. J. Findlay.
Answers received from Resident Members of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and Victoria, in reply to Circular prefixed thereto. (For names see Vol, V, Table of Contents.)
On the Oxford University Local Examinations Delegacy, by Mr. H. T. Gerrans, M.A., Secretary.
On the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, by Mr. J. N. Keynes, Secretary.
On the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board, by Messrs E. J. Gross and P. E. Matheson, Secretaries.
The Relations between University Extension Teaching and Secondary Education.
Extracts from Memoranda from -
(1.) The Oxford University Extension Delegacy.
(2.) The Council of the London Society for the Extension of University Teaching,
(3.) The Principal of the University Extension College, Reading.
(4.) The Honorary Secretary of the Technical and University Extension College, Exeter.
Extracts from Memoranda from -
Headmasters' Conference. Scheme for the Organisation of Secondary Education.

[page xxiv]

The Incorporated Association of Headmasters in Public Secondary Schools.
The Headmasters of Preparatory Schools' Association.
National Union of Teachers.
The Private Schools' Association.
The Boys' Public Day School Company.
Association of Technical Institutions.
Association of School Boards.
The Secondary Education Council of the Congregational Union of England and Wales.
The Anthropometric Effects of Gymnastics at Haileybury College, by Mr. C. Hawkins, M.A.
The Medical Inspection of, and Physical Inspection in, Secondary Schools, by Mr. Charles Roberts, F.R.C.S.
The Medical Inspection of Secondary Schools for Girls, by Miss Julia Cock, M.D.
Memorandum on the Education of Working Girls, and a Report on the Acland School Club, by Miss Collett.
Memorandum, furnished by the Local Government Board, on the Sanitary Inspection of Private Schools.
Answers received from various persons to a Circular from the Commissioners prefixed thereto. (For names see "Vol. V, Table of Contents.)
Memorial presented on behalf of Trades and Labour Councils, Cooperative Societies, &c.
Memorial by the Working Men Managers of the Nottingham School Board's Evening Continuation Schools to Members of Parliament.
Extracts from the Report of the Dick Bequest in 1890.
Memorial of 17 Private School Teachers.
Memorial of the Trustees of the Devon County School.
Form prepared for the use of Assistant Commissioners of the Charity Commission for the purpose of Inspection.

Answers to General Circular received from -

THE BRITISH COLONIES

CANADA: Ontario.
AUSTRALIA: South Australia. Western Australia. Queensland. New South Wales. Victoria.
NEW ZEALAND.
TASMANIA.

Answers to General Circular received from -

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Answers to General Circular received from -

FOREIGN COUNTRIES

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.
BELGIUM.
FRANCE.
GERMAN EMPIRE: Bavaria. Hesse. Prussia. Saxony. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Wurtemburg.
HOLLAND.
SPAIN
SWEDEN AND NORWAY.
SWITZERLAND.


[page xxv]

VOL. VI Reports of Assistant Commissioners, viz.:

By Mr. R. E. Mitcheson on Bedfordshire
By Mr. H. T. Gerrans and Mrs. Armitage on Devonshire.
By Mr. F. E. Kitchener, and Mrs. Kitchener on the Hundreds of Salford and West Derby, in the County Palatinate of Lancaster.
By Mr. A. J. Butler, Mr. H. Lee Warner, and Mrs. Lee Warner on Norfolk.

VOL. VII Reports of Assistant Commissioners, viz.:

By Mr. J. W. Headlam on Surrey.
By Mr. J. Massie and Mrs. Glynne-Jones on Warwickshire.
By Mr. A. P. Laurie and Miss C. L. Kennedy on the West Riding of Yorkshire.

VOL. VIII Summary and Index of Minutes of Evidence.

VOL. IX Statistical Tables, &c.


[page xxvi]


REFERENCE

To consider what are the best methods of establishing a well-organised system of Secondary Education in England, taking into account existing deficiencies, and having regard to such local sources of revenue from endowment or otherwise as are available or may be made available for this purpose, and to make recommendations accordingly.




[page 1]

ROYAL COMMISSION ON SECONDARY EDUCATION

REPORT

INTRODUCTION


MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,

WE humbly submit to Your Majesty our Report upon the matters which Yom Majesty was graciously pleased to refer to us by your Commission of the second day of March 1894.

The terms of that reference have been understood by us to confine our enquiries to the organisation of Secondary Education. and not to include either an examination and description of the instruction now actually given in secondary schools, or a consideration of what subjects such instruction ought to cover, and by what methods it should be given, These interesting topics we have accordingly dealt witn ouly incidentally, Mel have in the main restricted ourselves to what D1:l.y be called the external or administrative part of the subject. We have enquired into the various kinds of schools and technical institutes or classes that now give secondary and teclmicah instruction, the relations they bear to one another, the autho-. rities which control or manage them, the funds which they receive, the extent to which they meet the requirements of the different classes of the community, noting specially, as Your Majesty has directed us to do, the defects which may be observed in the organisation of these schools, and the local sources whence further pecuniary aiel may be obtained for them; and' it is to these pointe; that our recommendations are addressed.

Even as thus limited, the subject is one of wide range and great complexity, The schools which it covers are of very various types. Each type needs separate treatment, and in many instances the type is not that which best suits the needs of the place it serves, The provision of educational facilities, in a tow places redundant, is in many deficient, and frequently out of relation to local requirements. So also the public bodies and. authoribies concerned in education nre numerous, each with claims, and even jealousies, which reformers cannot ignore.

The ground of Secondary Education is, if the metaphor may be permitted, already almost nil covered with buildings so su bstantial' that the loss to be incurred in clearing it for the erection of a new and symmetrical pile cannot be contemplated, Yet these existing buildings are so ill-arranged, so ill-connected, and therefore so inconvenient, that some scheme of reconstruction seems unavoidable, The revenue available springs from different sources, but nearly every part is subject to existing rules and conditions which are often unsuited to our present needs, but which it is hard to over-ride without affecting vested interests.


[page 2]

or at least long-formed expectations, Moreover the boundary liue which divides Secondary from Elementary Education is not easy to draw in the abstract, and in the concrete can hardly be SAid to exist" so many are the schools and institutions which may be referred to one or other class, according to the point of view from which they are regarded, Thus the questions brought before us have been more difficult than anyone who has not investigated them will readily believe, and the choice has been constantly presented to us between the course which was theoretically best, and that- which would in fact encounter the least resistance or could be most promptly carried out, ,

The details we have to set forth and explain are often dryas wellasminute, and will require to be followed with close-attentioI1;, but a, mastery of them is essential to a comprehension of th~ problems we have had to solve, and an appraisement ,of Ith~ -solujions we offer, V!T e have, therefore, thought it no less nec~ssa~'Y to study fulness and exactness in. stating these details than to aim at clearness in presenting our recommendations; ,and the importance of the object in view, which is nothing less thaD. to complete the educati'onal1$ystem of England, now confessedly defective in that parb Which lies between the .elementary schools on 'the one hand' and the Universitdes on the other, and to frame an .organisation which ,l:ihall be at once firm and flexible, will, as we trust, be found to make the subject full of interest to those who are willing to bestow the necessary pains in mastering its Intricacies.

Several methods of obtaining the information and the advice required for the due fulfilment of our, task, were open to, us. The firat was to call witnesses, posseasing special competence, ltefpre us, and obtain 01-a11y from them statements &8 to facta within their knowledge, and expressions of opinions as to the bearing of those fa9ts, and as to the mea,'>ures .of reform which appeared to be req~red, The second was to request from other -pel'!lons of competence, and especially per~ons who were familiar with some particular branch 0).' branches of our enquiry, infer'mation and suggestions in writing bealing 011 the subject, or on such branch or branches of it, . A third was to conduct direct enquiries into the actual condition of Secondary Education in England, by means of Assistant Commissiouers selected for that purpose, and a fourth was to obtain statistical information from the various public departments concerned as well as from schools themselves,

All these methods have been resorted to by us.

We have examined 85 witnesses, devoting 45 sittings to this part of our work, Among them were officials representing the Education Department, the Science and Art Department, and the Oharity Commission i as also O,thel's .representing county councils, municipal corporations, and school boards, Knowing the keen interest taken by the teachers in private schools in the questions we had to consider, and the apprehensions which some


[page 3]

among them have expressed as to the measuuee that might possibly be suggested, we took pnrbicular pains to secure that the views of this class of teachers should be fu 11 y stated, and invited witnesses from the various bodies claiming to represent them, We further requested the presence of persons who in one capacity or another seem eel qualified to.speak on behalf of endowed schools and proprietary schools as well. as private schools, together with representatives of the teachers in elementary schools and. iii technical iustitutea, and of those sections of society which are specially interested in a further extension of the facilities whereby children may obtain secondary instruction at very low fees, or without any fee" at all, Thus, as we trust, no type of school und no class in society has been overlooked, To secure the help of persons who, while not directly ox' professionally connected with secondary schools, bad studied educational problems, and were prepared to make suggestions regarding them, was found more difficult; and some of those we should gladly have heard were prevented by various causes from attending." But we have had several witnesses belonging to the class of educational statesmen and thinkers, whose opinions were all the more valuable because they stood apart from the various bodies or "interests" between whom controversies. on particular points have sometimes arisen. The evidence of ow: witnesses' will be fouud in Vols. II., ill" and IV. of this Report.

Secondly. We also framed Papers of Questions (ses VoL "V.), which were issued to a number of persons and bodies specially competent to supply information and opinions on the matters to' which they relate, and we also, without sending a paper of questions, invited memoranda; on particular topics from a number of other per50ns whom we believed capable of furnishing valuable data or views. These answers to questions and memoranda contain a great deal of very interesting matter, and we desire to express our sincere thanks to those who have favoured lIS with them, and not least to those eminent members of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge who have supplied a most interesting group of memoranda upon the relations of secondary education to the Universities. They will be found in Vol. V, Om' special acknowledgments ~re due to members of the Executive Government in Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, in some of the States which compose the German Empire, in Holland, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, and the United States of North America, as well as in the selfgoverning British Colonies of Canada, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, 'Western Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania for the information which they have most courteously supplied to us regarding the provision of Secondary Education in those countries respectively (see Vol, V.).

*Among these we may specially refer to the late Dr. Huxley, whose health forbade his attendance.


[page 4]

Thirdly. Following the example of the Schools Enquiry Commissioners, on whom Your Majesty imposed, in A.D. 1864, 8l duty similar to that with which we have been honoured, though of an even wider scope, we have selected certain districts of England as being sufficiently typical of the country as a whole to enable us to deem the educational facts ascertained to exist there to be approximately true .for aU England, and have sent into these districts Assistant Commissioners charged to enquire into and report upon, those facts, The names of these Assistant Commissioners and the districts allotted to them are as follows:

Bedfordshire was assigned to R. E. Mitcheson, Esq., late Student of Ohrist Church, Oxford, Barrister-at-Law and an Assistant Commissioner of the Charity Commission.

Devonshire was assigned to H. T. Gerrans, Esq., Fellow and Tutor of Worcester College, Oxford, and Secretary to the Oxford University Local Examinations, and to Mrs, Armitage.

Lancashire, within the Hundreds of Salford and West.

Derby, was assigned to Ii'. E, Kitchener, Esq., M.A" formerly Headmaster of Neweastle-under-Lyme School ... and to Mrs. Kitchener.

Norfolk was assigned to A. J. Butler, Esq., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and formerly an Examinerin the Education; Department, and to Mr. and Mrs. Lee W amer,

Surrey was assigned to. James Headlam, Esq., Fellow of King's College, Cam bridge.

Warwickshil'e was :1ssigneel to John Massie, Esq., M.A" Tutor of Mansfield College, Oxford, and to Mrs. GJynne Jones.

The West Riding of Yorkshire was assigned to A. P. Laurie, Esq., late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and to Miss 0. L. Kennedy, formerly Headmistress of the Girls' High School, Leeds.

An enquiry into the organization of Secondary Education in the United States and in Canada was undertaken by J. J. Findlay, Esq., M.A., late Assistant Master of Rugby School, and now Principal of the Day Training College of the College of Preceptors.

The Assietanb Commissioners have fulfilled this duty with a. zeal and ability which we desire cordially to acknowledge. Our special thanks are due to nine of them, viz., Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lee Warner, Mr. J. Massie, Mrs. Kitehener, Mrs. Armitage, Miss Kennedy, Mrs. Glynne Jones, Mr. J. W. Headlam, and Mr. J, J. Findlay, who, animated by a public-spirited interest in the subject, were good enough to undertake this work without. any remuneration. We have also ('0 thank the Oharity Commissioners for allowing us to use the valuable services of Mr. Mitcheson, who is one of their permanent Assistant Commissioners. Tho reports of these Assistant Commissioners :11'e printed


[page 5]

in VIth and VlIth volumes of this Report, and will be found well worthy of perusal.

The fact that nearly all our members were constantly occupied in London, or elsewhere, in official, or Parliamentary, or professional duties, made it:. impossible for us to conduct in person that'direct investigation of some of the more difficult educational problems in the spots where they could best be studied, which we should have otherwise attempted. Some of our number, however, were able to pay visits to two districts selected as presenting diverse educational phenomena. One of these visita was to Devonshire, including the city of Exeter and the town of Plymouth, the other to Leeds, Bradford, Keighley, Manchester, and Li verpool, and on both occasions some typical schools and institutions were visited.

Fourthly, we have received valuable assistance from the several Public Departments connected with Education, and from the Charity Commissioners, in particular, a mass of information in a tabular form, setting out various particular, of their dealings with endowments known to be subject to the Endowed Schools Acts. In reply to circulars issued by us, we have received from councils of administrative counties and county boroughs detailed. information wrth regard to the funds appropriated and expended by them in the year ending the 3lst March 1894, under the Technical Iustruccion Acts j and from the head masters or mistresses of the greater number of the Endowed Secondary Schools in England, and also in the selected districts from the Hig-her Grade Elementary Schools, from the proprietary schools, and from a certain number of private schools, information as to the condition, numbers, and work of the schools. The returns from the county councils and boroughs will be found tabulated and summarised in the A ppenc1ix to this volwne. Those from schools have been similarly treated for the selected districts only, though information derived from schools outside those districts has also been made use of in various parts of the Report. We have further obtained Some valuable statistical matter from various associations and bodies whose representatives have appeared before us as witnesses, and who have submitted to us memoranda. .Following the example of the Schools Enquiry Commission, we have also obtained information !.lIS to the previous places of -education of undergraduates of the U Diversities of Oxford, Cambridge, Victoria, and Durham, and we must offer our thanks to the various college authorities for the trouble taken by them in distributing our circulars, and in collecting and Teturning the answers to us, and also to the undergraduates for +he fulness and completeness of their answers. These will be found in a summarised form in V 01. IX,

By the above methods we trust to have duly obeyed Your Majesty's commands so far as regards the collection and arrangement in a convenient form of facts and opiuions


[page 6]

bearing upon the subject. It would, no doubt, have been possible to have accumulated a. still larger mass of materials. But we do not think that the benefit to be expected in the way of light for practical guidance would have been appreciably greater than that supplied by the volumes we now present, And we have felt very strong IX the need of despatch; that is to say, the desirability of doing whatever can be done by way of enquiry and suggestion to enable these mntters to be dealt with promptly by legislation, as well as the advantage which the country may derive from legi:;;lation framed upon proper Jines. We have therefore not spared OUT own time, having held 105 meetings in the seventeen months that have elapsed since we were honoured by YOUT Majesty's commands, and have done our best, according to our abilities and opportunities, to complete our work at the earliest possible moment.

To have so completed so large a task within this period would. however, have been impossible but for the invaluable aid we have received from our secretary, :1'Ir. Bruce, and we desire to acknowledge in the amplest terms how much we owe not only to his untiring diligence and thorough knowledge of the subject, but also to the skill, tact, and judgment which be has displayed in the performance of very difficult and delicate duties.

The order which has been adopted in the preparation of our Report is as follows;-

Part I. contains an historical" statement as to the previous. legislation on our subject.

Part II, contains a description of the state of things now actually existing.

Part III. contains an analysis and exposition 0.E the evidence submitted to us, with a discussion of the views and sug~ gestions of certain leading witnesses.

Part IV, contains the recommendations which we feel prepared to submit and make to Your Majesty,





[page 7]

Part I

Historical Sketch

I

THE questions connected with Secondary Education which y ow' M~iesty has been pleas eel 10 refer to this Comm ission for investigation, consideration, and report, require, in order that they may be rightly understood, a brief historical sketch of the legislative and educational changes which have created the situation as we now find it.

While the Stale as far back as the year 1833 had begun to feel its responsibility for primary or elementary education, and 'to assist it by grants of public money, yet it was not till 1861 .that what is now called Secondary or Tnf ermediate Education engaged its serious attention. In that yeae a Royal Commission was appointed to enquire into the condition of nine amongst the chief. endowed schools of the country viz., Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylors', Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury.

. The report which this Commission, presided over by the late Lord Clarendon, presented to Your Majesty in 18G4, led to the enactment in 1868 of a statute (the" Public Schools Act ") which introduced certain reforms in the administration of seven of these schools, being those of the nine above mentioned which were non-local in their character, boarding. for the most part, as well as educating their pupils. The two excepted were aay schools, drawing their scholars from London and its environs, viz., St. Paul's and Merchant Taylors'.

This firsf Commission on Secondary Education was, though restricted in its range, yet seen to be so important in its results that it WM soon followed by a second with a much wider and more national reference. This WM the Royal Commission appointed 28th December 1864 to enquire into all the schools which had not been included either in the Commission of 1861 or in the Popular Education Commission of ] 8/58. It included several persons of eminent ability and distinction, and.investigated with admirable diligence the condition of all the endowed grammar schools (other than the above-mentioned nine) in England and Wales; and, also, so far as its legal powers and the J!me at its disposal permitted, the education given by proprietary and private schools. Its singularly luminous and exhaustive J;e'port, presented to Your Majesty in December 186'7, and extending with the appendices to 20 volumes, throws a flood of light upon the whole subject, and may be taken as a fitting point of departure from which to trace in oufline the recent history of English Secondary Education.


[page 8]

II

1. The chief recommendations of the Schools Enquiry Com missioners fell under three heads. The firsf of these heads comprised the reforms which the Commissioners deemed needful for the better management of the revenues of endowed schools, and for securing the efficiency of their teaching. The second head related to the constitution of the administrative authorities which were intended to carry out the reforms suggested and to bring both public opinion and professional experience to bear upon the development and working of a comprehensive educational system. Three such authorities were recommended-(l) a Central Authority, (2) a Local or Provincial Authority, with 11 certain jurisdiction both in proposing schemes for the reform of endowed schools within their area, and in udministeriug these schools (the area being defined as a county or group of counties), and (3) a central Council of Education, charged with the duties of drawing up rule. for the examination of schools and of appointiug persons to conduct the examinations, Under the third head certain important proposals were made, with the view of supplementing the endowed or public schools, and of increasing the provision of schools, while rendering their instruction more efficient. The first proposal was to raise the level of proprietary and private schools by offering to them the same inspection and examination a'l were required of public schools, and to endeavour to make their position more assured l,y introducing a system of school registration. The second "proposal suggested that, in order to secure a due provision 'of sound instruction where none was found to exist, power should be given to towns and parishes to rate themselves for the establishment of new schools.

2. Fourteen months after the presentation of this epoch-making report, Your Majesty's then Government laid before Parliament a Bill founded upon it, which, with some important changes, became law in the course of the session as "The Endowed " Schools Act, 1869." By this Act effect was given to the most importaut of the recommendntions classed under the first of the .~bove heads, and also to the first of those named under the second .head, viz., the constitution of a central authority. A body called The Endowed Schools Commission was established, with powers -of making schemes for the better government anel management of endowed schools (except the above-mentioned seven, which had been dealt with by the earlier Act of 1868, and except ~t few .obher small classes of exempted schools). This Commission was, by the Endowed Schools Act of 1874<, merged in the Board of Chari ty Commissioners for England and Wales, while another Act, passed in the preceding year (1873), modified in several points the provisions of its predecessor of 1869. Under these three statutes, schemes have been framed and approved by Your l\fajcsLy for no less than 902 endowments in England (excluding Wales and Monmouthshire), leaving ouly 546


[page 9]

endowments, out of a total of 1,4~8 endowments in England, known to be subject to the Endowed Schools Acts, which have not Ielt the reforming hand of the Commissioners. By these schemes, which have been in a few cases replaced by amending schemes, great improvements have without doubt beeu effected, both in the constitution of the govel'lling bodies and in the educational work and character of the grammar schools. But a good many endowments, as having been founded less than 50 years before the passing of the Act of 1869, have remained exempt from its useful provisions, while, as we shall have to point out presently, the powers of the Commissioners have not always been found adequate to the needs of the case.

3. The other recommendations of the Schools Enquiry Commissioners have had a less happy fate. Nothing has yet been done to create either the 10ca.1 or the provincial authority they desired, or their central council of education. No system for -the registration of schools or teachers has yet been established, nor has power been given to loc:al authorities to rate themselves for Secondary Education generally. As brought into the House of Conuuons in lSG9, the Bill of that year attempted to give effect, with some variations, to the suggestions made by the Commissioners for the creation of fL central council of education, But time failed to carry this part of the measure (which, after a -time had been turned into a separate Bill), in the session of 1869; and though proposals for the creation of a central council and of a system of registering teachers have been subsequently more than once submitted to Parliament, no measure affecting anyone of the above four points has eve!' been enacted. However great the results which have been attained under the Endowed Schools Acts, still it would be unjust to (:Ompare them with those which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners expected, for that which was established was only a fragment of the system tbey had elaborated with so much foresight and patient statesmanship. They looked on the establishment of county or provincial authorities as in some respects the most essential part of theu' scheme, and they conceived that many obstacles certain to retard the action of a central authority might more readily yield to the solvent action of such local authorities. It may be well that we here, in the interests of historical justice, place on l-ecord the simple but significant fact that the plan of the Commissioners, since only half carried out, bas never really had a fair trial.

II

These first legislative attempts to establish a national system of Secondary Education were necessarily imperfect; but other agencies, educational, intellectual, and political, soon began to tell and have induced a steadily growing progress, Among these agencies four deserve to be specially mentioned.

1. The first ng-ency was that of the school boards, created by the Elementary Education Act of 1870, and (in some measure)


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representing in primary what the provincial OJ' local authoribies of the' Schools Enquiry Commissioners were meant to be in Secondary Education.

Of' these there ase in England (excluding Wales and Monmouthshire) 2,030, administering 4,352 schools, on whose boob there are 1,926,547 children. {The figures aare those~ of 189-1-.) For some years the work of erecting and organising schools, to meet the needs of the vast mass of children whom it was their duty to provide for, fully occupied the school boards; but after a lime they found themselves drawn on t.o attempt to improve the range and quality of the insbruction given. Thus subjects which had been deemed luxuries tor children who were to leave school at twelve, soon began to be classed as necessaries. The pleSs.ure of the boards upwards brought about an extension of the pa.rEfI.fl1entary grant to a new Sbandard, now caned the Seventh, in which an instruction more advanced than bad been attempted in the earlier years of the system received 'recognition in various branches. Still later, some school boards undertook to carryon the education of children beyond the limits which the parliamentary grant had fixed, and instituted what are called" ex-standard classes," while other hoards even set up schools intended to furnish children who had passed, the standards, with .instruction in such subjects as history, grammar, French, mathemaeics, and the elements of physical science. These schools, though they have-received the name of" higher gl ade elementary," are really secondary in their character, so far at least as regards their higher classes, in which instruction beyond the standards is given, They have, in fact, stepped into the educational void which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners, noting it with regret, .had proposed to fill b.v what they termed" secondary schools of " the third grade." Since they cannot, speaking generally, share in the grant distributed by the Education Department, nor be au pported Ot1 t of the rates (!lIlthough this seems ina few instances to have been attempted), these ilighel' classes are supported partly by scholars' fees, and partly by the Science and A.rt grante to be presently mentioned. Nor has the tendency thus to extend upwards the range of primary instruction been confined to school boards, In sorne voluntary schools also" ex-standard classes" have been established, and upper departments of the" higher grade elementary " type developed, The Act, of 1891, which replaced scholars' fees by a fee-grant from the national Exchequer may possibly have increased the disposition to allow children to remain at school longer than formerly. But it has had another remarkable effect. It bas rendered needless the old endowments which, as a;ttached to many elementary schools, were used to relieve the pupils from the payment of fees; and in making that which was a gift to places that did not possess such endowments no gift at all tu those places which did; it has raised the question of finding some purpose to which those endowments, no longer needed to replace fees, can ill future be usefully applied.


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2. The second agency has been that of the Science and Art Department. ILs grants began to be made as far back as the year 1837, and though they were not originally made to schools or even for education given in schools, yet the tendency of our legislative and general changes in education has been to render them grl1nts to scholars in schools. Aud in consequence of the educational activity in science and art, which they have helped to stimulate, they have swelled greatly of late years. The total grant for science and art subjects, exclusive of the grant for the teaching of drawing in elementary schools, earned by schools and classes in England now amounts to about 143,OOOl. a year, This Hum viutually goes :in aid of secondary instruction, and a large pad of it is spent On day schools. By these grants (whose application will be more fully described hereafter) the quantity of teaching given in natural science has been largely increased, and the development of these upper departments of' elementary schools, to which we have already referred, has been facilitated. It is in (act mainly by this source of income thtlt those olasaea and schools now live, and it is owing to these grants that they 11a ve given, as will be shown in the sequel, so rr.uch more prominence to scientific than to literary su bjects.

3. Less direct, but hardly less important in its influence, bas been the third agency, that" namely, of new instiLutions created for the diffusion of the higher' education, and I arbicularly of those new University Ooiloges whoso growth has been so nota ble and interesting a fet~tUl'c of the Iasb two decades. In 1868 only three of the eleven English colleges which, in 189], were deemed worthy of a share in the parliu.rnenta.ry grant of 15,OOOl., had risen to the rank which all have now attained, Neatly all of these institntions have been maklng, lind continue to make. rapid progress, both in the Dumber of their students and in the character of the instruction they provide. Similar in character to these U niversity Colleges, \.\ hieh are opan both to men and women, we have seen within the same period five new colleges established expressly for women, viz., Girton (first at Hitchin and now nenr Cambridge) in 1869, Newnham (at Cambridge) in 187], Somerville (at Oxford) in 1879, Lady l\Ial'gal'et Hall (at Oxford) in 1879, anrl Holloway (neal' Egham, in Surrey) in 1886, while another women's college (Bedford College, London) has attained a rank equal to that of these five.

The growth of these new institutions, so far from operating prejudicially on the ancient universities, hns, DO doubt partly as a result of the wider diffusion and greater efficiency of secondary Education consequent 011 the reform of the endowed schools, coincided with an increase in the afflux of students to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge which l-as cloubled the number of undergraduates there. Nor must we forget to note the signiflcaoce and success of the movement more


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popularly known as University Extension, which has by means of lectures, conducted under' the auspices of Oxford and Cambridge. London and Durham Universities.and of the Victoria University (established by Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1880), brought instruction in advanced subjects within the reach of vast numbers of persons, WCJlUen as well as men, who might otherwise have sought iii in vain from the voice of a livillg teacher. Nor must we fail to notice the happier and more sympathetic relations existing between secondary schools as a whole and the older universities. This is seen in two things, firsb in the wider range of subjects recognised in the curricula and examinations of the latter, and, secondly, in .the development of the system of Local Examinations which Oxford and Cambridge have instituted, as well as in the creation of a joint board ft,r tLe examination of secondary schools. The combined result of all these changes has been not merely to stimulate the popular demand for Secondary Education, but to diffuse an interest in educational questions and to quicken a sympathy with educational progress in ChlSSfS or aociety which had been previously but slightly touched by university influences.

4. The fourth of the new agencies to which we have referred, and the latest to be called into operation, hns been that of the Councils of the Englisu counties and county boroughs. In 1884 the Commission whom Your Majesty had appointed to investigat~ the need for Technical Education, and to consider the best methods of providing it, presented their report; and some effect was given to their recommendations by the Technical Instruction Act, passed in 1889, which empowered the Council of any 'county or borough and llJ1y urban sanitary authority to levy a rate (nob exceeding ld. in the pouad) for the support or aid of technical or manual instruction. By an amending Act passed in 1891 it was made clear that a local authority under the principal Ac.t might aid instibutious outside its own districts and might provide scholarships for students resident in its district, tenable at institutions either in or outside the district.

The rating powers given by these statutes were exercised in ccmparatively few places, and probably not much impulse would have been gi ven to technical instruetion, had jt not been for the funds made available hy another Act passed at almost the same time.

In 1890, technical instruction was mentioned in the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act of that year as one of the purposes to which the residue of the money directed to be paid to local authorities from the national Exchequer in respect of the beer and spirit duties might be applied. Two years before, by tbE Local Government Act of 1888, county councils had been called into being and in vested with important powers, which were capable of being used on behalf of educational progress, Thus a difficulty which had been deplored by the Schools


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Enquiry Commission, and which had seriously impeded, the efforts of the Endowed Schools Commissioners, viz.,:- the absence of !l. representative and popular county authority, had been at last removed, and bodies existed to which the application of the above-mentioned funds for educational purposes might be entrusted. These bodies showed themselves generally worthy of the confidence which Parliament had reposed in them, and they began, in the large majority of counties and in a considerable majority of the boroughs, to use the residuary funel rather for technical education than for the reduction of local rates. At present the fund is, wholly or partly, so applied in every administrative county and in every county borough but one. An immense impulse has thus been given to technical education, and as that term bas been extended to cover the whole field of mathematical and physical science, as well as modern languages and some departments of geography, while the grants have frequently been made even to schools giving a general liberal education, this impulse has been felt in many branches of secondary instruction, sometimes, no doubt, to the comparative injury of those branches which were too purely literary to be brought within even the widest interpretation of the term technical."

Another enactment ought here to be noticed, which, while it has reduced the local area of the problem which Your Majesty has directed us to enquire into, has helped us by supplying a new record of experience and a new source of suggestions. In 1889 the Intermediate Education (Wales) Act was passed, by which the power of initiating schemes for educational endowments exercised by the Charity Com missioners under the Endowed Schools Acts, was transferred for a limited period to an Education Committee of five persons, three appointed by the local council, and two by the Lord President, constituted for each county and county borough in Wales and Monmouthshire. The Ad further empowers any county or county borough to authorise the Education Committee to include in its scheme provision for the levying of a rate not to exceed id, in the pound, and an amount not exceeding that levied by local rate is, subject to the fulfilment of certain conditi.ons laid down with a view to secure the efficiency of the schools, to be contributed by the Treasury, while under the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 1890, the share of each county or county borough. in the residue of the grant applicable in England to technical instruction, may be applied lor the purposes of the Welsh Interm ed iate Ec1u cation Act.

Although this Act has been only five years in operation, enough bas already been achieved by it to show the importance of concentrating and correlabing the various local forces and influences that can be used to promote education, and in particular to dsmonsbrate the gain to be expected from the establishment of representative authorities charged with functions in that behalf. An account of this Welsh Act and of what has


[page 14]

been accomplished under it up to the present year will be found in a memorandum (prepared by our secretary) on the subject in the A ppendix to this Report.

III

We -have so far confined this rapid survey of the' progress made since- 1868 to matters of-a public and more or less official natuue. But the voluntaey action, both indi ... ridual and associated; of private persons, must not pass unnoticed, for such action has materially altered the aspect of the problem as it presented itself to the Schools Enquiry Oommissioners.

1. The :first point which here ralls for notice is the change which bas taken place in the status of the teaching profession. In 1868 it was almost entirely un organised, its members isolated and but little drawn together by the ties of common. interest or common aim, There was comparatively little of thafl so-called " solidarity" or sense of responsibility, at once personal and collective, which is necessary to the discipline and high tone of a. great profession. The state of 1things to-day shows a sensible improvement. Teaching is now an orgnnised profession; and the 'tendency to consolidation is shown in the growth of several important bodies. The most (lignified, although the smallest, of tbese is the Headmasters' Conference, established in 18'70, which consists of the heads of the chief endowed public schools of the country, 89 in number. The most numerous is bhe National Unions of 'I'eachers (founded in ]870), counting !lit present about 28,QOO members, nearly all engaged in elementary schools, and not wholly unconcerned with Secondary Education, because many so-called elementary schools have virbually become secondary, not to aeld that the condition of secondary schools has obviously in many points affected, and must more and more continue to affect, that of elementary schools. Midway between these organisations stand several others. The Association of Headmistresses which dates from 1874, the University Association of Women 'I'eacbers and the Private Schools' Association from 1883, the Associaeion of Assistant Mistresees from 1884, the 'reachers' Guilel frOID 1885, the .Incorporated Association of Headmasters from 1890, and the Association of Assistant Masters, the Association of Headmasters of Preparatory Schools; and, the Association of Headmasters of Higher Graue Elementaey and Ol'ganise,d Science Schools from HI92, Perhaps wei ought to name here the College of Preceptors, though it is more than an association of teachers, and already existed in 1868.

Allihough a great many teachers, and in particular the large majority of assistant teachers and of the heads of private schools, remain unconnected with anyone of tbese bodies, still the creation of extension of so many organisations within the last 26 years bears witness to the growth of a stronger professional spirit, and will probably tend to raise the influence and status


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of the profession. itself. Nor is it idle to remark, in passing from this topic, tbat the connexion between the clerical and the scholastic professions is no longer so close as it once was, for although the headmasberships of the large public boardingschools remain, some few by law and the rest by custom, confined to .clergymen of the established church, those of the larg~ pu blie (lay schools are now usually held by [aymen; and the proportion of clergymen 'among 'assistant masters in endowed schools generally is smaller than in 1867, '

. 2. The report of'1867, while it awakened the schoolmasters, I awakened also the more enlightened and public-spirited members of the general community; and while it directly increased the educational efficiency of the public endowed schools, which it tended to reform and! re-organise, it indirectly contributed to the growth and improvement of proprietary schools. To its v:jgol'ous description of the deficiencies then found to exist may be ascribed the creation of two-private companies, intended to provide efficient schools tor the middle classes, .One of these, the Girls' Public Day Schools Company, founded in 1872, Las already 36 schools, with 7,111 pupils. A second, the Ohurch Schools Company, rounded in 1883, has 27 schools and 2,166 pupils. Similar private action, on a smaller scale, has created not a few excellent proprietary schools in the large towns, especially in those where endowed schools either have been wanting or have falleJll. iato . torpor; while at the same time the level, of private schools generally has risen, unequally, no doubt, and in some tOVl'1lS as well as in, .many rural districts scarcely at all, yet if we regard the country as a whole, to a subetantdal degree ..

The improvement which we have noticed is perhaps most marked in girls' schools, proprietary and private, 1.1.'3 well as endowed, School-keeping is less frequently than it used to be the mete resort of ladies possessing 110 other means of support, The development of women's colleges, the opening, as yet only partial, of Oxford and 'Cambridge to women, the admission of women to classes of the new . university colleges, bas provided a far larger supply of competent women, teachers. No change of recent years bas been more conspicuous than this, nor any'more beneficial. Ann in considering the causes which have produced this effect the opening of university degrees to women, in which the University 'of London was the pioneer, must not be :ignored.

IV

As we turn from the history th3it lies behind us to the problems that lie before UR, we feel that there is much in the retrospect to encourage and guide us in dealing with the difficulties in prospect,

1. One of the tjpngs the Schools Enquiry Commission deemed most needful, was the intelligent interest of the people in the


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cause of education. Without this interest, they held, legislation could accomplish little; with it there might be many failures and mistakes, but the end would certainly be correction and improvement. Events have gone far to justify their forecast. The intervening period has been one of constant movement, and experiment in both Elementary and Secondary Education.I+) Between 'these it has been found easier to draw a theoretical than to maintain a practical division, but wherever the dividing line may be drawn, instruction h8.'3 been so enlarged on both: sides of it that whole regions of knowledge, at one time scarcely thougbt of as falling within an educational curriculum, have been added to its province. The classical languages are taught more extensively than ever, but less as if they were dead, and more as i~ tbey still lived, rich in all those humanities by virtue of which they have been the supreme instruments of the higher culture, And they elo riot now stand alone; a place and a; function have been found for modern languages and literatures, anel it is ceasing to be a reproach that our schools have cultivated dead to the exclusion of living tongues. There has been a .remarkable and growing use in education of certain physical sciences, while technical and manual instruction has risen and assumed, especially in certain localities what may in some aspects appe::tr to be rather large proportions. And though some of these extensions represent new departments of knowledge, yet they invol ve instruction in old subjects,like mathematics and mechanics, and so build on them, that the progress of the scholar depenels on the knowledge he already possesses of them. The idea of technical instruction as a means for the formation of citizens capable of producing or distributing wealth, has taken .hold, though in, varying degrees of intelligence and intensity, of both our old borough councils and our new county councils, and hence has come a concern for that kind of education that we might otherwise have looked for in vain. ill a word, we have two excellent things, an enlarged education and a; wider and more intelligent interest in it; and out- of these may come a development which it will require all the wiselom of the legislature to guide.

2. Another point which emerges from the comparison of the state of things described by the Schools Enquiry Commissioners with that which we see to-day is the swift growth in the educational functions and responsibilities of the State. This growth may be Raid to be of two kinds, legislative and administrative; and the remarkable thing is that. the legislative has not so much tended to define and limit the administrative as the administrative to broaden and enlarge the legisJati ve, The preceding sketch has represented, though but in outline, salient acts of the legislature in behalf of education, and as we shall later have frequent occasion to point out the danger of over-interference by the State, we cannot at this stage refuse to acknowledge the value of those statutes that have been passed, and especially of those which marked the years 1869, 1889, and 1890. But the direct


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action of the legislature is perhaps less significant than the growth of the departments which have had 1;0 administer the Acts. The Charity Commission has become, not simply It legal and judicial body for the conservation and re-constitution of charities, educational and other, but an ndministrative body charged with the oversight of the schools whoso endowments it guards, though jt has not reeei ved the means that could enable it to make its oversight thoroughly effectual. The extension of elementary schools has involve.l the Education Department. in certain functions pertaining to Secondary Edueation; while the rapid increase in the number of schools and institutes, which could not live without funds from the Department of Science and Art, makes growing demands at once on the administrative powers of that Deparbinent and on the national resources. And the financial are not the only or even the most serious responsibilities. The rise of local bodies in one sense relieves, and in another sense presses on, the central authority, for they are bodies that, in the initial and more or less experimental stage of their work, need constant advice and even superintendence.t') The result is that the public departments concerned with education arc full of the nnotnalies caused by occasional and not always well-considered, legislation, and the correspondent growth in functions and duties which such legislation always involves.

3. But there is one feature in thia growing concern of the State with education which must not be here overlooked. The gro',rth has Dot been either continnous or coherent; i.e., it does not represent a series of logical or even connected sequences Each one of the agencies whose origin has been described was called into being, not merely independently of the others, but with little or no regard to their existence. Each has remained in its working isolated and unconnected with the rest. Toe problems which Secondary Education presents have been approached from different sides, at different times, and with different views and aims. The Charity Commissioners have had little to do with the Education Department and still less with the Science and Art Department, Even the borough councils have, to a large extent, acted independently of the school boards, and have, in some instances, made their technical instruction grants with too little regard to the parallel grants which were being made by the Science and Art Department. Endowments which, because applied to elementary education, were exempted from the operation of the Endowed Schools Acts, bave been left still exempt; though the public provision of elementary education in 1870 and the grant of universal free elemeutary education in 1891 have wholly altered their position. The University Colleges, though their growth is one of the most striking und hopeful features of the last 30 years, remain without any regular organic relation either to elementary or to Secondary Education, either to school boards or to county


[page 18]

councils. This isolation and this independence, if they may seem to witness to the rich variety of our educational life, and to the active spirit which pervades it, will nevertheless prepare the observer to expect the usual results of dispersed anel unconnected forces, needless competition between the different agencies, and a frequent overlapping of eftort, with much consequent waste of money, of time, and of labour.




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Part II

The present Condition of Secondary Education in England

The agencies connected with Secondary Education may be considered under the following heads:(1) The authorities, central or local, which severally exercise a partial control over it; their respecti ve powers, and the financial resources at their disposal. (2) The existing supply of secondary teaching, (3) Bodies which examine or inspect secondary schools.

We shall first describe these agencies, and then proceed to indicate the problems which the survey suggests.

AUTHORITIES CONNECTED WITH SECONDARY EDUCATION

A. CENTRAL AUTHORITIES

I The Charity Commissioners

1. Their jurisdiction in regard to Secondary Education is limited to dealing with endowments in Eng.land and Wales.

2. Their authority in respect to England (exclusive of Monmouthshire)," is established and defined by two principal sets of Acts of Parliament, namely:(Ct.) The Charitable 'I'rusts Acts, 1853 to 1891; and (b) The Endowed Schools Acts, 1869 to 1874,

3. (a) The jurisdiction under the Charitable Trusts Acts is a general administrative and legal jurisdiction exercised over the general mass of charitable endowments dedicated for the benefit, by various means, of the public or any class of the public. It is derived from the practice of the courts of equity, and provides for the systematic and continuous application of powers which were formerly exercised solely; and III an intermittent and occasional fashion hy those courts,

These powers may be summarised as follows:

(a) Power to enquire into the administration of the endowments,
*Their jurisdiction in "Wales :l'IId Moumouthshirc is modified in some important respects by the Welsh Jntenncdiato Education Act, ] 880; Moumouthshire, for the yurposes of this Act, being treated as part of Wnles.


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(b) Power to compel the production of accounts and information.

(c) Power to authorise acts, such as dealings with corpus of real estate and with capital of personal estate; grants of pensions, &c.

(d) Power to appoint and remove trustees and other officers.

(e) Power to vest real and personal estate, and otherwise to safeguard the property of endowments.

(I) Power to control legal proceedings taken on behalf of the endowments,

(g.) Power to make schemes for the endowments, so as to adapt their administration to meet occurring changes, but subject to the rule of cy pres.

The powers of making schemes and appointing trustees can only be exercised on application. Where the income of the charity does not amount 10 50~., the application may l e by the AttorueyGenerlt]. by one or more trustees, or by any two inhabitants of the parish in which the charity is administered or applicable, 'Where the income amounts to 50l., the application must be by the trustees or a majority of them,

With regard to this jurisdiction, educational endowments, with certain exceptions, are on tl:e same footing as those for other purposes, and, important as tbey arc, do JIOt constitute more than one-fourth of the aggl'egnte of endowments dealt with under these Acts. But while the busineas connected with them forms but a' small proportion of the total transacted by the Commissioners, its importance in relation to the endowments tl.l~rnselves) and in comparison with the operation of the jurisdiction under the Endowed Schools A.cts is a more serious m.sbter. The jurisdiction is less extensive in powel' than that of the Endowed Schools Acts, but it includes a Jarge number of educational endowments not, affected by the latter, and when the area of jurisdiction is common to the two, it exercises a more permanent and pervading influence. It controls the trustees or governing bodies of educational endowments at almost every stage of their work. Thus, recourse to the Charity Commissioners is necessary before trustees or a governing body can dispose of all old, or acquire a new, school site, or erect thereupon buildings for scholastic purposes, or borrow money for those or other purposes of exceptional or capital expenditure, or pension a master or mistress.

It is found, too, in the result of experience, that questions of finance are inextricably invol ved in the exercise of a special control over educational endowments. In many cases a failure to observe the educational provisions of a scheme is attributable to financial embarrassment, from which the endowment can be relieved only by the adminietrative action of the Chal'ity Comrnisaioncra.


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If the Endowed Schools Acts were repealed, and nothing was substituted for t hem, the only consequence woulel be that a particular mode of reorganising certain endowments would thenceforth cease to exist. But, if the Charitable Trusts Acts wero repealed, and nothing was substituted foe them, the consequence would be a revival of the lent?;thy and expensive process of the jurisdiction of the Chancery Division of the High Court, in all the above-mentioned respects, over these educational endowments.

As an illustration of the extent to which endowments, for which a scheme under the Endowed Schools Acts has been made, are affected by the ~l1ol'e permanent jurisdiction under the Charitable Trusts Acts, it may be mentioned that down to the end of 1893 a'l many as 29.5 schemes for the amendment, in more or less important particulars, of schemes made under the Endowed Schools Aces, had been made by the Commissioners in the exercise of their ordinary jurisdiction.

4. The jurisdiction conferred by the Endowed Schools Acts is not a general administrative jurisdiction. but is directed to a single object, that of making schemes, original or amending, for the regulation of the endowments concerned. These Acts are temporary. and since 1882 have been prolonged annually by the li:xpiring Laws Continuance Act r,

5. The initiative in making schemes in Englulld (exclusive of Monmouthshire) lies with the Charity Commissioners, and the procedure involves the following steps:-

(i) An Assistan Commissioner holds an enquiry into the nature of the endowment and other facts of the case, and reports to the Commissioner to whose district the

case belongs. '

(ii) "Heads of a proposed scbeme " are submitted by that Commissioner to the whole board.

(iii) On this basis' a draft, scbeme is prepared, and usually sent to the trustees for consideration; it is then published. Two months from the elate of publication are allowed for objections or suggestions.

(iv) The draft scheme is then again brought before the board by the Commissioner. In a contentious or difficult case, a pll blic local enquiry is then held by an Assistant Commissioner, who makes 11 further report.

(v) The Commissiouers, if they proceed with the case, then formally feame the scheme and submit it to the 'Council of Education, when it passes out of their hands into those of the Education Department.

(vi) The Education Department publish the scheme as submitted to them, one month being allowed for objections or suggestions.

(yu.) Three courses are then open to the Education Depart\ ment. They may either approve the scbeme in the


[page 22]

form submitted, or disapprove it, or remit it to the Oharity Commissioners with such declaration as the nature of the case seems to require, If no objections or suggestions are received it is the practice of the Department. to approve the scheme forthwith.. Wbere objections or sllggestions have been made of such a kind as could not be met by any reasonable iuodiflcation of details, the Department have in a few cases signified their disapproval of the scheme, or sometimes indefinitely suspended their decision. In the years 1884-94 five schemes made under the Endowed Schoon Acts, 1869-74, were so disapproved.P) Where a. scheme is remitted with a declambion, the Charity Commissioners may either amend the scheme so as to bring it into conformity with the declaration and return it to the Education Department, or may prep~re another scheme.

(viii) When a scheme is approved by the Department, it is once more published by the Department with a notice stating that the scheme may be approved by Your Majesty in Council without being laid before Parliament, unless within two months either a petition is presented to Your Majesty in Council against the scheme, or a petition is presented to the Education Department pr~tying that the scheme may be laid before Parliament.

(ix) The petition to Your M:aljesty in Oouncil may be presented by the governing body of any endowment with a yearly income O"I more than 100l. to which the chemo relates, or by any person Or body corporate directly affected by the scheme on certain grounds which are mainly of 11 legal character. (Endowed Schools Act, 1869, s. 39.) If such petition is presented Your Majesty refers it to the Judicial Committee of Your Privy Council for hearing. The proceedings for this particular pmpose are conducted, not by the Education Department, but by the Charity Commissioners as respondents to the petition. The Judicial Committee m:ty recommend Yow: Majesty either to ap1?_rove the scheme or to withhold approval from the whole or any part of it. 1£ approved, the scheme is laid before P~t.diament by the Education Department. If disapproved, the scheme does not take effect, but the CLari,ty Commissioners may forthwith prepare a. new scheme. If the Judicial Committee recommend YOUI' Majesty to disapprove part of the scheme, it is referred back to the Commissioners for alteration in conformity with the report of the Judicia.! Committee und is then submitted to the Education Department to be Iaid before Parliament,


[page 23]

Since the passing of the Endowed Schools Act, 1869,;~ there have been 19 schemes, under the Endowed Schools Acts, 1869-74, which have been the subject of appeals of this kind. In the case of 13 out of the 19 the Judicial Oommittee recommended that the seheme should proceed; the remaining six were remitted.

(x.) The petition to the Education Department may be presented either by the governing body of the endowment, or by the council of any municipal borough directly affected by the scheme, or by not less than 20 inhabitants, ratepayers, of a borough or place directly so affected.

(xi.) . When a scheme is laid b~fore Pal:lil:irnent, it is competent for either House or' Parliament, during two months (in the same session) from the date a,t which the scheme was laid before the House, to present an address praying Your Majesty to withhold your approval from the whole or any part of the scheme. If such an address is presented against the whole scheme, the scheme does not take effect; if against a pnrt of it, the scheme may he altered accordingly and proceeded with, From the passing of the Act of 1869 to the end of March 1895, motions were made in 36 cases (excluding schemes under the Welsh Intermediate Education Act), resulting in addresses praying Your Majesty to withhold your consent from ] 3 scliemes in whole and 4 schemes in part.

(xii.) Two months after the date of approval by the Education Department, or, where a petition has been presented, at the expiration of the proceedings connected with that petition, the scheme is transmitted to the Privy Council, and, on being approved by Your Ma:iesty in Council, comes into operation and has the force of an Act of Parliament.

Mr. Fearon, Secretary to the ChariLy Commission, in the course of his examination before the Select Committee on the Charity Commission in 1894, said:" I thiuk that a scheme under " the Endowed Schools Acts, however non-contentious, is hardly " ever passed under a year, and sometimes takes several years to u get through." That such delays should occur is hardly matter for surprise wlren O1~e takes into account the number and obaracter of the interests involved in the dealing with au endowment uf even moderate j~pol'tance, and the variety of opportunities for negotiation afforded by the elaborate machinery which has beeu described. The treatment of charitable endowments, so long as they are au bject to the Jaw of trusts, can never be a very simple mattor; and there was milch to be said for a complicated

*Before the l!:mlowcd Schools Act, 1873, the appeal was to a Speciul Committe of the Privy Oouucil,


[page 24]

system of checks aud appeals when there was nothing better to interpose between the trusters of many an obscure endowment ill the country and a centralised Board in London, wielding the formidable powers of the Endowed Schools Acts. But the tediousness of the proce'ss is nevertheless a witness to the want of local organisation which the Schools Enquiry Connnission deplored, and, in the better state of things now existing, might safely be modified in some impartanb respects.

6. Under the Endowed Schools Aces, the Commissioners can visit and inquire into details of administration 101' the pllrpose of preparing an origiUfLl or amending scheme under those Acts. Inpection tor other purpose!:, as for that of seeing tllat the provisions of an existing scheme are duly carried out, may be conducted under the Charitable Trusts Acts. But the greater educational experience possessed by the staff under the Endowed Schools Acts makes inspection under these Acts the preferable course j and as it is alwaye possible, and often necessary, to enquire whether a new scheme or au amending scheme is wanted, the POWel'S under those Acts have been found sufficient for the limited amount of inspection which has so flU' been attempted by the Com mission.

7. Certain endowed schools are exempted, wholly or in part, from the jurisdiction of the Commissioners. (i) The Oolleges of Eton and Winchester are wholly exempted, though they may apply to have the benefits of the Charitable 'I'rusts Acts extended to them for auy particular purpose, it they so desire. (ii) The following schools are exempted from the operation of the Endowed Schools Acts, but not from thn,t Ot the Charitable Trusts Acts:

(a) Cbarberhouse, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Westminster. (b) Endowed elementary schools having an income from endowment not exceeding 100l. a year. e)

(0.) Endowed schools maintained by voluntary contribution, and having no income from endowment.

(d) Schools, not being gru.mmm- schools, which in 1869 were in receipt of an annual gmnt hom the Education Department. (I)

(e) Schools mainbnined out of eudowmenb not permanently attached to them.

(f) Chorister schools.

(g.) Every educational endowment founded less than 50 years before the date of the Act (2nd August 1869), unless the governing body assents to u scheme.

8. In the quarter of a century which has elapsed since the passing of the Endowed Schools Act, 18B!J, the Commjssionel'S J1:LVe dealt with endowments the aggregat.e yearly income of which amounts to something more than five-sevenths of the sstirnated total income known to be subject to the Endowed. Schools 1\.Ct.'>1 18(i9-74. The total Dumber of original scheme


[page 25]

established under those Acts down to the 31 st December 1894 in England exclusive of Monmouthshire, is 851, and of amending schemes under the same Acts 127.(') It is estimated (2) thab, at the rata of progress hitherto maintained, it would take about nine more years to make schemes for the rest of the endowments now known to be subject to those Acts. But the period required is likely' to be extended by the need of amending those schemes which, owing to lapse of time andchange of circumstances, have become unsuitable; a duty which forms a large and increasing part of the work of this Department. In a later part of this Reporu") it will be our duty to make some important recommendations with regard to the Charity Commission; but until a readjustment of its functions in respect of Endowed Schools can be effected as part of a plan embracing the whole organisation of Secondary Education, it is to be hoped that nothing will occur to cause any slackening of progress in the administration of these Acts.

9. The Charity Commission consists of a Chief Commissioner, a Second, Third, and Fourth Commissioner, appointed under the Charitable Trusts Act, 1tl53, a Secretary appointed under that Act and the Endowed Schools Act, 1874, and two Commissioners appointed under the Endowed Schools Act, 1874, whereby the 'functions and powers of the Endowed Schools Commission were transferred to the Charity Commission. The two Commissioners appointed under the last-named Act are thereby entrusted with the same pmvers as their colleagues : that is to say, they may act as Commissioners for matters under-the Charitable Trusts Acts as well as under the Endowed Schools l\.ctS. The whole Commission has a collective responsibility for the administration of both sets of Acts. .

The Fourth Commissioner is unpaid, and has always held a seat in the House of Commons. Down to the yeal'1886 the post was held, with only one or two exceptions, by the Vice-President for the time being. Since that date t hree ou t of the four geutlemen who have filled the post have been private members; but this change has not interfered with the custom hy which the Fourth Commissioner has quitted office with the administration which appointed him. From the passing of the Endowed Schools Act, 1874, to the yenI' 1886 the Vice-President did not attend the meetings of the Board, but each of the Parliamentary Commissioners since appointed IIL'Le taken a regular and active part in the work of the Commission, and has been, for ordinary purposes, the channel of communication between the Commission and that House.

So far as the Charitable Trusts Acts are concerned the Charity Commission has no organic connexion with any Minister or Government Department. The Commission is subject to the ordinary financial control of the Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury, with whom rests the duty of defending its Estimates in the House of Commons. On


[page 26]

the other hand, the legal origin and character of its jurisdiction is manifest, not ouly in the principles by which it is guided, but also in the provisions for appeal on various points from its decisions to the Chancery Division of the High Qourt, and in the nature or the means by which its authority is ultimately upheld.

In exercising their jurisdiction under the Endowed Schools Acts, the Charity Commissioners ure in a somewhat different position. They are here brought into a definite, though incomplete, relation to the Committee of Council on Education, Their schemes require the approval of that Department, anel, if subseqnently laid before the Houses of Parliament, are considered to be in the charge of the Lord President or the Vice-President, as the ease l1l~y be: From the summary of proceedings for the establishment of a scheme under these Acts, which we have given above, it will be seen that the Education Department posResses no direct influeuce O\1"e1' those pi oceedings until a complete scheme, often the outcome of some years of patient negociation between the Commission and the locality concerned, is submitted to it. And, since the Endowed Schools Commission was merged in the Oha,rity Corotnission. circumstances have tended, on the whole, to bring the Commission and the Minister less and less into touch with one another.

As we have stated above, the powers exercised by-the Commissioners under the Endowed Schools Acts ate nlso subject to fin anpeal, 9ll certaiu points, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which has delivered several judgments of great importance on the sCQpe and interpretation of tlt0130 Acts.

II The Department of Science and Art

10, This Department has experienced several important changes in its relation to other branches of the exeeuti ve. Originally under the control of the Board of 'I'rarie, it was, on the estnblialuueut of the Educabion Department in 1856, placed side 1)y side with that Department under the Lord President vi the Council and the Vice -Presidcnt of the O"mll1ittC'e of Counci on Education, From 1873 to l8B:!!, the Secretary of the Education Department, was als» Secretary of the Department of Science and Art. His chief executive officer at South Kensington was also an assistnnt seoretary of the Departmenb at Whitehall. In 18811 the Science and Art Department received a secretary a1111 permanent head of its own. But, although thus practically severed from the Education Department, it continues under the control of the Lord President and Vice-President, whose influence on the policy of these two Departments is much more direct and substantial than that exercised by them over the administration of the Endowed Schools Acts, The operations of the Science and Art Department cover a much wider area than those of the Edueation


[page 27]

Department and of the Charity Commission, They extend not only to Scotland and Ireland, but also, for, purposes of examination, to the British Colonies and Dependencies.

11. The connexionof this Department with Secondary Education depends prirnacily on the aid which it gi.ves to the establishment and maintenance of science and art schools and classes, which may be held either in the day or in the evening. Such school or class must be under (1) a local committee approved by the Department, or (2) the local authority us defined by the Technical Instruction Act, or (3) a school board, or (4) the governing body of an endowed school. It must be open at all times to inspection by the Department.

New regulations of great importance have been issued by the Department since the appointment of this Commission. But, for the propor understanding of the views expressed by many of our witnesses, it will be convenient, in the fu'st place, to give a general description of the system which the new regulations were designed to modify, and then to note the principal changes which have now been introduced.

12. The grants to schools or classes were made 011 the results of an annual examination. The students in respect to whom these payments were made were required to belong to the industrial classes-the definition of "indus~rial" being the possession by the parent of an income not exceeding 400l. a year, this being the limit for abatement of income tax. The payment for science was 2l. for a pass in the elementary stage of th subject offered, 2l. lOs. and 5Z. for a second or first class respectively in the advanced stage, and 4l. and Sl. for a second or first class respectively in honours, Extra grants were given for certain subjects. No payment was made unless at least 28 lessons had been given to the class, or unless the student examined bad received at least 20. The payments for art were made OIl similar principles, but with some variation in the amounts. III addition to the payments by results, there was a payment of ll. ill [L clay organised science school on account of each student who made 250 attendances in the YCiLl' and fulfilled certain other conditions; and in a night. school 108. Jar each pupil who makes 60 attendances in the year. For recognition as a clay organised science school the principal conditions to be fulfilled were that instruction in science should be carried on methodically for three year&!, according to a COU1'50 prescribed by the Department, and thfl.t at least 15 hours a week should be allotted to subjects taken. under the Department. The attendance grunt could not be claimed on account of scholars on the register of a school under the Education Department,

13. 'Iurning now to the recent regulations, we rind that the limit of income adopted to define the industrial CIMS has been raised from 400l. to 500l., so as to correspond with the limit 101' abatement of income tax, Organised science schools, to which this test was applied only if there was reason to suppose that


[page 28]

they were not largely attended by pupils of the industrial class, aro now put on the same footing in this respect lLS other schools ~Lnd classes. Tho remaining rnodificatious affect organised science schools only.

In these schools the number of hours per week which must Le devoted to the teaching of science (including mabhematies) is reduced from 15 to 13. Further regulations to n, great extent reform the basis on which grants are wade to organised science schools, with a view ab once to correcbing the evils of payment on results and of: written examination, and to encouraging literary subjects. Under the new regulations gl'l\nts to such schools will be of three kinds:(1) An attendance gl'ant. (2) A variable g~<1nt, depending on the results of inspection. At the inspection, the examination will be viva voce; it will include litor.uy subjects iL'> well as the others, and the .rmount of the grant will depend on the quality of work found in the school as 11 whole. It WIll thus be, in fact, an inspection of: the teachers no less than of: the student'S. The Department has hitherto bad no power to make grants in literary subjecte as such; but these subjects will, under the new rules, be directly encouraged, since the inspector will take account of: tbern in forming his estimate of the schoo1.-(3) A granii ou the results of examination in the compulsory subjects of the advanced and higher courses.

1.4. Besides making grants in these forms, the Department also (1) awards medals and prizes for exarninatious; (2) gives seholarship-, exhibitions, [mel free studentships, which are conditional in some cases on the raising of local subscriptions; (3) makes supplementary grants in eortuin subjecrs, and in respect of cerbs.in teachers or students; (4) gives aid to touchers in tl'lIining at the Royal College of Science and the National Art Training School, South Kensington, and at other approved local centres; (5) U111kes building grants, and grant.') in aid of fittings and apparatus; (6) aids local museums of science and art.

15. In so far as there now exists any central authority for technical education, the Department of Science and Art performs that function. Thus, it lias to decide on the qualifications of schools or institutions to receive aid from local authorities, and nlso to sanction subjects of: instruction not specifically authorised. under the Technical Instruction Acts.

16. In defining technical instruction, the Department has kept in view the varying needs of different localibies, and bas been liberal rather than strict in its interpretation. For example, the following M'O a few n,moug the subjects which it has sunebioued r->, The principles of banking and financial science; book-keeping; the principles of commerce; singing and musical notation; instrumental and orchestral music; political economy; seamanship; the science and arb of teaching; veterinary science.

17. The number of endowecl secondary schools' in England in conuexion with the Department was (April, 1894) 265. ()~


[page 29]

these 25 availed themselves of the examinations only and not of the grant, while in the case 0-[ 77 others no grant was given in respect of elementary mathematics. The latter restriction is imposed by the Department where the circumstances of an endowed school do not appeal' to justify its receiving assistance from public funds to the fullest extent. Only 16 out of the 265 were organised science schools.

The total number of organised science schools in Englanel, exclusive of Monmouthshire, in 1894-95, was 98-a, substantial advance from 82 in 1893-94, and 64 in 1~g2-93.

18. The expenditure of the Department in the financial yeal', 1893-9.1" amounted to 666,308l. Of this sum, 143,869l.(1) was spent ill grants to schools and classes in England, oxclu-ive of Monmcubhshire, The importance of these grant'3 is not in their size, for they do not amount to more than 5l. 68. per 1,000 of the population, but in the fact that they constitute a Stale grant in aid of Secondary Education; and in this view it is worth noting to what an extent the great towns earn the lion's share. ThuS;(2) while the grants to schools and classes in the administrative counties of England amounted (1892-93) to not more than 2l. 148. per 1,000 of population, and in London to 5l. lOs" the 61 county boroughs earned as much as 10l. 148., or, to take particular inst.ances,(S) Leeds earned from the Department,;),997l., as compared with 6,090l. earned by all the three Ridings of Yorkshire, excluding county boroughs. Manchester earned 6,590l., fiR compared with 5,340l. earned by the administrative county of Lancashire, though the population of the town is, in the case of Leeds, lit.tle more than one-fifth, and in the case of Manchester, less than one-third of the population of the county. III Norfolk and Suffolk the three county boroughs, Norwich, Great Yarmouth, and Ipswich, with an aggregate population of 1.50,000, earned 2,690t., while the rest of the two counties, with a population more than foul' times as great, earned only 729t.

III The Education Department

19. The statutory connexion of the Department with Secondary Education is slight} and cannot be taken as the measure 'Of its influence, which is felt in n1any directions, It receives schemes from the Charity Commissioners acting under the Endowed Schools Acts, as has already been expl ai ned. It has also a. special jurisdiction over certain endowed elementary schools which are excluded from the jurisdiction under the Endowed Schools Acts, 1869-74.(1) The governing body of a school, or endowment of a school so excluded, may frame and submit a scheme to the Education Department; and the Department may approve it with or without modifications. By means of such a scheme, the same powers m:1y be exercised as under the Endowed Schools Acts, and the scheme when made has the force


[page 30]

of 11 scheme under those Acts. (3) It will be observed however, that this jurisdiction, though it affords the opportunity of applying such endowments, by means of scholaramps or otherwise, to pill'poses of Secondary Education, can only be put in motion by the governing body. It is not surprising, therefore, to find that it has been seldom exercised. Not more than 44 schemes(i') have been so established, their object being in most eases the coustitution of a new governing body, with discretionary powor to apply the income of the endowment either to the geneml support of the school or to encourage regular attendance, longer continuance at school, instruction :in higher subjects, or other kindred objects.

20. But, apfIJ.'t from endowments, the Department has an important connexion with Secondary Education from. two sides; on the lower side, through the public elementary sehools; on the higher siele, througl; the university colleges and the training colJeges. The influence of training colleges on Secondary Education, is, though indirect, a considerable and a growing one. Not only is a large amount of secondary inetruction givell by teachers in elementary schools, but the passing of the teacher from elementary schools to seeoudary i!:l no longer a rare occurrence; and in both CI1Ses the teacher who has been through a college, whether attached to a university college or of the older residential type, will commonly have the best chance of success.

21. An (( elementary school" is defined/") as one at which elementary education is "the principal part" of the instruction given. In the case ot an evening elementary school, it is not even required, with a view to a parliamentary g.ri.llnt, that ct the principal part" of the education shall be elementary. Hence, an evening school, receiving annual grants from bhe Department, may be mainly a secondary school. Again, some higher graele elementary schools, which receive grants from the Department under the name of public elementary sch ools, are in fact secondary schools 0..<; regards the higher part of their curriculum. The ouly limits to such gl.'a,nts are, (1) that the scholar earning the grant must be under 14; or (2) if over 14, must not have passed in the three elementary subjects of the Seventh Standard.I")

22. With university colleges th.e Department is connected in two ways. (1) Under a Treasury minute of July 1,1889, each college receiving the Treasury grant is required to furnish annually to the Education Department a statement Showing the results of the past year's work, the financial position of the college, &c. (2) Day tra.iniug colleges tor teachers in. elementan:y schools (in addition to the residential colleges) were establishec1 by the Education Department under the Code of 1890. A day training college must bo attached to some university or college 01 university rank. All the day training colleges now


[page 31]

recognised by the Department, except those at Oxford and Cambridge, are attached to university colleges receiving Governmeut grants, The day training colleges are in a close relation with the Department, being subject to the regulations contained in Part II. of the Code. In 1894-95 there were 12 day training colleges in connexion with universities and university colleges in Englancl . Six of these were for men only: two for women only: four for men and women. They contained 576 students (284 men and 292 women.)

IV The Board of Agriculture

23. The powers of the Board of Agriculture in eonnexion with education are defined by section 2 (2) of the Board of Agricul. ture Act, 1889. The Board may inspect and report on any school (not being a public elementary school) in which technical education, practical or scientific, is given in any subject connected with o,griculture (including horticulture) and forestry. The range of subjects bearing on agricultural education is a wide one, inclueling (e.g.) chemistry, physics, biology, geology, mensurabion, surveying, levelling, and 'book-keeping. The Board can also aid educational institutions from n, parliamentary grant (8,000l.), which was first placed at the disposal of the Agricultural Department of the Privy Council (now the Board of Agriculture) in 1888, After the passing of the Local Taxation (Customs und Excise) Act, 1890, it became apparent to the Board that financial aid to local schools could best be given by county councils. Hence the grants of the Board are now given mainly to institutions supplying the higher forms of agdcuJ.tul'al education. These institutions include the University Colleges of Leeds and Nottingham, the Durham College of Science at Newcastle, the Cam bridge and Counties Agricultural Education Committee, and the University Extensicn College founded at Reading through the action of Christ Church, Oxford.

The Board have placed their services at the disposal of county councils tor the pm'pose of inspecting educational work connected with agriculture. Several counties have availed themselves of this arrangement, agricultural education beiug many-sided, and requiring the development of a graded system. The scope of such inspection is large, comprising evening continuation schools, science classes, secondary schools, and courses of lectures to adults. Inspection is also conducted through the colleges aided by the Board. Moreover, assistance in teaching may be obtained from such colleges by secondary schools, and those who are connected with the schools can attend classes at the colleges, And in addition to these particular forms of influence on Secondary Education, the Board may be looked to for information as to the requirements of these engaged in agriculture in respect of education as well as of obherrnatters.


[page 32]

LOCAL AUTHORITIES

I County Councils

24. The Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 18!-J0, place at the disposal of local authorities in England, Wales, and Scotland, considerable sums, representing the residue of the beer and spii-it duties, which may be applied to technical education, including science and arb instruction.

25. The ~rechnical Instruction Acts, 1889 and 1891 empo\ver the council of any county or borough, or any urban sanitary authority in Englalld or Wales, to levy u. rate not exceeding Id. in the jg t') supply or aid the supply of technical or manual instruction.

26. In Engl!tlnd,(l) of' 48 county councils, 42 were in J89b devoting the whole amount of their local taxation money to technical education; and six county councils were devoting a part of it. The power of rating for technical education has not Jet been used 'by any English county as a whole. But in six counties such a rate has been levied by urban sanitary authorities, most of which have received from the county council a grant equal in amount to the rates so levied, In 18l:13-94 the rate was levied by 42 urban sanitary authorities, and the aggl'egr~te amount so raised \\ I.IS 6,044l. In the period of !0Ul' yeurs, ended 31st March 1894, the aggregll.te amount received by. the 48 county councils out of the residue of the Local 'Iuxabion (Customs and Excise) Duties was 1,684,288l. Of this sum, 1,025,583l. was in that period expended on education under the Technical Instruction Acts, and an additional sum of 438,635l. was appropriated to the same pUl'pos.e and carried forward,

27. The grants made by county councils to schools and colleges are of two principal kinds. (1) Annual grants for maintenance; such grants may be considered as more especially tending to encourage Secondary Education generally, rather than merely technical instruction in the narrower sense. Aid to grammar schools has been largely given ill bbis form. (2) Capital grants, either (a) 'for building, or (b) for equipment or maintenance. The total amount expended in L893-94 on technical instruction by the 48 county councils was 391,589~, Excluding 74,G20l., or ncaely one-fifth part, which was paid over to, and administered by, the town councils of boroughs or other urban authorities, we have a sum of 316,969l. administered either directly by the technical instruction committees of the county councils, or Ly district or local committees acting under their regulations and control

Of this latter sum 188,755l. was speut on technical institutes, schools of art, classes applicable to special industries, and other forms of "technical instruction" in its narrower sense; while 17,169l. was paid to secondary schools, 39,475Z. towards scholarships and exhibitions, 13,922l. to evening continuation


[page 33]

schools, and 22,7811. was expended on special classes for training and preparing elementary school teachers to conduct evening schools. The remainder of the funds, 2,93M., was spent in providing apparatus for schools and claeses, and 31,933/. in miscellaneous charges.

It will be seen from the above figures that, without infringing the provisions of the Technical Instruction Acts, a large proportion of the county funds are already being spent directly or indirectly on the maintenance and improvement of secondary schools, and on those evening continuation schools which form, in the country districts at all events, almost the only mean" of giving Secondary Education to the wagll-earning classes. We have evidence to show that this proportion is steadily increasi.ng, particularly in the agricultural counties, where the demand for technological instruction is not great. But the. practice of the different counties varies largely. Thus 20 out of 48 councils (including the large counties of Kent and Lancashire)"make no grants to grammar and other secondary schools, In six others (e.g. Cumberlaud and Northampton) the grants were limited to small sums for equipment. But in the remainder the grants made to secondary schools were of two principal kinds: (1) Annual grantq for maintenance, given either on the capitation principle, or on the consideration of each application on its merits-to every class of pn blic endowed schools except the more expensive firsb grade schools. These grants amounted in 1893-94 to 1l,890t, (2) Capital grants either (a) for building, or (b) for equipment or apparatus. These amounted in 1893-94 to, (a) 1,588l., (b) 2,702l.*

28. The conditions attached by county councils to such aid differ widely. Returns giving information on this su bject are available for only 31 out of the 48 county councils. A condition imposed by the Technical Instruction Acts, is, that either the county councilor its Technical Instruction Committee shall be represented on the managing body of the school aided. In many or most cases, some rules are laid down as to the subjects of inatruotion, and some provision is made for inspection and examination. In Leicestershire, county council scholars reo ceiving technical instruction are to sit for an examination, if required. In Cheshire, at least 25 per cent. of tIle scholars must take the examinations of the Science and Art Department. In Surrey, the county council scholars in any school must. take the University Local Examinations, while the rest of the school may be examined at the discretion of the headmaster. In a smaller number of instances, regulations are made as to the fees and chm'ges, and as to the appointment of teachers.

*These figures represent (lie grants made in this year, but the total expenditure for the year under (l) and (2) included balances amounting in all to 9881., wbich were hrought forward fl'OUI the previous years, and which, added to the grants for the year, make up the total of ]7,l68[. mentioned a~ !"Jirl to secondary schools ii, the preceding-paragraph.


[page 34]

29. In 1894, 17 secondary schools had been founded, or were being founded, by county councils. It has been questioned whether a county council, ar.ting alone, bas power to found a general secondary Or non-technical school. Where this has been done, the county council has usually acted in conjunction with some other body, such as the Charity Commission, or the governing borly of an endowed school, or ill school boned.

30. 42 Ol!t of 418 counties are returned as spending part of .their funds on scholarships; but in eight counties these scholarships are restricted to boys. The amounts expended by county councils on scholarships and cxhihitions bear vOI'y various proportions to the amount spent on direct maintenance of secondary schools. In some counties the sum devoted to scholarships and exhibitions is :far the larger-as in the West Hiding of Yorkshire, which, in the financial year 1t:l93-94, spent 9,387l. on that object, as again'st 3,242l. spent on secondary schools; in some other counties it is much less, as in Hertford (239l. as against 900l,), while in a third group the two amounts arc more nearly equal (as io Devon).

31. Though in some places there is a fair provision of senior scholarships, or of soholarships and exhibitions which can be taken -to places of higher education, a great ma:i6rity of the scholarships given by county councils are for children from public elementary schools, An ordinary rule for junior scholarships is that the candidate shall not be less than 11 years of age, or more than 13 or 14. The income which shall preclude parents from receiving such aid is variously defined; the highest being 400l.7I' the lowest, 150l. In some cases of agricultural scholarshipa, the parent :is merely required to be "a farmer." The usual values of the scholarships show that it is ehoughb desirable to do more than merely defray school fees. Thus a large number of scholarships range from lOt. to l5l, Those of a smaller value, though not few, are in a decided minority. Boarding scholarships range from 20l up to 45l. All these scholarships are, as a rule, resbricted to residents in the administrative county, or to children who have been receiving education in the county for periods varying from six months upwards.

32. In a general survey of the work thus hitherto done by county councils, certain broad facts stand out clearly. (i) County councils have generally found it unwise, if not impossible, in dealing with children of school age, to treat technical instruction as a thing separate from general Secondary Education. This appears (e.g.) from the large number of caaes in which the grants have been made to gt'ammar schools. But tlie conditions under which these grants have necessarily been

*This sum represents Ihe limit fixed by tlllJ Department of Science ana Art, in respect to payment on results of the written examinntiou :jt the time when the returns (rom the countv councils were received.


[page 35]

made, owing to' fihe requirements" of the Technical IilstrucbiCln Acts, have, as a rule, tended to modify the curricula of. "ttt'e schools in' the direction of more science and technical instruction, sometimes, perhaps, to the undue restriction 'of the literary tea:ehing. (ii) In a few places where the endowments for Secondary ~d.uc,a;tion: 'are 1a'rge, difficulty is experienced ill satisfying modern requirements without further aid, An illustration of this. fact is supplied by Bedford, where the gramma-r school and the modern school, both endowed under the great Harpur 'I'rust; received in 1893-94 a capital grMt of 100l. each from the-county council fOl: equipment and apparatus. .1\n even better illusbrabion is afforded by 'London, where the endowed schools, with scarcely an exception, have applied for and obtained grants. Despite the fact bhat they are not as yElt charged w.±tll the aid and control of Secondary Education generally, many county' councils are already' spenclillg large S'UDlS of mouey on the direct or indirect assistance of such education, thus adding considerably to the school incomes, pond obt~i'ng in return' a considerable power of control o'vet the goyerrl~ ment _and curricula of the schools. (iii) The great bulle d; the- money spent by tlie county councils hds gone to the education of children and not of adults. ' (iv) A large and gl'owihg branch of the county council work consists in the aiding of' the evening coutinuation schools, both by grants and by the preparation of teachers to give the scientific, artistic, k~gricultUTal and. other instruction needed in these 'schools. They are here overlapping the work of the Education Department, which also gives aid to most of the schools, but to an extent (in the rural districts) usually insufficient for their requirements. ' '.

33, A. point which remains to he noticed is the manner;)8 which co'nhty councils conetitute their technical' instxu<1tlO'u, committec.<:.(1) In most cases such committees consist wholly of members o~ the county council. In six counties ouly (Devon, Essex, Gloucester, Sor.herset, FWs, West H~dipg q£ Yorlplhi.r.~) Were non-members co-opted. at t,he date or om: retuma, For example, in the West Riding, five out of thirty members of the Technical Iustruction Committee were chosen from outside the county council; of whom one is Your Majesty's Inspector, of ScllOlols; an?ther served o~ tBe H oyal Comm,lssi(~n. on:Seq1µli~a-l ~d'uca!i?n; and ~ third)s, Prr1"~FleI!-t,?ffth~ \~~f'st.Riding dhaw~r of Agi-icu1 ture, The Somerset yQunty Education Committee co-opted &ight members (a number since increased to eleven), of whom one is Your lI!lajesty's ',Chief ,InsB~ct.0l' of ~c;~ools in tha'\i district. There were in ad(lit~qJ?" four \:~p,f~~ent~ti'ites "of t~w urban authorities which levied a rate under the Technical Instruction Act. The county councils of Northumberland and Nottingham have n9~ \,co~QPt~cL members on their own body, but have appointed s'ub-committees, consisting , of 15 members o£ the county council, one representative of each urbq..µ.sunitary authority that raises a l'tlte of not less than ld.


[page 36]

in the pound for purposes of technical instruction, and eight co-opted' members, among whom were included Your Ma.je~tytl Chief Inspector of Schools, the Diocesan Inspector of Schools, and two gentle.men connected with the Oxford University Extension movement. The Gloucestershire committee is composed of 29 members of the county council, four additional members appointed by the council, and 20 additional members co-opted by the committee itself. In Essex, six persons of special knowledge and experience in educational matters have been chosen from outside the county council It is to be remarked that, according to the information supplied to us, only three counties, viz., Gloucester, Somerset, and Wilts, have included women among their co-opted members, The Somerset committee contained three ladies, and those of Gloucester and Wilts two each.

In several counties the committees have enlisted aid from outside the council by means of delegaoion of some of their functions, This has been effected sometimes by the appointment of sub-committees of the technical instruction committee with members added from outside, as in Northumberland and Nottingham, but more often by the constitution of district committees to whom the local administration of the county gl'ants is in vary.ing degrees entrusted. As many as 18 counties have adopted the latter plan, and in a few more counbies district or local committees have been constituted for purposes of organisation or as advisory bodies. Tho system of district committees is, no .dou bt, peculiarly adapted to the circu III stances of a large county with a scattered population like that of Devon, where, accordingly, we find 16 district, committees administering grants amounting in the aggregate to 2,850l. A district committee is formed for each union, and consists of the county aldermen and councillors resident in the union and other persons added by the county committee on the recommendation of the district committee. These persons, of whom tbree at l .. ast must be women, are to he chosen from managers and governors of elementary and secondary schools, local committee') of science and art schools, head teachers of secondary schools, and other specially qualified persons.

In Lancashire the county councillor for each rural electoral division furnishes to the technical instruction committee a list of names of persons in the district interested in educational matters. The committee then seleets at least six of the persons named, and these constibute the district committee, of which the county councillor. or alderman, resident, or" interested in" the district is ex officio a member.

II London

34. The position of London under the Technical Instruction Acts deserves separate mention, as cH,tferin? in some resl?ec~


[page 37]

from that of either a county or a county borough. The London Technical Education Board, which has been invested with full executive power::> by the county council, consists of 20 members of the council, 13 representatives of other bodies nominally appointed by the council hut really nominated by the other bodies, and two experts (one being a woman) eo-opted by the council itself. The non-municipal bodies thus represented are:

The London School Board (3 representatives), the City and Guilds or London Institute (3), the London Parochial Charities Board (2), the Headmasters Association (1), the National Union of 'reachers (I), and the London Trades Council (.3),

This composite board is intended to be representative of all the principal public bodies doing educational work in the Metropolis, and is of special interest as being the only example at present existing in England of a systematic local organisation for the control of Technical and Secondary Education, Its work is being carried on vigorously and is developing rapidly, but owing to the peculiar circumstances of London the sum actually appropriated to technical instruction in 1893-94 was only 57,000l. out of 172,759l., the total amount of residue available. It is probable, however, that year by year, as -the work of the Board developes, the sums appropriated will -steadily, increase. Besides purely technical classes, the board voted, in 1893-D~, 12,215l. towards the maintenance and equipment of secondary schools, and, in the £ollowiug year, 8,500l. for scholarshi ps, a large proportion of which are tenable at secondary schools, Evening continuation schools are in London carried on by the school board out of its own funds,

III County Borough Councils

35. Of the 61 county borough councils, 51 were! in 1894. devoting the whole of their local taxation money to technical education, and 9 were devoting a part of it. The total sum thus expended was, in 1893-94, ] 60,084l. out of 1 (:j7,839l. available. In the period of four years, ended 31st Ma,rch 1894, the aggregate amount received by these 61 county boroughs out of the residue of the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Duties was 605,778l. Of this sum, 386,482l. was in that period expended on education under the Technical Instruction Acts, and an additional sum of 134,050l. was appropriated to the same purpose and carried forward.

36. In addition to their grants, seven county borough councils also levied, in 1893-94, a rate uncle!' the Technical Instruction Act, the total amount levied being 6,860l.C)

37, The larger proportion of the expenditure of the county borough councils has been on technical instruction in the stricter sense of the word, Thus, in 1893-94, 94,986l. was spent on technical institutes, schools of ad, books, and apparatus for free libraries, museums, &c., while 1l,092l. went towards the expenses of other technical classes,


[page 38]

In 20.borough~ Rp-yments Q.Dl,ountin,g to;L3,161l.'''' were made t~'sc~lool boards''';£or the , maintenance of evening, contirlUoMon and higher grade, elementary schools, and a further sum of 6t1~8Z. was spent l;>y councils on evening continuation schools n;nel, classes for elementary teachers.

l,Unbke the 90Ul?ty councils the county boroughs have giveu comparatively little so far to schools professedly secondary. In 1893-94, only 14 out of 6~ made grants in aid of 20 secondary schoole, attended by 7,475 scholars.

These grants amounted to 9,060l. for maintenance and 130t. for building and equipment, The conditions of aid are genera.lly similar to tho~e prescribed by county councils.

38. Only 15 such councils have yet founded scholarships; and in two, boroughs these are open only to boys. A large P~QPo~-tion of the scholarships are confined to children from the ple1l).enttll'Y schools. Among the conditions attached to such scholarships, the residence of the parents within the borough is one which is required by every tuwn except Birmingham, which imposes no restriction.

39. The counby borough council often pays over a part, large or small, of its local taxation money to tlie local school board. Thus at Leeds, where the sum appropriated under thEl 'I'ecbuical Inseruction Acts was, in 1892-3, 6,045Z., the sum of 3,000l. "was paid. to the school board. i ,

" Insome cases the gl'arrts to school boards are 'made for special objects, such as evening continuneion classes, science classes, or scholarships. In others, the council requite a scheme, for theapplication of the gmnt to be submitted to them tor their sunction, 01', as at Leeds, are represented on the expenditure committee of the school board. \Hut there are other cases in which the grant appen.rs to be paid unconditionally and without any definite provision for control or supervision on the part of the borough council.

40. 'In regard to the constitution of t4e technical instruction committees, information was received with regard to 41 out of the 61 county borough councils. Of the 41, 12 appoint ouly members of the borough council, while 29 admit non-members by co optation. Such non-members are appointed on the ground of special educational experience, or as representing Iocal educational institutions or local industries, School boards 0,1'0 represented on 12 technical committees, and local industries on 19. Only three committees appear to contain women.

It is somewhat remarkable, that in spite of the small population and .1'eSOU1'Ces or some of these county boroughs, we know of hut one instance of a complete combination with the udjoirring administrati \TC connsy for the promotion 01i technical instruction. The borough of WiglltD has, by agreement with the Lancashire County Oouncil,~ agreed to devote Jaill its share of the local

*This includes 345l. puid to voluntary school manugers.

† See Evidence, Q. 5251i-60.


[page 39]

taxation g,rant to a min ing .insti tute, available fur the adjoining por-tion of the county. In I J.:etUJI:1l Wigan obtains, not only a contribution from the county funds towards its institute, but also the benefit of the county scholarships and county technical classes. There arc many other cases in which similar co-operation would have been of' mutual benefit, but bhis .has hitherto been prevented by the jealous regard of the srualleraree for its local autonomy.

41. In o:ne respect, there is an important difference in the position of the county ai1'l.~ 'of fhe county borough" under the Technic-al Instruction Acts. The educational accounts of the county council, like their other accounts, undergo 11. strict audit by the district auditors appointed by the Local Government Board. Th~ l'egwlity of their expenditure 1S thus directly controlled by a central authority. In the case of county and municipal boroughs there is no such Government audit. This may account for the circumstance that the educational expenditure of some of the councils of these boroughs includes sums spen:t on purposes some of which do not appe~r to fall within the scope of the Acts.

C OTHER EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES

42. In iMition to 'the 'councils of counties and boroughs, the local bodies at I present connected with Secondary Education are the following:;- .

(i) Governing bodies of endowed schools.

(ii) Managing committees of proprietary schools and of institutes (such as mechanics' institutes).

(iii) Local committees under the Science and Art Department.

(iv) School boards, in so far as the schools under their control give secondary instruction.

(v) Managers of voluntary elementary schools, in so far as such schools give secondary instruction

PUBLIC FlNANCIAL RESOURCES AT PRESENT AVAILABLE FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION IN ENGLAND

43. Educational Endowments:

(a) Endowments known to be subject to the Endowed Schools' Acts, 1869-74, 'producing about 735,OOOZ. a year. Many of these endowments' are partly applicable to non-educational objects, and it is probable that, wi bhout, l?1aking any deduction (often ~L larg:- one) for management of property and ordinury outgoings, this su~ does not represent 1110re than 650,OOOl. a year for education .

(b) Eudowments applied Or applicable in connexion with elementary schools, but not subject to the Endowed I


[page 40]

Schools A.cts. It is probable that the aggregate gl'OSS income of these endowments does not fall far short of 100,000l.

(c) Other endowments applicable or applied for purposes of Secondary Education, but on various grounds not subject to the Endowed Schools A.cts or not known to be so.

We have not sufficienb materials to give an estimate of the income, doubtless very considerable, produced by these endowments. Some wealthy and useful institubions, which would properly be included under this head, are not within the jurisdiction of the Charity Commission at all, and of many of those that UI'fI not excepted, the Ch:1rity Commissionecs have no official knowledge. It is only rail' to point out that the Charity Commission was established as a. sort of offshoot of the Court of Chancery for the l)urpose mainly of giving relief to the trustees of endowed charities, and has never received the organisation which would be necessary to enable it to be an effective statistical department, A special enquiry conducted by either the Charity Commission or ourselves, would have required a greater expenditure of time and money than the circumstancesseemed to warrant.

There are also cel't.{in non-educational endowments which may, with the consent of the governing body, be applied to the advancement of education in accordance with the provisions of the Endowed Schools Act, 1869, section 30. These are endowments applicable for doles in money or 'kind, marriage portions, redemption of prisoners and captives, relief of poor prisoners for debt" loans, apprenticeship fees, advancement in life, or a,ny purposes which have failed altogether or become insignificant in comparison with the magnitude of the endowment, The amounts available for education from these sources may, perhaps, appear to be larger than tuey really are. The total number of schemes passed during the ten years, 188:1,-93, for diverting non-educational endowments into educational channels was ouly 33, and, excluding a few exceptional cases, such as the Rochester Bridge charity, the amounts so diverted were comparatively small.t")

44. Grants horn the Department of Science and Art for schools and classes in England (exclusive of Monmouthshire) amounted for the yl~ar 18!J2-93 to 143,869l., to which may, perhaps, be added the cost of examination, 21,63iil., and a contribution of 5,565l. towards incidental local expenses, making in all 1,7I,069~.

45. Grants for agricultural instruction administered by the Board of Agriculture. The total amoun t of this grant is 8,0001., but f.lt present it is applied mainly to fOJTIJS of ugricultural instruction higher than secondary,

46. Funds available under the Local Taxation Act, 1890, amounting to about 744,000[. a year, of which 531,630l. was, in 18~3-94, appropriated for education,


[page 41]

47. The rate, not exceeding 1d. in the £, which may be levied under the Technical Instruction Acts by the council or a county or county borough, or by an urban sanitary authority. This rate if universally levied would produce in the aggregate about 640,OOOl.

48. The rate levied under the authority of the Elementary Education Acts, in so far as it contributes to maintain secondary teaching in the higher grade board schools.

49. The parliamentary grant for evening continuation schools administered by the Education Department. For the year 1893-94 this amounted to 91,540l.

EXISTING SECONDARY SCHOOLS

50. The Schools Enquiry Commission distinguished three grades of secondary schools; according to the age up to which the pupils normally remain at school. For the first grade this age 19 18 or 19; for the second grade, 16 or 17; for the third grade 14 or 15. In each grade there are schools of different types, according to the time devoted to differen t subjects. But in every ease the grade of the school depends on the bead form; and the character of the head form depends on the age up to which the majori ty of the pupils stay at the school.

Taking provisionally this classification, which it will be seen in the sequel cannot be very rigidJy applied, we find that the following kinds of existing secondary schools belong respectively to the first, the second, and the third grade.

First Grade Schools

1. First grade endowed schools, including the seven "great public schools."

2. First grade proprietary schools sending pupils to th universities or uni versity colleges.

3. Private schools of the more advanced type.

Second Grade Schods

1. Second grade endowed sclrools.

2. Propriet-ry or private schools, which send in pnpils for the higher classes of the College of Preceptors' examinations, or for the Oxford and Cambridge local examinations, ,

3. Some day schools at technical institutes.

4. The highest departments of some 11igher grade elementary schools.

Third Grade Schools

1. Third grade endowed schools.

2. Private schools in which the ordinary standard is that of the third-class certificates in the College of Preceptors' examinations.

3. Higher Grade Elementary schools.


[page 42]

The present Condition of Endowed Grammar Schools

51. The endowed gl'ammal' sehools 01 Engl~n' I are, ron the whole, far better than they were in 1868. A genE:ral advance in their condition is to be seen, (1) ill the larger proportion of such schools' now giving an .ed\w~, tion which call properly be called secondary; (2) ill the higher standard of work prevailing in the best 01 them; and (3) in the larger aggreg'}1te of pupils attending them. No part of England better illustrates tHis general progress than the West Riding of Yorkshire.(') In 18fl5 the ,number of endowed grn.mlilar schools ill the West Riding, which were giving some kind of Secondary Education, was 28;' it is-now sa. and the difference would be far more striking, if the very small number of such schools-only two or -threc-c-which in 1805 taught higher subjects, were compared with the number which are doing so now. In 18.G5 there were only three schools (including St. Peter's College, York) which could be reckoned as tir"t grade; there are now eight. The relative importance of endowed schools and private schools in the West Ridmg lias completely changed since 1865. While private secondary (lay sehools have become rarer, the grammar schools have largely regained 'the ground which they had lost., ,-

52. A general comparison of tile schools in 1864 find 189~ in the seven oou nties in which we have made special inquiries, gives lL' no less satisfactory result. If we take the number of schools in our selected countries which the Commissioners of 18640 classified as of the first, second, or ,third grade, according to the age of the scholars, and compare it with that of the secondary endowed schools in the Appendix to this Report, it is true that there are only 157 now as against 159 then (3). But it is clear from the detailed accounts of the schools contained in the Schools Enquiry Report, that a considerable proportion of the 159 were not doing work which in any way deserved to be called secondary, while this cannot be said of any of the 157. This fact, however, makes the comparison in respect of the number of scholars all the more striking. While the population of the seven counties has increased from a little under SL,{ to a little under nine millions, the number of' scholars has more than doubled. In 1864 there were 10,130, in 1893 there were 21,424. The gross income of the schools from endowment shows an increase, though not in proportion to the gl'ow~h of' populdtion. The £gul'e~ are, ~II round numbers, 120;OOOl. now a's against 77,OOOl. then. The result that a more liberal and costly education is being given to a larger number 01 scholars without a corresponding increase of endowments, is clue in a great measure to the abolition of gratuitous education which was such a common feature in endowed schools, and to the consrquen t creation of a large fee fund. Only 3 . 47 pel' cent. of the to tal num bel' of scholars are in schools where the mean fee, exclusive of extras, is less than 3l. a yeare).


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.''T.53~ 4J t~r~e 9,f tbe~,~ight ~gj:e?>t Ioundabiqns; selected by ~hl1 Commissioners of 1864 for special considerationj") are included tn jihe selected areas to which the v.gures i~ the last paragraph refer, it may Fe useful to compare their gener~~t coudibion , as it . was then !iLI).¢l.Js~ow;. Tl;te, three are the Harpura.Fouudation at RedfQl'c\"the MaRcheste~~G~'amml:1r School, and the schools of King Edwardthe Sixth's Foundation at Birminghami") .

. (1) Harpur's foundation at Bedford maintained at the date of the Schools Enquiry Commission:

There were also elementary schools for boys, girls, and infants, with a total of 1,137 scholars, and a hospital for 13 boys and 1;1 girls.

The benefits of the foundation were confined to Bedford children. There was no provision for the teaching: of natural sci.~nQ~ to, boys, or lOt" secondary instruction 9f any .kind for girls.

The foundation in 1893 maintained;

There rur6' also elementary-schools for boys, girls and infants, at which the '-average attendance in the same year was 2,810, making the grand total of children educated by the foundation 41,'921, or considerably I110re than double the number in 1864. The sebools.are now-well supplied with.Iaboratories, workshops, and' playing fields, and a preferential right of admission is allowed' to Bedford children only when the schools are full.

(2) The .M anchester Grammar 'School, although its income £Crt,m endowment has remained stationary, has increased in numbers rr0ID 360 to 806. .Owing to recent benefactions to the extent of. 40,OOOl., 1 .. he school has new buildings sufficient 10r 1;000 scho~ars, including laboratories for cbemistry and physics, with lecture ~ooms, a library, a gymnasium, and a


[page 44]

workshop. In 1864 there was no playground, now there are two.

(3) The King Edward VI. Schools at Birmingham at the date of the Schools Enquiry Commission comprised-

A classical school or department with 290 boys.
An English -school or department with 300 boys.
Total 590

There were also elementary schools accommodating about 1,280 children.

There was little teaching of mathematics and none of natural science.

The foundation in 1893 maintained:

The boys' schools and the girls' high school have laboratories.

54. The prosperity of the seven. great endowed schools included in the Public Schools Act, 1868, seems in no way to have suffered from the competition of the first grade endowed schools created or re-invigorated by schemes under the Endowed Schools Acts, or from that of modern institutions such as the colleges of Cheltenham, Clifton, and Marlborough. From information furnished to us by them, it appeal'S that the total num bel' for which these seven schools 11iwO accommodation was, in 1893, about 3,740, and t.ha,t there were actually 3,600 scholars receiving instruction there in thab yeflJ:. The colleges of Eton and Winchester are entirely boarding schools. The Westminater School is the only one in which the day boys out-number the boarders. At Harrow and Rugby the uumber of day boys is inconsiderable, but in each case provision has recently been made for local needs l,y the establishment of a middle d~y school. The studies in the seven schools are, of course, mainly directed to preparation for a university career, but more serious attention has of late been gi ven to modem studies, and particularly to the preparation of candidates for the Army.

55. There is a much stronger sense of public responsibility in the govel'ningborues of grammar schools, the great majority of which have been re-constituted by schemes under the Endowed Schools Acts. Under these schemes governing bodies, with very rare exceptions, have included a considerable representa-


[page 45]

tive element; and if: that element has not always been as large as could be wished, the reason is to be "found rather 111 the lack of public local bodies to which the election of governors could conveniently be entrusted than to any want of appreciation of' the value of tche representative element on the part of the Charity Commissioners Thns, in 1889, the year following the creation of county councils, their sense of the importance of: an organic relation between those bodies and secondary schools was shown in the establishment of three schemes giving together] 3 representatives to county councils. And in 1893, those bodies 'secured as many as 71 representati ves under 19 schemes. This incrense of representation was largely due to the fact that the Technical Instruction Acts and Local Taxation Act, which had come into operation in the interval, hal] given to county councils" important functions and financial resources for the promotion of education, in view of which it has appeared to the Commissioners desirable to give them direct representation on governing bodies under schemes made before, as well as since, the Local Government Act of 1888.

56. While noting the general and marked improvement in the condition of endowed grammar schools which has taken place since 1868, we must not forget that there is another side to the picture. There are many gramm.ar schools, of various sizes and types, which arc doing good work, but which are partly crippled in one direction or another, by want of more endowment. Dearth. of scholarships, especially of leaving scholarships, is a frequent defect. C) There is undoubtedly a, large number of schools whose position is very far from satisfactory. These are chiefly schools of the smaller kind. The most general cause of their decay is poverty. A small school, with an endowment perhaps of no more than 20l. to 50l. a year, could exist in the days when educational requirements were simpler, when the facilities for travelling were smaller, and when there was no local compebitor, The appliances of a modern education are more costly; and the smaU grammar school often has rivals in its immediate neighbourhood with which it competes at a hopeless disadvantage. Charging fees much higher than those of the elementary schools, it loses touch with the locality from which it ought tv draw its pupils, and can offer llothing' to attract pupils from other places. Even those meagre resources on which it depends are not constant; the income from the endowment may be a fluctuating ODe owing (e.g.) to charges Oil property, or to a fall in the value of land. In such a case, the governing body of the school sometimes resort to the expedient of practically "farming" it to the headmaster. They make over to him the income of the trust (or a part of it), together with such fees as he can obtain: in return, he is to be responsible tor all the current expenses 'of the school, and also, in many in9t:1DCeS, for the education of a certain number of free boys. Several examples of this system occur (e.g.) in South


[page 46]

Lancashire, both in schools whore there: is no scheme, as at Farnworth (Bolton) and Stand, and in schools where there is a scheme, which this financial arrangement conbravenes, as at Wigan, at Ashton-in-Makerfield, and at Hindley and Abram.(S)

The evils of such" farm~ng IJ are manifest. The headmaster is made answerablo, not only for the efficiency of the school, but for its solvency, He performs bill heavy work as a teacher under the constant strain or anxiety about money. His position makes him dependent on the will of the parents who employ him. He can ill-afford, as a rule, to pay for any assistance at all.; to obtain a properly qualified colleague he must sacrifice his own salary, Thie disastrous farming system is sq~ti!pes defended on the plea that it is the only method oy which t.hf'J school can be carried on; the small school- trust, it is said, would otberwise become bankrupt, In some instances the county councils .have shown themselves k~enly :11jyO to this evil, and by their subsidies have put the school upon abetter footing. But where aid of this kin,~~,is n9t forthcoming. it should be considered whether the school ougllt not ,to be closed, and the endowment applied in some manner more serviceable to education.

Meagre endowment is not, however, the only cause which depresses many of the smaller grammur schools. Not a few oJ them suffer, more or less, from their geogl'lLphica,~ position. This may be because two or more e;l'LlIl~mal' schools have been placed near each other, e.g., Ashburton, in Devon, is only nine mites from Totnes, (LDd Bovey 'I'racey is within 4! miles of Chudleigb.i") Or a grammar school,_, once prosperous, may have been prejudicially affected by some _De,,,: development of education in its neighbourhood; thus .Handpworth I GJ;~mmal' School in Staffordshire has sutlerod from -the , extension of King Edward's schools, which has led -to th establishment of 3t. schools at Aston, only a mile and a hal.£ from Randsworth, and Five Way'S, two miles oH(lo). We hear, again, of schools which are at a. disadvantage owing to the unattracti ve character of the neighbourhood in which they st:~nd-~ wh-n a boauding school is si tuated "on the edge of ,a ml;l.n"Q.factUling town, close to a large'mill."(lJ) Qr a day grammar school, o,ttractively situated, may be too far from thnt quarter of 0, town whence it would naturally draw l')upils, a.'> is said to be the case with the Almondsbury Grammar School near Huddersfieldj'P). Or las.~ly, a grammar school may have been set down in- some place, which is inconveniently f:;r.r £1'011\ aµy railway. Drawbacks of -this kind are" of course, inseparable from the circumstances under which gr.LlIlmar schools, 'bobh the older and the newer, arose : there\ was a good deal of chance or caprice in the choice of their sites; they were not disposed over the country with any view to the con venience of national edueation as a whole. Lastly, we must notice a cause which sometimes


[page 47]

brings a declining or strugg-ling grammar school to the verge of extinction,-Ilhe reign of an inefficient headmaster." Such instances' are, we hope, comparatively rare; but .when tbey happen, the mischief done, if 'not irreparable, takes some time to repair.

Among the smaller gl:3Jmma;l" schools; tliere- are some lis to which i~ seems clear thar, in their present condition, they fire II early or qui te useless. This is not necessarily due to any :faun of the masters; it is sufficiently explained by inadequate endowment combined with-unfavourable sibuation, The grammal' school at Ossett, a small manufacturing town in the West Riding, 'a.ppears to be such a case; it is suggested that, if the school ceased to exist, the endowments might be advaubageously used in sending boys to theueigh boul'ing grammar' schools of Wakefield and Dewsbury.f'") ! Anothf'1' such case is the grammar school 0(' Walsingham, in Norfolk, a decayed town of less than 1000 inhabitants: At the date when our assistant commissioner visited the school in 1894, the number of boys, which ten years previously had been 32, was only 11; and he suggests that either the school should be removed to Pakenham, a thriving town in the vicinity, or its endowments should be used for scholarships to be held at other schools. (1<1) Unless such schools are better supported by local effort, some such ox, edient seems almost inevitable. JI'

A more difficult question is' raised by those small grammar schools which, thou~lr not y~t in ~he predicament j ust desc~'ibecl, are waglng a hard fight for existence, often doing credlt~ble work, yet doomed, apparently, to dwindle. It is sometimes urged that they should be con verted into higller elementary schools. But such a measure would be. strongly repugnant to local feeling in many places, and from the educational point of view it would be !1 retrograde step. A more satisfactory solution would be the giving' of aid from public funds to such decayed grammar schools as could be shown roost to need and to deserve it, on condition of their adapting themselves to the position which might be assigned to them in an organised system of Secondary Education. There are, doubtless, many eases in which the difficulty could be most simply solved. if it were possible to sever bhe enduwment of a decayed grammar school from the ]oca]il!y with which it is connected, and to set up the school in another place, or to merge the endowment in that of another school. But the experience of t!Je 8harity Commissioners has shown tha,b, under present circumstances, such a course is vcry seldom practicable; the local opposition is too strong. The history of perhaps the most prominent case in which the Commissioners have carried out this policy is instl'ucLiTe. Archbishop 'Holgate's Grammar School at Hcmsworth,(15) in the West, Hiding, has been closed, anJ the endowment merged in that of the

*We have one instance iu which such n delinquent, wllose noglect of his duties hnd become a IlInctCl' of notoriety, was '.l81(e(1 by a Govern mont oflluiul w by he did Dot p.ut mor~ .energy iuto his school. The headmaster is said to have replied, "1\{y dear SIr, ambition and I have loug been strangers." (Mr. Massie, vn., p. 90.)


[page 48]

grklJlDmar school at Barnsley, a town of about 35,400 inbabitant=, in the co-il district, about half-way between Sheffield and Wakefield, But this was effected only after strenuous and prolonged opposition on the part of Heinsworth, the struggle lasting no. less than nine yeal's.(l6) In 1894 there were 72 boys in the SdlOOI at Barnsley. We have reason to believe that the transference of the endowment has had an excellent effect on the educational life of Barnsley, and has led to many benefactions bemg made for the further improvement of the school. It is possible, and it is to be hoped that the growth of public opinion on educational questions may with time diminish the force of local resistance to such transfers in cases where it is clear that an endowment, which has become practically sterile in ODe place, might thus be made fruitful in another. For the present, however, it would be over sanguine to anticipate that such a remedy, however cogently recommended by consideration'> of the public interest, can often be applied.

The importance of preserving all grammar schools which are, or can be made efficient, depends largely on the general ground that such schools represent especially the bradition of literary ed ucation. There is little d:mgol' at the present day that we shall fail to recognise the necessity of improving and extending scientific and technical instruction. It is less certain that we may not run some risk of a lop-sided developernent in education, in which the teaching of science, theoretical or applied, may so predominate as to entail comparative neglect of studies which are of less obvious and immediate utility, thougb not of Jess moment for the formation of mind and character. In efficient grammar schools, as existing examples prove, it is possible to harmonise modern requirements with the best elements of that older system which has produced good .results in the past; and which in our own day still represents so much that is fundamental and indispensable in a properly Iiberal education. It may be added that in many rural districts the grammar schools, and they alone, have kept alive the very idea of an education higher than elementary.

It must be observed, however, that endowed schools, whether good or bad, afford very inadequate provision for the Secondary Education of the whole country. The total number of scholars in the endowed schools in the selected counties, even when we include non-local schools such as Rugby and Charterbouse, amonnts only to 21,878, or 2' 5 per thousand of the population. The distribution of this meagre supply presents some startling inequalities.C'") III Bedford, owing to the existence of the great Harpur Foundation in a smnll county, the proportion per thousand is as high us 13' 5, while in Lancashire the increase - of population has entirely outstripped tbat of endowments, and the proportion pel' thousand is only 1 . 1. In Yorkshire, again it is not more than 2 '1, and even in Warwickshire, which includes the magnificent Kin~ Edward VIth Foundation at Birminghmn, and the well-endowed schools of Warwick and SJoventry, the proportion does nob rise above 5 . 2_


[page 49]

Proprietary Schools

57. A" proprietary" school may be (1) a purely philanbhropic institution, which makes no return to those who have advanced money fOJ' site and buildings; (II' (2) a com pany paying a Iiu.ibod interest or dividend to debenture-holders or shareholders on sums advanced for site and buildings; or (3) a company paying dividend which ,may vary with the annual profits.c')

Proprietary schools form, and will continue to form, a valuable element in the supply of .Secondary Education, They have usually been set up in places chosen for two concurrent reasons:' (1) the absence of endowment and (2) the evidence of a local demand. But there is an important class of proprietary school which is national rather than loce 1 in its scope. It includes such schools as those at Cheltenham, Clifton.Marlborough, Malvern, Rossall, which were designed to meet the demand of parents of moderate means for schools conducted on the lines of the great public schools. These institubions, however, tend to pass from the ranks of proprietary into those of endowed schools. This has actually happened in the case of more than one of the instances given above. Of the schools with a local aim the older proprietary schools at Liverpool (which belong to tile first of the three types distinguiahed above) are the only public schools in that city; and South Lancashire in general, like some other districts, owes much to schools of this kind. The education which they provide is of the second or of the first grade. But they cannot, without aid from public funds, meet the demand for cheap second gl.'ade or third grade education. At Liverpool, grants, under the Technical Instruction Acts, from the City Council have enabled the proprietary schools .to . do something towards that object.e) A company which holds a . lal'g number of schools-as is the case with the Girls Public Day Schools Company and the Church Schools Company-can afford to carryon a school at a loss, if such loss is balanced by the gain on another school or schools; but such companies are few, and the system itself is not free from objection. Proprietary schools have benefited in a peculiar degree from the supervision of persons genuinely and intelligently interested in education. A source of weakness to proprietary schools would be removed if it were made clear that County Council scholarships from elementary schools were tenable at them.

The Girls Public Day Schools Company, which is the most remarkable development of the proprietary school system, was it direct outcome of the Report of the Schools Enquiry Commission. It was incorporated in 1872 with the object of establishing and maintaining superior day schools for girls at a moderate cost. The prospectus states that the school system was to be specially adapted to meet nnd correct the defects pointed out in the Report of the Schools Enquiry Commission. The Company


[page 50]

have now as lUany as 36 schools, 22 of which are carried on in buildings erected wholly or chiefly by the Company. These schools now contain 7,1 Ll pupils, and from the opening of the flrst school up to the beginning of 1894, no less than 3'3,536 pupils have received instruction ill them. The indirect influence of their success in encouraging the establishment of schools on similar lines by other companies has also been very noticeable. It tis a remarkable fact, however, the CI.~llSeS of which well deserve to be investigated, thaI; movements of this kind have recently been more successful in the case of girls than in that of boys. There are many places .quite as destitute of good schools for boys as for girLc.;, but the Boys Public School Company, started under guidance very similar to that of the Girls Day School Company, has only two schools, and the Church Schools Company, established in 1883 to provide schools for both boys and girls, has now 24 schools Ior girls and only 3 for boys. This, however, is not true of denominational proprietary schools as a whole. ']he W oodard Schools, and those of the Wesleyan Schools which are. unendowed, have made large provision for the secondary education of boys in various parts of the country. The county schools, with which the name of Canon Brereton is so honourably connected, have had very varying fortunes, but in appealing mainly to country districts and to the fa,rmel'r class, they set themselves ru much harder task than that which fltlls to schools which seek greut 'centres of population of dl'I1W scholars from a more prosperous connection. Hut some valuable lessons may be learnt from these schools, particularly with regard to the cheap rate at which good boarding schools of the kind may be made ,solf-supporting in country districts.(l)

As proof of what the country owes to the development of the proprietary school system, it lDa.y be stated that in om' selected counties these schools are educating 5,076 girls as compared with 4,860 in endowed schools. In the county of Surrey the proportion in their favour is as much as foul' to one, and in N orfolk neatly seven to one. rrakiog boys and girls together the proprietary, schools, of which we have information, in the selected counties are educating 8,710IschohLl's as compared with 21,878 in endowed schools.f") !

In the country, generally, au increase in denominational proprietary schools (predicted by Mr. Fitch ill 1865) has undoubtedly taken place, though it is, perhaps, counterbalanced by the conspicuous success .of the schools of the Girls' Public Day School Company. Among prominent instances of denominational secondary schools may be mentioned the W oodard Schools, the schools of the Church Schools Company, those of the Congregationalists, and those of the Wesleyan Methodist Church.

The Society of Friends, which has done much good work for the advance of educatiou, also possesses several secondary schools of merit. Special mention is due to the Ackworth Friends'


[page 51]

School in the West Riding, a boarding school for the children of 'Friends, both boys and girls, from all parts of the world.*

Private Schools

58. The num bel' of private schools, boarding and day, scattered over the country is undoubtedly very large, though individually the schools are generally small-the average number of pupils attf'nding them being between 40 and 50 pel' school. The number of these schools professing to give Secondary Education has been put as high as 15,000, and the lowest estimate is 10,000; though, in connexion with such estimates, it is to be remembered that multitudes of private schools are shortlived, The College of Preceptors has recently sent out enquiries to the schools connected with it, and received replies from ] ,900, the results of which in a statistical form it supplied to the Commission. The Private Schools Association informed us that they had received 345 replies to certain queries issued by them.(l) The Commission itself issued questions to nearly 1,000 private schools in selected districts, and recei ved answers from about 35 pel' cent . A. number of private schools were also visited by some of the Commissioners and by our Assistanb Commissioners. The same

ehools would probably in many instances be fOUD.d in more than one of these totals, but from all sources we. estimate that we have more or less definite information respecting a little over 2,000 private schools. Of a great majority of the estimated total number' of private schools very little is known beyond the names of their proprietors, as given in the various directories. Of the schools using the examinations of the College of Preceptors 3,236 are private schools. Although the decrease in the number of private schools since 1868 has probably been considerable, there is still a large amount of capital invested in them, and the livelihood of many thousands of persons depends upon them.

The larger private schools, usually with boarders, are the private schools which do most for Secondary Education, They are often conducted on lines similar to those of public schools; but they are less bound by bradibion, and the larger scope for experiment which they afford has, there is reason to believe, contributed to noteworthy improvements of method.t") There seems to be a general readiness among the teachers of really efficient private schools to accept inspection and examination, which would be indispensable conditions of public recognition, Such masters would also, as u rule, welcome registration, bobh of teachers and?f schoo~s. In the 107 boys' schools from ',:,hich \\ e :ecei ved information, we observe that 27'86 per .cent, of the teaehmg stat: were graduates of some university, and 12'66 had received special professional traiuing.(S) Another point which deserves notice is

*Mr. Lauric, VII., p. 254. One ball' of the building is assigned to boys and the other to girls, each having its own playground. The distiuetive characteristic of the school is the degree to which, uuder the gentle influence of the society to which it betougs, the life of n large school approximates to that of a fumily.


[page 52]

the large proportion of teachers to pupils. In the girls' schools there is a teacher for every 10 pupils, and in (he boys' one for every 14.

A private boarding school, when placed in an attractive, district can generally command good SUPPOI t, and prove a remunerati ve in vestment of capital. On the other band, experience shows that private clay schools, if carried on in suitable buildings and adequately equipped, are now seldom remunerative in towns which are well provided with efficient endowed schools. Tho private schoolmaster who, in these circumstances, maintains an. efficient school, and is fairly liberal in the remuneration of his assistants, must be content with smaller emoluments than are usually attached to the headship of an endowed school. There are cases, however, in which the private school and the endowed school exist side oy side, and are both efficient. A considerable number, and perhaps the most pros. perous, of private schools arc engaged in preparatory work. Preparation for firsb grade public schools is almost entirely in their hands. Of the 8,992 scholars in 2:.;9 I!irls' schools from which we received rrturas,;)8 many as 1,407 were under eight years of age. Out of 4,76'b scholars in 107 boys' schools, 2,008 were under 12 years of age.C")

Though the worst type of private schools is rarer than it was 30 years ago, yet the general result of our enquiries has been to show that a large proportion of these schools fire unsatistuctory. There are still some places, chiefly small country ,towns, where an inefficient private school can compete successfully with.a £[~i1'1y good endowed school; this paradoxical success being due to auch causes as lower fees, adaptation of the curriculum to the ideas of parents, laxity in enforcing attendance, or supposed social" seleetness," But such cases are, perhaps, not numerous,

As the distinctive advantage of the private school consists in the greater elasticity (If its system, and the consequent opening for originality, so it is essential, if this advantage is to be well used, tbat the headmaster should be a man of more than common ability and resource. The private schools ill which the headmasters satisfy this condition are those which are most likely to be of permanent value in Secondary Education.

Higher Grade Elementary Schools

59. The name " Higher Grade Elementary school" bas been applied in several different senses, which it is well to distinguish. (1) One type, which may be called normal, is that of the school which teaches from the fifth standard upwards, and gives an education for two years after the seventh, i.e., to the fl ge of ] 5, at least, (2_) All oth er type is that which t eacbes from the lowest standard upwards, also giving an education tor two years (in some cases even four) dter the seventh standard (though the proportion of pupils who remain after the seventh


[page 53]

standard IS. seldom large). The Central Board School at Leeds is an example. A school of either of these two types may 01: may not include an organised science school. (3) Lastly; there is tile pseudo a higher grade" school, which charges a fee, and is supposed to be rather more select, while in respect to the curriculum it is wholly, or almost wholly, elementary. A school of this last type, of course, contributes nothing to the supply of Secondary Education, or very little.

There are cases in which a, Hjgher Grade elementary school carries on the education of some of 'its best pupils for some time a/tel' the age of 15, preparing them (e.g.) for a scholarship competition, or for matriculation at the local university college, or at the Universiby of London. It is in such cases (not numerous) that the Higher Grade elementary school acts as a secondary school of the second (and nob merely of the third) grade,

From information furnished to the Commission by the Association of School Boards, it appef.LrS that there were (1894) in England (exclusive of Monmoutbshire and of Loudon) 60 Higher Grade schools of the first two types under the management of school boa, ds, of which no less than 39 were Organised Science Schools. For their maintenance these schools depend very largely upon State grants administered by the Science and Art Department, but their buildings are provided, as a rule, out of the rates. The degree to which they are giving instru-bion higher than elementary may be, to some extent, estimated by the fact that out of the 60 sc:hools-

49 have chemical laboratories.
9 have physical laboratories.
46 have science lecture rooms.
28 have art rooms.
49 have manual workshops.
54 have cookery kitchens.
7 have laundries.
In addition to the 60 schools with a regular organisation as higher grade schools, there are 14 schools under the mauagemont of school boards in which separate classes are maintained for children beyond the standards; and the total muuber of 74 schools is returned as educating in such separate classes 4,606 boys and 2,023 girls. There is also a certain number of schools cf the same class conducted by voluntary school managers In London there are three higher grade elementary schools, and 60 other schools with separate classes for children beyond the standards; such classes containing in all 1,016 seholars.I")

The geographical distribution of' the GO higher grade board schools outside London is worthy of remark. In 23 out of the 40 counties there are no such schools. No less than 35 of the schools are in the three counties- of Durham, Lancaster, and York i eight midland and eastern counties contain +9~ and ~4e


[page 54]

rest of England (outside Londou) has but 6. Of the 60 schools, 48 are in county boroughs and 12 in smaller towns.

We have received more detailed information from 35 higher grade elementary schools in the selected counties,(2) in 21 of which provision is made for girls. The total number of scholars in attendance in 1894 was 22,480, of "WhOIII 3,434 were over 14 years of age and under 16, and 216 were over 16 years of age; 3,428 were in Standard TIl., and 3,288 were out 1)£ the standards. .

The classes are as a rule somewhat smaller than in ordinary elementary schools, and 34 of the permanent and 4 of the visiting teachers are graduates of som e uni versity.

The general character of the instruction given may be inferred from the fact that 23 out of the 35 schools are organised science schools, and nearly all the schools send ill candidates for the examination of the Science and Art Department. A more' literary curriculum has, however, been introduced in several schools. French and German form part of the regular course at the Leeds Central School, the Stoke Public School prepares its ex-standard scholars for engineer studentshins and assistant clerkships in the navy, while i u some cases boys have beeu successfully prepared for the matriculation examination of the London University.

60. Organised science schools have already been described to some extent in the preceding sections l~, 13, and 17 which treat of the Science and Art Department. It is necessary, however, to explain here that they do not fall entirely within any of the ".grades" which we have been considering, though they may be met with in all. The organised science school may be a day school or an evening school. Frequently it is merely a section of a larger institutiou. In this form it may be found in the majority of higher grade elementary schools and also in endowed schools, which, as a whole are classified as "'i]xot grade." Sometimes it appears as a municipal technical school, or, again, as a branch of a mechanics' institute. The name simply signifies that a school, or some paaf of it, conforms with certain regulat.ions in accordance with which certain grants are dispensed by the Science and Art Department.

61. 0ther institutions which do Dot, as a whole, admit of classification by " grades, " are evening schools or classes, arid the municipal schools or mechanics' institutes already referred to. Eveni:qg schools are of illHny kinds. Sometimes they look to the Science and Art Department solely, sometimes to the county councils. In other cases they are the outcome of the philanthropic efforts of private persons to give those who have left the elementary schools the opportunity of con tintling their education or of recovering the knowledge they have j'OJ:go~ten. The Education Department hI:LS, Ly its recent code for evening continuation schools, given them it definite position in the nationa'l organisation of education, but it is too soon yet to estimate the


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importance of tJhis 'new departure. With regll.rd, however, to evening schools generahly it may be observed, firstly, that the recent tendency has been to make the instruetion given in them more secondary and less elementary; secondly, that a, very disbincbive-feature, as contrasted with day schools, is to be found in the age of the seholars attending them; they are to the adult artisan in many respects what the university extension movement has usually been to the middle class; and thirdly, tliat there is practically 110 kind of compulsion on the scholar to attend.

Municipal schools and mechauicsinstitutes do not display the same variet,yof aim and character, and have III many cases been gi ven aJ more solid position and a more definite character by the operation of the Technical Instruction Acts, Under this influence they are tendillg more and more to' become places of special technical instruction with more or less relation to particular trades.

The University Extension Movement

62. Among the agencies'colltributing to Secondary Education, a peculiar place is filled by the system commonly known as University Bxtension. Initiated by the University of Cambridge in 1873, it is now conducted by both the old' universities, 9Y the Universities of Durham and Victoria, and by the London Society for the Extension of. University Teachingx") In a.general view of the mcvement, the provision of local Iectures at various centres throughout the country is the salient feature; but the work includes much more than that; indeed, from ,an educational point of view, the lecture is not the most important element. Before or after each lectune, a class is held by the lecturer, in which the teaching is conversational, thus b;ringing him into. personal-intercourse with the students, and enabling them to discuss difficulties, Further, questions are set. on Poach Iecture; the student writes the answers at- home and submits them to the lecturer for correction or comment. Lastly, at the end of each course' of lectures, an ,exI1mrnation is held by an examiner from lthe university-only thoee.j etudcnts being admitted to it"iWho have satisfied the lecturer in respect to attendance at. lecture or class and in the doing of paper-work. The examination is not compulsory; but many' of the best studen ts usually go in for, it. Before anri during each course of lectures, etudents are encouraged to read some selected books, and a certain number of such -books are lent for their use from headquarters. Experience shows that this system, when carried out in its entirety, can secure ~~ high standard oj tr~Li.n.ing and knowledge, I' .,

In the session 1893-94 more than 60,000' persons attended university extension courses in different parts of the country. It is estimated that from 10 to 12 per cent. of these were' elder sobolnrs hi secondary schools. The centres of university extension teaching are fairly distributed -ovez the whole country. In many of them successful at~empts have been-made to arrange the subjects


[page 56]

of lhe courses in a sequence extending over a period of years. Want of funds, however, compels a lal'ge proportion of the local orga.nising committees to make less satisfactory arrangements. But in recent years many of these committees have been enabled. by small subsidies from the technical instruction committees of county or county borough councils, to arrange longer courses of systematic instruction. Under the present state of the law, however, which limits such subsidies to scientific subjects, injury is said to have been done to literary studies. University extension teaching has reached its most permanent organisation in the University Extension College at Reading. and the 'I'echnical and University Extension College at Exeter. In the foundation of the former, an Oxford College (Christ Church) took an important part by offering one of its Studentships, to be held by the Principal. The Reading College is supported by gl'll.nts from the town council of Reading, the county councils of Berks, Hants, and Oxfordshire, the Board of Agriculture, and the Science and Art Depactment, as well us by private subscriptions. Manv of its courses are examined, and some of its teachers supplied, by the Oxford University Extension Delegacy. The .l!.:xeter Technical and University Extension College is in close relation to the University of Cambridge, the Local Lectures Syndicate guaranteeing part of the income of it'> principal, who directs both the technical and the university extension departments of the college. The organisation of the two departments is to some degree separate, but both are carried on in municipal buildings, and both are largely supported from municipal funds. These colleges are of a new type, being an attempt to combine the university extension Syst~11I with the work of the Science and Art Department, and to maintain, through the method of appointing and paying some members of the atatf and by means of examination, an organic connexion between the universities and the educational machinery of large towns.

Since the aim of the movement is to bring university teaching within the reach of those who cannot go to a seat of learning, it follows that, where this aim is most fully realised, the standard is that of a university, nnd not that of a secondary school. Owing, however, to defective previous training in many of the students, the work actually done by the movement rises only in part to the university standard; it is also, in part, work proper to a secondary school, and, as already stated, use is in fact made of it by some schools for a portion of their pupils. Hence the relation of the movement to Secondary Education if; really twofold: it supplementa the existing provision for such education, and it also contributes to an education which is higher than secondary. Here it is analogous to those university colleges which, in respect to their first-year students, compete with the llighest forms of secondary schools; but there is this important difference, that, in the case of the university college, the lower standard in the first year is It temporary detect which admits of r~~~qy, i while, in the case of the extension lectures, it is hardly


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separable from the peculiar conditions of the movement, It is essentially a movement directed to those whose educational opportunities have been, and are, restricted. It is in the smaller towns and the rural districts that university extension has round the best field for its activities. If Secondary Education were once so organised as to be placed within the reach of all who have the wish and capacity to profit by it, then the funebion of university extension wou ld be, in smaller towns and rural districts, identical with the proper function of university colleges in great towns.

BODIES WHICH CONDUCT EXAMNATION OR INSPECTION

A Examining Agencies

63.-(i) In regard to those scholars in higher grade elementary schools who are in the standards, or under 15 years of age, the Education Department examines, not only inthe elementary subjects, but also in the specific subjects sanctioned by the Code.

(ii) The Universiti.es of Oxford and 'Cambridge nold local examinations for boys and girls at various centres throughout the country. The exarninationa are in three grades-c-senlor, junior, and (quite recently) preliminary. Seniors are admitted without limit of age, but, in order to obtain honours, must be under 19. In the Cambridge system.juniors, to obtain an ordinary certificate, must be under 18; or to obtain honours, under 16. The general standard of work is that of a second grade secondary school. In 1893, Oxford examined 1,198 senior candidates (372 boys, 826 girls), of whom 827 (259 boys, fl68 girls) obtained certificates, and 2,539 junior candidates (1,;305 boys, 1,034 girls), of whom 1,963 (1,117 boys, 846 girls) obtained certificates. In the same year Cambridge examined 1,1325 senior candidates (564 boys, 1,261 girls), or whom 1,269 (374 boys, 895 girls) obtained certificates, and 6,992 junior candidates (4,691 boys, 2,3U1 girls), of whom 5,118 (3,349 boys, 1,769 girls) obtained certificates. The Cambridge Syndicate since 1862, and the Oxford Delegacy since 1877, have undertaken the examination of schools. The number of schools in England so examined and inspected, as a whole, in, 1893 was 147, of which 78 were for boys and (j9 for girls.

These examinations exempt (under certain conditions) from the examinations of the General Medical Council, the Incorporated Law Society, the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Institute of Civil Engineers_; the Institute of Actuaries, the Institnte of Chartered Accountants, the Pharmaceutical Society, and the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.t")

(iii) The Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board (commonly called "the Joint Boasd 1,') examines such schools as have a regularly constituted governing body, or prepare a fair proportion of their boys for the universities, or can in any way give evidence of providing jan education of the highest gra.de. Tl:w board also grants certificates to boys under education at


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school, wbo are examined by its authority. Girls are also examined under the same regulations as those for boys; but are allowed (as boys are not; to take the examination in two parts. In the last ten years the work of this Board bas been nearly doubled. In 1893, 146 schools (89 boys', 57 girls'), were wholly ur partly examined, certificates of various kinds being awarded to 1,~45 out of 2,5<17 candidares.t-)

(iv) The matriculation examination of the University of London is used as a, leaving examination by a large number of schools.

(v) The College of Preceptors conducts half-yeaaly exnmiuations of pupils of schools. There are three classes or grades of examination, with a certificate corresponding to each. The average age of entry has been, (1) for the third class, 'boys 13' 9 i girJs, 14' 4; (2) for the second class, boys, 15 . 5; girls, 15' 8; (3) for the first class, boys, 16; girls, 17' 6. The candidates, of whom there were 16,672 in 1893, come from schools of almost every kind, but most largely from private schools. The higher cerbificates are recognised by the General Medical Council and the Incorporated Law Society as exempting students from the preliminary examinations, The College of Preceptors also undertakes the- examination of entire schools. I

(vi) The Department of Science and Art annually examines tile students in science and art schools and claeses.t")

(vii) A pr.rvision for examination is ordinarily male in the schemes of the Charity Commissioners. 'I'lu-y require jhat the school sllaH be annu,ally t'xamined by an external examiner, and, that }j, copy 9\ his report shall De submitted to tll~ln. They have also reserved to themselves, in their more recent schemes, the power of ordering a special examinationwhenever circumstances may appear to require it.

(viii) Many county councils, and a few county boroughs, prescribe, but do not conduct, examinations as-one condition of 'their aid to secondary or technical schools.

(ix.) Several other bodies hold examinations for particular purposes. Thus, the Incorporated Association of. Headmasters conducts examinations for selecting the holders of schclarshipa given by some Oounty'Councils and some 'I'rustees of Charities. The City and Guilds of London Institute' hold technologi-cal examinations in mnny 'parts of the county. The Society of Arts, and the London Cham bel' of Commerce hold commercial 'examinations. To these must be added the entrance examinations held by various profesaiouail bodies. The examinations conducted by the Civil Service Commiseioners (especiaUy the examiuations for Boy Clerks and.Second Division ClelJks(5)) indirectly exercise a powerful influence in some regions of Secondary Education. Such agencies, however, oannoh be counted among those of which the primary aim is to test Secondary Edll,cation as such.


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B Agencies for Inspection of Secondary Schools

64. The various kinds of inspection may be generally classified as educational, administrative, and sanitary. Under the first head the main object is to test the efficiency of bhe instruction giveu; under the second, to see that the school is being conducted in conformity with the reguJl1tions prescribed for its management; under the third, to see that conditions of health, both i.hose of a general kind aud those special to schools, are understood and observed. But in practice they run into one another, and most of the inspecting agencies here noticed in some degree take cognisance of all three kinds. .

(i) III regard to the buildings of higher grade board schools, and to such scholars in those schools as may be in the standards of under 15 yeurs of age, inspeetiou is conducted by the Education Department.

(ii) TIle Charity Commissioners have power to inspect endowed schools; but nntil a comparatively recent date no sysbematic attempt was made to supervise the working of schemes made under the Endowed Schools Acts. The Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Endowed Schools Acts, presented in 1887, drew attention to this defect and recommended the appointment of additional A:osistant Commissioners for the pUl'pmlP. A lthough ,no such additions to the staff appeal' to have been made, the Charity Connniseiouers instituted, in the yeur 1887, "a. systematic " inspection, within certain geographical Iimits, of all the schools " and educational endowments appropriated by schemes under the " Endowed Schools Acts, to Secondary or Higher Education."(l) This inspection, which in the first year covered the counties of Devonshire, Lincolnshire, N orbhan.ptonshire, and Staffordsh ire, bas been continued in each successive year, but with the limited staff available it has not been round possible to exceed the rate of five counties ~L year.

The nature of the inspeetion has been defined as official or administrative rather than educational Attention is primarily directed to the working of the scheme, and the heads of enquieyn include such questions as the condition of the property and financial arrangements of the foundation, the election and attendance of governors, &c. But it is obvious 1 hat an enquiry which extends to the working of the a-heme in respect 0:' the general character of the instruction prescribed, the tuition fee, the numbers, payrnenb, and experience of the teaching sta.ff, the provision of scholarships and exhibitions, the condition of the school1uilcling, and the aufficicncy of plant and apparatue, has an important educational side. Taken together with the report of the examination, a copy of which is required to be sent to the Charity Commission, the inspection :is found by tile Commissioners to "aflord material on which a fairly confident estimate " or efficiency ca.µ. be bil.s~d."(3)


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(iii) The Department of Science and A.rt requires, as a conclition of aiding schools OJ' classes, that they shall at all times be open to iuspectiou by its officers. The number of inspectors was in 1893, increased from 4 to 17, and the system that has hitherto prevailed of employing' temporary local inspectors is being gl.'L\dually superseded by the appointment of a permanent staff' of 80 sub-inspectors, grouped in districts.

(i v.) Many county councils, and u few county boroughs, provide for the inspection of schools which they aid, either by their O\\TD officers or by inspectors appointed for the purpose.

(v) The Board of Agriculture has power to inspect, and report on, any secondary school which gives technical instruction, practical or scientific, in subjeets connected with agriculture. Some county councils employ the agency of the Board in conducting such inspection. Colleges aided by the Board Me also inspecting bodies for this purpose.

(vi) The Oxford Delegacy and the Cambridge Syndicate for local examinations and the universities of London and Vietoriu undertake, when required, to combine the inspection with the examination of schools. The 'Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board is an inspecting body, in so far as it mi\,y require to be satisfied thnt a given school is a propel' one for the Joint Board to examme.

(vii) The College of Preceptors now undertakes a generrLI inspection of certain schools,

In regard to u. considerable uum bel' of secondary schools of different grades and types, there is still ~L need £01: more efficient sanitary inspection, for which the powet's of the local officer of health seem hardly suitable or adequate. e)

THE OPERATION OF THE GRANTS MADE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART, AND THEIR RELATION TO GRANTS MADE BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

65. The grants made by the Department ill aid of schools and classes for the teaching of science and art were, until lately, of two kinds:(1) fixed capitation gl'onts for attendance; (2) payments on the results of the written exaurination passed by each student.

Two principal defects have been v~ry generally ascribed to the working of this system:(1) Schools which Jargely depend for their support on such graJlts have devoted themselves too exclusively to those subjects in science Or art by which grants can be earned, with the result thtLt literary subjects have been far too much neglected, or even virtually ignored. (2) The method of payment on results of written examinations has too often Jed to" cramming." In short, the training given has been one-sided, and e>ven in respect to the favoured subjects, has bad only a limited ed ucational value.

The Department itself has for some time past been fully alive to these defects and desirous of remedying them.


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With regard to the present practice of holding the Department's examinations in the evening (from 6 or 7 to 10 or 11 p.m.), it appears that this plan, originally designed for adults, is liable to serious objections, both educational and physical, when applied to boys and girls: day examinations would be decidedly preferable. Exception may also be taken to the rule which concentrates the examinations in the month of May. For children, girls especially, who .may have to pa~s in five or more subjects, the strain is too severe.P) Under the new regulations for organised science schools no student in the elementary course is required to sit at the May examinations; hut the old regulations still apply to other schools and classes.

The grants of the Department The Warwickshire County Council makes no grants to secondary schools, but only to such schools or institutions as are purely and simply technical, most of which also earn, or are qualified to earn, grants from South Kensington.(O) What is regrettable in such a case is not the mere fact that the two sets of grants overlap (which is not neoessurily an evil, and may often be an advantage), but that Secondary Education receives no aid whatever from the Local Taxation Act money.

In Surrey, all teachers of technical classes are paid by the county eounei I, which also makes a grant in aid of local expenses; and at:. those centres where a grant is earned 'from the Department of Science and Art, the whole amount of such grant is paid over by the local committee (,0 the county council. If the amount exceeds that of the sum spent in providing teachers for the technical classes, the council returns the balance to the local committee. en)

DEFECTS IN THE SlJPPLY OF SCHOOLS

66. With regard to first grade schools, it is gener'llly held that the supply is, on the whole, sufficient, at any rate for boys.


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It is true that, for children of the poorer classes, the difficulties of access to such schools are still great, especially when the pupil can be received only as a boarder; and EOI' this reason it is sometimes thought that more first grade schools are still needed at great centres, Tills may be so in some instances, but not. probably, in many. A second grade school, which prcpares for the local university college, is often more suitable to a certain section of the population than a first grade school linked to Oxford and Cam bridge.

67. It is in the second and third gra,les that the principal defects of supply are found, To take an cxample : Bury, in South Lancashire, a town with a population of 57,206, serves as an educational centre for tln ee neighbouring towns, viz., Heywood (population, 23,185), Ramsbottom (16,867), and Radcliffe (60,642). But the whole public supply of Secondary Education which Bury can furnish consists of its grammar school and its girl.~;' high school. These are quite adequate 3."3 first grade schools for Bury and the three neighbouring tOWl)S; but it seems probable that more provision is needed, in each of those three towns, for Secondary Education of the second and the third grade.

As has been seen, the higher grade board schools are doing much to supply third grade Secondary Education; but them are still many places where it is wanting. In rural districts, especially, it is this grade of 'education which is primarily needed. In towns, especially in the smaller towns. there is still a widespread need for second grade schools,

68. In rura], distaricts the problem is peculiarly difficult, and presents special features which demand separate consideration. The first obstacle is the very general apathy in regard to education." The rural artisan, it is true-the village carpenter, mason, or blacksmitb-usuaUy wishes to see his children well educated; and so, not seldom, do people of the small farmer class; still, these are th~ exceptions. In such rural districts, it is only the supply that can create the demand. The question is, how to provide the supply. There are many districts in which, owing to thin population, or defective means of communication, or both, it would be impossible to provide an adequate supply of secondary schools for day pupils or day boarders. Such regions are, for example, the north and north- west of the Wesb Riding, the south west of N orfolk, the west and south-eastern parts of Warwickshire, and part of the

*See i\:I1'. Gerruus, VI., p. 7]. A Devonshire farmer, speuldng at all ngricultural meeting, is reported to have said, "A mnu consists of three parts, buck, holly, and bruins; IIJld whnt we bave 10 do is to fill the belly. Now this teclmical education may work the brains, but it wou't fiJI the belly; and so, I say, it is of no practical use; hut if you work the back then yOLl can fill the belly, and so get 011. My toys wnat 1,0 go in for bicycling nnd athletics nnd these 'ologics,lbtlt I snyto them: "J'ltey won't fill your belly, lind how are yon to get on if YOUt' boUy is not filled? ' Ant! so T say y()U must always recollect thut u I1ltUl eousists Qf three parts=-baek, " belly, nurl brains."


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north-west of Devon. One resource which has.been tried is an element~ry school with a seccndary top; but ~liis does not always succeed. Probably, however, such failure can be explained, and the plan may yet be found workable in some places. The use of scholarships to bring the more promising rural children to existing secondary schools has partially met the difficulty in some counties; e.g., Somerset, Devon, Norfolk, and the West Riding. In Bedfordshire, however, tile competition for such scholarships was so poor as to convince the county coµncil that attention must be concentrated, in the rust instance) on the further education of the village schoolmaster, in the hope o~ l'eachil!g ~h\ vi~lagel'~ through him.f")

It has been held. that in many rural districts the best solutio II might be found in the use of a system, which, under the name of the Dick Bequest, has done so much for the counties of Aberdee .. n, Banff, and Moray, viz., .the making of graut.<; to masters of parochial schools, or to school boards, on condition that the governors of the endowment are satisfied of the efficiency of tl-e teacher and of the attention paid to the higher subjects of instruction in the scbnol.(2) But it is objected that such a system is not applicable to the conditions which now exist, or are likely soon to exist, in rural England; awl that it would prove 1111 expensive method of producing second-rate work. J'tol'e is to be hoped, it iA contended, from evening continuation schools, kept Llp to the highest possible level, and combined with a liberal and elastic provision of scholarships and bursaries, regarJ being hnd, in their allocation, to relati ve sparseness of population, and other .local circumstances.

DEFICIENCY OF MEANS FOR TRANSFERING PUPILS FROM ONE GRADE OF EDUCATION TO ANOTHER

69. There is need for a larger prov ision of means for transferring pupils from the elementary to the higher school.

There is already a fair provision in some places for scholarahips.by w.hich pupils may pass upward from those higher grade elementary schools, which give education for two years after the seventh standard, By such scholarships a promising pupil is enabled to go either to 11 grammar school 01.' to a higher technical school, according to his aptitudes or prospects. There is a general agreement on the part of the best teachers, both in" the .. higher grade elementary schools and ill those to which the pupils go on, t~ULt this sy,stem has produced, on tile whole, excellent results. It is not, however, so easy to decide the age at which a pupil ought to leave the higher grade elementaryschool for the place of more advanced education, If bhe question were regarded merely from the point of view of Secondary Education, the right age would seem to be 11 or 12. Bub- account must be taken also of those cases ill which the pupil at the higher grade elmentary school IDiLy


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not be ready to pass upward so eaely-e-perhapa, because the child's ability is late in showing itself, or because the parents hesitate, or for some other reason. If such a pupil is really fitted to profit by the higher education, it would be a pity that be should have no further chance. To meet such cases, some scholarships might be given after 12 years of age. There would be less risk of dislocating the curriculum of the school to which the scholar goes 011, if, ttt the higher grade elementary school, a larger place were given to literature and modern languages, so thcb the pupil leaving at 15 might have a sufficient preliminary knowledge of such subjects.

A larger supply of scholarships, on reasonably elastic COnditions, is certainly most desirable, in order tIm!; the higher grnde elementary school may be firmly established as an important part of the provision for third grade Secondary Education, feeding at once the technical or scientific school and the more literary school in the rank next above its owo. Great credit is due to several county and borough councils for the liborn.liby which they have exercised in this direction, necessarily limited though it has been by the definition of technical education. But larger facilities aro still needed {or the transference of higher grade elementary school pupils to grammar schools. The example of Bradford Grammar School shows how a first grade school may be in thorough touch with Oxford and Cambridge on one side and with elementary education on the other-s-receiving, no less than conferring, benefits by its link with the elementary schools.

More scholarships are required to connect first grade and second grade schools with places of higher education. There are many grammar schools in which higher work would recei ve u valuable and much-needed stimulus from SUC!l a provision,

DEFECTS OF ORGANISATION

These illay be considered under three principal heads:(1) The powers of authorities, aud their relations to each other. (2) The relations between schools. (3) Questions connected with the internal organisation of schools.

Authorities

70. It has been seen that each of the three central aubhoritie now connected with Secondary Education has;t sbrictly limited' province. The Charity Commission, under the Endowed Schools Acts, can deal only with certa.in endowed schools, and with these only for certain purposes; while the 'Processes involved are complex nnd tedious. The Department of Science and Art can take coO'nizaIlce only of certain subjects out of the number of those whlch are comprehended in Secondary Education. The Education Department touches Secondary Education only through the higher work of certain elementary schools, and (less directly)


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through training of teachers and the relation in which it stands to the university colleges and the day training colleges; and, while the sphere of each authority is thus narrowly circumscribed, those authorities have no organic connexiou with each other. One Department may consult another on specific affairs common to both, and they may make joint arrangements for a particular purpose; but thiLt does not affect their ultimate independence of policy and action. That independence may be illustrated by taking any part of the edueatioual field in which the separate agencies happen to meet. A grammar school may be worked under a scheme framed and administered by the Charity Commissioners; it may be earning grants, or may also include an organised science school, subject to the regulccions laid down by the Department of Science and Art; and it may be receiving scholars from elementary schools, whose earlier training has followed lines prescribed by the Education Department.

71. The local authorities are in a similar plight. Councils of, counties and boroughs can aid Secondary Education only within the terms of the Technical Instruction Acts. They are further hampered by various doubts-c-as (e.g,), whether such a council, acting alone, can found a general secondary school; at what kind of school scholarships are tenable, &0. Then, within the same town or district, the local power over Secondary Education may be shared between a county or borough council, a school board, various governing bodies, managing committees of proprietary schools, local commibtces under the Science and Art Department, and managers of voluntary schools. Each of these unconnected local agencies must, or may, have relations with one, or two, or perhaps three central authorities, which are similarly independent of each other. It is not surprising that, under such condi tions, abiliby, energy, and a cordial desire for co-operation have not always availed to prevent waste of power, or one-sided developments of educational forces.

72. The problern which such facts suggest is more easily stated than solved; it is, in a few words, how to provide a single central authority which shall sup-ervise the interests of Secondary Education in England as a whole; to provide local authorities, representative in the most complete sense, which shall in their respective areas regard those interests with a similarly comprehensive view; and, reserving a. large freedom of action for such local authorities, to reconcile the ultimate unity of central control with a system sufficiently elastic to meet the almost infinite variety of local requirements.

Nothing comes out more clearly from a close survey of Secondary Education as it now exists in England than the danger of assuming that the needs of one locality can be accurately measured by those of another, even when the two places are comprised, perhaps, within the same county, and when the general conditions of the two cases might at first sight appear very similar. The causes of this lie deep ill English history,


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English life, and English character; a centralising force wliich sought to eradicate them would find that the roots spread beyond its reach, The alarm, however, which is sometimes expressed, lest a central authority for Secondary Education should make such an attempt, seems to be groundless. These social diversities of educational needs are, in England, too well marked to escape the most. superficial observe"; they would be necessarily and constantly present to the minds of au)' competent persons who wight be entrusted with a geneml central control; no rock ahead could be more manifest to them than the danger 0:£ too much centralisation.

It is rather when the central control is parcelled out, M at present, among several unrelated agencies, tbat:t tendency to stereotyped forms of rigid codes may be expected; since each agency is confined to its own province, an' I does not necessarily feel obliged to consider how far a greater flexibility in its own rules migM benefit interests which are confided to other departments A properly constituted central authorrty would represent, not bureaucratic rig OUT, but comprehensiveness of view and general unity of educational policy; while the local authority would be the primary judge of local needs, enjoying a freedom of initiative and of action commensurate with the large responsibilities of such a position.

The Relations between Schools

Under this head we have to consider the several forms of competition or inter.ference between schools, whether of the same grade or of different grades, which are commonly denoted by the word" overlapping." The cases described by bhis JeneTa! term are chiefly of three kinds.

73. The first arises from an over-supply of schools of the same, grade and the same type in a given district, involving a waste of resources through one or more of such schools being thinly attended.

This kind of "overlapp~" is comparatively rare. An example is afforded by the competition at Bolton .betweeu the Grammar School and the Church Institute Boys' School. The competition has existed for about 30 years. It is allowed on all hands that there is not room for both schools: schemes of amalgamation have been proposed, but without success. Such cases occur sporadically. But we must be 011 our guard agn,jnst assuming that oveulapping " in this sense actually occurs wherever two schools of the' same grade, '~nd of similar type e'Xist in the same place. For example, the Mechanics' Institute School at Leeds gives a COUI'se of inetructdon very similar to (though not identical with) that give1;l in the corresponding department of the -Leeds Higher Grade Board School; and its pupils are drawn from much the same social classes. Yet, though its fees are considerably higher thau those of the board school, it has not suffered from the competi.tion.(') IIi gives more


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time to English, land rather less to science, than ill given in the board school; but this fact does not suffice to explain how it can pro"per alongside of such a rival. The true explanation seems to be that at the great centres of population there is a grQwing demand for secondary schools, teaching English and science at a moderate price, and such a variety of social conditions that two schools closely similar in curricula, can flourish together.

74. The second kind of "overlapping" is that which arises when a Iower school retains pupils who are ripe for a higher. This is loy far the most frequent. It occurs in several different forms and under various conditions.

(i) The higher grade elementary school is the type which is most often regarded as trespaasing on the province of schools above it. But the cases in which such trespass is alleged require to 'be carefully distinguished and separately considered,

(a) Where the higher- grade elementary school serves as u. third grade secondary school, it is uob, as a rule, trespassing, but rather filling a void : it is doing much-needed work of a particular kind, which DO other local ageney peL'forms. Third grade endowed schools have never been established in any considerable number, At Manchester and. Salford only about 1 boy per 1,000 of the population attends public secondary schools other than higher grade elementary schools; the reason, perhaps, being' that parents who will not pay more than 4l. 4s. a year have not found third grade schools at that price. The h ighel' g)'ade elementary school largely corresponds with a demand 101' Secondary Education from the lower social strata, and the region of its special activity is the space, left practically vacant, between elementary education and the second grade secondary school.

(b) The higher grade elementary school also occasionally serves, for a few of its pupils, as a secondary school of the second grade. This may happen simply because a given town possesses no second grade school. The cases, however, in which a higher gracle schocl keeps pupils after 15 are comparatively few,; and;the pupils who stay after 16 are fewer still.

When higher grade elementary schools are described as "overlapping" endowed schools, it should be remembered that the brespaas sometimes proceeds from the otheu side. There are man.y of. the smaller grammar schools, in vanious parts of England, which" devote themselves too exelusively' to the work " of a higher board school.t'(")

In estimating the extent to which higher g~'ade elementary schools divert pupils from second grade or first grade schools which charge "higher 'fees, it is necessary to observe! that the parent's income is aµ. l:!P.sr~fe test. Because' a father chooses a'


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cheap school when he couLd 'afford a dearer one, it does not follow that he would have sent his son to the dearer school if the cheaper had nob existed. A~ Halifax, the grammar school has been supposed to suffer from the competition of the higher grade board school; such a competition would bo regrettable, but a competent enquirer' believes tiln,t there are not more than some 20 or 30 boys at the board school, out of about 300, who, in its absence, wuuld have been sent to the grammar school.t") On the other hand it is certain that the higher grade elementary schools are giving Secondary Education to great numbers who otherwise would never have had it. Leeds affords a signal example of this: and Sheffield another. Such schools meet the case of quick children who pass their standards soon after 12, and who either cannot go to a grammal' school, or would uot find there a training suitable for their future calling.

There are, no doubt, cases in which the cheapness of the higher grade elementary school may induce parents to keep a child there after 13, when thoy could afford to send him to a place of more advanced education. Indeed, parents are apt to gauge the quality of a higher grade elementary school by the success of a few picked boys at the top, and to infer that little could be gained by sending their boy elsewhere. But such cases must be estimated in regard to the general good. If in a higher grade elementary school of 1,000 there are 50 such instances of boys who suffer by staying on" the disad vantage to these is still outweighed by the benefit conferred 011 the 950 whose education might otherwise have ended at the age of 13.(5)

There are undoubtedly a few isolated cases in which a higher grade elementary school has unduly competed with a school of a grade above its own. This may be said of a higher grade school which prepares for the Oxford Local and London Matriculation examinations, while good secondary schools are its neal' neighbours. But such instances are rare exceptions. On the whole, higher grade elemeutary schools must be regarded as agencies which supply a widely-felt need without overstepping the fair limits of a province which they have legitimately and usefully made their own.

In many instances, an ordinary elementary school (not higher grade) may retain pupils who ought to be at a higher school. This IS said to occur at Warwick; the cause assigned being that the fees at the middle school are higher than workingclass parents can pay.(G) In some rural districts, the farmers are conten t that the education of their boys should end with the elementary school in this, however, is not properly a case of "overlapping," but rather a symptom of rural indifference to higher education, or of the need of a cheap and suitable secondary school in the neighbourhood.

75. 0verlapping sometimes takes place between technical schools a1;1c1 secondary schools of other types, Thus. at Coventry,


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the technical school partly overlaps the grammar school by teaching literary subjects for the London Matriculation. At Sheffield, the technical school, instead of using the other secondary schools of the town to train the boys for its senior department, -undertakes that task itself. At Devenport, the Municipal Technical School teaches elementary science, with hardly any literary subjects, to day students who would otherwise, it is said, attend secondary achoolat") OD the other hand, Bradford can show a techmcal school which observes the limits of its own province, without trespassing either on that of the grammar school or on that of the higher grade board school, which serves as feeder to botb.]") As between technical schools and secondary schools of other kinds, the best safeguard against undue overlapping will probably be found in rendering each kind of school as efficient as possible for .its ,!C'pecial purpose.

76. A third form of overlapping OCCUl'S when a school of higher grade prematurely attracts pupils who ought to be at u school of. lower grade. This is uot frequent. At Liverpool there is an opinion that boys arc drawn away from the higher secondary schools to the University College at too early all age, the day students being admitted at any age after 15, subject. to an entrance examination for 0,11 under 16.CO) Similarly," a great deal " of the work" done at The Y orkshire College, Leeds-where the rule as to age is the same=-" is in direct competition with " the fifth and sixth form of a good grammm' school/'(U) It has been said that it may become necessary to fix the age of entrance to all Uruversity Colleges at riot less than 16.(12) The Firth Colle~e, at Sheffield, actually admits no students under 17. The 'I'echnical and U ni versity Extension College at Exeter has fixed the minimum age for admission (with certain exceptions) at 18, in order to avoid competition with other local institutions.

Mason College, at Birmingham, to some extent overlaps the high schools-e.g., in so far as it has not yet ceased to prepare tor the London Matriculation. It is pointed out that, 011 the other hand, the high schools preparp, rot' the London intermediate examination, keeping their boys and girls for that purpose to ] 8 or 19; lind that the g,rls' hjgh school even prepares for the B.A.. degree. But, at any rate, it is evident that to prepo,l'e for the London Matriculation can scarcely be regal ded as the propel' function of a university college. Another example of overlapping in this form appeal's to exist in the boys' high schools of King Edward's foundation at Birmingham, where boys who are sent on with scholarships from the grammar school to the high school often leave the latter at 16 (which is also the grammar school limit), baving stayed perhaps only a year or two. This is unsatisfactory; but, considering the fn.ct that openings in business often occur suddenly it is difficult to prevent.P") The flame thing, indeed, is frequent at some of the greatest public schools.


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This rapid snl'\'oy will have sufficed to show the curious fact that some of the phenomena which are commonly regarded as cases of "oyel'lapping" are due, not, as might have been supposed, to a redundancy, but to a deficiency of educational supply.

In its genuine and really mischievous forms, on the other hand, "overlapping" must be considered IlS essentially a symptom of defective organisation.

Questions connected with the Internal Organisation of Schools

77. The foremost need is that secondary teachers should be svstematically trained in the methods and practice of education. This has 10llg been required of elementary schoolmasters; and it might seem strangethat the same rule should not yet have been applied to school- of a higher grade. But some of the reasons for this anomaly are not difficult to percei ve. In the first place, the English ideal o£ a secondary teacher has been the assistant master in a gleat public school, usually a graduato in honours of Oxford or Cambridge, who comes from the university to the school without any previous experience in teaching. In a great boarding school a master's influence over the boys depends so hugely, indeed ,RO predominantly, on his moral and sceial qualifications that, if only he is a respectable scholar, the general estimate funned of him-in other words, his reputed success as a schoolmaster-will not be greatly affected by the fact that be IS an indifferent teacher. Secondly, men untrained, except by their own experience, have proved good teachers; and it is also true that in the case of great teachers the gifts which make greatne1'!s cannot be taught: whence there arises a popular impression that a teacher is born, not made. And a third cause may be noted: much of the teaching which leaves the deepest impress on school boys and on undergraduates is given, not in a large class, but either to the single pupil or to a VP\'y small group; and, in such a case, faults of method are less felt. It is only since elementary schools have begun to do some secondary work, and primary teachers have begun to find their way into secondary schools, tbat English observers have been enabled to com pare trained and untrained teachers of the same subjects. The master in an elementary school may sometimes be too mechanical; he may sometimes be lacking in general cultivation, and in appreciation of literature-s-and therefore in fitnesa to teach it; his efliciency as a teacher may also be limited, in some cases, by the nf.L1TUW range within which his knowledge of his subjects is confined; but in regard to the right ways - of teaching, and the principles 0[1 which those methods rest, he is a disciplined expert, oftenimbued, too, with a genuine enthusiasm for the art which he has laboriously acquired; while his competitor-s-in so far as there is competition-thc ordinary master in a secondary school? has


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acquired his attainments in a more haphazard manner, and largely from personal experience. One of the differences which .nay be usually observed is the superiority of the trained teacher in maintaining the "ttention of a large class.

78. The attempts to provide systematically trained secondary teachers have not hitherto been encouraged by any appreciable demand for them in boys' schools. But there :is a considerable demand in girls' secondary schools. In 1879 the University of Capl bridge established the" Teachers' Training Syndicate," under which examinations in the theory, history, and practiceofteaching are held at various centres in the United Kingdom. Certificates of two kinds are given, viz., (1) of theoretical knowledge, and (2) of practical efficienr:y: the first can be obtained separately; the second cannot be obtained without the first, or without a year's work in teaching' at a recognised school. The candidates thus far have been chiefly women. Since 1854 the College ot Preceptors Las conducted examinations of teachers in the theory and practice of education, and, since 1873, has provided systematic courses of lectures on the science and art of education, which have been attended by many hundreds of teachers. It has now completed arrangements for opening a Day Training College in London for men, the students at which will have opportunities of practising in London secondary schools of high repute and of ditferent types. Similar provision for the training of secondary teachers is also about to be made at Oxford and at Mason's College, Birmingham; and this example will probably be followed by university colleges in other parts of the country.

The only secondary training college for men which has yet been established had a brief existence, as it was not supported by the headmasters of public schools, For women there are a few such colleges, which may be classed as follows:- .

(i) Collages which. offer n. year's course of' professional training, nnd possess a suitable prnctiaiug school under their own direction; as Maria Grey Oollege, London, and St. George's College, Edinburgh.

(ii) Colleges which offer I~ ycar s course of professional training, and are permitted to use for practising some suitable public school or schools; ns the Cambridge 'I'raining College, and Bedford Oollege, London.

(Iii.) Schools which employ student teachers and prepare them, and a few outside students, to pass the professionul esnminstion for the cerbificate of the University of Cambridge, or [or that of'the University of London (open only to B.A..'s of London); as the Oheltenbarn Ladies' Collage nud Datoholor Girls' School, Camberwell, .

(iv) Colleges and schools which train governesses, either for private families or for schools, but do not require :1ny public stn,nd:11'd' of knowledge that would suffice for teachers 0[' secondnry schools, nor presenn their students for any public cerbiflcare or diploma. There are various aociebies oE this type.

(v) Colleges which give ooi-oificates to their own oaudidates (Home and Colonial, Society). '.

A considerable and increasing number of trained primary teachers are .now employed in secondary schoolse and the


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influence of training colleges for teachers ill elementary schools is thus making itself more and more felt in Secondary Education.

A question closely connected with training, viz., the registrabion of teachers, will be dealt with in a later part of thi: Report.

79. While the ordinary secondary school suffers from the need of systematically trained teachers, higher grade elementary schools suffer more especially from the need of teachers with :L more varied educational experience and a wider mental horizon. Tho latter class of schools would greatly benefit by the influenco of teachers who had known the life of a public school and a university; it would be a valuable corrective of the tendency to a one-sided curriculum (though it must not be mpposcd that this tendency is one for which the teachers have hitherto been mainly responsible); it would also strengthen in such schools the sense of a corporate school life. Some good is done in this way whore it is found possible to organise games, such as football and cricket, "The Arnold " of board secondary schools," says an experienced observer, "is " yot tv come; there is no more important, no more pressing, " no nobler work to be done by a rising Arnold to-day than to It show by striking example how the public school feeling can " be combined with higher grade elementary work."(')

RO. Details of school curriculum andschool economy do not tall within the scope of this Reporb; but l], survey of Bnglish Secondary 'Education, as it now exists, reveals some general defects of internal organisation or management which are so widespread t,hat they should be indicated here. One of these has already been noticed in conncxiou with the working of the grl.lnts made by the Department of Science and Art, and need not be dwelt upon here; it is the warping of the curriculum, in many schools of various kinds, by devotion to the aim of gran t-carning; with the result that,. broadly speaking, literary su bjects have been either virtually ignored, or studied in far too perfunctory a manner; while in other cases scientific subjects may have been too much subordinated to literature. The Department of Science anclAl't is now itself desirous to correct th is tendency. Another very general defect, especially noticeable in the lower grades of school" (but found in other schools also) is the unsatisfactory teaching of English literature; as, lor instance, when children of ] 2 or 13 are set down to study King Lear, while children of the same age, under the more judicious arrangements of a neighbouring grammar school, take Washington Irving.(2) Another very general defect" which seems to be especially frequent in the average grammar school-largely through want of proper laboratories and apparatus-is inefficient teaching of elementary science; the general result of such inefficiency being thab the subject is deprived of real educational value. The teaching of art, again, 1S seldom as fruitful or stimulating as it might be.


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More general in its nature than any of the defects just noticed, is that conflict which goes on in so many schools between the attempt to ed ueate-e-to train the mind-and the attempt to teach something of immediate practical utility. The favourite battle-ground of these forces is that ill-defined regIOn, " a sound commercial education." Thus, in a form of 40 boys ill a large mechanics' institute school, 12 take shorthand, 8 take German, and 20 take Latin-the mechanical suhject, shorthand, being treated as oliernaiioe to the really educational subjeets.f") Something may doubtless be said in favour of a specialised commercial education; but a sound general education ought to precede it. It is interesting to find an assistant in a retail shop in Devonshire laying stress, in an able letter, on the paramount importance of training the reasoning faculty, with a view to business life; he suggests (e.g.) a simple course of applied logic, and the rudiments of political economy.t")

Then an impediment to efficiency which is very common in higher grade schools is the unduly large size of the classes. This may often be due to the need or desire for economy; but it appears also to indicate the influence of elementary school tradition. Grammar schools, it mny be observed, often tend to the opposite fault of having the classes too small.

81. In connexion with the internal organisation of endowed schools, a question which has been much discussed is, whether the conditions under which the headmaster and the assistant masters respectively hold their offices are satisfactory, or require to be modified by a right of appeal against dismissal. In the case of the headmaster of an endowed school, such an appeal would be from the decision of the governing body, which, under the existing law, is final. There appears to be a considerable body of opinion in favour of granting the right of appeal to an assistant master who has been dismissed by his headmaster, or requiring that such dismissal should be approved by the governing body of the school. But these points will be more conveniently treated in a later part of our report.

82. With regard to the salaries paid to assistant teachers, it seems clear that, at least, in some eases, they are too low, and that a higher scale of remuneration would tend to improve the quality of the education given. III the cheaper schools, where the expenditure per pupil is necessarily very small, it is impossible to provide adequate salaries for ~t sufficient Dumber of well-educated teachers. Tho ten ching staff, in such a case, must be either . defecti ve in quality; or else too small for the work of the school. Even in schools where the average salary rises to 110l. or 120l., it is manifest that, if the junior teachers be adeq uately paid, the seniors call have no prospect of an increase in their salaries. and the school must suffer by the discouragement of experienced teachers. Saving for illness or old age must be impossible in


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lUany~ cases; and an economic position which involves privations and anxieties cannot be favourable to the vigour and influence of the teaching staff:

83. ,How far pupils of different social classes can he successfully taught in the same school is still a problem of Secondary Education, with many different phases. It is one which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners fully recognised, and which, in some cases, they even regarded as insoluble. Thus, where they remark that," in a small town, dealing only with its own limited " population, the inherent difficulties of combining a thorough " classical with a thorough commercial education a.ppear insur" mountable,': the first reason assigned is " sensitiveness on the " subject of mixture with boys from lower ranks of society, " because they are neighbours as well as schoolfellowe.l'(") In the interval .of 27 years which has. elapsed s.nce- those words were written, "th_e social difficulty," as, it 'is sometimes called, has become less, on the whole, in many places; partly through general social causes> partly through causes connected with the newer developments of education. For instance, when a parent, who could afford to send his ann to a more expensive school, chooses to send him to an elementary or higher grade elementary school, he clearly caunot complain of the associations into which his son is brought, and the idea 01 social mixture for educational purposes ~h us gradually gains a qualified acceptance. Speaking gener}111y, it is at great centres of population, especially in the .norbh of E:qglancl, that the" social difficulty " most decidedly tends to diminish. In many small towns and rural districts it still exists in considerable strength, and is likely to die hard, It is right to remember that, however desirable from an educational point of view the extinction of social exclusive-. ness may be, there are cases in which it is justified. A parent who has reason to think that hit! children, if sent to a certain school, will run the risk of acquiring habits of speech or behaviour which might be disadvantageous to them afterwards, is entitled to decline such a risk.' Thi» remark does not apply to cases-still, unlorbunately, not rare -in which the objection is founded, not on anything, in the character 'or manners of the pupils, but. simply on the status of their parents. As might have been expected, the resolve to avoid contact wibh social inferiors is usually most inflexible where the social distinction is narrowest. The objection is much more often on the part of the parents than on thab of the boys or gi:r:ls. One 'thing is clear; this difficulty is pre- eminently a problem which can be dealt with only in the light of local knowledge. It may be acute in one place and non-existent in another 10 miles off. It will be for the 10cHl authority to decide what arrangements should be made in this respect,

84. Witll regard to religious instruction in schools, it has long been the steady aim of educational legislation in England to


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remove all just causes of offence or friction, and to secure, as far as possible, that differences of religious belief shall not unduly restrict the diffusion of educational benefits. Thus the Endowed SChools Act of ,1860 gives power to trustees of endowecl schools to admit children >D0t belonging to the denomination with which the school may be connected; provided that the instrument of foundation does not expressly forbid. (Tbe nine great public schools, and some others, are exempt from this Act,) The Public. Schools Act of 1868,'enables governing bodies to make, aiter, or annul regulations with a -view to the case of boys whose parents or guardians may wish to withdraw them from the religious instruction given in the school, The Endowed Schools Act of 1869 requires that every scheme for a school shall contain a provision for a similar purpose. The. Technical Instruction Act, 188~, provides that in a school aided out of the local rate no student receiving technical or .manual instruction shall be required to attend f),ny religious observance or teaching,

There has also been during the last half century a marked growth of good sense and good feeling on such matters. In English Secondary Education, "the religiousdifficulty " is now extremely rare. Evidence supplied by the actual working of schools; and derived from all parts of th~ country, abundantly pro,~es this. At the' same time it would be unwarrantable to affirm that there is no latent uneasiness. Rather there seems to .be some consciousness that this difficulty is always a possible contingency; and perhaps that very feeling 'is not without its value as a partial r;afegua;l'd against the danger which it apprehends.

SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATING ESPECIALLY TO THE SECONDARY EDUCATION OF GIRLS

85. Since tIle Schools Enquiry Commission made their report in 1868, there has probably been more change in the condition of the Secondary Education of girls than in any other department 1)£ education. The r-port of tl,at Coinmission, the action of the universities in regard to the higher education of women, and other causes, have produced an effect which-is gradually pervading all classes of the community j and, through this or other causes the idea that a girl, like a boy, may be fitted hy education to earn a Iivelibood, or, at any rate, to be a more useful member of society, has become more widely. diffused, The supply of good schools for girls is now far larger than it was 25 years ago. Private school s have very much improved, schools for girJs, under public management, have sprung into existence, and ~any' .. par~nt~, of the richer classes, who wotilc~ £ol'm~rly have employed private governesses, now send their daughters to day schools PI' boarding schools.

86. The increase in the supply ox good public secondary schools £5t} girls has' probably been both an effect arid a cause of the


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great; change in public opinion as regards their education. This increase is due partly to the action of the Endowed Schools Commission and Charity Commission in restoring- to the use of girls educational endowments originally intended for them, and in directing the application to the education of girls of a. share of those not specially appropriated to boys. It is perhaps to be regretted tbat more has not been done in this direction. This, however, is :'l. defect; for which the backward state of public opinion, and not the Charity Commission, is to blame. The Commissioners of 1864 mention only 12 endowed schools for girls in Englaud (exclusive of Monmouthshire). There are now some 80 girls' schools giving Secondary Education in accordance with schemes establisbed under the Endowed Schools Acts;(1) and there are other endowments under those Acts which are, or under certain circumstances may become, available for the Secondary Education of gu:ls.

Indeed, so far as modern benefactions are concerned, the prospects of hisher education for girls and women are exceptionall v goo:f. In their latest Report,e) the Charity Commissioners after giving a list of gifts of 1,OOOl. and upwards in the last 20 years, make the fullowing remarkable comment :" As to one particular branch of Educational Endowments, " namely, that for the advancement of the Secondary and " Superior Education for Girls and Women it lDfliy be anticipated " that future generations will look back to the period immedi" ately following upon the Schools Inquiry Commission and the " consequent passing of the Endowed Schools Acts as marking " an epoch in the creation and application of Endowments for that branch of Education similar to that which is marked, for " the Education of Boys and Men, by the l{eIormation."

87. Another fruitful source of increase in public Secondary Education for girls has been the establishment of proprietacy schools. on commercial principles-somecimes by purely local companies, sometimes by companies extending their operations over' the whole country or large districts. The most important of the latter class are the Gids Public Day School Company, and the Church Schools Company, which between them own 60 schools. Proprietary schools have generally been established and managed by persons genuinely interested i.n education; and their success, at least in districts where the population suffices to maintain a large school, has been very remarkable, They have, moreover, led to the establishment, in some places, of good proprietary and private schools conducted on the same lines.

The fees in the schools of which we have been speaking range generally from nine to fifteen guineas per annum, and the education is continued, when desired, up to the age of 19. Proprietary schools, giving a less expensive education at a lower fee, have been less successful; and there seems to be a good deal to be done in improving both the demand for, and the supply or, schools for girls leaving school at about


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16 and unable to pa.y a high fee. But, while this is a serious want, there is also n. certain deficiency in the supply of the more expensive kind of high school-that, namely, which can give the very best teaching, and enough of it, in {Ill subjects. A better stuff is required for this purpose than can be paid out of an average expenditure of about 13l. per pupil. There are very few girls' schools in which the cost is 80 high as 18l. or 20l. per head; but their popularity shows that there is a demand for them, even at self-supporting fees.e)

88. So far as can be judged from places where the supply of public Secondary Education of the first and second grade taken together is equal in quantity and quality for boys and for girls (c.g., Birmingham, Exeter, Thetford) the demand for the two sexes is about equal. As regards education ending at about 14 or 15, it is more difficult to judge. There is little public provision of education of this kind outside of higher grade elementary schools with ex-standard classes. In most places where such ex-standard classes exist they are less attended by girls than by boys; but whether this is because the girls arc wanted at home, or because education is thought to be less remunerative for girls than Ior boys, or because the girls arc educated elsewhere, or for all these reasons, it is difficult to say.

The Secondary Education required by girls of the industrial classes will necessarily differ in some respects from that required by boys of the same classea But it is undesirable that this difference should be so emphasised as to obscure the aim common \'0 Secondary Education for boys and girls alike. There are, broadly speaking, two divergent views of this question. In one view, practical utility is paramount: the girl is to be trained for domestic duties, as the hoy is trained for some definite calling. In the other view, the first aim is 11 true education of the mind, for girl and boy alike; and the special requirements of the industrial classes should, as far as possible, be subordinated to that aim. It is not incompatible with the recognition of this principle that the girl, like the boy, should receive some special instruction in the subjects demanded by her special circumstances.

89. Of the grants made to secondary schools by local authorities under the Technical Instruction Acts, by far the larger share goes to boys; though the value of the grant per head is in many instances the same for the gj_rl M for the boy. With regard to the scholarships provided by the local authori tics, girls are ill some cases excluded; in others, they enter for an open competition with the boys; in others, again, the acholarships are definitely apportioned between the two sexes. Where this JMt rule obtains, it is common to find thaI; three-fourths are reserved for the boys, and one-fourth for the girls; or twothirds and one-third respectively. Bristol gives 36 senior scholarships to boys, and 15 to girls; while of the junior scholarships, 90 are for boys, and 15 for gids. In London the


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intention of the Technical Education Board was to allof scholarships in equal proportions to boys and gil:ls. But as the numbers of boys competing was double that of girls, the Hoare! decided to grant two thirds to boys and one-third to girls. Thcre were, however, a few special scholarships for g'lds only. ('I) Experience will probably show what the best division between the two sexes is in each district, but there is.no doubt thftt for giTls, as for boys" scholarships are .nceded both (I) G.o, enable the cleverer girls (a) to enter secondary schools, (b). to prolong their' stay in them, and (0) to proceed to the uuiversities or other places of higher education; and (2) to serve as a stimulus to Secondary Education and help t) keep up the standard.

The need of more scholarships to the universities is much felt by girls' schools, more especially by the proprietary schools. There is also a need of some scholarships sufficiently l~rge in amount to cover, or nearly cover, the whole cost of a girls' university education. The St. Dunstan's scholarships are at present the only ones on this scale, and it is understood that even these are not to be continued.

90. A few words may be added here on the question of' mixed schools. Mixture is the rule in higher grade elementary and ex-stnndard schools; and mixed elementary schools ate becoming more numerous in England. Such schools ordinarily have men nt their head; and an apprehension has been expressed that the average quality of the elementary schoolmistress may be impaired by the :fact that the prospect of becoming a headmistress is, in this ease, closed to her. On the other band, there is at least ODe instance of a headmistress who has several assistant masters under her.(O)

In preparatory schools, QOYs and g~rl!'! :H:O not generally taught to,;et.her after the age of eight. rOases occun, however in which they can be very successfully taught together up to 12,(6) or even 13 or 14.n There lLle also instances of mixed grammar schools. In such a school, described by one of our Assistant Commissioners, the ages of tLe children appeared to vary" from 11 to 17; there were no small chilclren."(8) Of the 40 pupils, 16 were girls. It would appear that. though the "mixed" system will ill England be usually confined to elementary education, there are cases in which its use for Secondary Education is practicable, and has been successful. In small places a considerable gain, not only ineconomy, but in educational efficiency, may sometimes' be secured by having one school rather bhau two,

SUMMARY

91. A general survey of Secondaey Education, as it now exists in England, u.ppears to show that the first problems to be solved are those of organisation. Large powers are already distributed among the various separate agencies which deal with particular parts of Secondary Education, It is not so much the


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extension of those powers, as the harmonising of the agencies which exercise them, that is urgently required. The first need is for greater unity of control. Local authorities are required, which shall be responsible for aU Secondary (including Technical) Education within their respective areas. There should be also one central authority, which, while leaving due freedom of action to the local bodies, could supervise the general interests of Secondary Education in England as a whole,

In regard to the provision of secondary schools, the first principle should be to utilise every existing element of the supply which is (or can be made) good of its kind. It will be desirable, for example, to utilise all those private schools (but those alone) which are really efficient, and which accept the public tests of efficiency. Where the provision of schools is deficient, it ii'! probable that existing resources would go far towards supplying the deficiency, if the funds \uow under the control of local authorihies for the pnrposes of technical instruction were made applicable to Secondary Education generally. Something might also be gained if, in some cases, the conditions under which educational endowments are now applied could be made more elastic. Schools of 'the first grade, for boys at least, already exist in sufficient number, or nearly so. The deficiency which seems to be most general is in the supply of second grade and third grade schools, at a price. sufficiently low to place them within reach of paremt,; of limited means. The rapid growth and success of higher grade board schools, especially in great towns, indicates the extent of the demand for third grade Secondary Education at a cheap rate. The higher gmde elementary schools are doing much to meet this demand in many places; but they cannot satisfy the whole of it, and proprietary schools cannot supply such education at the requisite price, unless they receive aid in some form.

In rural districts the problem is peculiarly difficult, and will be cousidered in later paragraphs of this Report.

In organising the supply of schools, it will be of the utmost importance to provide- adequately for the literary type' of Secondary Education no less than for the scientific and the technical. Many of the older grammar schools require judicious aid to render them efficient.

The means of transferring pupils of promise from a lower to a higher place of education need to be increased; and in doing this care should be taken not to close the upward path against such pupils at too early an age.

The problem of securing that each kind of school shall perform its proper function, without unduly trespassing on. the province of another, will become less difficult when the Secondary Education of a given area is supervised by a single local authority, which cau have recourse to the advice and support of the central authority. Between a lower and a higher school of the same type there is a margin of common ground


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within which a certain measure of "overlapping" is not only permissible but necessary. The" overlapping" which ought to be prevented is thaI; which occurs when a school, or higher institution, undertakes work foreign to its own type.

The training of secondary teachers should be systematic and thorough. At present the absence of such training is one of the causes which inj uriously affect Secondary Educat.ion.

In every phase of secondary teaching, the first aim should be to educate the mind, and not merely to convcy information. It if! a fundamental fault, which pervades many parts of the secondary teaching now given in England, that the subject. (literary, scientific, or technical) is too often taught in such a manner that it hac; little or no educational value. The largest of the problems which concern the future of Secondary Edueatlou is how to secure, as far as possible, thl.!ot i,?- all school= and in eyelY branch of study the pupils shall be not only instructed but educated. The dagree in which this object may be attained will be largely influenced by the action of tl-e authorities who prescribe the qualifications to be required in teachers, the conditions under which their work is to be done, and the means by which the work is to be tested.




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Part III

Review of Evidence, with Discussion of Suggestions made by certain Witnesses

INTRODUCTION

In the preceding sections of our Report we have dealt with the history and present condition of Secondary Education in England. We have now to deal with the evidence which has been submitted to us by our witnesses, and the changes, legislative and administrative, which they have suggested.

1. We have examined 85 witnesses, who were selected either because of their special experience, or because of their representati ve character j and the evidence which they gave bas, of course, a corresponding value and significance. The Obarity Oommission was represented, not, only on' the side of its policy and action relative to secondary schools, by Sir George Young and Mr. Richmond, but a1-;0, [LS regards its legal status, general work, and administrative responsibilities, by Lord Justice (now Lord) Davey, by the Chief Commissioner, and by the Secretary, Mr. Fearon. Its relation to Parliament and the Education Office was represented by SiT William Hart-Dyke, while Mr. H. J. Roby was able to speak from his experience both as Secretary to the Schools Enquiry Commission, and as a member of the Endowed Schools Commissiou. From those engaged in administrative and educational work under the Vice-President of the Council, we had the Science and Art Department represented by the Secretary, Sir John Donnelly, by the Director of Science, Captain Abney, and by Messrs. C. A. Buckmaster and G. R. Rec1grave, Senior Inspectors; the Education Department by Mr. (now Sir George) Kekewich, the Secretary, the Senior Inspector, the Reverend T. W. Sharpe, and Mr. Barnett. But we conceived that it was no less necessary to possess ourselves of the opinions of men who had experience in connexion with those local authorities whose special function.it was, or whose incidental duty it had become. to deal with education, whether elementary or secondary. We, therefore, appealed to. the Association of School Boards, and they sent to us representatives of im portant and typical boards, in Lancashire and in Yorkshire, in Devonshire and in the Midlands; and to these wero added later, by special invitation,two leading members of the London School Board,


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We also heard witnesses who might be said to represent typical county councils, belonging to different quarters of the country, each with its own special characteristics, like Somerset, Surrey, Norfolk, Lancashire, and the West Riding of Y orkshire, and who could tell us of the needs find difficulties or their respective districts j how the councils conceived the needs were to be satisfied and the difficultiea overcome, how they had distributed the excise money and had attempted to organise technical instruction. Besides the counties, we had also the educational work, both as regards range and methods, undertaken by the London Connty Council and the Corporation of Manchester explained by the Chairmen and Directors of their respective Technical Committees; and what Dlay be regarded as the official opinions of the .M unicipnl Corporations Association were duly laid before us by the President We also thought it important to ascertain how the newer university colleges had been worked into the local educational system, and how they could be used as factors of its organisation and administration; and so we were favoured with evidence based on their respective and different local experiences, from the principals of the three colleges at Manchester, Liverpool, and Leeds, which togetber constitute the Victoria University.

While we thus endeavoured to find information and guidance from those engaged in the public administration of education, both central and provincial, both rural and urban, we were also desirons of profiting by the experience of those who were concerned with its actual management and conduct, whether as governors or proprietors of schools, or as head or assistant teachers. We therefore invited evidence from witnesses such as Mr. W. H. Stone and Miss Gurney, Miss Beale and Miss Cooper, who could speak as to the work and province and claims of proprietary schools; from the late Mr. Brown and Miss Olney, who could inform us as to the number, quality, efficiency, achievements, and claims of private schools; from Mr. Vardy and Dr. Percival (now Bishop of Hereford), who were able, respectively, to represent, the one an endowed grammar school foundation, which bad been developed into a complete system of first and second grade schools for both boys and girls, suitable to the needs of a great city, and the other, an endowed public boarding school of the first ClASS, with a local as well as a national character. But the Ocmmission was from the first especially anxious to see education from the teacher's point of view, and to study both legislation and administration in the light of the end to be achieved, viz., the creation of the conditions needed to enable both master and scholar to do the best possible work. We were not favoured by ILny representative from the Conference of Headmasters, but they submitted to us an instructive memorandum interpreted by the report of a no less instructive debate. And we had representatives from the associations both of Head and of Assistant Masters, as also from


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those of Head anal of Assistant Mistresses, from the College. of Preceptors, from the 'I'eachers' Guild, from the Association of the Headmasters of Higher Board and Organised Science Schools, aud from the National Union of Teachers, besides several masters who had some special experience likely to be of use to the Commission. Again, as legislation and organisation would be helpless without an adequate supply of competent teachers, and the maintenance of a high standard of professional conduct, we also invited evidence from witnesses like Canon Daniel, ,Miss Hughes, and MiflS Woods, who seemed peculiarly qualified to explain to us what were conceived to be the best methods for the training of teachers and for the creation of an adequate and significant register. We further took pains to :find witnesses such as Mr. Augustus Steward, Mr. Halstead, and Mr. Peaker, competent to speak as to the best methods of reaching and helping those classes who depend on scholarships for almost everything they receive in the way of Secondary Education, And from the experience of Scotland we have sought to learn how such education can be efficiently tested, as well as how it can best be given in districts where secondary schools must of necessity be few. And on these points we were informed by Mr. Craik, the Secretary to the Scotch Education Department, and Dr. J ohu Kerr, the Senior Inspector of schools in Scotland. We 111so thought, it well to appeal to persons whose .large and exceptional experience might help us to co-ordinate the. facts and correlate the often rather intractably opposed forces with which we have had to deal, and here we lie under special obligation to the Bishop of London, Mr. Roby, and Dr. Percival.

2. In addition to the evidence of these witcesses, we have also had various memoranda submitted for our consideration. Representative members of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Victoria, find Durbam, as well as of the colleges for the higher education of 'Women, have contributed special papers for our information and ~l1i.ja.nce. Memoranda. have also been supplied to us by Mr. F. C.l::itevenson, the Fourth or Parliamentary Chadty Commissioner, on the relation of the Charity Commission to Parliament and to the Education Department j by g-nblemen experienced jn the educational work of county councils, and the special needs and difficulties of rural districts, like 1'I'L:. Charles Dyke Acland; from governors of endowed schools, like Dr. Michael Sadler; from headmasters like Mr. Glazebrook, who knows both a great grammar and a great boarding school; from headmistresses.Tike the late Miss Bu8.CJ, whcse memorandum was, we believe, her last public word on behalf of the cause she hac1. EO long and so devotedly served; from teachers of organised science schools, like 1Ylr. Scotson and Mr. Bidgood; from authorities in both the science and the arb of education, like Professors Simon Laurie and James Sully, Mr. Fitch, and Canon 'Moore Ede, For R Ienrned


[page 84]

and most instructive memorandum on ct the History of Endowed Schools," we are indebted to Mr. A. F. Leach, Assistant CLarity Commissioner. We have received a memorandum by Mr. J. J. Findlay on " Registration and Training of Teachers in Germany," and one from Mr. Herbert Ward on the" Training of Secondary School 'I'eaohers in France" j and several by various friends in our own Colonies and in the United States of America, on the condition and organisation of education in their respective eountrios. Several members of our own body have also aided us by embodying the results of their personal enquiries and knowledge in separate memoranda; and here' we would acknowledge as not Ieast important the coutributions made by our secretary, whether as the fruit of his work at the Obarity Commission Or of his special experience as Assistant Commissioner in Wales.

3. We propose to deal with the evidence and proposals before us under the following heads;-

A. Central Authority.
B. Local Authority.
C. Schools.
D. Scholarships.
E. Finance.
F. Teachers.
G. Universities and Secondary Education.

4. The problem before us is strictly limited and defined by the state of things described in the preceding part of our Report and its historical causea. So much haa been done for education that still more must be done, aud the tbing that wost needs to be done is to correlate and harmonise the forces and agencies already at work. We have to du with a field- already occupied, and the occupancy, as we have seen, is ('£ no ordinary sort. It is full of resources, national grants given on the most varied conditions, distributed through all sorts of bodies, local rates applied under masny names to many things, endowments, ancient and modern, some more, others less restricted in their scope, some devoted to mixed, others to purely educational, purposes j it is full of agents, agencies, institutions, an thori ties, local and national, provincial and special, almost all independent in origin, unconnected in working, often occasional in purpose j and the problem which has ill consequence been set the Commission is this; To discover how all these could be so co-ordinated as to be made contributory to a common end. In other words, How can the sporadically created and unorganised Secondary Education of England be organised into an efficient and satisfactory system?

The limits within which we have had to seek a solution are obvious enough. We could not deliberate and advise' as if the financial resources at the command of education were unlimited, or aa if those to be used in its service 'had never been assigned by deeds of private persons or by Acts of Parliament. We could not proceed as if the varied bodies concerned wibh it, whether governors of endowed schools, county or


[page 85]

borough councils, school boards of technical instruction committees, had no rights or interest in it, no recognised function and no legislative sanction. Nor could we net as if there were no persons who had, at their own hazard, undertaken educational work and achieved results that even those most jealous of its good name would confess to be excellent. Nor could we frame recommendations, (II' draw conclusions, as if the men who educate were by their very profession disqualified from exercising nuy legal or constitutional functions on behalf of the cause in whose service their lives are spent. But if the occupancy of the field created our difficulties, it has also supplied us with some much-needed guidance. vVo did not begin our work on virgin soil, and had 110 need to labour at ILO a, p?'imi system. SUCll a system would, under the actual conditions, have been in the very degree that it was theoretically perfect really impracticable. But Secondary Education, especially as it exists in England, is not a thing which suggests or permits building in the ail', even had we been so inclined, and in the experiences of the very bodies which ereat eel our ditliculties we fonnd,:18 we have just indicated, excellent counsellors. The bodies were too varied to have a uniform, or equal, or even consistent experience, and so their counsels were at; often discordant M harmonious. The experiences, indeed, of higbly specialised experts, who yet; differ in office, function, standpoint, and aim, can hardly be expected to yield so peaceable a fruit as an identical policy or plan, for if doctors differ in their diagnosis they are not likely to agree in their remedies. But, happily, in this case there was helpfulness in the very differences; they compelled us to deliberate and discuss at every step in our progress, to have the quality of caution as well as courage; to feel that to every conclusion, however well weighed or carefully formed, various alternatives were possible, while the responsibility, alike for the whole and for all its several parts, was all the more manifestly that of the Commission alone. Yet we gladly' recognise tile benefit we have received through having had to study our problem in the mixed lights of' Sf) many and so varied specialised experiences.

A THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY

5. This authority, so far as it can be said. to have any existence, is l.Lt present represented by the various Depnrtments whose spheres and functions have already been de.cribed (I) WIHl-t we have here to recognise is mainly this : These Departments, because of their occasional origin, of the different and not always compatible functions conferred upon them by occasional legislation, and of the want of organ:ic connexion and action; have an ill-defined relation to Secondary Education, involving as the too frequent result an inconsistent and expensive policy. Hence om' problem here is: to evolve out of these iudependent and overlapping Departments one properly constituted and organised Central Authority, sufficiently strong and en-


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lightened to secure the effective and intelligent supervision of local bodies and institutions taking part in Secondary Instruction, to ensure the proper applieabion of public funds, the conservation fwd adaptation of educational endowments, the adjustment of conflicting claimse the due recognition of existing agencies .. the supplying of clearly ascertained deficiencies, the co-ordination of the universities, colleges, and schools of various grades, the assistance of' local authorities needing information and advicein a word, to effcct the harmonious development of a wellbalanced system of Secondary Education, nationalised without centralisation, organised without uniformity.

The evidence we have received points to a Central Authority composed of two constitutents, the one an administrative department directly connected with the executive, the other a more independent professional body. These, as is evident from the terms just used, lire not conceived as throughout coincident and coexteuaive, but IlS capable of being .combined for certain purposes while remaining separate and distinct for certain others.

The Minister of Education

6. There has' been a remarkable consensus of opinion on this point:Thar. in order to constitute an efficient and satisfactory Central A uthority there must he a Minister of .Education, the bend of a Department, responsible to Parliament, with a seat ill the Cabinet, a Ministe» who, as Sir William Halt-Dyke said, would be a Secrobnry of State.(I) On this matter witnesses of all orders, Charity Commissionersj") Government officials.r") schooltnnatera.C") representatives of local authoritiesj") and statesmen,(II) w-re agreed. They were agreed, also, that IlS he was to be responsible he must be suprernej") though his supJ'emacy was not always heal tUy or willingly accepted. ThiR general agreement was made the more signifl-ant by an occasional voice of protest, or of dissent more or less qualified. Thus Mr. Brown, one of the representatives of the private schools, would allow the Minister to be President of the Council of Education only provided he were" to take the advice of that body and to act upon it."(8) The Bishop of London, whose position was one with which many secondary teachers would probably agl'ee, thought that the central authority would be better "dissodo,ted from any pai-tieular " Ministry;" its It policy ought 110t to chiwge with the Ministry of the day."(9) Later, indeed, he 1 ecognised, in agreement with his own reading .of the Report of the Schools Enquiry Commission, that were there a Minister of Education it was tt inevitable" that tt he should be President of the Central tt Aubhority/'(") but while thinking it out of the question to tt exclude the nppointment of Ilo Minister of Education as things ct were now going,"(I1) he yet saw the (JUviOIlS disadvantage of througluhim tt letting in upon education, which ought to be a " steady tiling, all the fluctuations of political parties.:'Cil) And he very much deprecated the possibility of Secondary Education,


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if placed under a Minister, "being managed on the same centralised system as primary.l'(") This is n, possible though a remote risk, balanced by an immediate and permanent gain. For we believe that education has more chance of a vigorous and n. beneficent life if treated as a public question thu,u were it allowed to become the concern of a special order; and it is of the very essence of our problem to find the means by w hieh public control and educational policy" instead of counteracting, may supplement and fortify each other.

But besides the educational, there was another objection to a Minister based upon considerations of a more distinctly political character. Thus the Bishop of London did not appt'ove the State aid that had as its inaeparable adjunct p'3Jljliamentary control, thollgh he recognised the need of rate aide) for certain purposes, such as scholarships and buildings j and -he held that Secondary Education was ".sq~ething,.to be paid for by the parents."(l) But the represen~a.tives of It~le private schools were here more rigorous. They thought that Secondary Education should be self- supporting, except so far as maintained by endowments already existing, and because of the control they exercisedj") over such endowments they objected to what they termed" the " irresponsible powers " of the Ohal'it,y Commissioners.I") Such powers, it was held, ought not to belong to a body charged with the care of those endowments which are a national concern, for they have l:wen dedicated to a national good. But if in this case responsibility be so needful, it surely follows that as the sums from national taxes and local rates now being spent on secondary and technical institutions exceed in amount the income of our educational endowments, a responsible Minister of Education is an even greater- necessity than a responsible Oharity Commission. And in this connexion we may recognise the fact that the Minister's powers would, as the Bishop of London admitted, be much limited by the interposition of the local authorities, and of the governing bodies, between him and the schools.i") On the whole, then, it is well, in the face of what is now actual fact, to recognise, with Sir Henry Longley, that political control gees necessarily with the bestowment of public money.(1)

7. It was suggested that the Department should be organised under this Minister, he being assisted by a parliamentary under secretary, and .< a permanent official" or "common secretary," "who would be the head of all departments," with "uncler secretaries at the head of each (separate) department.t'(") He ought -to have the charge of education, both primary aud secondary, though there was division of opinion as to whether, while the Minister was one, the Departrnents ought to remain distdnct.I") In every case it was held tbat the Minister was .to be the centre of unity, and 'generally, though not universally. ' that there should be unification of all the bodies concerned with I Secondary Education. J'he ideas of unification and how it was


[page 88]

to be accomplished were very varied, but the necessity was admitted almost quite universally, The reasons for it were economy,(1) efficiency.t") harmony of idea and purpose, as well as of legislative and administrative contro1.(3)

The organisation of the Department under the Minister raised many most complicated questions, and this complexity WJS duly reflected in the evidence of om witnesses. But we may sum up the results as to the constituents of: the proposed Department under the following heads: the Oharity Commission; the Science and Art Department; the Education Department.

THE CHARITY COMMISSION

Analysis of Evidence

8. The jurisdiction, procedure, functions, and policy of the Charity Commission have already been described.]") Here it is enough to say that it has been, so far as endowed schools are concerned, the nearest approach we have as yet had to a Department of Secondary Education, not on Iy because it has acted as the guardian of their funds, and issued and revised schemes for their better government, but also because it has attempted a measure of inspection, which is necessary as a means of ascertaining "the working of schemes already established under the " Endowed Schools Acts.'\5) It has been explained-to usCO) that under the Chari table Trusts Acts the Commission may be regarded as a kind of extension of the Court of Chancery, a judicial body appointed, as it were, to work with delegated powers in a particular region, yet with administrative functions as well, which indeed are in a degree the consequence of application of the judicial j but under the Endowed Schools Acts it is rather the delegate of Parliament and so its functions are more largely legislative than judicial. Out of this twofold origill and constitution .has come the usual CL'OP of anomalies and difficulties. The legisltLtive functions have been affected, on the one hand, by their too intimate association witb the judicial body, and, on the other, :D:",JJ'l their comparative independence of the Ministry and the motive force it could have supplied. On the first point 1I1i:. Roby's evidence was specially significant. The original Endowed Schools Commission was" the o,gt'nt of the " Governmeub of the day," appointed to carry out the ministerial policy, able to do its work only" in agreement with the views " of the Education Deparlment";n but the Act of 1874 by attaching the Commissioners "to a body which had a certain judicial character," gave them "naturally a more independent position. "(8) This change had as its consequence an" extremely limited and fettered" power in the Minister, the Vice-President of the Council, who had come to feel only a sort of g~siresponsibility for schemes he had yet formally to " approve.l'(") On the second point Sir Hemry Longley and Mr. Fearon were


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alike emphatic (1): the Commissioners had increasing difficulty iu g~tting their endowed schools work done, more driving-power was needed, and this could only come through closer relations with a Minister. On all hands it was agreed that some change was necessary, and that this change must be effected through an alteration in the relations between the Commission and the Minister of Education.

9. The views of om witnesses may be reduced to foul' types of classes: the Charity Commission ought to be placed under the Minister, either (1) so far as concerns its powers and jurisdiction under the Endowed Schools Acts, as distinguished hom the Charitable Trusts Acts; or (2) so far as it has educational, as distinguished from legal, functions under either set of Acts; or (3) so far as it has concern with educational endowments under either set of Acts; or (4) simply as a whole.

(1) The powers and jurisdiction which the Commission possesses under the Endowed Schools Acts should be transferred to the Department of Secondary Education. Sir George Young, one of our most important witnesses, thought that the work .. would be better done if the central agency, for the purposes " of organisation, were separated from tile Charity Commission," and he held that as the endowments would be "no longer the " sole or even the principal financial basis of organisatiou," it was better to reverse the poli-y of 1874 and " dissociate the work " of organi~ing Secondary Education from those eleemosynary .1 associations which properly belong to the Charity Conunis"sion."(2) The Bishop of London seemed to approve the separation of the j nris iiction under the Endowed Schools Acts from that under the Charitable Trusts Acts, and the closer connexion of what he termed the " educational side" with the I, Department of Education.I") Mj. Fitch wished to sre the Commission" fused, so far as the administration of the Endowed " Schools Acts is concerned, with the Education Depart" ment,"(4) though even for the more distinctly legal questions he desired closer relations than at present. en) Sir William HartDyke considered that "it "Would be better to transfer only the work" which the Oomrnission now carries out" under the If Endowed Schools Acts,"(G) hut he admitted that "the whole ,c question was full of difficulties,"(1) and the course he suggested only" the minor evil."(S) .

(2) Sir Henry Longley's line of division was different from the above j he would draw it, Dot between the two orders of Acts which have constituted the Commission, but between the two kinds of work H bas been set to do, the legttl mid the educational. The former he would retain, the latter transfer. This means that all the legal work, uncler whatever Act, would remain with the Commission, but all the educational, under whatever Act, would go to the Department. e) He would "defer absolutely on all matters of education to the Depart" ment," eo) but the Oommissioners would deal with all legal


[page 90]

matters touching educational endowments, including such distinctly Endowed Schools Commission work as "acheme-making.t'(') He recognised the difficulties, which he thought, however, admitted of the solvitu?' ambulomdo, but be was anxious not tr to state his view dogmaticaUy,"(2) and only as one that" on " the balance of advantage and disadvantage," was in his judgment the better.(3)

(3) Lord Davey proposed the complete separation of educational from non-educational charities, leaving the latter to the Charity Commissioners, transferring the former bodily, with all the legislative and administrative powers and responsibilities involved to the Education Department. As things are at present under the Endowed Schools Acts, once the Ooiumissioners have made So scheme for a school or endowment, their functions cease until occasion for ft fresh scheme anises; and meanwhile the foundation remains, like.l;lDY other cbarity, under the ordinary jurisdiction of the Commiseion.f") But Lord Davey tbought it would be better that there should be complete transference of all educational endowments, and" that the Minister of Education " should have the whole control over the admiuistration of the " schools as well/'{") Whilst he thought that it would not" be worth while" to give the legal and the educational work to different bodies, he would yet retain a reference to the Charity Commission of "questions involving judicial acts or the exercise of judicial discretion "(6) But his genOJ:al opinion W,IS that "when a trust had been declared educational, the Charity " Commission should have no more to do with it;" that, he held, "would be the simplest system.t'(")

(4 t, ) The transference of the Oharily Commission 11S a whole to the Department of State connected with education W


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" new Department will be bereft of all real power in controlling " and directing the endowments." Then, as to the educational reasons j they are based on the principle that, if a trust be

. "dismtegl'ated and resolved into its constituent elements, " namely, the legal and the educational," "it will grauuaJ)y be " found that the real' power lies with the legal authority," while the legal authority, " divorced from the educational," will simply become the nurse and guardian of the charity, considering what was good for it rather than for the objects it was meant to serve. He did not think that. there was any insuperable difficulty in placing the Oh~trity Commission, so far as it is 11 judicial body, "onder the control of an administrative department responsible to Parliamenfx'T') for while the" appeal to the " Chancery Division of the High Court" would remain, it would be entirely consonant wibh the custom and practice which prevails in other Departments (e.g., the Inland Revenue in its relations to the Treasury), for the Commissi.on to appear without any formal appearance of the Minister himself as a party. Complete transference seemed, therefore, the most reasonable and satisfactory way.

With this position, though he did not so elaborately argue and. illustrate it, Mr. Roby substantially agreed. He would "keep the whole of the work togetl.er;" in educational trusts would not divide the legal or .i udieial from the educational sides; he woulel create a central charities board, place it under the control of the M.inister of Education, aud transfer to it "u.ll trusts," whether educational, non- educational, or mixed.(2)

(5) We may add to these four alternative schemes a fifth, eclectic in its character, prop-sed by Mr. F. S. Stevenson, M.P.(3) His suggestion was to transfer the Endowed Schools Commissioners to the Education Department, to continue the Commission as constituted uneler the Charitable Trusts Acts, but to appoint the Minister, the parliamentary secretary, and the chief perman-nt secretary to seats on the Board. The advantages would be these: The Minister and his subordinates would be in a majority, would therefore have the" predominant voice" on the Oommission, awl would thus bring its policy and notion into harmony with the Department without ov-r-burdeninn the Minister with responsibility and attention to detail, whfie efficient representati. n in Parliament would also be secured and "the separate identity" of the Commission would be retuined.

10. In addition to these proposals which were all contained in evidence or memoranda directly submitted to us, we considered two others contained in two recently published reports concerned with the Oharity Commission. The one WaS the report of the Departmental Committee appointed by the Treasury in 1893, 'and presided over by the late :Sir Robert Hamilton, the other tWQ members being '311' Francis Mowatt and 1\'[1'. James Anstio, Q.C. The other was the report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, appointed April 189'~. It W;lS presided over by Mr . Tohn Ellis, and consisted of fifteen members.


[page 92]

(a) The Departmental Oommittee was asked to advise the Treasury, among other things, as to whether the work of the Department was of such a character that it should be administered by it commission rather than be placed under the ordinary system of departmental organisation. The Committee concluded that it was not desirable that the genel.'al operations of the Department should be placed under the control of a Minister of the Crown;" and recommended its continued administration" by a Board.

'This recommendation was based upon their view that" the " direct control of a Minister of the Crown is not applicable to " the work of the Charity Commissioners w hose functions " partake so largely of a legal and quasi-judicial character, and " whose operations do not therefore lend themselves to the " direcbiou and control of a parliamentary head to the same " degr'e,! as those of au ordinary department of State." Speaking with special reference to the work of the Commissioners under the Endowed Schools Aut, they considered that their action wns so "minutely regulated by Act of Parliament " th'\.t it was difficult to see what control a responsible Minister " could exercise." They admitted, however, that ministerial control was actually exercised over schemes made under these Acts by the Vice-President of the Council in his capacity as head of the Education Department, though not as a Charity Commissioner.

Referring to the possible requirements of the Department, " if a policy were hereafter adopted of extending some descrip" tion of State organisation to the Secondary Education of the " country," the Committee declined to contemplate the contingeocy of I) general State superviaiou over Secondary Education as a whole being entrusted to the Oharity Commission, "as this " wouJd involve either the creation of that Commission ns an "indepen'leut educational authority without parliamentary " responsibility (a most undesirable and scarcely practicable " course), or the placing of the Department under the control " of a Minister of Education."

(b) The Select Committee was " appointed to inquire " whether it is desirable to take measures to bring the action " of the Oharity Oommission more directly under the control " of Parliament j " and they concluded that if any change was to be ronde "in the parliamentary position of the Charity " Commission," "one single Minister should be responsible to " Parliament, both for Charitable Trusts and for the work " under the Bndowed Schools Act, and your Committee agl'ee " that a Minister or Ministers should be responsible to Parlia" ment for the whole work of the Commission, provided always " that necessary safeguards are secured for the rights, benefits, " and privileges of the poorer classes in the trusts ann endowments dealt with by the Charity Commission."

From this conclusion an influential minority dissented on the ground that the" Oharity Commission was to a very considerable


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" extent a judicial body, bound to admi~ister law and to act in " accordance with law."

We may add that the first report is published without the oral evidence on which it is based j but the second is published with the evidence which the .Committee had taken. This evidence we have carefully considered independently, with a view to our own conclusions

Comparison and Criticism of Proposals

11. These deep and vital differences of witnesses so distinguished and experienced have lair! upon us peculiar burdens and responsibilities. They represent the Obarity Commission both on its judicial and legal, both on its administrative and educational, and on its parliamentary sides, as well as in rts historical idea and its actual working. The evidence laid before us has nob always been consistent with the evidence given, even by the same witnesses, to other Oommissions or Committees of enquiry. This does not mean that a witness is really inconsistent, but only that the ditficulties of the situation are such that he cannot always hold his judgment at the same level; the difficulties seen in greater mass, now on this hand and now on that, change the inclination. We may add that the frequency with which the Oharity Oommission has of recent years appeared before various Commisaions or Committees of the House of Commons, is evidence of the number and gravity of the difficulbies caused by its composite constitution and functions, and of the need of organic readjustment.

12. In order to complete the presentation of the case and to sllpply a standard for judging the merits of these several schemes, we must direct' attention to some points expressed in the evidence or in other documents before us.

i. The Commission created under the Endowed Schools Acts has, alike in its separate existence and in its present form, been describedf") as (a) provisional both ill its jurisdiction and in its work, because through the absence of the Minister.it has uo direct political responsibility for its schemes and no connexion with the local authorities; (b) partial, because it looked only to endowments and not to .rr Secondary Education 118 a whole"; nnd (c) isolated, because it has dealt with the schools." one by one" rather than looked at" the whole of the schools ill a given area together." While it is this in fact, it was meant by the Schools Enquiry Commission to be exactly the reverse-permanent, national, eo-ordinative, and organising. And so it is a matter of simple historical justice that we look u,t the Charity Commission through what it was designed to be as an educational authority as well as through what ib is.

ii, The Schools Enquiry Commission when they proposed tJlat "the central authority might be constituted by en" larging the powers of the Charity Commission, "(2) bad a


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very different body in view from the que which now exists under thp. Endowed Schools Acts, (,r would exist were this lody separated .from the Charity Commission. It was one which should (a) "continue in charge of educational as of other charities j" (b) have the, Minister of Education a:s president tor educational purposo~ j and (c) 00 represented I}Drl defended.by him in Parliament. In the event of this scheme p.pP being adopted, and one preferred which should keep the administration of schools independent of political parties, "the Commission " desired that there should be added to the Oharity Commission " 11 member of Parliament who would be able to explain. In his " place phe reasons for every scheme that, Wf.LS proposed, to 'show " its relations to other schemes, and in the absence of a minister " to answer any questions thut might be asked." OIl. either alternative, therefore, the Charity Commission was to be an executive department a-s well as So judicial body, with functions not only of" scheme-making," but of administration and organisauon in a broadly national sense.

iii. They also consideredParliament as "the supreme trustee of endowments," and so held that its approval of schemes ought in . some form or other to be obtained/'(") The notion thut no doubt underlay this provision 'vas the one so well expressed by Lord Davey; "I regard the educational endowments as II. " public fund appropriated to education.t'(") The endowments We1'0 therefore considered l1S the financial basis on which the "rganisation or reconstitution of a national system of Secondary Education was to proceed; and so the Charity Commission was concei ved as a body created by Parliament to legislate under its control and to administer Lor the common good the funds of which it was" the supreme trustee."

iv, In harmony with this conception- the Schools Enquiry Commission were careful to say that" the power of the Charity " Commisaioners to deal with trusts in the manuer " they had described " should be limited to educational charities," but they expressly said, " the word educational ought to be construed in " a wide ::en8e."(3) They did not seem therefore to bave any difficulty in conceiving the same body as at once legislative, judicial, and administrative, and in no respect disqualified by possessing special powers over educational 101' continuing "in " charge of other charities.'{")

v. But this central authority was to be stimulative rather than supersessive of local action, and so the burden of framing schemes was to be left to the local authority which knew the local needs, while the power to resist or sanction remained with the central.r")

vi The actual eonsbitubion and functions of the Oon.mission are thus much narrower than our predecessors proposed that they should be, and this has resulted in a corresponding restriction in the field and effects ot its operations. Its action has been. neces-


[page 95]

sarily too piece-meal and too divorced from the educational policy of the period to accomplish all that was expected and desired. F01' the matters in which bhere has been success and failure we must refer to the evidence. e)

13. If we now turn to the five competitive schemes which have been laid before us, and attempt a comparative estimate of their respective claims, we find we must judge them by those broad views of policy which g1lided our predecessors rather than by the limitations which have been imposed on the Oharity Commission by the Acts which have consbitutod it, and the methods under which it has been forced to do its work. The change in the whole field of education, the growing demand made upon the resources of the country for its organisation and maintenance, compel us to consider how the older schools, with all their energies and 'experience, can bnst, in all matters educational, be correlated with the new, and made with them contributory to the common object, the completeness and efficiency of Secondary Education. In order to do this the Charity Commission, which is the body charged with such central supervision or control as is at present exercised over our older schools, ought in OUt view to be so associated with the office of Secondary Education as to be fitted for: its part in the common work. The alternative sehemes which we have just described are so many ways and methods of effecting this association, and accompiishing this end. Our question, therefore, is: Which of these schemes seems best adapted to fulfil the purpose all have in view?

(1) We may begin with Mr. Stevenson's scheme, and of it we may say, it seems to us a scheme that would be as little satisfactory to the Minister and the secretaries, parliamentary and official, who would constitute the majority of the Board, as to the permanent Commissioners who would constitute the minority. It would tend to relieve the last-named of their most serious and regulative responsibilities, while it would burden the Mini.,ter and the secretaries with the most disagreeable of all things, duties they were only half expected to fulfil. Besides, the "sppal'ate identity" of a board where the permanent Courmissioners could be habitually out-voted by the Minister and the secretaries would not amount to much.

(z.) Passing to the Report of Sir Robert Hamilton's Departmental Committee, we cannot but feel that its chief value lies in its clear and forcible statement of some of the leading objections to the bransference of any judicial or semi-judicial work to a body directly under political control, rather than in the cogency of its conclusion. as affecting the questions referred to us. It must, indeed, be remembered that-

(i) While the evidence upon which, it was based has not been fully published, yet, having regard both to tune and witnesses, we may say that it has been partly superseded and partly supplemented by the later and further evidence submitted both to us and to the Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed in 1894.


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(ii) The question of departmental organisation submitted to the Departmental Committee is subsidiary to the question of a national system of Secondary Education referred to us. But they naturally followed the reverse order, and dealt with the educational as subsidiary to the departmental question. Thus they say, "to whatever educational agency a State supervision " over Secondary Education as a whole might be entrusted by " Parliament, the Charity Commission must of necessity retain " such jurisdiction aa they now possess over secondary schools " enjoying charitable endowments."

(iii) But exactly on this fundamental question, which holds the key of the wbole position, and is a matter of national policy rather than departmental organisation, they had not conducted the enquiries needed for a really judicial finding, for these lay outside the scope of their reference.

(3) A s to the other four schemes proposed by our witnesses we may say this:-

(a) The first appears inadequate. Simply to withdraw the Endowed Schools Commissioners from the Charity Commission and place them under the Minister, would be, so far as the endowed schools are concerned, to reduce the Oentral Authority to little more than a scheme-making department, and this for only a proportion of the schools. It would, once the schemes were made, hand over the educational endowments as charitable trusts to the Commission, and would leave certain of om: most important schools without any relation to the educational authority. This would be fatal to effective organisation and co-ordination.

(b) The second proposal, with its line of division between the legal and educational sides, would go a long way towards paralysing .the educational authority, especially where it most needed support, save em the condition of such an amount of influence being reserved to it as would reduce the significance of the line, or even obliterate it altogether.

(c) The third scheme appears to lie open to the grave objection that it would create what the former Commisaioners thought, undesirable, two Charity Commissions, a creation which would " necessitate the discussion of many embarrassing questions on ~, the Iimits of the province of each, and on the assignment of " parbicular charities to one or the other.t'(') This bi-section, as we may term it, of the Commission, would not be an easy 01'. even in every respect a complete process, the mixed endowments would not be severed into their several parts without long and boilsome labour; the educational, quite as much as the non-educational, endowments would require the exercise of judicial or quasi-judicial functions; and so each body would have all the characteristics 'of a Commission dealing with charities; but their relative importance might be seriously affected by the one standing alone while the other was incorporated with a great and expanding Department. Over against these disadvantages there are, however, obvious advantages to he set. We


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feel that our special duly was to consider the question as it affects educational bruabs : and on a careful review of our evidence, and full diseus-iiou of the principles an-I issues involved, we came to think that it would be a real national gain to place these endowments under a Minister of Education. And we were also, in the f.ice of the growing disinclination to consent to the conversion of charities, forced to the o.mclusi..n that some such separation as this might tend to an increase of confidence in the administration of the non-edueationnl charities, and in the acceptance of n, broader policy in the treatment of the e lucational.

(rl.) The fonrbh scheme, that of complete transference, raises issues that run outside OUI' reference; but it was laid before us by witnesses in a form which compelled us to consider it. We could not but feel that it had the couspicuous merit of simplicity, and, under certain aspects it appeared as attractive :IS it seemed simple. The following considerations appeared to us not without weight:-

i. There were precedents for such a transference in other Departments, notably the Local Government Board, in whose hands similar C( judicial or semi-judicial work "(1) has been placed by statute. Sir William H art-Dy ke admitted t.hat there were no seriou- difficulties in the way of Ministers dealing with the leg(~l side of the Charity Commission, as indeed the vice-president alrendy had legal functions i n connexion with its sehemes.r') Fur the rest, relations regulated by statute must always be more satisfactory both for Ministers and officials than relatious of semi-responsibility. This is well illustrated by the reasons which induced Mr. Forster, when he was, as was then the custom, both Vice-president of the Committee of Council and the Parliamentary Charity Commissioner, to decline to attend the board meetings. He bad Ministerial status without Ministerial power, and so he refused to incur responsibility tor what he did not sanction.

ii. It would be very undesirable indeed were the Iarge experience in dealing both with schools and endowments gained during the past 25 years to be even partially lost to the Department by the Commission being divided or broken up.

iii. It would be a very doubtful policy which divorced the body which is the statutory guardian of the accumulated charities of' the country from the Department. -whieh has so large a proportion of these charities in charge lor a really great national purpose. Rivalries between charities, and the constant clearing up of their always varying and uneertmn marches ought, if at all possible, to be avoided.

iv. The Chm iby Commissioners themselves, in a most impressive and judicial statement


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" Endowments generally j and, though incapable, on grounds " alike of convenience and economy, of absolute official severance " from it, must, we think, continue to be separately transacted " within our office." This statement is the more significant that it comes in a Report which is a Summary of their own experience under both the Charitable Trusts and the Endowed Schools Acts.(l)

v. In answer to the fear that charities under a Minister might be Iiablo to sutler from political bias or control, we would suggest that the frequency with which the Charity Commission has of late been subjected to Parliamentary enquiry may be a greater hindrance to its judicial functions than even incorporation with an administrative Department.

vi. Two considerations may be added in conclusion. (a) The clear responsibility of a minister would greatly improve the parliamentary situation. (b) Legal questions could still be determined by an appeal to a court of law.

But while the scheme had, so far as it came within our province, much to commend it, we conceived that it involved too many things lying outside our province to be embraced in our conclusions.

THE SCIENCE AND ART DEPARTMENT

Analysis of the Evidence

We are here concerned with this Department only in respect of its present action and proposed place in Secondary Education. This limitation excludes from our purview its functions outside this province, notably the Museum at South Kensington and the Royal College of Science.

14. The most significant points in the opinions expressed by our witnesses may be stated thus:(a) The sort of instruction the Department aided was described by the Secretary as "dis" tinctly secondary instruction, except drawing in elementary "schools."(l) (b) The form of its aid was by grants µi.ven as payment on results, cr except as regards the organised science schools," which, C( under the old regulations," received" a capita" tion grant in addition.l'(") (o.) It WfI,S claimed for the mode of ascertaining aI).d Itesting the results, viz., by examination, that it " has succeeded in doing what no other system could have done, " carrying science instruction all over the country, without ever " raising any sectarian difficulty of any kind."(4) But, it may be added, as regards science schools, inspection is being used in an ill creasing d egl'e9.(r.) (d) The :range or field of studies is science, in a very Iiberal sense of the term, and art, but not literature. This has had ... two very noteworthy effects, on the one hand it bas


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made possible the creation of higher grade elementary schools as organised science schools, and so has added Secondary Education of a peculiar and limited character as a crown to our elementary system,C) and, on the other hand, it; has hitherto made a demand of. time for science that the endowed grammlll' schools could not vcr.)' well satisfy without unduly contracting their literary instnlct.ion.CZ) Tho consequent educational results have not been altogether satisfactory. (i) The organised science schools" which are practically the higher grade schools in the country," have been compelled so to organise themselves as to live out of the gmHts.(~) For these schools can live only so fat' as they arc independent of the local rates, and their education, alike as regards subjects selected and method of instruction, is necessarily of a kind that must satisfy the authorities who supply the income. (~) Hence has COlUe no narrow curriculum, a neglect 01 literature, and an unsuitable style of instruction, i:e., the schools have had to cultivate" those subjects " for which they can be paid," i.e., those specified "in the syllabus " of the Science 'and Art Department,"((j) It is indeed contemplated that in ol'gtlonisl"d science schools more regard should in future be had to literature, but this as at first interpreted did not seem to mean much, as "the literary instruction" would not be of a kind to 1 equire "any large amOUJ1t of inspection or examinabion.t'(") But we had later important modifying evidence which showed that new regulations were about to be introduced, which should allow a larger place to literature, a higher scale of capitation grant, lay less emphasis on results, and make more liberal lise of inspection.t") (ii) There has also been an undue exclusion of schools constituted for :1, more liberal system of education.t") "Up to now it has not been really "the function of the Department to aid the secondary "instruction which is given by the gram m ar sehool.t'(") (e) But a no less significant matter is tllat Sf) Illr as higher grade elementary schools, not being organised science schools, are concerned the present system duplicates inspection and introduces a double scale of grants. On the one side are those below the seventh standard, whom the Educnotion

(1) In the use of the term" orrrauised science school," there bas been considerable latitude. It IlIlS been sometimes used as the equivnlent of "higher grade school," but this, of course, is incorrect, for n gt'3mlDllr school may he as really a higher grade as an "organised science school." The phrase ill the text (10!)S not mean tlmt this kind of school is n part of the elementary system, but only that it is, in the words of Sir .John DonncUy," the step above the elementary schocl." 1104.

(6) cr. 1108, 1216,1217, For modiflentions actually introduced, cf. 10,374-8. 'oVo would here, however, call special utteution to the evidence of Dr. Forsyth, 8276,.U'., as showing the spit'it and aim in which an organised science school Ulay be co0011101e(1. Sir J ohu Douuelly termed the Leeds school "n splendid school of its kind." 1J04,.

(9) Sec Captain Abney's second evidence, 11.972-12,01\). And the new rules for orznnised science schools. These are expluiued ill Sir .Tohn Donnelly's late evidence, J'l~30S,.O: He there rlcscrlbes the orgllrrise(lscien~e school as" 11 school formuluted !' on t\ basis of distinctly scientific iustruetiou, wil,h a suflieie nt flavour or lL[UOLmt of " literary instruction." 17,314.


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Department knows, but not the Science lind Art; in the middle those in the seventh standard, whom both Departments know; and on the other side, those above it, whom the Science and Art Department knows, but the Education Department does not know. C) And hence (:011.1(;S this mischievous consequence:Schools suffer from a chronic examination fever, and are ever being prepared either rOT the inspectors, who may, for exaruple, come in November, or the examiners, whose papers appeal' in May.(2) (n I n dealing with schools, the Science and AJ.t is much more independent of legislative control than the Education Department, and so tends to harass them by a too frequent change of rules. (3)

15. 'i_'his, however, represents only one side of its action, its dealings with education through the schools. On the other side it has relations with those who govern schools or locally assist and control some kinds of instruction. The Science and Art Department, as the only" central authority :01' technical education," C) comes :into varied and complex relations with local authorities, county councils, technical committees, school boards, and bodies of various sort who have chal'ged themsel ves with some functions in regard to special branches of Secondary Education. But while the Education Department and the school boards stand in organic and defined relations tl) each other, there is in the case of the-Science and Art Department no such clear and regulated conn ex] on between the central and the local anthorities, The su bjects aided are similar, and indeed often identical in kind, but the aid is not always given with full and exact knowledge by the givers of the grants they respectively and severally allow. The central and local authorities, besides, frequently subsidise in kindly ignorance the same schools.I") It is complaiued, too, that the Department offers scholarships which attract hoys from those offered locally, tile-action of the centres thus making work in the provinces at once more difficult and more expeusive.r") +On the whole it may be said that, in the view of our witnesses, there was overlapping and confusion at both ends of the scale,C) i.e., alike at the centre, between the Education and the Science and Art Departments as well as the Ubarity Commission, and at the circumference, where thcse Departments touch the local authorities and the schools.

16. In the face of this evidence as to the workinrr of the Science ~, and Art Department as a Department of Secondary Education, we felt bound to enquire as to whether it ought not to be combined or co-ordinated with other Educational Departments. Its present connexion with the Education Department is only a personal one, through the Vice-President of the Oouncil, " in every. other respect," it is" independent." Sir John Donnelly saw" no necessity " for any ama.1~amatjon; " all that was necessary was systematic " co-operation.' ~ 8) The work" might be co-ordinated more than " at present" with that o,f the Charity Comnussion, but he did not see" how it; c(ll'ld be (co-ordinated) more closely wir h th~


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" Education Dopartment.i'(') In this view he stood quite alone. Sir George Kekcwich advocated that the Science and Art and his own Department should be joined together" through the per" manent officials as 'vell as throngh the parliamentary heacl."(2) The Bishop of' J ... ondon thought union wouJd be an advantagej") Sir William Hurt-Dyke would have it affiliatecl,(') which he explained me.int " subordinated "(5) to the new Department, Fusion was advo sited by the representatives of the National Union of Teachcrs,(G)of the Headmasters of the Orgnnised Science Schoolsj") of school bOttrds,(S) of the county councils.t") as well I\S by independent wltnesses.t") The grounds on which this union or incorporation has been urged are, (a) efficiency both as regards inspection of schools, methods of instruction, distribntion and range of subjects j (b) economy both as r-gards imperial and local funds j (c) unity ut spirit and aim in education j and (d) harmony of relation in all sections of work between the central and the local authori tieS.ell)

Discussion and Criticism of the Evidence

17. Now there are two points of view from which the evidence thus submitted to us, and the policy it recommended has to be studied, the educational, and the political and financial. Under the fixf3t hearl, the question is, whether the Department, as now situated and org(1) We gladly recognise the services which the Department has rendered to both science :1Oc1 education, and indeed to the whole field of knowledge. 1 t has encouraged studies which O\u' traditional methods of education hnd completely ignored; fostered institutions that without it could neve!' have lived j created nn interest and an attitude of mind which has been a real culture to multitudes of our English people. But we feel that the objections, based on the experience alike of managers, masters, and inspectors of schoo s to its continued existence as 0. separate department, are \rery seriousindeed. Its defects are not those of administration, but they are, as it were, inherent in its consti tu bion, It is too centralised and too specialiaed, too li ttle able to ltd apt itself to the changes it has been a main factor in effecting, while also too Irrespousible ill its modes and times of adaptation. It was not originally intended to be, in the strict sense of the LOI'lIl, :l. depart ment of eeluc.1 bion, i.e., its functions were not those of the creation, tile control, the inspection, and the development ox schools; but it was designed to encourage the study of' subjects which the ordinary curricula of schools did not recognise, and which seemed to lie mainly outside their province, Renee it WILS not so much education it had in view as iustrucbion in special subjects, especially those that promised


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to be of most use tor our. arts and industries; and its examinationa were, alike as regards forms nnd time, more adapted to adults than to school boys.f ') But the course 0(' events has made it what it was not intended to be-an education department, supplementing ill some respects, duplicating in others, the Department properly so-called. And now, in order to meet the new conditions, it needs to be more Iiberul in its recognition of literary su bjects, to feel that they are essential to education, and not alien to science; to have regan 1 to schools as wholes, and not simply to sections or subjeets; to judge scholars as it judges schools, and test more by inspection and less by examination. We Deed, too, less of the disturbance which comes to education from the multitude of authorit ies which have to do with it, and more of the feeling of responsibility to a :single head. In a a word, it appears as if we can secure unity in administration only by a united department,

(2) The political and the financial considerations are even stronger. Two things seem to characterise the present situation, (i) the variety (Jf the sources, national and local, whence money can be drawn for scientific and technical education, and (ii) the multitude of bodies through which and by which it can be spent. N ow economy will not come simply by massing the money in the hands of a central authority; £:>1' thut would mean its distribution by an iron uniformity of method that would often make expenditure equivalent to waste. What. was needed at thc cxtremit'es would not be always known :1t the centre, and what the centre enforced would often be more injurious than beneficial to the extremities. Hence the most advantageous a.id economical j ine of policy is for the central authority to spend in an increasing degree through the local; but in order to regulate and harmonise their nim and policies, the central mnst be a united authority. For only as it is this can co-ordination he promoted in the provinces or educational districts. The rise of the local authorities has increased, as it were, the centrifugal tendencies in education, and has shown how easily the yery vigour of the local life may become creative 01 conflicting interests and aims. Thus we have at Manchester the Grammar School under its Oharity" Commission scheme, the Organised Science Schools under the school 'board, tile 'I'echnical Sehools under the corporation, and the Owens College.P) all at certain points rivalling rather than supplementing each other, while the science grants encourage and increase the confusion rather than repress and reduce it. The new powers, too, lor the guidl1nce of local authorities, with the exceptional rcspousibilitiea they involve, which have come to the Department tlli:ough the grfLuts to techncal education, greatly sbrengthen the case for i ncorporation. TJ!e Department is the Duly central body which exercises any gllidance over the expenditure of the local taxation grants so far as they are appropriated to what we may call our now Secondary Education. AmI this should help to define its


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place and work within the new dcpartnent, While the Charity Commission represents the cudowments which are om' inherited educational wealth, South Kensington represents in gl'el1t part the taxation which is our current educationalincome. The one thus conserves the accumulations of the past, but the other distributes and l'egulEttes the resources of the present. And the correlnti vcs of the means they possesa are the schools, or the departments in schools, they respectively control, the one mainly the older schools with their classical traditions, the other chiefly the more modern schools or departments, with their more practical aims, with the result that the one influences largely, though by no means solely, the more literary learning, the other the newel' and the more scientific. And these are so many reasons Ior the co-ordination of tbese two offices. The accumulated and the current. wealth of the nation ought not to be, as here, divided in idea and use, but so combined as to bring about a more excellent result. For our witnesses have frequently complained that technical instruction has been hindered or even made useless by a defective cady training.C) Then it would be more economical, especially in the more necessitous districts, to work through the older. than to create new schoolsj") and it would be more statesmanlike to help inexperienced local authorities by concordaut advice from the centre.t") instead of perplexing them by counsels which are always independent and often inconsistent. Thus the Ohariby Commission and the Science and Art Departments would, w-re they co-ordinated, form an office capable of fulfiDing the functions of husbanding educational resources and making it easier to harmonise educational ideals.

THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

18. The evidence analysed and the discussions pursued in the previous sections have involved almost all that need he hem ) eported as to this Department. Its relations to Secondary Education have already been indi-atedt") us also the evidence as to what its future connexion with the central author iby ought to be.(s) We may repeat tha t this evidence has, as a whole, been in favour of unification, the note of disseru only helping to acccntuntc the general agreement. But the unification is not to be understood as implying un identity or even uniformity Of aduiinis.rative methods in all branches of education. Greater variety and freedom nrc necessary in secondary schools than the old uniform codes allowed in elementary. 'reachers (") and others interested in the ideal of a more .liberal education have shown a proper and becoming fear lest the hard rcigll of these codes, which bus, indeed, of late years beeu, with happiest results, gradually made lighter, should be introduced into secondary schools, or lest a,l] spontaneity should be ground out of them by the iron machinery of" payment by I esults." It would cortainly be most calamitous were any methods and rules, similar to those


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which in their former rigidity proved so mischievous tn elementary education, to be applied to secondary. But we believe that the precisely opposite result would follow from the estu blishment of a closer relation between the elementary and secondary departments, the Minister and the office would have to survey the whole field, and to think of it as a whole, lind not simply of its several parts, while the influence of the higher education would penetrate downwards and enormously increase the forces that work towards the higher ideals, Then, too, as the different deg' ees in which the schools of the two classes depend on Imperial and local funds create'! fill almost fundamental difference of relation to the central authority, the most probable res ulb of a united office would be that much of tire cousideration extended. to secondary schools would find its way into the treatment of the elementary. On the other hand it is necessary to remember that a good deal of Secondary Education is given in the higher grade elementary schools, that there are districts of the country where one of the easiest methods of providing for it is to use these schools, while in Dot a few places endowments exist which a united department would U6 more able to make available for it. Again, too, the passage both (If qualified teachers and scholars from one kind and grade of school to another will be made more easy if the various central agencies can be so co-ordinated within 1\, single office. Any tendency to-undue expansion it may show will be checked and counterbalanced by the enhanced importance of the education it has to administer, the profession which has to conduct, [LOd the local authorities which will have to control it. It lTIay fairly be expected that the department which speaks with one voice in Parliament will have a systematic and well-oousidered policy throughout the country, though this policy ought to be capable of adaptation to all the varied circumstances of the counties and county boroughs. And this policy win have a larger and more liberal spirit when it has to reckon with Secondary, than when it had to deal with Elementary Education alone.

THE COUNCIL TO ASSIST THE MINISTER

Analysis of Evidence

10, We round on the part of those who appeared before us, either as teachers or as their representatives, remarkable unnnim ity of opinion as to the need for a Council or Board of Education; but there was the utmost VI1I iet.y of views as to its place and power-, how it should be related to the Minister and to Parliament, and how and after what model it should be constituted. ]\I111(;h of this variety proceeded from insufficient acquaintance with the intricate administrative problems involved or from inadequate knowledge of the institutions or departmmte in which analogies were sought; bnt the sign.ifcont thing was,


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not the range and variety of opinion as to what the Council ought to be and to do, it was rather the strength and unanimity of the f('eling that some such Council or Board was necessary. The Headmasters' Conference.C) the Headmasters' Association,(ll) the College of Preceptorsf") the Representatives of the 'I'eachers' Guild,(4) of the Private Schoolmasters.t") of the National Union of Teachel's,(G) of the School Boardsj") of representative Schoolmast el's(8) were all agr~ed 3.'3 to the Deed for forming such a Council, and in this they had the support of so experienced an inspector as Mr. Fitch. On the other hand, doubt of its ex pediency, or anxious restriction of 'its scope, or explicit objection to it under auy form, proceeded from offlcials.f") politicia.ns,(,O) or jurists.(ll)

20. On several points, over and above the need of the Council, there was tolerable unanimity of professional opinion. (a) There was general agreement IlS to its constitution; the common view beinz that it ought to be composed lUC cont. 01 of " education should rest with a body largely professional.t'[f") But, as a rule, the proposals were of a much more modera: e character. Supremacy was to remain with the MinisterCH) the Council was to be consultative or advisory.t!") and in all cases of difference his will was finally to prevail. The adin inistrative bodies ordinarily used !IS types were the Medical Council, the


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Indian Council, and, in rarer Cas'. s, the Admiralty and the Board of Trade. The two former are, indeed, the only serious comparisons; the two latter have no real points of analogy.

Criticism and Conclusions

21. We could not but feel tbat the views of so many importent witnesses, all intimately and p~ctically acquainted with education and vitally concerned in 'its prosperity and progress, were entitled to our most serious consideration. It is evident that so' large a Lody of capable and experienced men, representing, too, so many and di vergent ideals and interests, could not be so unanimous (In this point without so.ue strong reason; and it is no less evident that we were bound to consider the reason in their demand and the mode in which it could be most justly satisfied. The position will be generally conceded that it is impossible to orgunise Secondary Education simply as [L Department of State, were it only 'for this reason, that it has never been, is not now, and, under present conditions, cannot possibly be made !t Government monopoly. It has been largely dependent on individual enterprise; it has been served by men whose gen!us has been the passion to instruct, and by their invention and enthusiasm, which no Department could have created, education has profited richly. S.:110018, too, have been founded by private or voluntary energy out of nobler moti ves than the struggle for the means to live, and those who have founded, built up and adorned them, have an experience the State may most wisely take advantage 'Of: Then, the men who carryon the education of the country occupy a very peculiar position. They are a profession rather than a service, but they (lifter from other professions in this: that so many draw almost their whole income, directly or indirectly, from public funds, while many more fill posts under schemes which have received express legislative sanction, But a profession which holds so exceptional and responsible a position is one that ought to be careful, both as to the competence and character of those who enter it, and as t') the conduct of those who belong to it. And though these are largely professional questions, they are not questions for the profession alone; they co.icern no less the Minister who eruhodies the public care. for education, and is in charge of the public funds to he used in its SU Jlpor t, And 80 it seems as_if somebody were needed, on the one hand, to organise the profession by sceing that only the dnly qualified were enrolled among its recognised members, lind, 00 the other hand, to keep it in some sort of organic connexion with the central authority, Moreover, education is not a mere policy which a departmeut can direct and adurinister; it i-; a living art, and to practise it, skill and discipline are required. Science is ever discovering Lor it new methods and


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new subjects, experience is ever improving it, while the growing complexity of our social and mental conditions are ever making demands for some new element.' or field for its enterprise. The conclusion, then, may be stated thus: the highest authority for education ought to be an educational autho?'ity in the highest sense, i.e., all authority which understands it, Dot only on its legislative and administrative sides, but also on its actual and practical. i.c., us it is in the schools: and for the masters, and in the associations and institutions which garner their experience, shape their minds, and formulate their idea". Hence arises the problem which the teachers have so uniformly and so persistently urged upon us:

How may the State, i.e., the Minister who here impersonates it, be best informed and aided in making education itself. as dist,inguisbed from the machinery needed to its organised existence, more sabisfaebory and efficient, without having his authority in any way restricted or his responsibility lessened?

22. The Board or Council largely " composed of perKons experi" enced in educational matters," is the mode of dealing with this problem, which has. us we have just seen, been strongly recom mended to us by witnesses whose experience and competence we are bound to respect. Bub, of course, such a council may be so constituted as to lie open to obvious and serious objecbious, There is the want of precedent; the Medical Council, though it has ft great and statutory function within the profession, has no place under the Crown as either the legislative or COIlsultative council of a Minister, The Council tor India is no real parallel, because of the simple fact that it is Indian, and India is not England, with the relations and mutual obligations of the eenbral and local authorities governed by English law and custom. Indeed an expedient for governing a Dependency can hardly be a fit analogy to a Home Depai tment concerned with the matters about which English feeling is most sensitive. and the English mind most justly jealous. Then it is in contradiction to our ideas of political responsibility tl)at D. Minister should be advised ill matters of high policy by It Statutory Commission which he did not appoint aud cannot dismiss, yet may be bOUJ)d to disregard. It wouJd be as if a Prime Minister had his Cabinet created for him rather than by him, and were set to adminster affairs by means of agents with whom he did uot agree. And as in this case the llIn.jority of the council might be without responsibility to the Parliament which would hold the Minister responsible, the anomalies would be vastly increased. Then the control, however carefully <1isgu:secl or qualiflc.l by a non-political body, or a body with only the most limited political responsibility, of what is perhaps the most serious question in our domestic politics, would -eem to be opposed to the most familiar yet most deeply-rooted principles of our public order. Finally, it is contended that the action of ~L body without financial experionce


[page 108]

within a province which very closely touches, on the one hand, both national and local finance, find, on the other hand, the interests of certain among its OWl! mel)! bers and the classes they represent-is one which could notco-exist with our ordinary principles and methods of govermnel1t.

23. But though the statement of these objections is enough to show what the council cannot possibly be, yet they do not prove that any or every council is impossible. A council, either superior to the MinisteT or co-ordinate with him, is a proposal that cannot bear discussion, but this does not mean that evt!ry kind of council is to be excluded. If there is a sphere for it and it can be so constituted as to be adapted for work within its sphere, the objections just stated will Iose "heir force. On these points we have to submit the following considerations.

(a) As to spbere (i) there is a large and important province in education, which lies quite outside t he field o:f parliamentary politics. In Lhis province lie the questions as to th.o terms on which men are to be ndmitted and to remain members of the teaching profession. as to the mosb efficient methods under which schools can be inspectd and exam i lied, as to the means by which educational ideals can Lest be made to penetra te the educational machinery, scholastic nnd political Were a body of educational advisers to help in such matters it would tend to correct the rigid habit of the official mind, and lo modify the equally rigid rules of a State office. It is significant t hat the Schools Enquiry Oommission proposed the creation of a council for purposes akin to these. C) (ii) Local nuthorities, especially at the critical moments of creating new schools or initilltjn_g new schemes, are often in nood of skilled advice other thn.11 an administrative department can supply, and it would be of immense consequence that there was a recognised and responsible public body to whom they con ld appeal for what they needed. (iii) The Minister, who cannotalways be a master of all matters educational, lnay be as often in need of advice ::IS the local authorities themselves, and it is bettor that he have this from a regularly oonstituted body, acting deliberatelyand after discussion, than from pel'SOIlS called in for the occasion and hidden from public eribieism, (iv) III any system of examinations that may be in stibuted the existence of a body at the centre related as well to the schools on the one hand, and to the univ-r ... iti .. s and similar exn.mining bodies on the other, as to the Minister, wonld be of advantage in preventing the abuse and securing the beneficial use of any such system. (v) Certain schools, »s non local in character, will. be outside any local system, but ought all the more to be wibhiu the nnrional. And:::o far as tliose schools may full under the central authority. a cumcil would be the fittest body to consider aud decide th~ir peculiar questions. (vi) In the local administration of education, questions affecting many interests, educationul, professional, and public, are certai n to arise; and it would be a mu bter of the u tmost importance if there


[page 109]

were a duly consbibuted liorly, which was nob simply an administrative or executive office, to w hich schools or localities could on such questious appeal for advi~e or decision. If, then, the sphere within which the council is (; I move be so defined, there is evidently both a place aud function for it. Most of the rna' tel'S specified are non-political in character, and where they touch policy, the SUpl'emllcy of the Minister must of course be secured. But clearly it would be a distiuct gain were he in so immense a field relieved of those responsibilities _which are of a non-political and strictly professional or scholastic character.

(b) As to constitution, we have seen that almost all our witnesses were agreed; the council was to be composed of men, however appointed, who could be regarded as representative of the Crown, the uni versi ties, and the teachers. No one of these elements could be omitted. (i) The Crown must of course have its nominees, who would naturally be persons of adequate public or administrative experience, By them the council would be kept in touch with the Minister, and the Minister with the council. (ii) The universities are propel' bodies to be represented. For them Secondary Education is largely a preparation, by them secondary schools will probably be in a large degree examined. in them their masters will mostly be trained. Their relations to Secondary Education are thus organic and vital. The schools need to feel the influence of the universities and the univcraitios of' the schools. The ouly thing that can give unity to our education if; continuity of spirit and idea. The quality of instruction given in the schools dotermi» es the degree of culture realised in the university, while the ideal of the university penetrates and elevates the work of the schools. Tho gl'Clttest interest of the universities is thus the schools; the greatest interest of the schools, is the universities, and their co-ordination in a central council would teud to the happier development of OUr educational system as a whole. (iii) But even more do bhosc who teach in the schools themselves need here a plac=. There is no profession which exercises a more potent influence on our national character and destinies than the scholastic, or through which andon which our Legislature is acting more powerfully. It may be a most mischievous and indeed disintegrative thing to make a profession an imperium in impe1-id, but legitimate influence within its own province legislatively recognised tends to dissol ve the smaller into the larger irl1/pe1'i~tm. Only good, it seems to us, would follow were the teachers through members of their own body made to see education not only through the atmosphere of their profession and school, but also from the standpoint both of national policy and of the admin istrati ve aims and difflcu'bi-s of the Department. And it is no less important that the ideals and perplexities "0£ the educators be interpreted to the Minister of Education. (iv) J\ nd this Minister would reg uire for certain purposes to be not only a member of the council, but also it." president. It would never do to have two co-ordinate


[page 110]

authorities legislating and administering within the same province, but while there is a distinct province for the Minister, there is a no less distinct province for the council; and even where it acted, and ought to net, independently of him, those nominated by him would yet remain constituent members of it. We feel, however, somewhat doubtful ::IS to whether these throe elements, however important and necessary, be exhaustive or sufficient. In the organisation and direction of Secondary Education the local authoritie-, are destined to play an even greater and more impOI' tan t part than the cen bral, and play it under greater difficulties. To secure their mutual intelligibility and good understauding seems, therefor", fI necessitv of i.he situation. To see the local problem nt the centre fl'o~ elle lora} point of view, to see the national question in the province frOID the national standpoint, would tend to the happier relations of the two authorities on whose wise and concord ari t action the future of education depends. And so we believe that if some scheme could be framed by which the local authorities could be represented on the central council, the organisation of Secondary Education would be the completer and more efficient. But in view of the necessarily small size of the central council and the large number of the local authorities as well as the peculiar difficulties attending every attempt to form them into a special electoral body, such a scheme appeill'S impracticable. However, the desired eonnexion mny be ostn blished in another way by the representation of the central on the local authority, a question which falls more naturally to be discussed in the next section.

B THE LOCAL AUTHORITY

Its Place and Purpose

24. On no point were our witnesses more entirely unanimous than on this,- the necessity of local authorities to a national system of Secondary Education. There was, indeed, almost every possible variety of opinion as to how they should be constituted; over what area they. should reign; what they should be empowered to do; what schools they should have to do with; and wbnt tbey should have to do with the schools; but as to some form of local authority being a necessity of the situation, there was no difference of opinion whatever. There woo, however. 11 well-marked distinction of intellectual attitude: on the one side, professional scholastic opinion was, on the whole, though by no means unanimously, fearful of local authorities, and inclined to propose that they should be if not muzzled, yet so constituted and conditioned as to be ronde as innocuous us possible : C) on the other side, what we Inay term the udministrati ve and political mind looked hopefully to such authorities us the most potent and promising factors for the solution of the problem. e) Each attitude is explicable enough. The schoolmaster, the more


[page 111]

competent he is and the more assured In position, wants the more to be let alone. What he needs in order to attain the best results is, on the one side, command of means and possession of pupils, and, on the other, freedom of hand and method; and so he desires what be conceives to be the simple conditions of success. But the administrator sees the other side of the question:the necessity (If creating and maintaining the machinery which the schoolmaster has to work, and he I{ nows that, this can best be done by evoking popular interest and allowing po" ental or family care for posterity to inspire the educational work and agencies of the present. It would be a serious evil if edr.cation were allowed to become the business of the schoolmaster aloue; the more completely it grows into the concern of the w hole people, and is made an integral part of tbeir common life and civil policy, the moi e will it tlourish and the better will it. become. On this point we may refer to the remarkable evidence, already alluded to,(,) of the late Lord Lyttelton before a Committee of the House of Commons in 1873, as quoted, endorsed, and emphasised by )1r. Richmond before another Committee in IH94.(2) Lord Lyttelton, speaking as a member, first, of the Schools Enquiry Commission, and, next, of the Endowed Schools Commission, called attention to the fact that the former had proposed, over and above a central authority, a Ioenl or provincial authority, and that whilst the central had, though in a defective form, been created, the local bad not come into existence at all. "Thc'y intended to rest " the whole fabric (of their report) on two great equal " pillars-a central and a local authority,"(S) but while the one pillar had been built in a fashion, the other remained not only unbuilt but even unattempted. He slated emphatically, as a result of his experience I'IS an Endowed Schools Commissioner, that the want of local bodies had seriously hampered the central authority, had made its work far more difficult, and at times altogether ineffectual. And so he conceived that without the local authority it would 1 e idle" to look for more than " an imperfect realisation of the Report and of the Act, I'I.t " least rot' a long time to come." And when we turn from his evidence to the Schools Enquiry Report itself, what strikes us is not so much the wisdom of the particular recommendation as the cogency of the reasons »dvanced. 'J he Commissioners held that" No skill in organisation, no careful adaptation of means io " hand to the best ends can do as much for education as the " earnest co-operation of the people/'(") and so they propose a board It for the provincial managemont " of schools. Such a board " would, no doubt, be much more likely to make mistakes, would " represent not only the popular wishes but the popular prejutC dices; would, perhaps, delay many excellent arreuuements; It but in whatever else it might be deficient, it would not be u deficient in force, and if it made mistakes it would be much It more likely to find them out in time and. correct them."(5)


[page 112]

'J'he local authority which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners proposed had some interesting features. It was to be either a provincial or a county board. 1£ provincial, "the RegistrarGeneral's divisions" were to be taken as a basis, and the board was to be constituted of an "Officid District Commissioner" appointed by the Charity Commission, and "six or " eight unpaid district commissioners appointed by the Orown " from the residents in the division." (') Bub this was only recommended as a pis alle» j what t he Commission really desired to see was a much more popular and representative board. They shrank indeed from proposing" the compulsory formation" of such a board in every county! but !'Illggested that its existence was a poi .. t which might be left for local decision. (2) If a county doter mined to 1,0.\'0 a board then it might be constituted either by indirect or direct election. If by indirect, they proposed" to take the chairman of t,he boards of guardians, and to " add to these half their number nominated by the Crown." But their decided preference was for a board "constituted by direct election" with the" members elected by the ratepayers" balanced by" half us many more members nominated by the Crown" and the official district commissioner as a member ex officio. e) " Towns of 100,00(1 inhabitants or more " were to he allowed" to withdraw from the jurisdiction of the provincial " boards and rank as provinces or themselves." These urban bowels were tc be formed. of "a certain number of members " named l)y the trusb-es of all the larger endowed schools and ., iLU equal number added by the town council," together with the ex-ofJicio comtnissioners.

We may further mention tiS /L matter of more than mere historical interest chat a similar view as to the need and value of local. anthorrties had been expressed six years earlier, in 1861, by the Commission on Popular Education presided over by the D nke of N ewcastle. They reeommendedr") that in every county or division of a county a county board of education should be appointed, and(6) th,lt cvp.ry corporate town of more than 40,000 inhabitants might appoinf a borough board of education which was not to exceed six persons, not more than two to be ministers of religion. This was proposed in the iutcrests of decentralisation, and to escape from" the enormous complication in the " (London) office due to the central system." Again, in 1884, the Royal Oomlniesion on Technical Instruction said, in agreement with their pl'edeCeSsol's," It is to be desired that in the " proposed reorgnnisation ollocal government, powers should be " givell to important local b idies, like the proposed county " boards and the municipal corporations, to originate and support secondary and technical schools in conformity wi- h " t.he public o.dn ion for the time being of their constituents."(O) 'We are warranted then in sn.ying that a local authority WHS the ideal of successive Commissions dealing with elementary, technicn.l, and secondary education respectively, and to this


[page 113]

authority they looked for the organisation of education and i ts 'adaptation to the special needs of each district. And this expectation is one well justified by experience. Here we need 'only call attention to the report of 01)1' Assistant Commissioner, 1\£1'. Findlay, on "Secondary Education in the United States ,H and in Canada," especially in its illustration of the position that, "while elementary education may properly be imposed " upon a nation, the higher education ought only to be organised .u in response to the people's demand, and hence it ought to be " mainly under popular control.l'(') He sharply points the moral by noticing the evils which have befallen over-ce-ntralised Germany, and the elasbicity and adaptability which have Leen attained in America under "popular control 'and popular support." He further thinks that the centralised system tends to the production of men disqualified by their education for absorption-s-or disinclined to it, even where it is most desirable -into any f.orm of manna]. industry, but that the experience of America ShO~7S that Secondary Education popularly organised and administered avoids this unfortunate result.

25. We may assume, then, as conceded by universal consent, that local authorities of some kind are necessary, but it is when we come to consider ofwhat kind that our difficulties begin. We have here repeated many of the problems we met with in the case of the central authority; but their solution is a still harder task owing to the much greater complexity of the factors which have to be employed. Thus a local authority must be sui ted to its locality, and localities differ in many respects, especially in such cardinal inattors as aggregation and distribution of population, social and industriul condition, presence or absence of grent tOW'lS, the character and traditions of public life, the ease 01'. the difficulty with which this life can be expressed and realised, the paucity or abundance of schools or educational endowments, the accessibility of schools Or possible school situations to the outlying districts, the hompgeneity or the difference of the various parts or populations of which it may be composed. These were matters which had to be patiently analysed and considered before we could articulate even the skeleton of a possible local authority, and this done we were confronted by difficulties of an altogether different order. The Schools Enquiry Oomuiissioners were harassed by poverty; we are embarrassed by riches. They could find no local body sufficiently representative in character and important in function that could be made the nucleus of the organisation, and so they had, lLS it were, to extemporise one. And we have it on MI'. Richmond's authority that it was because there were then" no representative " bodies covering sufficiently large areas,"(2) that the provision for local authorities was omitted from the Bill of 1869. But now we find the field occupied with representative bodies which either have had educational functions thrust upon them or have voluntarily assumed such functions, or have been expressly


[page 114]

created fOlJ their exercise, now in ~ restricted and now ov.erf a more extensive district. Hence come a variety of questions, such as how and out of what -materials can Iocal authoritiea best be created? What ought to be their area, composition, Iunctions? How can they be so constituted as to be adapted, to. their several widely differing localities, able -to organise. their resources, evoke their possibilities, satisfy their needs in, the matter of Secondary Education? These are the questions we have now to consider in the light of our evidence. i

Areas

26. The main proposals which were under this head, submibted to us may be said to fall into four(l) classes, the . area. of the local authority ought to be-determined by (1) the parIiamentary division, (2) geographical considerations, such as, e.g.,. spring out of suitability of a district for educational grouping; (3) population, (4) the existing municipal and county di vision.

(1) The parliaanentaty division. This was proposed by various. witnesses for districts lying outside boroughs, and was designed. to get rid of the unwieldiness of certain counties like Devonshire, or still more the West Riding and Lancashire, with their great. variety of 'inberests, their immense areas, and the many important, towns within them which. just fall short of being county boroughs. (2) .

The objections to this proposal ,are obvious cnough. ~ parliamentary division has nothing permanent about it, is a recent creation, easily made, easily unmade, of no local administrative sign~£cauce, intended onby as 'a rough method of proportioning political representation to population. Manifestly a division so artificial ~L11d unstable, and possessing no ra.ting authority, could not be used to define the area of a permanent, and efficient local authority.

(2) The geographical grouping. The simplest and most satisfactory form in which this grouping was proposed bad' ani excellent representative in Sir George Young, who thought that; the educational districts could be arranged upon l10 somewhat. larger basis than the small counties, and he illustrated his idea. by proposing to treat Cumberland, and Westmoreland, and. Barrow-in-Fumess " as one district. So, too, on the castcoast he would associate" the' North Riding of York, or, at all " events, the Cleveland district of it," with the southern diatrict, of Durham.I'') We had two further adaptations of this idea to, tllC case of county and county borough areas presented by two witnesses, the one of whom, in the interesta of schools and! their constituencies, would merge: all boroughs in counties.C") the other of whom, in the interest of rnunicipalibies, would " supersede the' school boards by' the municipal authorities," and make "each county ,borough an independent ,t1Juthority for " some purposes overeducaeion.t'eeven- preserving the autonomy


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of the non-county boroughs "ill reference to their own-local educafiou?; but would group, c< aH the boroughs, along with rr the county in which they stand, into' a provincial area governed by a provincial authority."

Of these schemes the first would give a symmetrical district, with all its parts 1}7ing well together and 'supplementing each other, capable of being happily handled by a scheme-making authoritv. The second would eliminate the local element as mucl; as possible from the authority, which, if thus constituted, would, it might be thought, be likely to leave schools a freer hand. The third would secure to boroughs' the double advantage of independence; and a commanding voice' in the councils of the county. But when the proposals are broadly, yet closely, consiflered, they are seen to be impracticable. They would' add to our already perplexing multitude of local bodies another, which. might have to be fused out of conflicting interests by an organising . and delimiting commission. They would involve a complicated.system of election, of cross-voting, of assigning the rate when levied,' which might beget the suspicion that the stronger localities were being satisfied at the expense of the weaker. The very attempt so to limit local feeling would intensify' its force. Westmoreland 'Would complain that it did not compete on equal terms with well schooled Barrow-in-Fumess.P) Barrow would complain that it was shut out from the numerous and rich scholarships of, its own county. Manchester might say that, judged by history, all 'Lancashire migh~, ill matters educational, be with advantage put under her, 'but that she could never consent to surrender to any now body the authority she had so long and successfully exercised within her own borders. And we may be sure that nothing would persuade the West Riding too accept a system, which gave to boroughs all, the advantages of independency with all the privileges of corporate being. We feel, therefore, that we must .dismiss the, attempt at geographical grouping for one which keeps nearer to the order, social and political, which is actually at work,

(3) Population. This was used in a twofold way, to determine (i) the total area to be covered by the local authority, and (ii) the size of the borough that was to have its independence secured. (i) Whether the area was to be a county or group of counties was to be fixed by the population being, said one, cc something like one million or two millions,"(3) or, said another, "about half a million.T') (ii) Here the standard was-more varied A county borough was to remain an independent authority, if it had, said one, a population 10£' ". about hrul~ a million.l'(") or, said another, "exceeded 150,000, or possibly even 100,000," (6) ',"the " latter :figure is the besb," said a third, quite decisively.I")

The objection to such a, classification is its arbitraI'y.: character, and the difficulty of uniformly and rigorously' applying it. There are counties and borougbs that fall just below the line,


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yet are yearly approaching jt; that, therefore, would be all the more jealous of their position; and that could not be added to a neigh bour or merged in a district without raising its population above the line. Then the institutions, or agencies t hrough which any new educational authority must work, have not been fixed by population as it now is, but by older and more historical causes; and if a new authority is to work well, it will have to create as few cross divisions, and do as little violence to . local reeling as possible, i.e., it must be as much adapted to the means it has to

employ as to the ends it has to serve. '

(4) There remains the fourth method of delimitation, viz., that which accepts tLe existing municipal area of the administrative county or county borough.t 1) It has certain conspicuous conveniences; it is a defined electoral area, with a public spirit of its own, acquainted with its available representative men, and already org:tniseclalike for purposes of rating and allocation of national grants. Its inconveniences are also obvious: the area may be too small or too large, too thickly or too thinly populated, or its line may be drawn through a dense population, with the well-endowed and equipped schools on one side (,f the line, and the greater body of the people on the other. But these inconveniences may be obviated by a less burdensome and revolutionary measure than the special creation of educational areas or provinces, with all the electoral, fiscal, and administrative readjustments -ib would involve. Almost all the witnesses who had special knowledge have recognised that, ill certain cases, considerations of geography, population, distributiou of endowments, or social and economic unity, may make it desirable that counties should be allowed to combine with counties, or boroughs with counties or with other boroughs, and in this matter the central authority migbt fitly enough have something to say. Grouping, in short, may often be effectually secured without being made compulsory, and it will work the more happily that it comes from within rather than is imposecl from without. But this is a point where the central authority may be able to intervene with excellen t results. Com Lination for special purposes is a separate question which will be noticed in a later part of our Report,

Constituents of the Local Authority

27. There was no question we more anxioualy considered, and on which we more carefully and constantly examined the witnesses competent to speak upon it, than this:How ought the local authorityto be constituted? In this, three distinct questions are involved. (1) Of wbat elements ought the body to be composed? (2) In what relative proportion ougbt they to exist? and (3,) How are they to be obtained or appointed? As regards (1) our wibnesses showed remarkable unanimity of opinion; as regards (2) their opinions varied,


[page 117]

yet without serious difference; and as regards (3) they showed both a remarkable variety and di versity of opinion.

28. It was generally, though not universally, held that the local authority ought to consist of representati ve and of expert members.t+) or, in other words, of representatives of the ratepayers directly or indirectly elected; and of persons skilled in the conduct of schools and the work of educatiou. 'Ve have no need to argue the case of the representative members, it goes without dispube; but as to experts the matter is altogether different, and must be dealt wibh more in detail. Experts mny be said to be of five classes:(a) members of learned bodies, such as universities, (b) teacher s, (c) maoageTs of schools, (cl) inspectors, (e) (more especially with reference to technical education) persons possessiug speciallmowleclge of the conditions of industry.

(a) Importance was attached by many witnesses to the representation of the universities and university colleges.P)' Of these latter there is now a considerable number, fairly well distributed over most part of the ccuntry, in touch with many counties, alive to their needs, organised with a view to their satisfaction, with all their promise and possibilities bound up with the local education. These colleges, too, as aided by national funds are, part of a national system, their teachers form a learned corporation, and are men at once of academic culture and experience and of local interest and knowledge, The experience of Wales also seems to show that these colleges are eminently fit nodies to be represented on any local authority in education. The case of the universities is rather diffeJ'ent.(3) They are, of course, at once local and national, and in the former character would have a distinct and legitimate part to play within defined areas. Certain, too, of the colleges of the older universities have ancient and intimate relations to certain localities as, for example, Exeter College, Oxford, with Devonshire and Cornwall, and Queen's with Yorkshire and Westmoreland; and these relations might be most fitly maintained and extended by representation on the local authority. But the difficulties of general university representation are serious. The representatives would have to be either local men or men still in residence. If the former, there is a danger that tbey might be representatives only in name. Their knowledge of the university might be slight and altogether out of date, its knowledge of them still slighter ~ what was done in its name it might never know, what was learned by its representative it might never ascertain; and so the very end desired-mutual influence of school on university and university on school.exercised through mutual knowledge, would not be gained. If, again, the men in residence be taken we are met by difficulties of another order, those of expenditure, both of men and means. The already overburdened working members of the university would be severely taxed, and the service would be a costly one to render both as regards time and money. It is probable that, except in the case of neigh bouring localities,


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or where there exists some special connexion with more distant parts of the country, the universities would usually prefer to be represented by graduates not in residence, apd it might well deserve to be considered by the universities whether the objections to .this alternative would not be largely removed if they were to con vene, nnnuall.m~ebings of those appointed to reprosent.zhem on the local educational authorities, Such conferences, especially if they 'W;Cl'C held at the various universities in. turn, would be an effectual way of bringing the experience of their 'representatives before the universipies, the views of the universities before their representatives. If, therefore, ~ way could be found by which the universities could join in the work of 01'ga,nising the schools, there would be gain aU round. There would be more unity of spirib and aim in all the branelres and stages of our educational system. The knowledge the uni veraitv gains by examination it could use in administration; the experience it got in the schools it could apply to the ordering of its own studies. With such an iuterehange of experience, regular, systematic, and continuous, we might hope that education would cease to fall into a multitude of sections and would become a single coroplete cycle.

(b) Teachers. Most of our witnesses were agroed on the need of teachers being present on the local l1uthc,rities.(l) Without in'any degree anticipating the question, wb ich is discussed below, as to the mode of electing teachers, we may sny here' tl'lat education could not be woll-organised and administered unless the mind and method, the difficulties and aims of the educators, were known. Teachers are a skilled and experienced class, and cit is not' good Ior the community that their skill and experience should [lot be utilised. Misunderstanding is the fruit of ignorance, and only as the administrator sees education through the teacher, ai.ld the teacher sees administration through the problems and resj.onsihilities of office, will they be able, competently and inte.Ligently, no work togethel. for a. common end. An blunders are costly, and the costliest blunders are easy to bodies pr ssessed of lal!ge constructive powers; and it would certainly he a sufe-. guruI'd were men who' knew bhe kinds and: qualities of schools, th~-'methods and standards of education, made in a constibutional way, to share the' respousibiliriea of the authority' which has these things in chai'ge.(2) .

(e) There was not the same agreement. as to maoagers and gove1'llo)ls of, schools.f'') As a. matter of fact, managers can hardly be brought- into the category of experts .in education; they represent much. the same Itype" of intelligence and experience that we have in locally elected bodies, and do, not stand »in . this matter on the same level as either the universities or the teachers. It is, nevertheless, very important that the local educational authority should be 'kept in close touch I with the managers of secondary schools within its district, but


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thi;; may he effected by' representabions of the Authority on managing bodies as well as by the converse plan.

(d) Inspectors. The casu for them was stI'ong~y urged by several influential w~tnesses';e) 'and 'Was also advocated by the Sc~061s Enquiry.Commissiouers' in their Report, The inspeetor was'to be I the expert pa?' excellence for the guidance of' the 'provincial Or countytaut11orify .. It was '.argued that "he could 'But there are two ,points which it. seems important to bear in mind in determining the relation to local bodies of an official representative of the central authority. Though he may undertak'e also such inspection as the State may find necessary, he will be useful at meetings of local authorities as an assessor rather than ils inspector; and he . should be there, not to assert authority, but to give advice and information.t'') In the second place, if his advice is to have due weight, and if he is to be a satisfactory link between the central and local aubhori Ly, or between one local authority and another, 'he must not imperil his character of impartiality by too close contact with questions involving purely local or personal considerations. This danger may best be avoided by his not having a vote.

(e) Persons with special knowledge of the conditions of industey. It is evident that an authority which is entrusted with the provision or supervision of technical education will, in ma>l1lY cases, need a full knowledge of the special conditions of local industries. It has not been snggested to us, nor docs it seem necessary, that the presence on the local authority of persons "'SO q ualified should' be made a matter of statutory obligation. Such persons will often be found among the members nominated by representative -bodies, But, it is a merit of the system of co-optation that; where an authority finds itself, without such special knowledge, there is a way provided of selecting persons to-supply the deficiency.

We may then conclude.that, dn the opinion/of OUR witnesses, it is most desirable that, ,the local authority should' be so constituted 8S to be able, not only to" knew aUGI represent, the mind of-the people, but-talso to know whitt suitable' abel sufficient education is, when it is being provided, and how, 'it can be extended fund improved. ,r -

29. The ideas as- to Ehe pl'oportioI?- of the various elements were much less de6Ritely expressed.but the general effect may be. substantially stated thus:-Alrilosif'aU admitted that the representative


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members must be in a majority, which some would. have made twothirds, while others would either have preferred or have been satisfied with less. The proportion of experts. was conceived in a correspondingly varied manner. Some were anxious to have t1 larger, others were ready to be content with a smaller number of skilled or specially selected persons.(1) The varying' opinions of the witnesses may be lal'gE'ly explained by the fact that some regarded the question more from the point of view of rates and representation, others more from that of the teaching profession. Of course, the purpose of both classes of witnesses was the same, the sufficiency of the education provided, and the efficiency of the educational means; and the . proportion between the two factora, the representative and the professional, ougLt to be decided on the principle thnt they are rather .complemental'y than either contradictory Or mutually exclusive. The representative mem bel' is all the better for being aided by the skilled experience nnd cogent criticism of the profession. The profession is all the better that it feels itself in the hands of those whose intelligence is disciplined by administrative experience. And w~ can conceive only good coming to education from the co-operation of these two classes in the organisation and adminisbrabion of schools. Only it is obvious that it education is to be organised by the State and aided out of taxes and rates, it ceases to be the affair of a profession; and the profession must accept with the increased dignity and emolument the supervision of an' authority whose power is rooted in the will of the community. And this supervision will be an the completer and the more helpful that it is informed by educational interest and experience'.

30. The variety and diversity of opiuion elicited by the question as to how the local authority was to be appointed wa~ at once intelligible nnd significant, If the position be granted that the local authority is to consist of representative and expert members in given proportions, two further questions emerge, (A.), How are the representative members to be elected? and (B.) ,How are the expert, or professional, or specifically educational?

As to (A.) two modes for election of representative memhers were advocated, (1) direct, (2) incl:i:rect.

(1) Direct This falls into two forms: (i) an election ad hoc, i:e., to board directly elected by the ratepayers for t.he purpose of the local organisation and administration of Secondary Education. It WfI:; also urged by some" that the authority thus created should Cf have external control over all recognised rOl1ns or ed II cation in the ,t nrea,"(2) i.e., be the board for both Elemen tary and Secondary Education. This scheme, it was argued, would do three things(a) by increasing the importance and dignity of the position, induce able and distinguished men to become candidates for election; (b) by making the function purely educational, it would attract only tbose interested in education and specially qualified to administer it; and (0) by placing Elementary and


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Secondary Education in the same hands, it would bring the two into organic relations, in a word systematize education right up to the university.

There is, no doubt, much that is attractive in this form of election. It has the merits of simplicity and a certain consistency with pl'e- . ccdeut; and would seem to have something thorough and final: ill it, especially were it combined with the proposal tha~ "elernen- . " tary, intermediate, secondary, and technical education should, in u e\'ery district, be under the management of one body or authority " so far as such education may receive aid from the local rates.Y') But we feel precluded by the terms of our reference from' entering into the consideration of this proposal. Were we to consider it we should be bound to examine and discuss the whole local organisation of elementary as well of Secondary Education; and this precisely is what we have neither the means nor the power to do." Whatever, then our feelings, may be as to the need of unifying the various authorities, central and local, concerned with education we have no alternative save to confine ourselves to the questions, whether the local authority for Secondary Education ought to be constituted by direct election. But however abstractly desirable direct election may be, the practical objectious to it are irresistible. (e) The electorate is already overburdened with elections, and is growing restive under their combined annoyance and expense.P) In rural areas parish, district, and county councils, members of Parliament, and, occasionally, school boards; iu urban areas, vestries, boards of guardians, councillors, school boards, and members of Parliament,-make up, especially when taken along with their different electoral areas and modes of election, a rather anxious burden for both electors and candidates. And it becomes us to consider well before adding another item to this over-full programme. This is the more necessary as it is certain that the increase in the number of electione tends to- beget carelessness in the electors, who begin to feel that what comes so often requires little thought when it does come. Thsn the law of parsimony, the need for doing with the least expenditure of energy and resource what has to be done so often, tends to t11l'0W all these varied elections into the hands of single 6rganisu,tions, which are inevitably the organisations of the great political parties, and so H directly results .in turniug a question which ought to be in its essence non-political, into a distinctly political question. (b) The school board, at any rate in small areas, can hardly be regarded as a satisfactory institution. The mode of I election to it. was frequently condemned, and seemed to be withont a friend among our witnesses. The present school board area in counties, viz., the parish, would, of course be far too small for a board concerned with Secondary Education, and any change in the area, would involve a multitude of other changes which ,yould radically affect the character of the board. It would,

*A Memorandum by one of our members (Mr. J. H. Yoxall) way be referred to. See Vol. V., page 33.


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therefore, be 1JOI.) serious a responsibility to advise that a board which satisfies so few should be duplieatetl, (c) The board is Dot as yet universal; indeed it seems to have taken vigorous root mainly ill the greater boroughs, ' and not even in, all, of these, while there are whole counties in which. schoolboards are neither numerous nor popular i and though it .may seem posaible to make secondary boards compulsory, even wheue elementary boards are unknown, yet it woule! not be a very statesmanlike procedure to give direct control over' secondary schools, which concern only a very few of their children, to ratepayers who are without any control whatever over the elementary schools, which concern the whole community, If school boards were univei sal and compulsory, the case lor direct election would stand on a different footing, but as matters now are we do not see how it could.be made practicable,

(ii) The second form was to confer educational functions upon the directly elected council, whether of counby or borough, as the body best fitted to deal with it.e) This view in its baldest form received but little support, and as in any case the council would naturally commit the administration to some selected members, it really falls over into our next division.

(2) Indirect election. This term as hero used means election 'by a body which has itself been directly elected, and which js possessed of full power" for this purpose. There are three. directly elected bodies already existing which may be either, severally or jointly, so empowered; county councils, borough councils, and school boards. Each of these has round amongst our witnesses its advocatesf') and each its opponents, but the general state of the case may be' represented thus :(a) All the three are in a more or less regular' Iorm, Janel ill a highel' or lower degree authorities in. Secondary !l;clucation. The measure in which it is true as to county councils has been already described in our Report,(3) and lias been abuudantly proved in our evidence. C) As to the councils of 01.U great cities and county boroughs we bad, ill addition to what 'is elsewhere statecl,(G) most impressive evidence of what had been attempted and achieved ~n Londonf'') Birmingham,(1) ManchesteJ';(8) and Sheffield.I") As regards the non-county borough councils, -though these have, in common with the other urban distcict councils, powers of rating fol' technical instruction, yet all iJ1lese authorities practically form pact of the county for the admimetration of tue funds at present applied to the purposes of Seeondary Education, and al'e. eacll. represented on the county council itself In, the face' of these facts' it is impossible to deny to the county and counby borough 'councils bhe character' of being already, in a seuse, educational authorities . A!nd We school boards, especially ill cerbalu of the greater' bOl'oughs, have organised schools that musL under any definition

Miss Cooper, 2038-56. )I£r. )[",,"thy. G.'I$S-!ll.

lividcncu of ~[J'. Alderman Roy nuclll,. J. H, ReynOlds, 3321-78.

oJ }Ir. Moss. OOMI-!il.


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be classed as secondnry, a point On which it is enough to refer to bho evidence o£ their representatives, of the Science and Art Department, and of the maatcrs of organised science schools.r') (b) The duties and functions- of these bodies in connexion with Secondany Education, while. ixtegnlar in their exercise and incidental in their origin, have yet either been created fer them . l)y .the direct act of the Legislature, or have grown out of the. admiuistrabive necessities of their position. The local taxation grants threw a new duty unexpectedly' upon the county and, borough councils, and compelled them to advance further into the field of education than they might otherwise have been! inclined to go;' while their own success, the growing demands of their constituents, and the temptation of the South Kensington grants made the opportunity which the school boards were forward to seize, (c) The work which these bodies have already dono and the experience which' they possess, constitute a distinct and, indeed, an indefeasible claim to consideration.f") It would be both a serious and superfluous thing to create now constituent bodies when bodies which can be used for this purpose already exist. (d) There are, of' 'course, differences in the areas occupied. In county boroughs, with but few exceptions, councils and school boards exist on what may be described as fairly equal terms, but, as we have already seen there are counties where school boards f~re to a large extent wanting. And this practical difference between counties and. county boroughs neceesitates, in the two cases, a difference in the bodies that may be used fur constituent purposes.

31. A.13 to (~.) the mode for the election of expert or educational members, opinions were much more mixed, and as a consequence more difficult 'to analyse. But they may be classed under three heads:(1) co-optation, (2) nomination, (3) elnctioo by bodies specially recognised and enfranchised. Eaeh of these suggestions covered distinct ideas as to the clements that ought to be incorporated in the eonsbitubion and character of the local educational authority.

(1) Co-optation was to be the act of this authority itself'so far as it had been created by-the constituent body or bodies; find its purpose was conceived to 'be to secure persons competent to deal with education who were yet not within the circle of the directly elect~d,(~) nor would be likely to offer themselves for election. This is simply to invest the educational authorities with thc same sort of power as i.s possessed by our COUT\ty and borough councils. The co-opted members. would be as it were the aldermen of the local council of education. In this matte» two alternatives were possible, either to leave the choice entirely free, or to define the classes from whom the choice was to be made. If the right to elect is granted to a class like the teachers or to academic bodies, .definition of special classes might be .. an undue restriction upon the liberty of' the local authority, If; on, the other hand, the election of teachers is not otherwise secured,


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it may be necessary to state in express terms tba.t a certain number are to be co-opted, and this applies also to the election of women.

(2) Nomination was, as a rule, regarded by our witnesses as the proper form of securing that the central authority should be represented on the local, or be helpful to it; (1) and was conceived as a means by which it might place at the service of each locality the knowledge of some highly experienced official or eminent authority in education.

(3) Election was represented as the tnethod Iikeliest to secure the presence of influential persons belonging to those bodies or classes specially concerned with education, which have been already specified, viz., (a) uuiversibies and university colleges, (FJ) teachers, and (7) managers or governors of schools. But for reasons already stated (7) need not be discussed.

(a) Universities and university colleges are evidently qualified and competent electoral bodies, though it must be granted that the competence is lessened in the degree that the bcdy is distant from the locality, and so without local knowledge and feeling. Hence it might be necessary to introduce a distinction, and allow tl full or a qualified electoral power as the uni versity or college bad or had not its habitation in the locality.

(b) As to the teachers two modes of election were suggested: (i) by the body of registered teachers, (2) (ii) by recognised representative orgarusations.(3) (i) Could not become actual till a. register had beeu formed, and even then it would have to be determined, whether all teachers or only secondary teachers, and whether all of the latter, whatever the kind of school in which they held office, or only those under the local authority, should be for this purpose enfranchised. (ii) Seems easier, but has difficulbies of its own, organisations are many, and, were each to elect, the numbers might come too near those of the representutive members. Further, organisations tend to multiply, and the new would ever strive after equality with the old; they tend, too, to encourage corporate rivalries and sectional interests, and so they might bring into the council conflict of educational parties rather than unity of educational aim.

32 . On the whole, then, (i) seems a more practicahls scheme than (ii); it would carry out in the local authority a principle which would make teachers not only instructors in schools, but factors of edu-ational policy, would give dignity to all branches of the profession, and by the promise of exceptional privilege, become a stimulus to genel'l~l proficiency. On the other hand, we cannot, conceal from ourselves the objections which may be held to lie Hgainst the proposal. It would be argued that it was not only without precedent, but a dangerous innovation; that it was the representation of :;L special class or profession on a body that bad to do with the distribution of National funds and with the levying and spending of local rates; thac this class or profession


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would be directly interested in the objects to which the taxes and rates wore to be applied; and that it might result in the choice of perseus with whom considerations of economy would have little weight. To obviate these objections, the force of which would be lessened by an honourable understanding that a teacher should abstain from voting on a matter affecting his pecuniary interest, two alternatives to the election of teachers by teachers have been either proposed or considered. (a) The local autboritios might be instructed to co-opt a certain number of teachers. By this means it would retain a certain control over the election, while the teachers would know how to make their mind known. (b) The central authority might nominate, possibly from lists submitted by the registered teachers or their organised representative bodies. This might be a recognition, not only of the teachers, but of the right of the central authority to representation on the IOCll body becauset") of the large SlLmS the latter receives from the Imperial Exchequer.

33. It is perhaps unnecessary to say, in conclusion, tbat an authority constituted mainly, or even soLely, by indirect election IS yet an independent authority. It would not in this case be a mere creature of the principal electing body, whether council or school board, but would have an existence and executive powers of its own, with its province, powers, and functions defined and secured by statute. The power to elect would Dot involve the right to control the policy or throw out the measures of the educational authority. It would be a body elected for a specific purpose, able to accomplish its purpose, but steadied throughout by the sense of its responsibility to the ultimate source of its being. The ratepayers would have control over it through the council or board they returned; the council or board would have control over it by the persons they elected, and thus the ancient relation between representation and rating would be maintained. Yet as the presence of the expert would also be secured by statute he would be there neither by the favour nor by the sufferance of the council or board, but by precisely the same right as its own representatives. A body so constituted would seem to have the promise of fitness for the work to be laid upon it.

London

34. We could not but recognise that London is so immense and so exceptional as to require special consideration and treatment. Mr. Richmond described its schools as in a condition "not " improperly called chaos." 'c'There are, under the Endowed '" Schools Acts, nearly 50 secondary schools for boys and girls, " and these schools are governed by about three dozen separate ~t govel'l1ing bodieaY') Besides these there are certain schools of city companieat") many excellent proprietary schools, a multitude of private schools more or less efficient, and 11. large number of technical institutes, and, under the school board, two organised science schools, and a few reckoned as higher grade


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elementary schools. Superinduced upon ~h~ top of.all, and beginning

Area

(a) Mr. Richmond proposed to divide London into 10 or 12 districts, each with a population of about half' a' million, grouping the endowments within the district eo as to secure a fairer distribution of resources, and co-ordinating the schools so as to avoid competition and meet the wants of the different localitieaf") And then he would co-ordinate and comprehend these in a "D1etropolit~n area," which "should. extend beyond " the Iimits of the administrative county of London," and include "parts of Essex; Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent." He would do this because it is almost impossible " to limit ,the schools, " which ought to be largely UpOJ;l. the fringe of the metropolitan " area, to children within the area."(2) Under examination he recognised" the difficulty of founding ourselves upon any other " lines than these which exist in the limits of the administrative " county"; but he was. still inclined to think has own scheme simpler and more complete.r') , (b) Other witnesses specially connected with London were strongly of opinion" that the " administrative county of London must, be-the educational area " with regard to the metropolis.'T') They were alive to the difficulties which tempted Mr. Richmond to propose the largcr Ifrea, but, thought these could be best ' overcome by voluntary arrangements with the neighbouring authorities, To break down the limits of the adrninistrative county for this one special purpose would create greatel' diffieulties' than 'jt would surmount, In this matter the instincts of .the London representatives seem to us substantially right.

Constitution

Here we had three schemes submitted to us: (a) Mr. Richmond's local authority, like his area, was twofold, divisional und metropolitan. He would have 10 or 12 divisional. boards, corresponding to the districts, into which he would divide the metropolitan area. Co) These boards would be, within their 'respective distrdcts, the governing bodies of" all the public secondary schools, except those of the first order, like St. Paul's, Westminster, and the CitiY of London.t") He would thus.concentra~e .tlrepowen which is .frittered away ov~:r alarge nU:11;l ber of small' governing bodies, and alsc, the endowments, which would thus- become those 0 f. the whole district rather than of a restricted'


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10Ct'Llity.(l) The metropolitan authority, on the other hand, would have to do with education as a whole, and. be constituted on i1 different basis. libe,distl'ict authorities would be constituted after the type of governing boclies,;O with. :the exclusion of teachers.r") which is usual in schemes. But the metropolitan authority would consist of representatives, elected by the county council, the contributory counties (these together being a majority of the whole), the 'Univetaities of Oxford, Cambridge, and London, the school board, and the teachers in secondary schools.r') (b) Mr. Webb and Dr. Garnett proposed a single authority, which should be formed by the county council being required by statute to delegate its functions in Secondary Education to a mixed committee "the composition of which would " necessarily vary from time to time." (0) In, it ~he,re ought to be" afair dilution of external experts";(6). but, while their opinion was in favour of outside bodies nominating or approv~ ing, they seemed to feel that some power of confirming nominations should be .reserved to the council.F) (o.): Mr. Lyulph Stanley and MI'. Diggle were at onein substituting the school board for the county council 'of the previous witnesses, and putting under it technical, secondary, and elementary instruction.(S) Mr. Stanley thought the board might be made fitter for this work if it had "some power of creating aldermen, "(9) and, though his preference was for" a body chosen entirely for "educatioJlal considerations," yet he would accept a compromise which admitted, by "co-optation or nomination," the "non., educational popular element of the county council," and also " H, very substantial body of.educational experta'(")

These three proposals are alike in this: the emphasis they give to the representative element, In every dase it' forms the majority. But th~y differ in their notion of what may be called the constituent factor: in (a) it is a number of co-ordinate bodies; in (~) the county council; in (c) the school 'board. The claims of (b) and (c) can hardly be maintained in this exclusive form. Both, bodies equally represent the ratepayers of London. T4e . County' Council also receives and superintends the distributi.on of . the Local Taxation grant, and thus exercises a considerable influence over. secondary schools. It has proved its willingness to constitute its technical education board in a g~nerous spirit, and to include representati ves of the principal 'educational agencies at work within its district, In this respect the board, so formed, occupies a unique position among the C)1D mi ttees dealing with technical instruction throughout the country. Its vigorous action, though restricted to only a portion of the- field of Secondary Education, has yet been sufficient to show its capacity to deal with a wider sphere. Its history is; however, too brief to be a-basis for induction as to its permanent policy., OJ). .the other hand, the school hoard has a longer history, but its connexion wi th" Secondary Edueation, has been too slig~t to give it a claim -to be eutrusted with the. whole


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of it. Nevertheless, as representing public agencies which prepare pupils for the secondary schools, it should have some measure of representation on the new local authority for Secondary Education. But here, as elsewhere, our witnesses recognised with us that other elements than those of the constituting bodies would be necessary such as the universities, the teachers, and the trustees of certain great charities which have been used for educational purposes.

Functions and Powers

35. The functions of the local authority as conceived by our witnesses may be said to fall into two great classes; (a) the constitutive, which has to do with the. creation of schools and their organisfJ,tion into a system, and (b) the administrative, which bas to do with their maintenance and management afj thus created and organised. The qualities and powers needed for the fulfrlment of these two classes or functions are so different that Sir George Young proposed to entrust them, after the model of the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, to two distinct bodies. e) The distinction was possible in Wales, for there the work was c'early defined and the field comparatively frce; but in England, where the work is so milch more extensive and difficult, two bodies woulcl needlessly complicate a situation too complex already.I'') Indeed, these two things seem to be necessary to a satisfactory local authority; it ought to be one and it ought to be within its own province sufficient. Unification is even more necessary here than at the centl'e.(3) The variety of local bodies which have to do with Eecondary Education-e-couucils, school boards, commi ttees, an able to act independently of each other-s-tends directly to extravagance and inefficiency. What is needed is such a local concentration df power as will bring home responsibility to those who exercise it. The evils of centralisation have been strongly presented to US,('I) and the hopeless impotence of an overburdened Ministry of Education.I") The only possible way of relieving the central is to make the local authority sovereign within its own domain, yet sovereign in a strictly constitutional sense, with all its powers limited and guarded by Jaw, and all its actions performed in view of t.hoso who gave it bring. By its relation to the central a,uthority, the schools it creates and administers will be made pans of a national system; by its relation through the electoral bodies to the ratepayera, it will be bound to adapt the national system to the local needs. By these means we shall have at once the unity of the whole and the adaptation of each part to its place and speciflc purpose.

What, then, ouzht to be the functions of this single local authority? The briefest, if not the completest, enumeration was given by Sir George Kekewich," to supply, maintain, and


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" aid schools.Y') The supply of schools was regarded as a primary function.(2) -Sir William Hart-Dyke" would so con"stitute the local authorities that they must undertake the " task" of "securing an efficient supply of secondary schools," and would even "make it a statutory duty that they should " do SO."(3) This is a point which needs no elaboration; om witnesses were here, with a few exceptions, practically unanimous. But "to provide an "efficient supply" did not mean that in every case the schools were to be new creations. Old schools might be enlarged and adapted to new condibions. Proprietary and private schools might, under proper safegnaJ'ds, be drawn into the public system; and by a process of correlation overlapping might be prevented, and each school be made to supplement all the other schools in the district. In other words the local authority was to be charged with the duty of supplying and controlling Secondary Education within its area, and this involved the exercise of certain functions of a varied and extensive character as regards schools, funds, scholars, and teachers. Only when we have discussed our evidence as it relates to these subjects, will -the functions of the local authorities, as well as those of the central, have beeu completely reviewed.

36. But before taking up these questions there is 0118 to which we must briefly allude here; viz., the proposal to insert between the local and the central a provincial authority. 'I'wo witnesses, in particular, developed what we may term provincial schemes, Sit' George Young and Mr. Fearon. Though these are classed together yet they were really altogether different. Sir George Young's was designed, if not to supersede the county authority, yet to possess functions and exercise a jurisdiction that would render it superfluous. Mr. Fearon's implied the county and borough authority, and, indeed, could neither exist nor act without it. His scheme was peculiarly detailed and definite. e) He would divide England into five provinces, give to each province an educational council, constituted in equal parts of nominees from the local authorities, the teachers of schools recognised as county schools, and universities, or university colleges within the province. He would assign to it certain important functions, e.g., the power to administer general endowments, such as Betton's charity, to provide for the inspection and examination of schools and the training of teachers, to eatablish a system for pensioning teachers, to create a joint board for conference on educational matters, and to report to the central authority annually on the state of education within the province, However excellent some of the features of this scheme may be, it is open to cerbain serious objections. The more the machinery call be simplified, the more smoothly and effectively is j t likely to work; and it seems to us that the creation of a third authority between the local and the central would, however well defined its formation, tend to the increase,


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rather than a decrease, of friction. Intermediate authorities, with special and' exceptional' duties, would raise questions or enjoin duties which the local authorities would carry to the central, and . the central would refer to the local. And i.t would rnvobve five subordinate education offices, with the inevitable growth in an expenditure for which there is no adequate provision, and dn the range' of an activity to. which it would be hard to. set a cleaa-ly-marked limit. Then, of the duties assigned! certain, such as the training and the pension system' (if carried out), are better-in the hands of the central authority, while others. like the annual .reporte, can 'best be discharged by the local. On the- whole, then, we think that a careful apportionment of these functions. between the central and local authorities will render the provincial superfluous, and tend to the easier and more-efficient working of our Secondary Education system.

C THE SCHOOLS ORGANISATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

37. The questions which belong to thi~ section m~y be, describe(t' as, in general, concerned either with the, orgaµisation and. development of Secondary Education, or with the creation, f correlation, and administration of secondary schools, The special problems that hence arise are these:Ho,~ m:Jiy. the local authol~~ty best provideIou the educabionalwanlaof its ~ist}.ict ~ How may schools be classified 1 What kinds are most needed? Ought, they to stand in, any exact, proportion to population ~. - Howo.ught they to. . be organised; managed, and majntai.ted in effi~ ciency 1 Whi.1;t use may be lll!tde of ,existit]g schools, public, proprietary, or" privat"e.? Wllat functions, ought to be assigned to the central and: local authorities respectively?

What Secondary Education is

38. But here we are met by a question which hae been following llS through aU om: .discussions, viz., What is Secondary Education? It has of course been variously and often vaguely conceived by our witnesses, and a clear or coherent. idea of ibis by no means easy to formulate. It is the less easy that our idea of what Secondary Education 'ought to be, may 'be very different from our idea of what we must for th~_ purposes of our inquiry conceive and hold it to be. The definitions of c1'eSCl:ip~ tions in the evidence were all' of a rough aud ready .ldud, occasioned, for the most part, by the experience of the. witness 0.1' the need of enforcing some special point. The most common: standard was age, the education given to boys and girls between 14 and 19 was held to be se(!ondp.ry.(1) By another class bt witnesses the line was departmental; Sir John Donnelly regarded (, all the instruction aided by (his) department" as in a certain sense distinctly secondary instruction.(2) Sit' George Kekewich drew the Iine between primary and elementary education at the


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point It where the elementary stages 0.£ the Science and Art Deparb.neut begin. e) By other witnesses subjects were takeu as determinative, Secondary Education being strongly divided and distinguished from technical.P) What seemed the most comprehensive description was the education.which 'lies between the elementary school and the university, but as the uuiversities are the goal of only a few secondary schools, and are by no means so organised and equipped as to cover the whole field of secondary instruction, the description can scarcely be regarded as adequate.

What, then, is Secondary Education 1 The Schools Enquiry Commission discussed this question most elaborately by means of what may be termed the external standards then available. They divided jt into three grades, the grade ill each case being do tennined by age, " or the time during which.parents are willing to keep their children u.t school." 'fhe education of the first grade was continued till 18 or 19; that 0.£ the second-ended about IG; that of .the third stopped about 14.(8) "These disbiucbions " corresponded roughly, but by no means exactly, to the grads" tiona of society'!' The bulle of those who wished for" first grade "education consists of two very different classes";" parents of ample means," who are It identical, or nearly so, with those whose " sons are in the nine (public) schools."; (4) and" parents of good education, but confined means, who wish to cheapen educabion.t'(") Education of the second grade was desired by parents also of two classes, well-to-do pareuts, who tI intend their children for " employments, the special preparation for which ought to begin C( at 16," and u parents of straitened means," who" require their ""boys ,:,to begin n,t 16, wholly or partinilly to find, their own a li ving."((I) These two grades met "the demands of all the wealthier part of the community," while the third 'grade " belongs to a class distinctly lower-in the scale, but so numerous " as to be quite} as important as any i the smaller tenant "farmers, the small tradesmen, the superior artisans."(1) Passing from social classes to school curricula, they classified " the subjects of instruction under three heads -language, " mnbhematica (including arithmetic), and natural sciimce."(B) Or tbese they held language to be "distip.ctly" the most educativej") and made it at once the differentiating, note of the several grades, and (. the leading study" whichcould serve" as C( a link: between the three,"( 10) th0ugh the lower' grades were not intended to prepare for the 11ighest, each being regarded as : the final school stage in three CliStinct types of education. ell) "Except for education of the flrst grade, Greek cannot be usefully taught," and even hero it" should not be -considered absolutely essential,". though "there was a very great prepon" derance (of opinion) in favour of Lutin."('2) In schools of the I second grade ~h.ere was to be Latin, bub no Greek,('3) in those of the third there was to be Ii the elements of Latin' or some modern language."(,4) English literatul'e and history and political.


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economy were commended for schools of all grades, and modem languages for those of bhe first and second. Al'itbmetic was "simply indispensable," but" the branches of mathematics which follow arithmetic " were important rather than necessary.r') As to the place of " uaturul science ill schools" there was a very careful discussion, its neglect was regretted; and certainly difficulties in the way of teaching in it recognised. In some second grade schools "natural science would be the pl'eponderating subject," while schools of the first grade and the universities were gently advised to co-operate in its cultivation.I'') We mn.y conclude this brief statement of their views by giving their answer to the questions" whether schools should endeavour " to give general education, or as far as possible to prepare " boys for special employ m ents."(3) If There should be no " attempt to make school a substitute for apprenticeship, but " that a school should teach what might fairly bo considered as " likely to be useful to all its scholars, wliether as mental " discipline or as valuable informabion.P("]

39. The question which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners thus fully considered, hue been since their day seriously affected by the rise of other studies and other ideas in education, 1:.\mongst the factors of this change, we may enumerate the Endowed Schools Acts, the Elementary Education Acts, especially so far as they have occasioned the foundation of the h'igber grade and the organised science schools, the Technical Iustruction Acts, and the Local Taxation A.ct.(") It is, therefore, necessary to consider whether and in what sense the idea of education in secondacy schools requires modification.

(1) The standard of Ilge is not exactly what it was. For first grade schools it may seem to stand where it did, but the limit of age, 19, set for college scholarships appears to favour the higller yenr as the normal end of the school eOU1'se.(O) For second and third grade> schools, the JilIlit of age has distinctly ad vanced in the one case to 17 or 18, in the ocher to 15 or 16.C) On the othel' hand, there has boeD a, fall in the average

(1) The evidence on Ihis point is difficult to tabulate, as technical institutes and orgltuised science schools, which are places of secondnry education, affect the nveruge age in second grade schools. The Oharity Commissioners fix the age of leaviug such 5cl10018 "at II regular standard of 17, with power 10 ex.tend in special cases to 18." Sir George Young, 227-8. In the Drapers' School at Woodford, boarders from the public elemental'Y schools stay "till abont 17." Mr. Richruond, '1 I !l-20. In "bi~bel' gJ'ade board schools," Dr. Forsyth said Ihe practice wns to keep boys aud. girls" up to 16 or 17." 81146,8262. in his own school be had 126 betwcen 15 anti 16,36 berweeu t s nnd 17, >l11i121 above 17. 8578. His curriculum wns so planned as to give to I~ child who lind passed the Seventh Standard u course of" four years Iongcr." 8583-8. On the other hand in the organised scieuce schoo.l lit Manchester there are 155 at 14, 75 at 15,22 at 16. MI'. 'Wyatt, 10,028. In the. :King Edward Grammar Schools, Binningham, the educution terminates at 16 or thereabouts. Mr. Vardy, ]'7-1-8. As to technical education Mr. Sharpe thought it should begin" nt about 14," bnt Mr. Ensterbrok said it ought to begin in secondary schools, .t not before 15 certainly, and I think even u little later perhaps." And this Ilgl'CCS witb the experience of the municipal sehcol ut Manchester. Mr. Reynolds, 35016. Dr. Percival thought attention should be paid primnrily to the need of th(l 10CI\lity, and the type of 50.:hl)01 to be estnblished, noel that the question of age would ".<1just itself. Sec also Memorundum by 1..:[Is. Sidgwick, Vol. V.


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age at which the more capable children pass the standards in the elementary schools and this change has contributed to the rise of the Higher Grade Board Schools.F) Whether the higher age be a gaiu to Secondary Education as a whole is a matter open to doubt. Where the university follows the school and the profession the university, some of our witnesses thought there was room for stil1 graver doubt. But, without r1 iscussing this question, we may recognise that the extension of the time at secondary schools is due t(2) Their gradation of social classes in relation to their educational grades requires to be modified. The legislation they recommended has done something to open schools which lead directly to the nniversibies, to the sons of men who fall in to the categories neither of the rich nor of the educated.P) We have convinced ourselves that in certain selected colleges i II one of our older universities, such men formed a considerable proportion of the scholars 011 the foundation; in one case :1D actual majority. And we may here cite as typical cases the success which has attended the efforts of first grade schools like King Edward's, Birmingham, and the Bradford Grammar School, to attract children from 'the board schools.t") And we believe that the rise of certain great urban scbcols; among them schools under the management of the school boards, is tending still more strongly against the association of a distinction of class with the difference of grade in education. e)

(3) The growth of special and technical studies in schools has created a branch of Secondary Education which, while not" n. u substitute for apprenticeship," is yet, as distinctly a preparation for ib; or for an industry, as the old fu.:;t grade school was for a profession or the university. By a perfectly natura] process, this type of Secondary Education has become in a quite exceptional degree what we may term a. civil concern. The large funds which Parliament has placed for it~ encouragement


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in the hands of local authorities, these au {;horities have, 'as a rule, ,Deen ,"iIling to use in whole or in part in its service. The technical college, while in the strictest, sense a school of applied science and art, yet supplies what is so distinctly a proptedeutic to industry that its encouragement may well; seem a primary duty of the bodies specially charged with the care of both our wealth as a State and our well-being as a people. And its rise has no.doubt modified our ideas as to SecondaryEducation.

(4) This modification has, act.ing along with older: and less obvious forces, created conditions t.ha.t need to be reckoned with. For one thing it has tended to make what the Commissioners of 1864 termed," a general education," at once more difficult, and .more necessary; more difficult, because the premium pl aced upon proficiency in special sbudiea hal) thrust the preparation for them back to a too early stage in the educational process; more neceseary because special, without a broad basis ill genera], studies are both ineffective and narrowing. And this tendency has been intensified by the use which has been too often made of scholarships and exhibitions. It has indeed been the prevailing opinion of our witnesses, that the primary education which pl'p.pares for secondary should Dot be more restricted or special than the elementary which is, as it were, an end in itself; but that iii ought to be broader, more liberal both in what .it includes and what it attempts. They seemed to feel that no more serious danger threatened modern education than a too early specialisation. It is instructive that witnesses representative of technical and classical education were agreed in regarding insbrucbion in their special subjects as inadequate by itself, and in holding that Secoodary Education suffered. f1'o)11 a too narrow early curriculum, and we may add a t00 utilitarian spirit. Thus, Mr. Bothamley complained that in technical instruction they wero " constantly hampered by the want of mathematics andthe want of foreign languages.l'(") Mr. Reynolds said" that boys " came, especially from the private and public schools, singularly '~ ill-prepared to take advantage of the curriculum" in ~ technical college.(2) And in some of our University memoranda the same note was even more clearly sounded, Thus, the President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, deplores the .tendencies that limit rr the student to a narrow curriculum and C( frequently render his intellectual growth stunted and partial," "A boy of tender years is trained for a school scholarship, and, " no sooner has he won or lost this object of his parents' ambition, tc than he.is run through a similar groove for a college scholarC< ship. He had thus hardly any opportunity for independent " intellectual development, and, as the college scholarships are ~' usually confined to some special class of subjects, classics, " mathematics, science, or the like, he is 'specialised: as it is " called, Ioug before he leaves school, and thus cut off from some " of the most useful and stimulating branchesof school education: " A hoy may win a classical scholarship, even with considerable


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" diatinction, though' he is entirely ignorant of science, knows II' nothing of mathematics, beyond the meagre minimum (t which is required for responsions, and is limited in his " acquaintance "with literature, history, and geography to his " recollections of early lessons or . the scraps of information "which he has recently had resort to fOF illustrating his " essays," C) With this severe judgment the Rector of Exeter Oollege agrees. "The competition for endowments,') he says, " from the time boys enter a preparatory school, or 'even earlier, " certainly produces a disastrous effect on some minds: It " prevents them throughout their lives from feeling the iudepen"",dent attraction of any branch of knowledge or study, and it often " narrows their views of life. There are many boys whose whole " energies from a very early period in life, are turned to the " pursuit of endowments, and at the end of bbeir university /, ci-Lreer they have no desire except to go on in the same groove. " As these endowments in Oxford are chiefly bestowed tor " proficiency:in classics, a large number of men drift; into the " calling of teacher, not because they are specially qualified for " it, but because their aims in life have been contracted.t'(") These are very serious charges against our methods of giving what ought to be a liberal education; they signify that "the '" keen competition for scholarslrips " is, just when the spirit is 'most sensitive, turoing our old 'humane studies into" bread and " butter sciences," the means and instruments of n. new academic craft.

40. We have spoken as if technical and classical instruction alike fell as aubordiuate or co-ordinate divisions under, the common head of Secondary Education. We are aware that there I~re some who would limit. the term education to the discipline 9f,faculty and the culture of character by means of the .more humane or generous studies, and who would deny the name to instruction in those practical arts and sciences by means of which man becomes a craftsman or a bread-winner. But this is an impossible limitation as things now stand.' We have justseen that the training iu classics may have as little liberal culture in .it as .instruction in a practical art; modern literature may.be made a field for as narrow and technical a drill as the' most. formal science. EdLlcation inevitably becomes more and more practical, a means of forming men, not aimply to enjoy life; but to accomplish something in the life they enjoy. We may, tlierefore, describe its general idea thus:All education is development and discipline of faculty by the communication of knowledge, and whether the faculty be the eye. and hand, or 'the reason and- imagination, and whether the knowledge be of nature of art, of science or literature, if the know~ec1ge be so -communiccted as to evoke and exercise and discipline faculty, the process is rightly termed education.

Now, Secondary Education may be described as a modification of this general idea. It is the education of the boy or girl not


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simply as a human being who needs to be instructed in the mere rudiments oi'knowledgc, but it is a process of intellectual training and personal discipline conducted with special regard to the profession or trade to be followed. 1?1atoC) draws a distinction between the man who learns the arts of the grammarian, the musician, or the trainer as a craftsman, bri 'dxv'{i, for trade, and the man who learns them as a private person 0\' freeman, Ed T.'a:~£/Ij<,for education or culture, But even culture is not an end in itself, it makes the private person of more value to society and to the State. All secondary schools, then, in so far as they qualify men for doing something in life, partake more or less in the character of institutes that educate craftsmen. Every profession, even that of winning scholarships, is a craft, and all crafts are arts. But if Secondary Education be so conceived, it is evident that under it technical instruction is comprehended. The two 111'e not indeed ddentical, but they differ as genus and species, or as general term and particular name, not as genus and genus or as opposed terms, No definition of technical Instruccion is possible tbat does not bring it under the head of Secondary Education, nor can Secondary Education be so defined as absolutely to exclude from it the idea of technical instruction. Under the common head there are many species, each distinguished by the particular means and instruments employed and faculties exercised, but all agreeing in method and end, viz., the discipline of faculty by exercise. 'I'echnical instruction is secondary, i.e., it comes after the education which Las awakened the mind by teaching the child, the rudiments, or, as it were, the alphabet, of 3:11 knowledge, and the better the whole of this alphabet has been mastered the better and the easier will the later learning be. And secondary instruction is technical, i.e" it teaches the boy so to apply the .pri.nciples he is learning, and so to learn the principles by applying them, or so to use the instruments be is being made to know, as to perform Or produce something, interpret a. literature or a science, make a picture or a book, practice a plastic or a manual art, convince a jury or persuade a senate, translate or annotate an author, dye wool, weave cloth, design or construet a machine, navigate a ship, or command an army. Secondary Education, therefore, as inclusive of technical, may be described as education conducted in ~iew of the special life that has to be lived with the express pnrpose of forming a person :fit to live it

Secondary Schools

41. But now we come to another question-the schools needed to supply the various branches or types of the education which we have just described. Of course, the first duty of a local authority would be to examine Bind classify the secondary schools already existing within its urea, especially with the view of discovering the adequacy or inadequacy of the supply to the local needs; and in the one case ascertaining how it can be used to


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the best advantage, or, in the other ease, how it can best be supplemented, developed, and made sufficient. Now a double classification of schools is here possible, (i) one based on their eonstitution and origin; (ii) another based on their educational function and character.

(i) Secondary schools are, as regards origin and consbitubion, either public, proprietary, or private. (1) Public secondary schools fall into three classes; (c) endowed schools, (b) municipal or county council schools, (c) public elementary schools rounded for subjects tbat lie beyond or outside the stundards. (2) Proprietary schools are either (a) owned and managed by public companies; '01' (b) held by private trustees or shareholders whether conducted for profit or not; or (0) the property of some denomination or some religious or other society. (3) Private schools are schools where the proprietor is also the manager, though the property may be held either singly or in partnership. Schools of the latter two classes are currently characterised as" schools conducted for private profit," or <, schools in which the headmaster hasa pecuniary interest."(l) The phrase is invidious, although it. has a certain technical accuracy. The public school, whether endowed or rate-founded and supported, is the property of no man, and as a property does not yield profit to any man; but this cannot be 'so truly said of it when viewed ns a school conducted by men who have made teaching the business of their lives, The headmaster of a public school may benefit, in his own way, quite as much as the master of a private school, by the school's success. In the case of boarding hom es, or under that most undesirable state of things in which schools are farmed by the governors to the master, there is no distinction in principle between public and private schools, as regards the financal interest of the master, It is, therefore, hardly just to lay suggestive emphasis on a point which may be common to t'Cany kinds of schools as if if; were peculiar to one. But it is evident that the attitude of a public local authority must be very different to a school possessed of public funds and working under It scheme publicly sanctioned, or created and supported out of local rates and national taxes, and managed under a public constitution, from what it will be to a school founded and equipped by the means and energies of ODe man or several men. Public interests and public law give rights and impose duties in the one case which are necessarily withheld in the other j and the difference ought to be recognised, as much with a view to the protection of private rights as to the promotion of public interests.

(ii) Secondary schools are, as regards educational function and character, very difficult to classify; and we do not propose to introduce any new descriptive nomenclature which might only add to the confusion, and be no more accurate than the old. Without being at all satisfied with the terminology of the


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Schools Enquiry Commissioners, we shall yet continue to use, as-the more convenient course, their classification into schools of the first," tc second," and "third grade." These grades are distinguished by the kind of education they respectively give, the age at which it terminates, and what; it is meant to fit for, but they differ thus:(1) and (2) are usually held to imply a broader primary education than without such a sequent would be necessary, while (3) rµay be described as the continuation andcomplebion of our public elementary system.

42. "First Grade" Schools are those whose special function is the formation of a learned or a literary, and a professional or cultured class. This class comprehends the so-called .learned 'professions, the ministry, law, medicine, teaching of all kinds, and at all stages, literature and the higher sciences, public Iife, the home ana' fOl!tqign civil service, and such like. This is the class whose school life continues till 18 or 19, and would naturally end ill the universities. The more highlyorganised our civilisation becomes, the more imperative grows the need for men s'o educated and formed, the more generolls ought their education to become and the ,gl'eater the necessity for l'ecruiting their ranks with the best blood and brain from nll classes of society. And we conceive one of our functions to be to save this higher education from becoming the prerogative or preserve of any special order, and to make the "yaty into it, and into all it leads to, more open and accessible to capable and promising minds frOID every social class.

These" First Grade Schools" fall into two classes, Boarding and Day Schools. Into the relati \'8 merits of these two classes of schools the Schools Enquiry Commissioners rather elaborately .entered. They thought it probable that the boarding school, _if " it be good, is the more efficient instrument of 'teaching," (.1,) That is a question very hard to discuss, and possibly-incapable of determination. For one thing', perfectly equal and explicit terms of comparison cannot. be obtained. It is much easier tv) define those necessery to a good boarding than to a good day school; for the conditions of efficiency and. success are largely contained within the, one, and lie largely outside the other. The tone and character of the home, the ruling interests and ambitions of the parents, are much more potent and constaat factors of the result in the day -than in the boarding school. Ideally the day school mny be the. more perfect system, for' the .presenee of the child is as good for the horne as the influence of the home ought to be good for the child. Each educates the other j and the patent may lose more from being without the responsibilibiea and restraints imposed by daily contact with a quick and ci:j'tical boy or a sensitive' and observant girl, than he or she loses by being withdrawn from parental supervision and ~te. Besides, a system which, as a fundamental condition of, the educational process, postulates the complete sepamtion of the sexes, is conducted without some "of the more


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refining influences which nature supplies. But ,this only shows how hard it is to create equal terms between the day and the boarding school. In the former case the master has to do his work under the direct help or hindrance of home; in the' latter case the home is more remote, and, though it is ever in the background, exercising a favourable or unfavourable influence, yet the pupil is much more completelyin the master's hands. He has, therefore, an opportunity such as seldom comes to the day-school master, though that opportunity hns drawbacks ot its OWn. The individual scholar is a greater force for good or evil in a boarding than in a day school, put then the very, function of a master, and the distinguishing quality of capacity lor his' plar,e, is ability to neutralise and overcome the evil influence of the bad; and to use and enlarge the ameliorative influence of the good. And along with this potency of the individual goes the power of the school, the action of its traditions and its history, the memories of its heroes, the pressure of its public opinion; or I its established customs and :fixed habits-in a word, the corporate reeling, or esprit de corps, which at once enforces discipline and produces characters of a specific type. On the other hand, the day school is in things educational a stronger locai force; if it -feels more easily and deeply the uil1uence of the horne, the home is in turn more susceptible to ~ts presence. It stands open to the neighbourhood, visible to its ejres~ accessible to 'its ambitions; what it can do for the competent is manifest to all, every success achieved in it and through it being a challenge to imitation or emulation. For a school to be non-local may mean that a locality hardly feels the presence of the meaning of the school, while the more a school lives in and through and .for a locality, the more it enables bhe locality to achieve. Thus the day school exercises a more direct influence on its neighbourhood, is less respective of class and more common to the whole people, and, in order to its healthy life, needs a keener and more widely distributed interest ip education. But the neighbourhood is, as a rule, very different in the two cases. The fit home of the Boarding School is the country, or the country town; but the Day School needs a population around it, and 80 has its proper seat in om greater 'cities or towns.I')

From this difference between the two classes of schools it follows, that 11. school which is so without local character and does so Iittle local service, is no proper object for the help or supervision of the local authority. Local claims and responsibilrfies must always be in proportion to the local duties performed, and where these latter are almost or altogether absent formal' eonnexion were more likely to be 11. weakness and an irritation 'to both than a pleasure or a benefit to either. On the other hand, the schools tha,t most need to be cultivated, and that the local authority can do most to help, are precisely those schools which are hy their very form and eonstitutdon compelled


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to serve their several loculities. The great non-local schools are not likely to lack support at the hands of those classes which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners so well described; but the local schools cannot live without the f,1VOUl' of their own neigh, bourhood, The Commissioners of 1864(1) said that "classical " education of the highest order is every day qui liting the small " g)'aromar schools for the great public schools," and so men can no longer find such an ecluca.tl(ln," as they could in the last " century, close ~ their doors." n may not be possible or indeed desirable to re-create the small classical Grammar School -for the revi val would under modern conditions lend rather to inefficiency than success-but our aim ought to be to restore as far as possible the reality which these old schools symbolised, viz., the accessibility to all the competent of the education, whether classical or modern, which fits for the service of God, whether in Ohurch or State. How much the Endowed Schools Commissioners have, by means of reformed and reconstituted Endowed Schools, done to restore it we shall presently, by an .example or two, indicate.P) and we trust the local authorities, which it is proposed to constitute, will, by means of a wellconceived and administered system of scholarships, as well as by stimulating local interest in education, do stillmore. And it may be well to add, that as places of the higher education, the local schools, which for this purpose must be those mainly used, need be .no whit inferior to the great boarding schools. History since 1868 has hero a moral of its own. The Girls' Public Day Schools have proved what " an efficient instrument of teaching" the dfly school may be, and we have only lo submit in further illustration of the same position, some statistics from boys' Grammar and High Schools. Thus, the Bradford School in the 10 years previous to 1871, bad sent only five boys to the universities, and gained only one scholarship; but in the 10 years previous to 1893 it sent 108 boys, took 73 scholarships, 44 first classes, 4 fellowsbips, and 10 university scholarships and prizes. And a vast proportion of these honours were taken by boys who had been at public elementary schools.

43. The "Second Grade" Schools are those whose special function, although it does noli at all exclude an ideal of culture, is the education of men with a view to some form of commercial or industrial life. The variety of means and instrument s is here of necessity much greater than in the previous class, but it may be represented as, roughly speaking, threefold : (a) Concerned with the subjects necessary to the mercantile or commercial side of trade, modern languages, geography, ethnography, arithmetic, economics, in a word, the varied studies needed for the intelligent conduct of business, whether on the exchange or in the counting house, with persons or firms at home, or with peoples and countries abroad. (b) Concerned with the sciences which underlie our industries, whether mining or textile, whether agricultural or mechanical, and are necessary


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to their progress and development. Into the list of subjects that ought to be taught in this eonuexion principles or elements and sections of almost every physical science enter, yet not in the same form and degree as if they were branches of academic culture, but only as S(I far helps to the understanding of the material with which the man will have to work. (c) Concerned with the application of these scientific ideas to specific arbs of industriee, as of chemistry to dyeing or to agriculture, or of muthernatics and mechanics to engineering, we may term schools of the type of (a) Modern, (b) Science, (0) Technical; hut though they are disbinguishable, they have necessarily much in common, and may often with ad vantage exist in combination rather than in independence. Adaptation to the locality is a main matter in schools of this kind. Each ought to reflect in its organisation the industries of the district. The modern, or the scientific and the technical subjects emphasised in Lancashire or Yorkshire will be different from those most cultivated in Norfolk or in Devonshire. But while this tendency to variation and adaptation ought to be as far as .possible encouraged, one thing should characterise all alike, the schools ought to remain schools and not become warehouses or workshops, i.e., their educational value will depend on their being much more than mere makers of human instruments for the industries. Thus the modern languages ~U'O not mere media for commercial correspondence; they have literatures that may be made almost as educative as those of Greece and Rome, The sciences are not mere catalogues of materials that may be used in trade, or abstracts of principles regulative of their economical use; they are systems Ql' symbols of great ideas that may be used to exercise the reason and :fill the imagination. The aHs and crafts are not mere methods of producing certain effects or results; they are opportunities for the cultivation of taste, the exercise of constructive skill or inventive faculty. If these schools can so teach their subjects, they will become homes of the humaner studies, the parents of a new culture in no way lower than the classical, and this they have the more need to do, as their purpose is to send 'men, not to the university, hut straight into the work of life. Schools of this 'type have a function so important, and may have a range of studies so extensive, that the leaving age may easily be forced up to the higher limit. From this point of view we can see the reason in Sir George Young's adv-ice, "to give up the distinction oE first " and second grade schools altogether, and confine ourselves " merely to the distinction of a classical and what the Germans " call a. Realschule."(l)

Schools of the kinds here meant have in our evidence three excellent representatives, the Modern in the King Edward Grammar Schools, Birmingham, the Organised Science in the Central School t1,t. Leeds, and the Technical in the Municipal School at Manchester. These are all creations of public bodies; and


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the names are. in each case fairly descriptive. The Grammar Schools are excellent repreaentabivea of. the older second grade education, ~hough on. tI. higher scale than the Commissioners of 1864 'Ventured to conceive it. The curriculum is at-once modern and literary, languages=-Labiu, French, German, and Englishcompete on favourable terms with natural science and mathematics.

What is aimed at in the Birmingham schools 'is' a "gen~ral education," terminating au flbollt 16, given at a fee of Bl. P5l1' tmmncm, but at a cost of 10l. 10s:'roL' boys and 8l. for girley, and drawing 62 'P(W ceq.t: of the, boysand over ,50 pe?' CC7],P. of the girl~ fr9+ll,.~lementar:r s~hools.(l) T~e Ol:ganised science scll~ols Me" as .tbel1: name indicates, less literary and more scientific, la~'gely, we tniy,'add, for reasons' tb~,t _c<:lnce;r:n yhe central rather than the local authority.

At Leeds the secondary course is four years, i:e., niter. Staadard VII hasbeen passed, and terminates at apout,l7,,(2) The pUl'pose of the school was defined. by its roaster as "culture al.ldtl'ai.ni,ng':: 01', as at once "educational and practical," the pra'ctical'being " to ,:fit children 1'()1' the special occupations of the district," and th,e.'edilca.tional was by means of such Iiterary.instrucbion as was now p~ssi}51e under the new rules, of the Science and ~rt Department," In this school there were 2,200, between 1,000 and" 1,~00 being ih -Stdndaa:d VII.. and above it,c-~) as against; 1;75~ jµ 1 tpe seven Ki?g Ea.rval~ Grammar S-chools .. -It had'a classical as #ell as a SCIence slde,CO) and was really a "secondary " \lclib:ol 'Cit 'the :f,il'st grade' preparing children for the uni ver':t "" siti~~/,(G) but the "clitssi'cal ec!uca.tiotrJ' aimed atwas' limited to 'sucll requiremerrts as would 'be needed lor the Victoria' or Londbn rha~~'icu]ation,"(1) and the degree it, prepared -for' Was the B.Sc. rather fhan the B.A.(A) I What was true of the Leeds School was true of "many other schools" of the same type.(O)

The Manchester Technical School is one of "the highest class."0°) It has 3,731 students, of whom.about one-sixth atcenCl the' day school, Of, the total, 1,9,70 belong to Manchester, and J, 76!L come from the surrounding di,st:cictS.(ll) The age of admission to the day school is 15,(12) and the work implies such a "prepara:;" tion as mQ.>y be got im any good secondary schoo'l,'.'(l3) tho,:g.Jl as a matter-of fact its best pupils come from" the .higher grade sc)109] 8,:' but even their time would be better spent were it given "mrui.uly to English subjects," and u9t to getting;':81, " smattering ofa gJ,'eat maary scicnces.T") It may ,be properly' described as "a specialised industrial school;" not "'an open' door" to any college, bub as it were an educational "end!ll itself."(15) It is thus less literary than the grammar school) less theoretical than the science school, and distinguished from both by its fuuctions being mainly industrial.

These very distinct types of schools may be 'reg!1l'd'ed frOID ~~fferent points of view. The Ring Edward Gl,'a:ml~ar Schools, were-the work 'Of governors who, because of their large endow-


[page 143]

ments, were enabled to realise with a cOl_pparatively free hand! their own ideal.of a second grade-education. The Leeds school was the creatiou. of a board -whiclr.couldbuild but could not maintain r out of the Tates, and had thus' to organise its studies so as 'on' the one hand to earn the necessary grants, and on the other to supplY" an education for which there was no adequate provision.' The M'anchester Technical School owes its existence to the' Manchester Corporation using powers it bas under the Technical Insbruction Acts and funds it has received under the LocalTaxation _4. 'ct. fI'he schools reflect, too, the needs of their several localibies, and are types of the sort of adaptation we may expect at the hands of local authorities, but of course with the important moclifications which we hope to see follow from the changes w.e shall later propose. We musb' here recognise that there :is.:1 .function for all these types of: schools, though their scale must be determined by local needs. In the case of the specialised science and of "the specialised ind ustrial school" it is desirable tbat the education of the one become less rigid and more liberal, and the pupils of the other be more thoroughly prepared for their work.

44. The Third Grade Schools" are those whose special :!Unction is the training of boys and girls for the higher liandicrafts, or the commerce of the shop and the town. This can best be done by continuing and enlarging the education of the elementary school, with) of course, such addition of+manuul instruction as lill:1Y be needed to educate the hand and eye of t.]).e craftsman, and at once define and illustrate thee' principles -he ,lias learned: We havi:l am example- of the ~ype required in the 'highe~t grude board achoolj") which' has been. described ~. a. school which "siml)ly puts the completion on ''-'to the- primary school course," us" a sorb .of cui de r sac."(Z) "The' pride of the higher grade school is that it has " engrafted a system. oil the system already in existence fir " eonnexion with, and in continuation of it."(8) They af'll' held to be "an absolute necessity in any efficient system' fo cr Secondary Education. Properly organised they would become ", the crown of the elementary school system." ('I) They were also described as "the connecting link with secondary " schoolsf") as having 'stepped into the province of what" the Schools' Enquiry Commissioners' would.have considered strictly Secondary Education.t'(") They were judgedvery differently by different-witnesses. Sir George Kokewich thought that" the " system worked exceedingly' well."(') The council of the Teach'eTs' Gnild "are aigainst the development-of any more than " there are' at present I' but Mr. Garrod's own opinion was that 't they ought to be maintained and developed.t'(") But one thing was admitted generally, viz.-that such schools were necessary to the completion and efficiency of our educational system. In M;anchester there are six such schools, accommodating 7,104 children, though 5/102 of these are below .the sixth: standard


[page 144]

For boys and girls w'pose education will cease at 16, in the opinion of Mr. Wyatt, these schools supply the secondary instruction best suited to their wants.(1) "The demand for " these board secondary schools" "ha.s increased year by year " in volume and intensity in the large centres of popula" tion"; and it is held that" no Govermneut would venture " to recede from the position which popular pressm'e has " required the various administrations since 1870 to assume in " this matter."(2) We may hold iC as certain, then, that these schools have risen to meet a legitimate demand, and admit of correlation and development, but not of abolition or even repression.

The Local Authority and the Public Schools

45. So far we have been concerned with the several varieties of Secondary Education and the distinct types of public schools in which it is being given. Om' next question concerns the relation of the local authority to these schools as agencies for giving this education. The question is an intricate one; for, as the schools differ in constitution and history, their relation to the local authority can hardly be made one Mel uniform. The endowed schools work, as a rule, under schemes framed for them by the Ohm'ity Commission, i.e., the central authority for Secondary Education; and tbese, of course, no local authority can at present either supersede or overrule. On the other hand, the municipal and board schools have been created by duly consbituted public bodies in the exercise of their legitimate and recognised functions; . and these bodies are at once the de facto and de jUlre governors over the schools they have created. CounciJs whose main interest.s are industrial developments may well feel that they are more competent thnn a strictly educational authority to govern technical schools; while the secondary board schools are so distinctly offsboots of the elementary system that it may be cogently argued tltat tbat system will without them Jose much of its efficiency and all its completeness. It is thought by many that here the lurgesb policy would be the simplest and most effectual, viz., a single authority for both elementary and secondary education.I") But we feel, for reasons already stated, precluded from considering this policy, and so we are shut up to the question-in what l' elation ought the local autboriby to stand to these older and newer public schools 1 Tl,is relation will be twofold: (a) to the schools as pnblic institutions, and (b) as places supplying a given kind or grade of Secondary Education. But as (b) will be general, i:e., common to all the recognised schools in the district, it is with (c) that we are at this point more particularly concerned.

Endowed Schools

46. Endowed schools, it has already been noted, are, for the most part, managed under schemes framed by the Charity


[page 145]

Commissioners, and these schemes are from time to time altered 'So as to adapt the school to new educational conditions, or to any changes in the locality. The scheme , making is thus a sort 'of 're-const,ituting authority. an agency for the creation of new efficiencies in old institutions. Now, one of the most important suggestions made to us was that the local authority should, in the words of Mr. Fearon, be empowered to make proposals to the central authority for schemes dealing with educational endowments, with certain exceptions." (1) Sir George Young would" look to the provincial boards as having an initiative" in the matter of sehemes.P) With this the Bishop of London.f") Sir William Hart-Dyke.r') Lord Davey,(") and Mr. Roby,(G) agreed. Sir Albert. Rollit, who had" special knowledge of this "subject in the case of Hull," gave it as his .experience that "local opinion is far better on the question of endowments rt either as to their transfer or their use, than any central "opinion."(1) It deserves to be noticed that our evidence here but repeats a proposal of the Schools Enquiry Commissioners. They were (C of opinion that the duty of framing schemes should ~, not rest chiefly with the Charity Commission as it has hitherto done, but with the provincial boards.Y")

And the reasons for this opinion are cogent. It would rrelieve the central authority from the excessive pressure of piecemeal scheme-making, would secure the force needed to carry 'forward work which is often hindered by local prejudice and resistance, would save the schemes from the uniformity which is inseparable from a centralised system, and introduce more flexibility and adaptation to special conditions. For the local authority would know much better than the central what are the local needs; it would, too, be less suspected, and so more able to deal broadly with endowments without provoking preJq.dice.(9) 1\11'. Fearon further pointed out how desirable it would be that the body which is to frame the scheme should be so constituted as to be capable also of administering it.(lO) Such an a-lmiuistrative supervision of endowments would include the light to see that schemes were properly carried out; (11) the power bu appoint representatives on the governing bodies; (12) and in some cases, even the direct control of the school by the local authority as governors.I") In the view of Mr. Fearon there would require to be three exceptions to this jurisdiction: (CL) the non-local schools within the area; (b) denominational schools, such as the cathedral sehools; and (0) general endowments, like Betton's Chal'ity.(H) Of course, all these witnesses recognise the need of requiring the local authority which they invested with such extensive powers to submit its schemes or its proposals for schemes to the central office. Upon the local body, with all' its special knowledge and responsibilities, would lie the onus of proposing the idea or policy of the scheme which it:, would have to realise; upon the central would be the duty of sanctioning it.(5)


[page 146]

Other Public Schools

417. There 'W:;t.'3 little or no difference of opinion as to the main outlines of the relation -to be established between the local authority and endowed schools within -its al'ea.. With regard to cltlltel?' puhlic.tschools and classes, however, the problem was. more complicated. These include bigher grade elementary schools, evening science and art schools and classes, municipal, and other technical schools, and evening continuation schools under the Education Department, The nature of the questions. raised, and of the difficulties to be overcome, is well exemplified in the case of the higher grade elementary aohools. We. have already expressed om' concurrence in the opinion 'that these schools form a pal;t of the existing supply of Secondary Education, and must be recognised as so doing in any organised system which may be established. But this being so, how are thoy to be correlated with institutions established solely :Eo!' the provision of Secondary Education t We are unable, as we have said, to accept the solution offered by the plun for a local auchority which would be a development of the existing school board, or in which the school board would be merged.I-) Theremaining suggestions are in favour either of leaving things as. they are, or of an absolute transfer of higher grade elementary schools to the local authority for Secondary Educatiou.

The first alternative is advocated by some on the ground that these schools ace the proper continuation schools for those who can only spare a year or two for education after the ordinary elementary school course, and that to require them to pass so short. a time under a new system would tend to discourage them from pr(,longing their education ~t a11.(2) Others despair. of: obtaining the transfer of these schools, but think the authority' for Secondary Education should nevertheless undertake the ~a!D-e lei ud of work and endeavour to prove that they can do' it. better.(3) This plan, by whatever argument it may be supported, appeal'S to cut at the root of any system of co-ordination of schools, It must be remembered that the elementary schools are being resorted to by an increasing n umber of those who can afford to prolong their education for more than. a year or twq; and t)1l1t; there is no-well-definedlimit to the age to which scholars may stay in the schools or to the curriculum which may be offered to them. To those who urge that the schools should be let alone, because under the present sysl em they can best do Ja particular kind of work, 'it may be'replied th~~ there ia.no gual'l1I),tee that they will confinp themselves to that, work.;Le~l.!~t .!-I1 all wou!.d theY., be Iikely, to do, so ij they ,,:eJ;e to J?~ provo+{e~ to competi> tion with, new schools established avowedly for ,the. purpose of beating~them in their own field. In such a rivah:y their connexion wibh the elementary schools, and the facb t):lat 'they can. offer education either ~tufl.lly, rue",e, q~'. u.t an . inconsidernble cost, to the parent, would give them an indubitable advantage.


[page 147]

The alternative of transferr') to the Secondary' Education Authority has much in the abstcaot to recommend it. If the ground were clear, no one would wish to have lubl~c Secondary Education controlled by two distinct local authorities, especially if the one which had the smaller interest of the two in the matter were-to be in a position to undersell the one which had the larger. But the practical difficulties, in this case also are very serious. The ground is, in many parts of the c,oul?-tl'Y, not clear. School boards have, in many great centrea of 'population, endeavoured to fill up a serious go.p :in the educational supply, and are justly proud of the success they have achieved. The schools in question. are conducted in buildings parts of which are often req uired for the work of ordinary elementary schools. Again, the schools contain varyiog proportions of scholms who would properly be classified as primary rather than secondary, and experts differ as to where the line should be drawn. One of our witnesses would meet this difficulty by transferring only those schools or parts of schools which are managed as organised sc-ience schools.t-) But this expedient woulcl leave behind a considerable amount of secondary work, and would not remove the other difficulties to which we have alluded.

There remains a third or middle course, which on the whole seems to offer' the best solution of these difficulties. In order to avoid a breach of continuity between the elementary schools and those schools to which elementary school children most naturally and easily pass in continuation of their education, arrangements might in many cases be made for allowing the practical management of higher grade elementary schools to remain in the hands of the existing authorities. _ Effectiveco-ordination and' organisation would . be secured -by placing geueral powers of supervision in the hands of the Loeal'Authoriby for Secondary Education, But it does not follow that this or anyone plan will be a;lways the best, and cases may arise in which the Central Authority may be usefully called ill to adjust any differences between the Local Auth01'ity and the, existing managers.

The Relation of Private and Propietary Schools to Educational Organisation

48. The position an'a claims of private and-proprietary schools'" is a subject which has demanded a considerable share of our attention, on account both of the difficult questions involved and of the anxiety felt by those interested in such schools lest any organisation ,0£ Secondary Education should tend to destroy them .

*The proprietnry schools.here referred to nrc those conducted by n compnny of shareholders, und lliminl? nt paying interest 011 the share capital, Those p~oprietary schools which, like the Liverpool Institute, nrc conducted in buildings dedicated to n public use, are more like endowed schools.


[page 148]

A large proportion of the Secondary Education in the country, especially that of girls, is given in private schools. There are private schools of every graile, and giving education of almost every kind and at almost every variety of fee. There are private schools, too, of every degree of merit, from those which, conducted in excellent buildings by an excellent staff, are in the van of educational progress, to those which, carried on in ill-ventilated rooms by ignorant persons with no qualifications as teachers, represent the lowest depthof educational stagnation from which we have during the past 30 years been emerging. There is, however, a good deal of evidence that private schools have improved since 1869; (1) that there are more of the better schools and fewer of the bad ones than formerly; and this is still more conspicuously the Ct'LSe if we' include proprietary with private schools. There is an almost universal agreement among our witnesses that it would be a misfortune if good private and proprietary schools were to cease to exist,(2) that they are doing much good work, that tbeyfill a place which cannot be altogether taken by public schools, and that they ought therefore to be reckoned as part of the educational supply of the country.

In one sense, they must inevitably be so reckoned, for, as is shown by the experience of other countries,(B) private schools would certainly continue to exist and flourish to meet the demands of certain parents, even if public scnools were free. But it is something more than a mere recognition of their existence tha~ the proprietors of private schools, or many of them, desire. All seek to have some protection against competition from schools aided by pu:blic funds, and those of the better type desire protection against incompetent rivals. With these objects in view, many witnesses inform us that they would be quite ready to submit their school to inspection, both as respects sanitary conditions and educational efficiency, and indeed would welcome such inspection" if it led to public recognition of their satisfactory condition.r')

49. Partly to carry out this object, many witnesses dwelt on the importance of instituting a register of schools-public as well as private-besides the register of teachers (see p. 192), believing that the publication of such a document would guide the parents, stimulate the teachers, and provide for the recognition and reward. of efficiency. e) It was suggested that, for admission to the register, schools should be required to satisfy the sanitary authorities, the local inspectol' of schools, and the

*Examination of the school by an examiner appointed by a Public Authority, as distinguished from inspeotion-c-mcauing by inspection, hearing the teaching, seeing the , work and Doting the orgnnlsation and methods of the school, as well as inspection of the building and nppnratus=- WIIS objected to by witnesses speaking OD behalf 11 of private schools. Mr. Brown, !l30!}; mcmorundu from ]\.1]88 Anderton, and Mr. Stewart, VoJ. V. On the other hand, Mr. Fitcll considered that examination is more likely to be just and impartial thnn inspection, and that "it certainly interfered " less with the independence, originality and personal enthusiasm of the teachers." See Vol. V., p. 43'1.


[page 149]

University Board of Examiners.I") The Headmasters Association thought tbat registration of schools should have regard to buildings, equipment, and sanitary condition, and to the educational efficiency of the staff. i They would make such registration ultimately compulsory, but at first optional, in .the meantime forbidding any unregistered school to receive public aid or to enjoy public recognition. The Teachers' Guild and the Headmasters' Conference thought that the conditions of registration should be fixed by the. Central Authority. Miss Buss proposed tbat there should be both a local and a central register of schools, but that the actual grant of a place on the regir;ter should be made by the Central Authority. Another teacher whom we consultedf") preferred that the schools should be placed on the register by the Local Authority, but would allow them a right of appeal to the Central. A third witness would apparently leave the whole matter to the discretion of the Local Authority alone.t")

It is clear, however, that for practical reasons, the Local Authority must in any case make a list of the secondary schools within its area. Such information will be indispensable to it in determining questions of the supply and correlation of schools. And the list once formed, it would be convenient to keep it up to date. Such a list, might, in many respects, answer the pUl'pose of a register, while avoiding certain objections to the publication of a register. One such objection is that a register would necessarily draw"a sharp line between registered and unregistered schools, while there is 110 sharp line, in fact, between schools which may just be reckoned efficient and schools which may not. Schools just good enough to be included in a register wonld be apt, as registered schools, to claim a degree of superiority which they did not possess.

50. AJ3 to the general conditions, to be complied with by a private or proprietary schoolseeking recognition as contributing to the supply of efficient education, there was little important difference of opinion among witnesses. All agreed that the schools must be inspected. Some thought that this should be done annually. Professor Laurie, speaking however of secondary schools in general, prefers a triennial inspeetion.f") The inspector, in Professor Laurie's words, "will report on " the buildings, sanitation, aud apparatus; on the curriculum, " the staff', the resources 0£ the school, the payment of the " masters, the general character, organisation and aims of the " school and the success with which these were carried u out.t'(")

51. We found, however, much less agreement as to the privileges which recognition is to confer. An extreme view was here taken by witnesses representing the Private Schools' Associe.tion, who were anxious that public authoi-itiea should be precluded from giving any pecuniary support whatever to public secondary


[page 150]

schools which they did not give to efficient private .ones, as such aid would enable the public schools to compete unfairly, as the witnesses considered, with private schools." On this gl',:mnd they objected either to giving' educatiou under cost price, or to the giving of buildings or of any grants in aid.P) Tills view was also taken by witnesses on behalf of' the Council of the College of Preceptoraj'") a body closely connected with private schools; and objection to aid from rates being given to public schools to the exclusion of private ones was expressed by other witnesses connected witl: 'private schools.r") 'But this view received no support from any other class of witnesses, and, even by those who advocated it, was hardly felt to be tenable as regards sparsely populated districts where there would be a difficulty in establishing schools large enough to be selfsupporting except at fees too large for the pupils to pay.('~);

It is easy to understand the desire of the private schoolmasters not to be competed with, and ib no doubt adds a special aggravation to the idea of such competition tbat the funds for it would partly come out of the pocket of the agglieved rival. But it would clearly be im possible to restrict the d:J;eedom of action of the local authority in the rnnnner proposed, -nor would it be right to make Ihe interests of private schoolmasters a first consideration in the organisation of education for the public good. We think, however, that the more. moderate suggestions of .other witnesses are in better accord -wibh the public ,interest, and that, to q note the words of Mr. Eve,(")'" new' po b1ic schools (C should be founded only to supply distinct deficiencies." Where it can be shown that private or proprietary schools sufficiently provide for any educntional peed of a district, the Local Authority should 110t compete with, them j nor do we think that the Local Authority with the limited fund'S at its disposal will be under any temptation to do so. '1'0 prevent any feeling of. injustice, an appeal to bhe Central Authority might be allowed to any school which thought it could show that the Local Authority had unfairly refused to recognise it.

There will be cases where, with the utmost goodwill towards pri\'ate schools, it may app~ar to the Local Authority practically impossible to supply satisfactorily the education of a. district without injuring a private school, which yet may efficiently supply part of' that; education. In such CMOS 'it is suggested that private schools Should be taken oyer "hy the Local AuLhority,(G) and it is believed that the owners of the schools concerned would often not object to this,C) and in some cases might even; be glad thus to secure a greater degree of permanence for their schools. Mr. Stone, Chairman of the Gids'

*on the. other hand, we may mention a memorial I'.eceiv~d from 1 i mistresses of private schools, who, while believing that, privntc schools can do good work lind anxious to secure the l'eco"llition of this fuct cby those.who win have the rosponsibilityof rcorgnnising BnglisT, ll1c1uclttion, empburically n'epudiate Imy rolnim to consideration on nccount of vested interests, IHHl wish .the.P9~itionlo~ Ipnillute scllQQJs . to-be considered solely from the point of view of public utility. (See Vol. p.501.)


[page 151]

Public Day Schools Company, suggested a sort of semi-taking -over. According to his plan, the, Local Authority would have power' 'to enter 'into an agreement with. the Company for the 52. There arb two privileges which a large proportion of Our witneeses were in- favour of conceding to private and proprietary schools l:ecognised as providing efficient, Secondary Education; namelyj' (1) that scholarshipe founded 0.U.t of public funds should ibe tenable at bhese schools '; and (2) that thei-r pupils should be allowed'to compete for all scholarships from public money that are not restricted to primary schools, or, to special schools. From the side of the schools this was urged by Mr. Brown and Miss Olney(2) on behalf of the Private Schools' Association; Mr. Stone and Miss Gurney on behalf of the Girls' Public Day Schools Company;(3) Mr. Hodgson and Mi'. Pinches, rep'resenting the College of Preceptors;('1) Mr. Storr and Mr. Garrod, speaking Tor the Teachers' Guild.(5) From the side of the county councils it was-urged by Mr. Brigg and Mr. Dixo~(G) for the West Riding Oounty Council, though with a feservation; and by 1\11'. Webb and Dr, Garnebt,C) who, speaking for the London County Council, say tht~t it is absolutely necessary that it. should be allowed. Mr. Lee 'liT amer says the same ,~hing as I regards the Norfolk Oounty Councilj") and Mr. Headlam, one of our assistaef commissioners, lli'ges it in the interests of the county of SUlTey.(9) Mr. Snape, Ohairruan of the Technical Instruction Committee of the County Council of Lancashire, also approve.'l of scholar*ips being held ~~ suitable private schools.r") as does Mr. Bothamley, secretary .of the Somersetshire Technical Instruction Oommittee.(1) Indeed, so great is the inconvenience of restd?tion i~ ~his respect, especially ~ the ca.'3e?f girls, for whom the Pl'OV1SlOn of endowed schools 1S comparatively small, that some county councils have actually allowed their scholars to attend private and proprietary schools, notwithstanding thllit the interpretation of the Technical Instruction Acts is usually adverse to this. A1l10ng the persons interested in education, but not 'direebly concerned either with private schools or with county councils, who have advocated the same thing, we may name the Bishop ofLondonj-") Dr. Percival (now Bishop of HeL'efol'd),(l3) Sir George y oung,(l'~) Mr. Shal'pe,(l5) Dr. Scott,(lG) 1\1:1', Bance.(l7) On the other hand, two of- our witnesses objected to public scholarships being held at private schools: Sir Bernhard Samuelson on the grounrl that it is not (C desirable to aid private (( adventures by public money,"eS) and Mr. Fea-rone!!) on account of the frequently ephemeral nature of l)rivate schools, which might be. efficient one year and, owing to the death of the master, either have disappeared or become inefficient another. This last objection does not apply to the case of proprietary schools like 'those of the Girls' Public Day School Oompany, aud is.wo think, of little weight in the case of any private schools,


[page 152]

of whose continued efficiency the Local Authority satisfies itself at suitable intervals; 1lJ1d we may observe that uninterrupted, efficiency cannot be guaranteed even in the case of publicly managed schools. With reference to Sir Bernhard Samuelson's objection, it may be pointed out tha,t a scholarship enabling a pupil to pay his school fees is directly a payment to the scholar and only very indirectly a payment to the school.

53. Before olosing the discussion of this part of the evidence, we must note that, in saying th;,tt; good private schools desired recognition, and would not; object to inspection, most of our witnesses meant recognibion and inspection by the Central, and not by the Local, Autbority,C) and that considerable fear was expressed of interference by the Local Authority. This preference for a Central Authority depended to some extent On the belief that inspectors of greater educational experience could thus be secured, and that the educational point of view of teachers would be better understood by a, Central than by a. Local Authority; but there was also a fear that the Local Authority l1Iight be influenced by personal considerations and local prejudices. The inspector must not be "in any way liable to " the feelings of the district," was the way the sentiment was expressed by one witness. The giving of this function to. the Central Authority would, however, in our opinion, introduce all the evils of centralisation, and the danger of a I'igid and uniform system applied to all districts, which we are especially anxious to avoid; and since, according to our scheme, it is. the Local Authority which must decide what kind of schools, their district requires, it is tha,t; authority which in tlie first instance muat judge whether any private school supplies. education of the required kiud. The utmost that it seems desirable to concede in the direction of interference by the Central Authority is that private and proprietary schools should, as we have already said, have n. rjght of appeal to it against non-recognition, In case of such appeal, the Local Authority would have to convince the Central that its action in the matter had not been arbitrary or unfair, which would afford a substantial gunl'i1ntee to the private schools that they would not be ignored without due consideration. We may add that; we think the alarm telt by the private schoolmasters and mistresses about the intervention of the Local Authority in their affairs is sometimes due to a misconception as to the functions of that authority and the area with which it will have to deal." Petty or personal considerations which might possibly affect 11 small local committee, could hardly influence a body which has to supervise the Secondary Education of a whole county or county borough .

*Thus we fini! one schoolmistress unxions lest the friendships or Inucies 01 members of the Local Authority should lend to the particular tradesmen she en-ploys, or the dress of bel' assistant mistresses, being matters which might influence the nctions of the Local Authority, ns had, she thought, been the case with a local eorumitteo she had worked under. \\fr. Gerrans, VI., p. 38.


[page 153]

Many of our witnesses(l)-owners of private schools and others -were of opinion that sanitary inspection should be extended to all schools, whether claiming to be recognised or wishing to remain entirely independent and unconnected with the educa- i tional organisation. They t.hought that it should be the duty of : the educabioual authority to ascertain that the conditions as to 1 ventilation and drains in any building used as a school should i be such as not to be injurious to the health of the pupils. Abuses in this respect are certainly liable to occur, so that such inspection seems desirable, though it should be conducted under conditions as little vexatious and onerous as possible.

Secondary Education in Rrural Districts

54. The supply and organisation of Secondary Education in the country present special problems widely differing from those which call tor solution in the towns. There is Iess belief in the value of education, unfortunately coupled with the need for a greater effort, to obtain it.

The secondary schools in the country, being generally small in numbers, require for an equally good education a greater expenditure pel' scholar than the larger schools in towns, while it is much harder to find the money.

Various causes have deprived many ancient gl'ammn.l' schools of the support of the gentry and the larger farmers, with the result that these schools have sunk in too many instances to the level of elementary schools, while the smallness of the local area for the administration of the Elementary Education Acts has made it impossible in rural districts even to approach the results in the direction of higher education which have been achieved under those Acts in the towns. The Charity Commissioners, and more recently the Education Department by means of evening continuation schools, and the county councils by means of grants under the Technical Instruction Acts, have made serious efforts to overcome these difficulties and defects, but much st-ill remains to be done.

55. We had no lack of suggestions from our witnesses. Some would trust partly to bursaries or travelling scholarships to bring rural children to secondary schools in more populous centres,(2) partly to a system of travelling teachers to give lessons in special subjects at selected rural centres./") One dwelt on the importance of bringing the country grammar schools more into touch with modern requirements, and suggested that in mnny cases they might with advantage be converted into 11igher grade elementary schools.r') The same witness also suggested that rural parishes might group themselves together and eontribute from the rates to the rnaintenanee of a joint secondury school.t") The plan of having upper departments attached to elementary schools was advocated by several witnesses.I") and reference was not infrequently made to


[page 154]

the encouragement given to the teaching of higher subjects in the parish schools of oertain counties -in Sbotland by means of the endowment known as the Dick Bequest.(1)

56. The establishment of an upper department attached "to an ordinary elementary school, and designed to fulfil tIle functions of EL continuation school for children in the elementary' schools, and of a third grade school for the children of farmers and others, bas been frequently resorted to by the Chal'ity Commissioners as a means of using small endowments to provide Secondary Education in rural districts. Tbey are, however, much dissatisfied with the results of the experiment, and, indeed, regard it as a" complete failure."(2) But it is not difficult to see that the conditions under which they have been forced to make the experiment have been anything but favourable. It is commonly made with a small endowment, enjoyed by custom or right by the inhabitants of a sing~e, palish, Blnnt up to the date oil the scheme applied to maintain an ordinary elemental}' school. Money taken from that object Tenders I it difficult or impossible to maintain the elementary school without an appeal to the l)arishioners Ior subscriptions. The chances are thut no one is much interested in the 'upper/ department, or particularly anxious to see tbat it gets its fail' share of support. from the funds, the govomors, or the schoolmaster. The governing body represents a very limited area, and, unless there bappens- to be some institution for higher education ill. the neighbourhood, may contain not a single mem bel' with experience in the field of Secondary Education, and have no system of inspection to which to look for criticism, advice, or encouragemert, It must be remembered, too, that the experiment has to be tried nob in a place carefully selected for its' suitability, but in the particular village or bamlet where the foundation happens to be. Finally, to all these drawback: has to be added the inadequate supply of' teachers who are competent to give some higher instruction, and at the same time willing and qualified to conduct an elementary school in the country.

This last difficulty apart, all effective 10caJ. organisation of Secondary Education would entirely alter the conditions. Local authorities would be interested dn the success o:P£I1e' experiment, would select the best ground. for its trial, supply adequate funds for its execution, and, through their inspectors, bring- educational knowledge and experience to'tl3st and promote its success.

57. The administration of the Dick Bequest in the counties of Aberdeen, Moray, and Banff deserves attention here, rather because it is directed to a similar end than. on account of thespecial applicability to English conditions of the methods adopted, though some valmLble hints may be gathercd from these also. 'For 'instance, the fund is administered by a body surveying a wide area, thoroughly competent to deal with questions of secondary and lrigher education, and testing the


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result of its operations by a regular system of inspection. Again, it is a condition of the gl'ant tho,t the headmaster should. be set free-to devote himself to the higher instruction, and that the staff should be. adequate to deal with the elementary work without him. The plan adopted differs from that of the upper department 'chiefly in the circumstance that instead of '0, formal provision for a separate branch or department of the school, grants are given, either to the master himself or to the school board, in such a way as to secure that any child who requires it shall be able to obtain efficient instruction iu highersubjects. The important point, however, is the difference of the eonditions under which the plan is worked from those which prevail in England. In the first place, the parochial schools of Scotland have always, to some extent, combined secondary with elementary instruction. Secondly, it is found possible to insist' that no grant shall be made from the Dick Bequest to a master who is not a uni versity graduate. It is the impossibility of insisting on such a condition at this moment which constitutes the Chief obstacle to the application of the principles of the Dick Bequest in England.t") But unless this obstacle can be removed there is hardly more to be hoped from the plan of upper depaabments. And the outlook in this respect is, fortuately, encouraging. The increased supply of university institutions, the tendency to bring the training colleges for teachersintp connexion with them, the aspirations of the teachers bhemselves, the gradual removal of the barriers between elementary and secondary scliools, must rapidly produce a number of teachers of the requisite standard, whether possessing a University degree 0[' not, who will be glad to enter upon a new field, in which, to quote Dr. Percival's words, " Many a good school" master would make quite as good an income as a parish " clergyman, and be in as good A. position, and would be bringing S01,l1e of the best possible influences to bear upon all classes of children." (2) .

VI Supply and Management of Schools

58. When the most has been made of existing institutions public, proprietary, and private, there will still, DO doubt, be many cases in which it wiJl be the duty of the Local Authority to exorcise the power we think it should have to make new provision for Secondary Education, and here we are met by the question on what principle the need for such provision is to be determined. From time to time various estimates mol'e: or less speculative have been made of the number of children pel' 1,000 of the population who are, or ought to be, in secondary sehoola

The Schools Enquiry Commission took great pains to make such an estimate. Theil' conclusion was based on the income and occupations of parents. It was assumed that parents in certain


[page 156]

occupations, or in receipt of a certain income, gave, or ought to give, a secondary education to their children, and an estimate was accordingly made of the number of such children. The conclusion arrived at was that there were 12'28 boys pel' 1,000 of the population requiring a aeeondary education and that the average limits of age of these boys, balancing those who left the school before 15 against those who stayed at school longer, were 8 ancl15.

In the secondary education required were included of course the preparatory stages between the ages of 8 and 12, which, it was assumed by the Commissioners, should be gi\'7en in special preparatory schools or preparatory divisions of schools, except, that they thought a few of the boys ta.ku)g a third grade education might take the preparatory stages of it in national sch 0018 (see Report, p. 90), though this does not seem to have been allowed for in their estimate of secondary school places required.

This estimate has been the basis of most of the calculation made since, but, however satisfactory it may have been a.t the time it was made, it. cannot be expected to agree with the facts as they stand now, for three reasons:

First, a considerable proportion of the children included in that estimate now appear to receive the education they require entirely in public elementary schools, which have of course improved und enlarged tLeir scope in the last 30 years. Seconclly, even of those children who continue their education after the elementary school age many-in some districts a very large proportion-begin it in elementary schools, and not in preparatory secondary schools. Thirdly, there is no reason to suppose that the distribution of incomes, on which the estimate of the Schools Enquiry Commission was based, is now the same as it was thirty years ago.

59. It would have been an advantage if it had been possible to frame an estimate more in accordance with the present facts, so as to afford useful guidance to the new local authorities. But after the most careful consideration, we have been forced to the conelusion that the problem contains so many indeterminate elements that any attempt at a solution applicable to the whole coun:try would be necessarily misleading. The demand for seconda-ry education in any district will vary not only with the character and wealth of the population, but with the grade and quality of the education offered, and the price at which it is provided. Under these circumstances the only practicable course appears to be for each local authority, instead of relying on any general forecast, to endeavour to Jetermine for itself the amount of secondary., school accommodation required of the type and at the price which it may deem suited to the circumstances of its district. The first step in such an enq uiry would be to ascertain the actual number of children in secondary schools for every district in its area, It would then be comparatively easy to


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select the localities in which more secondary school accommodation was required, and to decide how far these deficiencies could be supplied by enlarging and improving schools already in existence, or by adding' to them new departments. It would be only where these expedients were inadequate or unsuitable that. the local authority would proceed to set up new schools, giving the type of instruction required, and charging' such fees as the parents would be prepared to pay.

60. The first of these steps, i.e., an enquiry into the actual number of children in secondary schools, has been already taken by the London Technical Education Board, and the result will be found in the Appendix.I-) Every school was asked to furnish for ages under 13, between 13 and 16, and over 16, the number' of pupils coming to it from eacb parliamentary borough separately. The collected results show, therefore, for each borough the num her of pupils attending the schools and their distribution am.ong the schools. Thus gaps and local inconveniences in the school supply are easily detected, and the present demand for Secondary Education in each district made clear. It could not of course be expected that a first eng uiry would bring in statistics from all the private schools over so vast an area, These will come in no doubt by degrees, and meanwhile the facts must be taken as lying within the mark.

In a districb like London we might expect to find great inequality. The high-water mark is reached by Lewisham, where there are 9'45 boys pel' thousand of the population and J 0'08 girls, making the large total of 19'53. At the other extreme stands Shoreditch, with '65 boys and '58 girls, making only 1'23 in all. The fall from ODe extreme to the other is gradual and steady, the mean number being 3'4 per 1,000 of the population for boys and 2'8 for girls, making 6'2 for both. Islington may be taken as fairly representative of this mean, with 3'2 for boys and 3 tor: girls. A memorandum printed in an Appendix to this Report(2) gives particulars with regard to the number of children receiving secondary. education in n. few provincial districts selected as having apparently an adequate supply of secondary schools. This memorandum may be of use to local authorities in other districts in making their own enquiries,

61. The supervision of public secondary schools, which such a Local Authority as is contemplated would exercise, conld hardly be extended generally to thl( details of administration which form a large part of the duties of the governing body of l1 school. It is no doubt ad visa ble that the Local Authorit'y, 3.'3 has been suggested to us,(1) should be capable of per£o::ming all the functions of a governing body; in many boroughs, and even in the sm~llel' counties, there would be advantage in their doing so. But ill the larger areas such a course would overburden them and interfere with their more imporbant functions. On


[page 158]

this ground; and from ardeaire to preserve continuiby as Inl' as possible in the rnacagement of schools,' most of those' who addressed us on the subject were in favour of governing bodies, independent, within thei» own sphere, of the ]Local A'tlbhe'rity.(1) Afro. rule, no doubt. these would, in the case of endowed schools, continue to be constituted sepauately for each school, bub-where bhere are a considerable number of schools fairly close oto one another, a suggesfion made to us, with regard to London, for placing groups of schools under a single governing body well deserves considerabion.P) As to the constitution of governing bodies of ordinary secondary schools, it appeared to be generally agreed that they should include' persons appointed by 'the Local Authority for Secondary Eclucation, by representative local bodies in the neighbourhood of the school, and also some dii.ltioctly educabionnl element.(3)

In county boroughs an adequate representation of the municipal council and of the school board on the local authority would keep these bodies wen ill touch with each nther, and arrangements for leaving the internal management of' existing public schools and classes, other than endowed schools, in the hands of those who now admi nister them should present no special difficulties. Ttt town and country the representation of the authority under the Technical Instruction Acts on the managing bodies of institutions which receive aid from it has worked well, and will have prepared the way for a more general application of the principle.

We have already observed (see IPal't II., par. 84) -tbat the infO]tmation collected and facts examined by our Assistant Oommissioners go to show that difficulties are not found in practice to acise /;IS regards the giving of religious instruction in secondary schools, and the presence in the same schools of pupils belonging to different religious denominations. The same absence of friction is t_l'sti:6.ed to in the evidence which has been given. Vel'Y few of the witnesses have advertee1 to the subject. One has complained of the law as it stands,(4) but he directed (his strictures to certain provisions of the Endowed Schools Acts into a cnibicism of which it seems unnecessary for the purposes of this Report th:)..t.. we should enter. Two witnesses of gt'eat weight, the Bishops of London (5) and Hereford.I") indicated their belief that, under the existing arrangements, the rights of parents were, in. fact, respected, and general good feeling prevailed'; and iDI'. Percival, now Bishop of Hereford, in particular, referring. to' 'his long experience as headmaster, first, of Clifton College, and then of Rugby School, remarked:

"I have never felt hampered at all" (:'i,e ill Jg.ivi.ug_ religiousinstruction), "and I should be sorry to see Itbny system' adopted which would tend to interfere with the -tendeney It0 what I ~ .have called Christian harmony, -whiolr "has grown~ up so " appreciably within the last 25 years, betweem the members of


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di1J-el'en-n denominations, I feel that nothing tends more to tr Christian life than that the boys should grow up to manhood " living together, and, as far as possible, under common Biblical teaching; supplemented as, much 'as ma,y, be ail home.: or in " churches, but feeling that they are members of a common Christian body."

It is with satisfaction' that we record these facts, and find that they relieve us from the necessity of entering further upon a topic which has often given rise to acute controversy.

Some important points concerning the internal administration of schools are reserved for treatment in subsequeut sections dealing with finance and with the position of teachers .

Co-education in Schools

61. We may also notice here such in£or~atio~ as we have been able to collect on the subject of the teaching of boys and girls in the same school. From au economical point of view the subject has a most important bearing on the question how to provide secondary instruction in rural districts, and is one of the topics to which we specially directed the attention of our Lady Assistant Commissioners,

62. Mixed schools for boys and girls, as is weU known, are common in .the United Stutes of America and in .patts of Canada, girls and boys of all ages being frequently taught together, and it seems to be generally thought that the plan works well.t ') In Scotland the boys and girls have long been taught together; and witb success in many schools.

In England, the principal mixed schools are public elementary schools, higher grade schools which have developed out o£ these, and some pupil teachers' schools, The hiO'her grade elementary schools are still young, but so far the mix.ed system in them seems to have worked well. Some of them, e.g" the central board school at Leeds and the central school at Manchester, are dual schools rather than simply mixed schools, i.e., the boys and girls have separate departments, but under a common staff, and meet in class for certain subjects,

Among other schools in England, the mixed schools which exist are mostly private schools. There are, however, a few endowed grammar schools in the north.(Z) In a school of this kind rut Upholland there are 40 children, of whom 16 are girls, and their ages vary from about 11 to about 1 '7. C('he association of girls and boys is carried so far that they play together, which is unusual, but with proper supervision no diffioulties seem to arise, and the headmaster appears to think the mixture altogether an advantage. There are, apparently, a good many private second grade schools of a similar type to this scattered about the towns in Lancashire.I'') An account of a successful private


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school near London, in which boys and girls were taught s together through the whole of their school life, has been specially snbmitted to us.e)

Preparatory schools for boys and girls together are perhaps more common. We have evidence respecting two-one in Manchester, a rather expensive and very successful private day school of 70 children, half boys and half git'ls, who stay at the school till twelve years of age, and could do so till fourteen; (2) and one neal' London.t")

63. 'With reg;u:d to the advantages and disadvantages of mixed schools, those W)lO have had experience of them seem almost always to have found the advantage considerable and the drawbacks unimportaut.r') while che objections to them appear' to be mainly theoretical, and felt by those who have no practical acquaintance with such schools. 'I'bus, the headmaster of the Upholland Grammar School objected, we are told, to receiving girls when he first was appointed to the school, but consented to tl'y the experiment at the wish of the parents, and is now quite converted to the mixed classes. His children remain at school till about seventeen, The general rule that doubt as to the success of mixed schools is felt by those only who have not had experience of them, applies also as regards their advisability for particular classes and ages. Thus, M.r. Lloyd-J ones,(") whose experience on the subject was gathered in a large elementury school, speaks strongly of the advantage of mixture there, but will not advocate the adoption of the system in private secondary schools, where the pupils are older and drawn from a different class of society. Miss Anderton, on the other hand, whose experience was gained in precisely such a private secondary school, doubts" whether the system would be successful where the " class of children is not high."(G) Miss Herford, again, whose own (mixed) school is limited to the age of fourteen, claims up to that age advantages for the mixed system, both for intellect and character, but does not, Mrs. Kitchener tells us,(,) advocate mixed schools for older boys and girls, at any l'u.te at present.

There is one alleged drawback to mixed schools which should be mentioned, though it does not seem essential to the system, namely, the loss to girJs from not having the influence of a headmistresaf") The principals of mixed schools, except preparatory secondary schools, are generally men; but there seems to be no reason why a woman who has the necessary capacity, knowl edge, and organising power should not be regarded as eqnally eligible (or the position;(0) and when a man is at the head it should not be difficult to arrange-as often is arranged in higher grade elementary schools, and always, of course, in dual schools-that there should be a woman on the staff who should in many respects take the place of a headmistress for the girl~. On the other side of the same question we may remark that in America it is thought advantageous, quite apart from the teaching of ~jrls and boys together, that men should have 11 share in the teaching of gil-Is, and women in the teaching of boYS.(lO)


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Examination of Scholars and Inspection of Schools

64. Since the report of the Schools Enquiry Commission much 11M beeu done, and chiefly by the co-operation of the universities with the schools, to solve in part the problems which arise under .this head, and to indicate the direction in w hich it is desirable to proceed for the development of 11 solution sufficiently com.plete, That ih should not be so complete I1S to hake the lead out of the hands of the teacher with reference to particulars of .ourriculum and methods of teaching, was an essential condition in the minds of most of our witnesses. e) No one advocated, anything like a code, and the plea for the schoolmaster's liberty: to invent and discover was in the mouths of many. "The first ." thing to secure is, that there should be It public guarantee of " officiency; and the second, that there shoul. 1 be the largest cc possible liberty both to teachers in regard to their methods " and plans, and to governing bodies in regard to the educational ~( aim and scope of the various schools.'{")

One test of efficiency is the soundness of the scholar's ntbninments, more especially in the fiual school stage; and a eertiflcate attesting this has a value for the individual scholar which makes such a test otherwise desirable. Success in a final examination, it should be noted, is 11 test of school efficiency that parents individually understand. Some other test, either by inspection or examination, is genera1Jy admitted to be also necessary to ensure that the work of the school is sound throughout, and .that the results in final examinations are not gained by concentration of attention on the senior forms, with over-pressure in .them as a probable consequence. The subject, therefore, fnlh; into two divisions.

Leaving Examination of Scholars

65. We had much evidence to show that the examinations already provided by lhe universities and the College of Preceptors go far to serve this purpose sfl.tisfactorily.ca) The Oxford and Cambridge schools examination and the London University matriculation were instanced by Mr. Eve as l:Iupplying two contrasted types of such a test suitable for the scholars of firsb grade schools; between these two types schools are free to choose.r') There is 111so much demand for the certificates of the Oxford and Cambridge local examinations, with their wellmarked distinction or pass and honours, amounting, as one witness pointed out, to a useful distinction of leaving certificates at an upper from those at a lower level of attainment.(5) The examinations of the College 'of Preceptors are also largely used for a similar purpose, especially by second grade schools.

A considerable body of experienced opinion was in favour of retaining these examinations. Their multiplicity was said to be


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an educational advantage, since each school selected the examinationeuited to its ideals.t") and no school needponsider mere t,ha:n one, unless it required different examinations for scholars of diilerenb types. But the desirabiliby of systematic classiflcabion and modificabion, so as to make the system fair~y simple though f~r from uniform, was generally admitted .. It was said than the requirements of the varioue entrance examinations ~\:'ading into toe professions higher and lower, are It source: of disturbance in some 50ho018,(2) and that a system of leayi'qg certificates. simple enough to be easily understood, and definitely t. 66. Other views were, however, advanced in favour' of the establishment of u uniform system of le,tving examinations by the Central Educational Authority, or by a single university board on which all the universities should be represented, and, according to some, the secondary schools also.r') The headmistresses. were ol opinion that the existing uui varsity examinations should still conti nue, side by. side with this new and more important one which m~~ny of them wouldlike to see instituted, It was not to be, however, a single examination, but one which offered much variety of choice-many alternatives as regards: the subjects to be taken.(6) Mr. StOlT expressly recommended that it should be conducted on the German plan, those teachers who sit on the examination board tfLking part in it with the inspector.r") This plan provides against the danger of dead uniformity in written examinations conducted over a considerable area, find makes the course or examination follow that of teaching in the schools. On the other hand, unlesa an open outside exarniuat ion be also provided, the scholarsof .veiy, ~man schools and private students would be lett out, and it is not desirable to require that all children should either' attend ~chool or be debarred from the privilege of gaining a certificate,

It should be noticed that the advocates of a single examination board, offering variety in alternative groups of five 0,1' six subjects, did not appear to have realised that the deepest difference of educational opinion in this matter is the difference between those who believe that the final school examination should be wide, including subjects representative of all branches of school study, and those who hold that it should be more specialised. Until the truth is decided between these two, it would seem necessaliy!<;


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lend an ear to both, and provide for examinations suitable to each ideal. Agreement may some da"y be found, pOS.':lilb1Y'by. thc division of the wider examination into t~wo or even more lJaLts, to be taken with. a considerable interval" of bima between. Meanwhile tberuniversibies do provide for both idealsii .

.We had interesting' evidence from Scobland as .to the-working of the new lea."ring certiflcate system there.e) 'llhis is condueted by the State, and the utmost liberty is allowed both as.;1regarcls' the subjects taken and the number oir blrem. A. oerbiflcate- is , granted for each subject separately. One ofour witnesses stated his objection to this, as discouraging nealisation of the viewi bhat scl.ool education auns at some ideal of general. culbune, not, at knowledge of a few 'su bjects here and there.

Inspection and Examination of Schools

67. An important distinction was made with gl'~at clearness' by Mi'. Fearon(3) as between" official and educational' inspection.' The Jatter dot's not, however, necessarily include lany .examination:,~) " He (i.e., the educational inspector) perhaps might wait; " two hours in a school and never open.his lips; but looking' at " the time table and seeing this .go on, he formed a very good " idea of how things were conducted. He saw the discipline es:" haustively; he saw the an-angement of time; he saw whethe» (( "obey lost any time in moving classes and-the-rest of it. He " saw the' control and the moral relation between the teachers andehe scholars; and he saw whether the teacher -kept; his " place and, g(JVerned the scholars by his .moral force, and-nove» " went near them 01.' touched them; and he saw the inferior; " teacher who went from ODe end qf the class ,to the other and " fidgsbted about. He saw the whole school except one 'thing " - "Vbat is the result 'or ttl] this upon the know ledge acquired by the scholar? '.rhat is examination. The other u thing I call educational inspection." '1 Fromthis, agai.n,;is, distioguisbed " official" inspection. " Roughly it consists -in seeing (I the buildings, the premises, conferring with the teachers, " noting whether the scheme or regulatidns of the scheme are " duly carried out, and taking note :.J:t any suggestions tnade " for amendment or improvement:' This distinction is useful as clearly suggesting the very wide limits betjW~en which the range of the inspector's enquiry may vary. FoI' the pi'a6ti~1 purposes which we have. to consider, a sharp line1o£ demarcation need not be drawn as between two tyr~~. of in!lHection qiffel'iiig iiO kind. We have rather to treat all inspection IlS more 91' lefis educational, making, however, a distinction in q.egree between complete systematic detailed inspection and ,the-"iD;specLioll of lL more geneml, but by no means merely If official,," type to be presently described in our recommendations. - . "r -

68. Our wibnesses (5) appeared. to be f01': the most paI;t agreed tha'b all-public schools should be opento Ithe periodical inspection


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or some public authority, at least, in this Iatter, more limited sense. 1'0 these must be added all schools forming part of the recognised school supply. More especially, the proposal for sanitary inspection as part of this inspection WI1S recei ved with a chorus of consent.(1) General inspection, of the kind proposed, does not, it is obvious, presuppose that the inspector is a critic of the schoolmaster's art, more highly skilled in knowledge of its details than the schoolmaster himself. Nevertheless, such an inspection, as a check on inaccuracy, indolence, inattention, and blind routine, may be most effective as an educational force, and may he trusted to reveal gross cases of neglect or error. 1£ it includes inspection of the school equipment and the teacher's qualifications, with such general observations of the time table and the teaching as naturally form part of the visit of an intelligent observer, it would suffice to decide that a school is really doing its work I1S part of the school supply, thongh not to determine how efficiently it is doing it.

69, For this purpose it may be necessary to add, from time to time, either a mo,re complete educational inspection or an examination of the school as a whole. It does not seem neeesary to add both.(2) If a school undergoes a general inspection and has its pupils periodically examined by some recognised authority reporting the result, this test of ita efficiency ought to suffice. Such a test leaves the teacher free as regards choice of methods and order of studies in so far as the examination is not conducted according to a code, but follows the lines of the individual school. This result is secured by allowing the headmaster to supply the syllabus on which the examination is held, For examinations which come in the middle of the school course, not at the end, this requirement has undoubtedly reason on its side. Examination thus conducted has an advantage similar to that claimed by general inspection; it does not exalt the examiner into being a person fit to tell the schoolmaster what and in what order he should have taught his pupils; bu t it. obliges the

, latter, nevertheless, to have a plan of studios and to Cl:\rry it out effectively. We gathpr from the general ten Our of the evidence (3) j,hat periodical general inspection, or visitation. with periodical . examine tion of the kind described, would be I), test of efficiency acceptable to educational opinion in general.

70. The other possible test, in addition to leaving examinations, is that of complete educational inspection.f") without the necessary exclusion of examination by the inspector. In this also there is no attempt to take the educational initiative from the teacher, but it is his methods that are criticised, not simply their knowledge results. It would seem, therefore, that such educational inspection, well carried out, requires a higher degree of educational skill and experi ence (") in the inspector than is required to test efficiency by examination of scholars in their sn bjects of study. Inspection supervises the teacher at his work, and the inspector, therefore, should under-


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stand how to do the work at least as well as the teacher does. ~t is another' matter to appraise the work when done, I twas with this idea in view, no doubt, that one experienced teacher told us he was against inspection aJtogether."(1) On the other hand, the representatives of the N ational Union of Teachers preferred inspection to examination as a test of effieiency.t") Mr. Easterbrook, from the Headmasters' Association, held that the proper test consists of inspection with a good system of leaving examinations, and the representatives of the private schools also expressed a preference for inspection. But these latter witnesses seem to have had in view inspection of the less compreheusi ve type, and they may all be taken, therefore, as advancing the opinion, probably shared by many, that to a moderate amount of inspection need only be added examination of their pupils at discretion.P) Most of the witnesses, however, did not discuss the question of examination ve?'sus inspection as here considered, but, assuming generally lihat some kind of examination and some kind of inspection would be necessary, discussed very fully the question of the authority to be charged with each of the functions.

Authorities for Inspection

71. "Inspection should be provided by the State, and examina tion by the univereities/'(") and the State means here the central authority- The impulse of the majority of the educational witnesses certainly was to look to the central authority as the proper body to guarantee the efficiency of schools,(5) though with the reservation implied that the report of an examiner responsible to some body of the nature of 11 university syndicate should be accepted as one part of the guarantee.r") There were some teachersj") however, who held that inspection should be by the local authority, with possibly some power of applying to the central authority, as supreme referee," for another inspection and report, in case of dissatisfaction.t") Witnesses who had paid attention to the work of inspection already done by such local authorities as the technical education boards .in connexion with the distribution of grants, were generally in favour of some system of local inspection.t'') though rather general than strictly educational in character. Interesting evidence as to the working of such a system was given by Mr. Webb and Dr. Garnett for London. There is nothing to alarm the schoolmaster ill Dr. Garnett's picture of the local inspector making his round from school to school, conversing with the teachers, observing the equipment, suggesting new ideas here, receiving new suggestions there, supervising all the more effectively because not too aystemabically.t'")

There is no real opposition between the two views. If the local authority is to make grants in aid, and to decide on the sufficiency and efficiency of th~ school supply, inspectors report-


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ing to it are essential. (1) It is, conceivable that inspectors 11;'lJointed by the central authority should so report, (2) but persons receiving their insbructions altogether from a distance might very well fail to report bo the local authority those thiugs which it was most concerned to, know, Hence there are good reasons Wlhy the local authority should appoint inspectors -to report' to it. 'Moreover, it is probable that inspection would tend to be more elastic the more local its ouigin, and this makes for the preservation of educaeional liberty in the schools.

But all this is .not inconsistent with milking the central authority responsible for the efficiency of the inspector and the soundness of his methods. This condition, it will be seen, is fulfilled by our recommendations. It:, was urged upon us by more than one witness bhab experience in teaching should be regarded as an essential qualification in the appointment of inspectors; (3) and others suggested that it .is vel:y desirable to include in a list of inspectors a certain number of qualified women.r')

It was held that sanitary inspection at least should be in the hands of the local authority,(5) though we note all able argument to the contrary on the ground that neither the local sanitary inspector nor the general inspector could be expected to be sufficiently qualified;(6) that therefore a special set of inspectors are required, and that, a county not being large enough to employ one man's time, theae should be appointed by the central authority.

Respecting the g-reat non-local schools, those witnesses who adverted to them did not shrink from the admission that they also should be inspected sanibarily, and there was one even bold enough to add educationally 111so.(1)

Authorities for Examination

72. The teachers' ideal of a system for examining schools as u. whole is ensily described. Such an examination should (lot occur too frequently. It involves much expenditure that might of,ten better go to improvements in equipment and staff. Secondly, the governing body should be itself required to arrange, as it does now, in some approved manner, for this periodic examination, and to report the result to the supervising anthorities.r") Thirdly there should: be sxnmining boards in. connexion with the universities, but open to the influence of scholastic opinion) to which application for examiners could be made by the schogls:('i) Finally, the examiner should examine on the teacher's syllabu>-l,(S) or co-operate with the headmaster in the examinabion.r'') The importance of viv4 voce questioning in school examinations was also indicated. Junior classes cannot indeed pe fairly tested without it, and for classes of every age -it is a DeceS~aty part of a complete test, and is, moreover, the leasblaborious and therefore the least expensive port,


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"To this the present practice more or less imperfectly correspouds. The chief imperfection lies in the provision of examining boa.rds.e) The CoIlego of Preceptors does a considerable amount of work in providing examiners for the second grade schools.r") and the universities have admitted this as one of their functions. It has been ftilfilled for first grade aobocls b)7 bhe Oxford and D~nibri~ge schools examination Bonrd; and for I1D increasing 1lumber of schools by the Local Examinations Syndicate, Cambridge, and the Local Examinations Delegacy, Oxford.I") The feeling of the teachers seemed, on the whole, to be clearly in favour of the formabion by the universities of examining boardsj ') on which perscns of experience inschool work should co-operate with members of the university.(n) Some stress was laid on the danger thabyoung men with' university experience It was not generally contemplated that the central authority should itself a.ct as an examining board, or form such a board. Its function with reference to examination, as also to inspection, lies in the laying down of such general rules as are applicable to all cases. According to the English conception of variety and elasticity in educational organisation, tliis is a function which, ihough important, is not lai'ge.

D SCHOLARSHIPS AND EXHIBITIONS

73. There has been aremarkable degree. of unanimity amung our witnesses as to the desirability of scholarships and exhibitions being Ionnded in considerable numbers, to enable children of scanty means and exceptional ability to prolong their education.I") Even those who, Iike Mr. Roby, ,most strongly objected to free Secondary Education as " an enormous waste of money,"(O) and those who thought with Lord Davey, Sir George Young, and others, thOit well-to-do parents should 'pay for the education of their children, equally insisted on the Deed for "a liberal system of scholarships.l'(P) The Bishop of London. while maintaining. that Secondary Education should be' selfsupporting, would allow exhibitions to be paid for out of the :rates.(n) Even the representatives of. the private schools, with theil' far-reaching objections to all aid £TOUl public funds, acquiesced in the continuance of a scholarship system, subject to certain important modifications;(l~) and those few '\\;110 thought that the effect of scholarships waS to draw promising boys from the less wealthy schools, and would, therefore, like. to see them abolished, did .not see the same objection to exhibitions for passing poor boys and girls on from elementary schoola.I'")

Despite the large number of scholarships founded recently by the local 'authoril;ies, and usually' stated 1';0 have worked satisfactorilyj ") there is a general agreement, with but few


[page 168]

exceptions, that, the demand has not yet been satisfied, especially in the case of "minor scholarships," i.e., those leading £1'011]; elementary to secondary schools.I") Mr. Fitch esti::nated that. of the places in secondary schools 5 pel' cent. should be kept. free for children of merit who are able to make a right use of Secondary Educationj'") but we had a much higher estimate: hom Dr. Hruce, who would have one-third of the places absolutely free,(3) and a representative of the primary teachers went, even further.r') In the case of these minor scholarships, thegeneral view was that, while the scholarships should be withim reach of the poorest, they should be awarded to candidates of exceptional rather than of avpra,ge ability.(o) This rule applies with still stronger force to higher scholarships, since, in Mr. Roby's words, "it is not desirable to force up boys who have not got " capaciby and industry into a totally different stratum to which " they are not used, and where tbey will not move with ease.t'(")

In the country districts, more especially, it WIlS clearly estublished that scbolarships are most urgently required, owing' to the absence from many localities of any good secondary or higher grade elementary schools. Here it was generally agreed bhat maintenance scholarships or bursaries should be provided to enable the clever children to proceed to higher schools in urban centres.I")

Proceeding from the general demand for scholarships to the particular qualifications and conditions, we were led to ask the. following questions:Should scholarships nnd exhibitions beclose or open, and, if close, to what classes or schools and pupils should they be restricted or attached? At what ages should they be awarded? What should be t.heir value? Whitt are the best methods of award? We had also to consider whether girls nhould be treated differently from boys, how far private schoola should be PUt on the same footing as public schools, and how the anomalies arising from the diversities of local administration could be best overcome.

Restriction of Scholarships to Particular Schools and Classes

'74. The mllj,lrity of our witnesses seemed to approve of tUB! ordinary system of confining the competition for the lower' grades of scholarships to pupils from the public elementaryschools. (8) This restriction was considered by at least on important witness to be a satisfactory test of poverty, if a broad line had to he taken.(O) But we had evidence that in. London, Birmingham, and other large towns the public elementary school test has long since ceased to differentiate the poor from the well-to-do, It is not sufficient, we were told, to confine echolarsbips to public elementary schools, as the wageearning classes have, for various reasons, less chance than tradesmen, clerks, and professional men, who often now send their children to these schools, sometimes with the special object of


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obtaining scholarships.f') Thus, on the ground of justice to the poor, as well I1S of economy of public resources, a further poverty test was demanded, either confined to income.t") or taking into account. the number of children 0.<> well as the income of the family.(3) While such a test WI1S regarded by SOlOe as of t00 inquisitorial a nature, it was thought by others that if the value of the scholarships were made angrnentable, the stigma of poverty might be avoided by a private arrangement between the parents and the school committee.r")

75. With respect to the attachment of scholarships to particular schools, it WI1S thought desirable, by the Bishop of London and other important witnesses, to have both leaving exhibitions attache'} to the lower school and entrance scholarships attached to the higher schools") but a scholarship or exhibition must never be tied at Loth ends. While some of the representatives of secondary schools were more inclined to favour entrance scholarships,(O) those of primary education considered it preferable to attach close leaving exhibitions to each elementary school. (7) Dr. Percival laid stress on the importance of opening" leaving" exhibitions for competition among the schools of a town or district, rather than attaching them to particular schools, on the ground that this system tends to stimulate good education in the district and enables people to find out which are the good schools, He admitted, however, tbat an eotirelyopen system might discourage the education of the country districts.(S) Sir George Young hoped that limited competitions might be arranged between the children from a particular neighbourhood.I") He also pointed out the di fficulty of inducing trustees and other local bodies to apply their endowments to leaving exhibitions rather than to scholarships-an objection which might, however, be overcome hereafter by the action of a local educational a ... thol'ity having a wider area of jurisdiction and a wider range of view. eO) Dr. Scott, while thioking it undesirable to attach scholarships to particular elementary schools, admitted the necessity of having different standards of examination fOL' "rural" and "urban" districts.(ll.) It WI1S, however, generally felt that no strict rule could be laid down in view of the widely varying Deeds of different localities.

Ages

76. The ordinary limit of age for the passage of scholars from elementary to secondary schools appears to fall between 11 and 14. We have weighty evidence in favour of the' view tbal; this transfer should, as a rule, take place at the earlier rather than at the later age. This is urged both in the interests of the children who, it' transferred at 13, often only gain a" smattering" of knowledge.t'") and in the interests of the secondary schools whose organisation, especially if on classical lines, is apt to sutler from the introduction of elemeatary-school pupils at too


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advanced an age.(l) The Headmasters' AssQciation resolved that the maximum age of candidates. from elementary schools should not exceed ] 3, preferably 12, and that an allowance should be 'made -rOT age.(iI) It was, moreover, pointed out to us by the clerk of the Liverpool School Board that the tendency was', to retain children in the public elementary school until the maximum I1ge at which it, scholarship' is attainable is past, and that the effect of fixing a 11 igh limit might thus be to raise the general age of entrance to the secondary schoole.t") The Bishop of London, on the otheu hand; speaking of scholarships not confined ito elementary schools, advocated a higher' limit of age than 13 on the ground that a boy might only develope promise at-14 OJ' 15.(4)

The prevalent view seemed to be that these" minor" scholarships should be awarded for not more than two years in the first instance and be renewable tor longer periods, if the scholars are found efficient.(~)

Varibus local authorities I1wSJrd scholarships for taking boys. from secondary schools either at the ages of 14 or 15 to other achocls of a higher grade, or at 'the age of 16 or 17, or even later, to universities or places of higher. educabion. These two classes of scholarships are sometimes known as" Intermediate" and "1VIajol'" or "Senior" respectively. The demand for schol8tr8hi~'of the latter class eppenrs to bo considerable, and the comrnittee ' of the 'Headmasters' Association has 'recently framed an examination scheme for them.t") The comparative scarcity of the interrnediate scholarships seems due to the difficulty of promoting boys from ODe school to another at an advanced age, especially where the promotion takes place to a firsb grade classical school.t")

Value

77. With respect to the value of such scholarships, while we have had evidence in favour of their covering tuition fees only, the bulle of our witnesses agree that a system of free places will not satisfy the needs of the wage-earning cla.sses,(8) and that some addition should be 'made towards the cost of .the child's maintenancej") or to replaee earuings," so as to induce parents to permit their children to remain at school for n, longer time.(lO) The Headmasters' Associarion thought that scholarships should consist of two separate parts-(eL) cost of tuition, books, &c., (b) a contribution towards maintenance, and held (in common with other witnesses) that" those scholars only should be allowed the " mainteuaiice grant, whose l1nr.t~ts satisfied +he awarding body of tl)ei~ actual need of such assistance.t'(P]

Conaiderable stress WIlS also laid on the desirability of the value being gl'l1ded according to the age 0,£ the cuilcll'en.(12) TheJactual value of scholnrships now awarded ~Tom elementary schools would seem to range up to 30l. a Y,ea.r, a figure which we were informed was too lIu'be in London, but which may be


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necessary to coyer boarding charges in certain parts of the country. e) The higher scholaralrips are of various values up to I (JOl. a year, according to the a.ge of the scholar and the class of 1 institution to which they are to be sent.(2) The number of these! latter scholarships is 'at present proportionately small, and a lal1ge increase-in theii' number might possibly involve the danger: which Mr. Fitch apprehended, ,thnti a good many person:; might seek them not for th~ sake of the education, but for the sake of the maintenaoce.t") 'But, Iimited .in number as they are, th~y , would seem to beindispenaable steps itt that educational Iadder . by means of which boys of Titre capacity may pass from ele~entary schools to the uni,Yersities.(+)

Methods of Award

78. The method most generally approved for awarding scholarships and exhibitions was undoubtedly that of cornpetiti ve examination. " Examination is the only fa.ir way in the long run, all ic selection is apt to degenerate into personal favouribism.i'(s) There were, however, serious objections raised to an unrestricted system of competition, principally on account of its unsuitability for young children. This objection was usually limited to the ease of children below the age of twelve or bhirteen.t") but Miss Beale, speaking with special reference to g'ids, thought that 16 or 17 was quite early enough to attempt competitive examination.r") On the other hand, Mr. Vardy, in the light of his Im'ge experience at Birmingham, did not consider it inapplicable to children under 11 or 12, though he thoughb it WIlS more difficult to distinguish the comparative excellence of the younger candidates.(s) In order to obviate any injury to children of tender years, it was suggested that in the case of elementary schools the teacher should have power to nominate his most promising boys;(0) or that exhibitions should be awarded to the youngest children who attain a certain qualifying stundard.tt") or that there should be [L combination (if the methods of selection and competition.f ")

The further objection raised to the award of scholarships by competition pure and simple, was tbat it resulted in many cases in the scholarships being' won by the children of parents WJ10 could afford private tuition and special c~aching.(l2) It was, however, suggested that this evil might be to a large extent obviated by confining the examinations to the subjects obligatory in elementary schools together with one additional class' subject, by introducing viva voce examination, and by, varyipg the questions from year to year, In this connexion we think it right to refer to the interesting explanation given by Dr. Scott of the scholarship scbeme drawn up by a. committee appointed by the Headmasters' Association, which seems to have fairly met most of the objections urged to a system of qompetibiop, and already to have bcen la1:gely adopted by schools and local authorities.P") Among other ad vantages he pointed out that it


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gave a means whereby governing bodies aWiLrding close scholarships might compare their candidates with those who win open scholarships, and that it would thus affect the standard of scholarships generally.t")

Our witnesses were generally in accord as to the desirability of extending the scholarship system to girls 8.8 well as boys, though several witnesses informed us that the demand was smaller in the case of girl<:. Thus in London(i) the candidates were in the proportion of two boys to every girl, and in the West Riding of Yorkshire the proportion of girl competitors was small,(3) while in Lancashire the two sexes competed in almost equal numbers.r') Some witnesses thought that no separate regulacions were required for girls, but perhaps it would be truer to say that the matter was one for local rather than general regulation.

Need of of Organisation

79. We have had some evidence, from the representatives both of the schoolmasters and of the local authorities, as to the need for a larger degree of uniformity iu the scholarship schemes for examinationa.P) The scheme of the Headmasters' Association, which has been alluded to above will, if adopted generally, undoubtedly tend to promote this desirable object, without, it is hoped, imposing any excessive rigidit.y on the action of the county councils and other awarding bodies.

Under the present diversity of systems great difficulties and anomalies arise on the borders of the different local areas, a candidate being not unfrequently disq uali6.ecl by moving' from one side of a street to another. It has been suggested to us that if more uniformity were in troduced these difficulties might be met by " a committee of a central department acting as a kind of scholarship clearing house, with power to decide that in such a case the boy shall have his scholarship, and that each county " shall pay a certain quota towards it."(O)

Besides these geographical anomalies, we are informed that there are instances of scholarships offered by the Science and Art Department attracting boys from the local scholarships, and of different endowments in the same locality conflicting with each other, so as to keep up a useless competibion.t")

Reform of existing Endowments

80. The opinion of many of the mosb important of our witnesses points to the fact that there are in most parts of the country many existing endowments which might be utilised for founding scholarships and exhibitions.I") The largest class of these endowments and thut which might perhaps be most appropriately converted to this purpose, consists of those now attached to elementary schools, and formerly applied for the purpose of giving free elementary education. As this purpose has, since the Ach of 1891, become in most cases


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obsolete, it would seem reasonable that these endowments should, in some cases, be used for the kindred object of providing select children taken from these schools with free education of a more advanced character than these schools afford, It is admitted, however, that in these cases, as in the conversion of endowmenta generally, there is a vast amount of local prejudice nnd opposition to be overcome. This opposition might possibly be successfully met by a strong local educational authority, but in the absence of such an authority, it appears hopeless to expect a central board like the Charity Commission to contend against it.

81. We have also had strongly urged upon us the desirability of effecting important changes in the award of scholarships at OUI' largest and best. known tirst-grade schools, especially the nonlocal boarding schools, It appeal'S that large and increasing sums of money have been recently devoted by the governing bodies of many of these schools, in competition with such old foundations as those of Eton and Winchester, to the establishment of valuable scholarships to attract clever boys. * This unhealthy competition seems to have given rise to more than one evil. There is much evidence to Sll0W that a considerable portion of these scholarships go to the sons of well-to-do parents who arc able to pay for a special preparation at expensive preparatory sehoolej") and that the children of poorer parent') have compnratively Iittle chance of obtaining them,

The headmaster of Clifton flays: "The standard of the entrance " examinations is such that few boys stand a chance of success " who have not been trained at an expensive preparatory school. " Parents with an instinct for business recognise thiS."(3) Att~1e Headmasters' Conference in 1888 an instance was given of a parent of a very promising boy asking leave of absence for his son to see an uncle just returned from Austra.lia. The leave was granted, but it WIlS taken advantage of to have the bl\Y examined for a large scholarship at another school, without the knowledge of the authorities of the first school. It seems clear, therefore, that the general effect of offering abundant pecuniary rewards Ior intellectual attainment must be to lower the motive fur intellectual effort, first by acting' on the parents, then on the children. To quote again from the same memorandum:" If " parents are demoralised, so are buys, TRey are hawked about from school to school, and early come to think uf *It was stated at the Headmasters' Conference, held at Christmas, lS92, thut in that year more than J 00,0001. was expended in scholarships by the forty schools named in the Public School Year Book, and that the increase during the three previous years amou nted to 13,OOOi. Theso figures were arrived III by assumiug that scholursh ips nrc held, on un fIYCl'IIgC, for three yours i if however, the uctual period he four or fiv e years, the estimate is much below the mark.


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parents of'unsuccessful boys, Or by the staff of 'masters, or out; of the 'fund for geueral scboobcequipment, ned i,~ appears ,that schools which ate in great firranoial st11aits continue to offer llani1L~bme scholarships, And on the smaller boaTding seliools the system tells with great sevenity.I") H seems ,that it is not' uncommon for a clever Jboy to be;a;ttractelbawpry':£rom,.one(Qf these schools by a pecuniary baib offered' by a larger school, and that, too, just when hial abilities are becoming really useful to the smaller sehool.I'') As to the evil of' oVel'-pl'essure, '61)iriicins among the headmasters' of boarding.schoola appear;tic:> be cl ivided, out it is difficult to resist the impression that the results of 'the competition on. the unsuccessful candidates have not always been taken into account.t") Lastly, owing IB,i'gely to:nhe fact that these valuable schelarships are' mosHyawafoCled- in elm'sical subjects, the prepaJ atory schools have their 'curricula unduly' affected and distorted, so that, according to one of our wibnesses, English suhjecls are' almost wholly ign6l'ed!e)1

82. -To obviatetheseevils it has been suggested by more than one headmaster that a minimum value should be fixed for ,these scholarships (corresponding perhaps to the. tuition feet, with power to augment in case of need, or to extend the 1)enefit~ of the scholarship fund to unsuccessful candidates who have done well ill the examination.t") but that such help ~hotlld 'orily' be given on the application of the parents, and where the' governing body making the award Inny deem ~t necessary. Such a change as this, towards which we are assured the opinion of the public schools is now tending, is yet one which no single school can be expected to adopt 'by itself; united and simultaneous action on the pl1l't of all is required. The effects that might fairly be hoped for would be to check th~ ,~ommercial character and extravagance of the present competition, and to bring back considerable sums of money to more appropriate and useful objects.; more boys would receive help, and they would bel those who needed it; while the selection of a school by tile parents of clever children would be determined by the merits and- prestige' of a school, not by the amount (1£ the l~et;llul?~!lry bait offered. Hence there is no reason to fear that the older foundations would suffer from a diminution of their intellectual supplies.

Entrance Scholarships at the Universities

8,3. College scholarships, at the uuiveasibies, although lying somewhat beyond the scope of our reference, exercise so COlisiderable an influence 'on the field of Secondary Education, t:hat they could not be altogether excluded fuom our consideration. But we have preferred to deal with them in the subsequent 1)01'tion of this part of our Report which deals with the relation of the Universities to Secondary Education.


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E FINANCE

Throughout these paragraphs ou finance, which involve many questions of a thorny character, or which must eventually be determined by considerations rather' of general political, than of purely educational policy, we have aimed p~jniaa:ily at giving a f"il' statement of 'views entertained by' persons of different types of opinion.rand we desirenot to be taken as delivering our own opinions except where this is expressly stated or obviously implied.

84. A better organisation of the authorities connected.with Secondary and Technical Educ~~ti6n appears to be called for on financial no Jess than on administrative and educational grounds. Opinions differ as to bow far existing resources will be found snfficient, but there is practical unanimity in the demand for the adoption of a simpler and sounder method for tbeir distribution. 'From the administrabive point of view there is constant risk of waste and confusion from the overlapping, in the field of finance, of Government Departments with one another or with 10C111 authorities. The Charity Commissioners. make financial provisions in their schemes without knowing whether, or to what extent, or for how long the schools will obtain aid from the Science and Art. Departanent, or from a. count y council. Higher grade elementary schools to some extent, and such of them as are organised science schools to.a V(TY large extent, depend 1'01' their existence on grants f~'om the ,Science and Art Department, For the expenditure of these sums the resl)onbilityof school boards is divided, They are obviously responsible to the ratepayers who elect them, to the Science and Art Departmcnt, and, in a less direct way, to the Education Department. But while it is admitted that money from the rates is expended on these sehools, it is well nigh impossible to say, in any given. case, to what extent this is so, or at what point the rosponaibllity of the managers to' the ratepayers begins or ends. Again, the Education Department; gi ves grants for the maintenance of evening' continuation schools, and has framed 11 code for their regulation. In large towns, these schools are often, and very properly, aided ont of the rates for elementary education, but in the country districts we are told that in many cases they could not be carried on if the county council did not come to the rescue with gmnts given on such conditions as may be required. or allowed under the Technical Instruction Acts.(l) The unfortunnte effect of a system by which education is <;11t up into sections, pai-l for by different and independent authoribies, has been already sufficiently noticed in our preceding observations on the Science and Art Department (pp. 101-3). It remains to describe briefly the snggestions made to us Ior meeting the financial requirements of secondary and technical education in the futuro, It will be convenient t6 consider them under the following heads:( i.) Endowments; (ii) Gl'hits under the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 1890; (iii) Rates; (iv) Parliamentary Grants; and (v) Fees.


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Endowments

85. Endowments, though of greater value than any other single item of our resources for secondary education, no longer constitute the principal part of those resources, and in many hlJ'ge districts of the country would not be sufficient to form, I1S one witness suggested,(1) even a "substratum" for a public system of Secondary Education. Mr. Fearon gave a list of 11 towns (including the county boroughs of Birkenhesd, Brighton, Gateshead, Huddersfield, Li verpool, Rochdale, and Sunderland) which are wholly unsupplied with endowed secondary schools.I'') Witnesses from Norfolk, Somerset, and Surrey complain that there are tOWllS(3) and whole dietrictsr') in those counties which are no better off.

86. But tbough this inadequacy WI1S generally assumed, ev en where it WIlS not explicitly stated, it was not attributed solely to insufficiency of amount; existing endowments are constantly found to be in the wrong place, or to have become too big, or too little, for the purposes for which they were intended, or for the needs of the locality in which they are applied. Well-endowed schools in country places, according to one witness, should be moved nearer to towns, where they would be really useful to the people. Where schools of that kind succeed at all, they are, in his opinion, educating the children of the wealthy who come from other districts, and only benef Ii the district in which they stand by Lringing "custom to u the shopkeepers from the boarding houses."(5) Another advocated the consolidation of small endowments with a view to a more useful distribution.I'') Lord Davey was prepared to give to a county au thority the widest powers to remove the diffieulbies presented by the present unequal distribution of endowments. He wished to see the various educational endowments "merged " in the general county endowments for Secondary Education," which would be used" for the best advantage of all the dwellers "within the area, quite irrespective of whether the particular fund carne from one place or another.i'(") But the general feeling was that so bold a policy, however expedieut in itself, was not practicable. "Genel'aUy," said Mr. Roby,(S) " you must " have regard very largely to the existing local position of "eudoWlllents." Mr. Lee Warner admitted that more might be made of endowments in Norfolk by a better geographical distribution, but feared that the gain would not counterbalance the evil arising from the ill-feeling that such a course would inevitably arouse.I'') It is, however, encouraging to find that, while no one WIlS very sanguine that great results would be obtained, there was a general agreement that the necessary powers should be given. And, indeed, there is no question vI creating a new power; that possessed by the Chariby COlDmissioners is more than sufficient. 'We were reminded that it has been s-rid that the Endowed Schools Acts made it possible to turn a boys' school in Nortbuml.erland into a girls' school


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in Comwallj") and it is not improbable that the very greatness -of the power mtly largely account for the notorious inability of the Charity Commissioners to exercise it. However that may 'be, it is certain that our wttnesaes, with a single exception.t") ~ were emphatically of opinion that if powers for tile better dis- ' rtribution of endowments are to be successfully exercised, they I should be entrusted, in the first instance, not to it centralised ] boJy dealing with the whole country, but to a local authority of I a representative character, which would have control only over 1 endbwments within its own limited area.(3) 1

87. Endowments for Secondary Education may be made to go further than they do at present, They may also be supplemented by other endowments not now applied for that purpose, Several witnesses draw our attention to the class of endow- I ments applicable or applied to the maintenance of elementary schools, or in paying the fees (,f children in those schools. 1111',

.. Macau gave a striking picture of the state of these endowments in Surrey.('l) He mentioned an endowment of nearly 600~. a year, half of which goes to the support of the national elementary school of the place; a still larger endowment in another place, a great part of which is applied to keep up a " select elementary school," not under the Education Department, "which the sons of small tradeameu and others use." At another place he found charities of the yearly value of 51l. which had been spent on the national elementary school until the creation of a school board, since when they have been applied in doles. He maintained that endowments of this clas s, as now applied, "opemte in relief of the- ratepayers," by saving them from a school' board or from the burden of voluntary eubscrlption.P) He stated that these chari Lies, if applied to Secondary Education, would provide school'> to accommodate -660 children, and that these schools would be used in the main by those who would be properly described I1S poor. Other witnesses were in favour of more effectually safeguarding the interests of the poor by using these endowments only fill' scholarships to carey children from elementary schools to a higher stage of education.I") The effect of the fee grant now made to elementary schools upon the large number of schemes making- endowments applicable in the payment of tuition fees at such schools has received the special attention of the Charity Cornmissioners.t") and there is reason to believe that in many cases trustees are applying these funds to the maintenance of the schools, that is to say, to the relief of ratepayers and subscribers. The Charity Commissioners recommend the adoption' of one or more of the following methods, payment of fees in evening continuation schools, prizes and rewards for good conduct and progress in da.y elementary schools, scholarsbips to encoumge longer continuance in the schools, provision of technical instruction in elementary schools, and scholarships to enable children to pass from these schools to places of higher instruction. They finally recommend that the


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endowments in 'question should be made applicable to any of these purposes by a general legislative enactment. There is: much to be said for the adoption of some such plan, not only in. the case of endowments for the payment of tuition 'fees, but for all endowments connected with elementary schools and not already applied in the form of scholarships to take children to> places of higher instruction. There is no doubt that, at presenb, they 1L1'e very lill'gely spent in a way that confers no benefit on children, parents, or education generally. On the other hand it is often difficult to apply them entirely to secondary instruction in the ordinary sense, and yet to preserve a rail' share of the benefits for the poorest members of that class for whose education they were originally intended. No!' are scholarships always the most suitable or useful way ofi mproving the educational opportuni ties of pOOl' children; the elementary school itself especially in rural districts, will often he found to he a better instrument. The true safeguard against the use of such funds for work which ought to be left; to the unassisted efforts of the elementary school authorities will be found by entrusting the supervision of the endowments to the Local Authority for Secondary Education, rather than by insisting too strongly On their divorce from the elementary schools.

88. Those of Our witnesses who alluded to apprenticeship charities took the view, as a rule, that apprenticeship as an institution was dead or clying.(l) " They are not used," we are told, of certain apprentice charities in Surrey," for the benefit of the lads to be apprenticed, but ror the benefit of a certain number " of selected tradesmen, who Lake other boys on the same c: terms without the premium, but bake these boys with the " premium because it is offered." Scholarships tenable at places of technical instruction are the alternative usually suggested, though we also received a proposal that such endowments should be largely devoted to the development' of the pupil teacher system,(2) that is to say, to a particular form of apprenticeship. But it would not be wise to ignore the existence of a feeling that the abuse of' apprenticeship charities does not necessarily imply that the system of apprenticeship is effete. Sir George Young; while entertaining no doubt that apprenticeship charities are of little use, confesses that he has not seen" any quite satisfactory " reason why apprenticeship In the old sense should have gone "into disuse." And Mr. Oharles Acland considers It very doubtful " whether apprenticing is not one of the most useful of endowments." (3)

Grants under the Local Taxation (Customs and Excise) Act, 1890

89, There is practical unanimity in the suggestions offered to us with regard to, the money available for technical eclucation under the Local "I'axation (Customs and Excise) Act. In the first place it must be permanently devoted to educational


[page 179]

purposei'. The presen b state of things causes a double uneertainty. The county councils do not know that they will continue to receive the grant from Parliament, and, j£ they receive it, whether they or their successors will continue to apply it, or any rart of it, to educatiou.r') Undoubtedly the second danger is the greater of the 1;'<;\10. And 'it is not merely n, question I1S between a county council and its auccessor. In each year of their existence county councils are culled upcn to decide afresh whether this money I'ha11 go to education or not, At any time some fresh demand upon the rates, some adverse tum in the prospects of agricultllre 0[' trade, may weaken or destroy the majority in favour of education on the most favourably disposed council, Hence there is a constant anxiety and tension of feoling eminently unfavourable to a well-considered educational policy, even where it does not lead to a positive waste of resources in the attempt to keep a dangerous minority in good temper by throwing SOl)S to Cerbel'lls."(2) Secondly, to make securiby complete, it should be the duty of the county council to devote the whole grant to education.t")

90. Thirdly, the money should be applicable, not only for technical education, but for all branches of Secondary Education. There were one or two dissentient or doubtful voices upun this point,(I) but on the whole the representatives of schools and of county and borough councils were emphatically in favour of the removal of the present educational restrictions, to a.gl'on.t extent, if not altogether.I") Tbey dislike the tendency of the present system to disturb the balance of the curriculum of schools.I") In many counties, the councils, recognising that a good modern education is the necessary basis of technical instruction, give grants to the secondary schools in their area in such a way as to promote their general efficiency, and it is felt that there should be power to do this and to establish new schools on similar lines without the necessity of resort to roundabout methods. C) This conclusion receives support even from those who admit that in their counties the money from this source is not. more than enough to supply the needs of technical instruction in its limited sense.f") The restriction should be removed, said one witness, whether the money available be adequate or inadequate. If more money is required, Jet it be given in one grant, not in two. It is a mistake to introduce a large sum of this kind into " the fabric of our education, restricting it to a particular prorr vince.t'(P) It is clear, however, that a Local Authority, ih estimating its resources for Secondary Education, will find a very large portion of the Local Taxation Act grant already most usefully appropriated to various forms of special instruction, and may have to look further for additional funds.

Rates

91. The rates were suggeated as the next source to be drawn from, the general view being that the Local Authority for


[page 180]

Secondary Education should have power to rate, or issue a precept for a rate, but should not be obliged to exercise it. In many districts a rate Olay not be necessary; and in the more rural counties, and perhaps elsewhere, it is likely to be uopopular.(1) In more populous parts, where the local taxation grant is more lMost of our witnesses were in favour of a limitation in the amount. In one county, we are told, a rate of three farthings in the pound, would suffice.C") Others suggested a halfpenny or a penny in the pound.r")

Limitations of the purposes to which the rate should be applicable were also suggested to us. The Bishop of London, following the lines laid down by the Schools Enquiry Commission,(8) would con:fine expenditure from the rates to the provision of school buildings and scholarahipaf") Mr. Fearon was inclined to restrict it absolutely to buildings.(1°)

If the rate is limited in amount, and that seems to be both generally desired, and in accordance with recent precedent, the expediency- or further restrictions as to its application within that limit seems very doubtful. In the places where schools are most wanted, it would be very difficult to say that one kind of help was more urgent than another. If such restrictions are not acceptable to those whom they are meant to bind, they can generally be evaded, and in the long run are not likely to secure economy and efficiency any better than would be done by a general sense of responsibility to the ratepayers.

Parliamentary Grants

92. The existipg parliamentary grant for Secondary Education is that made through the Science and Al,t Department. .It is true that the g;l.'ant made through the Education Department to evening continuation schools is, or may be, applied for instruction of a secondary character; but it has been in operation too short a time for Our witnesses to speak of it with much confidence.

J n discussing the mora financial aspects of the science and art grants, the witnesses concentrated their attention on them mainly as they affect day-schools, and particularly organised science schools, Their auggestiona, however, are generally applicable to the whole system, and show a remarkable unanimity


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of opinion. It must be remembered that the system criticised by our witnesses was that in force prior to the new regulations (mainly affecting organised science schools) issued by the Department in 1894.

93. There is a general demand that the system of payment on the result of the examination of individual scholars should be abolished, or largely modified, in the case of these grants as in that of grants made through the Education Departrnent.c') Some examination, particularly in the advanced stages, there must be, but the greater portion of the grant should be in the fornr of a capitation payment, bused on inspection and oral examinaLion.(2) This is held to be a necessary reform, but much more than this is required, Grants can only be earned by the adoption of an inelastic and one-sided curriculum. Many schools, particularly the higher grade elementary schools, adopt it, because, without these grants they cannot live at aU; but the education is cramped, and the teachers are hampered. "If they are compulsorily required to devote 15 hours every week to a particular branch of education, they must be hampered.t'(") Small grammar schools would be glad to enlarge their curriculum on the modern and scientific side, but they cannot do so without financial aid, and they cannot accept the conditions on which aid can be obtained from the Science and Art'Department.('l) When asked what they would do, there is but one reply, The National Union of Teachers, the Association of School Boards, the Association of Headmasters of Higher Grade Elementary and Organised Science Sch001s, as well as individual witnesses, agree that this sectional administration of education is an evil, and that a healthy balance between science and literary subjects should be secured by the payment through ODe department of one grant distributed over a liberal and elastic curriculum.P)

94. While we were examining these witnesses, the Science and Art Department was taking important steps in the direction indicated by their suggestions, so far ae organised science schools are concerned. By regulations issued in 1894, and now in operation, the minimum number of hours to be given to science (including mathematics and drawing) in these schools is reduced from 15 to 13; the grant is given more as capitation grant and on result of inspection, and less on the results of examination; before the grant can be earned the Inspector must be satisfied, among other tllings, that the instruction ill literary subjects is adequate; and, Iasbly, only scholars in the advanced stages are required to be presented at the May examinations. It is not yet possible to predict with any confidence, what will be the financial effect of these important changes. On the one band, it is uot unreasonably expected that the formal recogn ition of literary subjects, and, indeed, the positive requirement that they shall receive proper attention, coupled with the abandonment to such a large extent of the system of" payment by results:" will soon lead to the creation of many new higher grade


[page 182]

elementary schools, and to the removal of the objections which have deterred many of the smaller grammar schools from becoming organised science 8ch001s, and that consequently there will be a large and rapid growth iu the grants made through the Science find Art; Departrnent.f-) But this view is not entirely accepted by the Department. An increase in the number of urganised science schools does not necessarily mean an i nerease, or at any rate a corresponding increase, in the total grant. For, a school which becomes an organised science school may have been earning grants under the other rules of the Department almost to the same extent, and so the change would be mainly a transfer from one form of grant to another.r") Further, in spite of the more favourable conditions offered to schools where literary subjects hold a prominent place, it is held that the organised science school will stil 1 be predominantly a school for science, and not for literary instruction, although steps will have been taken to secure that the general education of the scholars shall not be neglected.r") The Department also expects that the condition, that organised science schools must be provided with chemical and physical laboratories, will prevent any great increase in the demands for recognition. from the smaller grammar schools.C) It is possible, however, that the Department has not here taken sufficiently into account tlie extent to which county councils are aiding schools in many parts of the country to provide buildings and apparatus for :instruction in science. On the whole, Sir John Donnelly stated the view of the Department to be that the present rate of increase in the number of organised science schools may be somewhat, but not very largely, accelerated; but th~t "there is nothing in the new regulations " to make that rate of increase much more rapid than it 1S at present. "(5)

If the local administration of the Science and Art grants were handed over to the Local Authority for Secondary Education, that Authority would receive them, as they would receive the local taxation grants, subject to some heavy charges on account of existing institutions. Thus, though much good m.ay be effected, from an administrative point of view, by entl'usting the Local Authority with the general supervision of the evening 95. The need for any new parliamentary grant in aiel of Secondary Education was a matter on which our witnesses did not, as a rule, give a very decided opinion. The representatives of the School Boards Association showed the least hesitation.I'') They think the nation as well as the locality is interested, and 'should show its interest by bearing part of the cost. One of them, however, would have a national grant applied only to the provision of buildings. e) Those who spoke for the county


[page 183]

councils were not all of one. mind. In the case of Lancashire and. the West Riding the necessity for further State aid seemed to be accepted.I") Another witness thought the poorer parts of the country could hardly be supplied in an effective way without it.e) 'But in Surrey, we were told, endowments, the local taxation grant, and a threefarthing rate would do all that was required.I") or those who took a more general survey of the .field, the Bishop of London had no objection to a contribution by the State to the provision of buildings and scholarships; Sir W. Hart Dyke was disinclined to recommend State aid, at any :rate at first,(i) and thought that, if it were given at all;it should be for such general purposes as inspection.f") while Mr. Fearon met the proposal with a plain negative.I")

Those who were in favour of a grant were, for the most part, agreed in thinking that it should be made to meet local e-ffort, on the principle of pound for pound.t") It was said that, if this were done, it would make it much easier to obtain assistance from the rates.(B)

There are two considerations, besides the diversity of opinion among the witnesses, which help to make -the evidence on this question very inconclusive.I") In the first place much depends upon the future development of the grllnts now administered by the Science and Ad Department, from which one witness at least expected all that would be necessary in the way of State aid.(lO) In the second place, any attempt to forecast the financial situation under an organised system for the provision of Secondl1l'Y Education is, for the purposes of a national-grant, greatly depreciated by the diversity 01 requirements and resources in different localities, and by the inability or disinclination of the beet-informed witnesses to make any but the vaguest estimate of the uum bel'S for whom Secondary Education is wanted.(ll)

Fees

96. Before dealing with tuition fees as a source of revenue it will, perhaps, be convenient to consider the attitude of our witnesses towards the question, whether Secondary Education should be paid Ior by the parent o,t all. None of the witnesses who


[page 184]

system.e) Another witness accepted the principle, but thouglrs it could not be carried further in this generation than the stage now reached by higher grade elementary schools. e) But here we may note that not only are these schools, with only one or two exceptions, still charging fees, but some of our witnesses, who were especially interested in their' development, think they should continue to do so, and sta,te that the action of the Education Department in refusing to sanction fees in new schools of this class has produced a good deal of local friction.I")

97. Some partial measure of free education, quite distinct in principle from that which might be attained by a scholarship system, however liberal, received rather more support. Mr. Fitch, though he considered that the restriction of free places to chile hell of special merit was right in principle, expressed the opinion that free education was nevertheless a legitimate object on which to spend local or national funds if the nation or locality were disposed to tax itself for the purpose, and he saw no objection to localities being allowed to do so if they wisbed.r') Sir George Kekewich seemed to share this view.I") Another interesting suggestion was that parents should be entitled to exactly as much and nemore help {Tom the State for the education of their children in secondary, as they are in elementary schools; tbat is to say, the State should in every case be ready to provide the buildings, and to pay towards the cost of maintenance of the school, the" amount per head which is required for the teaching of children in the " elementary schools," leaving the parent to provide the balance. This was an attempt to meet the grievance of a large class of taxpayers and ratepayers who have at present to pay for schools. from which they derive no direct benefit.(O) But the implied theory that everyone is to receive a direct return for what he pays in rates and taxes is hardly admissible, and the proposal n.ppears to involve the further assumption that Primary and Secondary Education are matters of equal importance for the safety and welfare of the community. It may indeed be argued that the proposal would be only to do generally what endowments are already doing ill favoured loealities, but as the Bishop of London pointed out,C) in the one case the money is given freely, while in the other it is taken compulsorily from many who decidedly object to the imposition of such a tax. Two of our witnesses who were specially representative of the wage-earning class had each his' own limitation to suggest. Mr. Halstead admitted' readily the force of the argument that jt would be wasteful to pa.y for the education of children whose parents are able and' willing to pay for it themselves. He proposed to meet the difficulty by fixing a limit of income-be suggested 300~.-as. the dividing line between those entitled to free Secondary Education and those required to pay fees.(8) Mr. Steward would adopt an age limit, 18 years, np to which no fees should' be required.i'')

98. In estimating the value of these snggestions, it is necessary to observe that the severe pressure in many localities upon the


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poorer inhabitants, and the urgent necessity which exists of giving opportunity to intellectual ability to rise, have accustomed the community to the establishment on a large scale of a, system of echolarships, in spite of those considerabions of parental responsibility, which are often urged as a principal argument agajnst free education, This responsibility may be thought to be ignored quite as much in the case of a clever boy who gains a maintenance scholarship as in that of a dullard sent to a free school; and it might reasonably be al'gued that a system of free schools would be saved from Lhe serious difficulties inseparable from the selection and competition of promising children,

Again, it has been urged that the sense of injustice which is said to be fostered by the present system, whereby many citizens pay with great; difficulty for the education of other people's children as well as their own, cannot be otherwise relieved. And if it be objected that the country would be flooded with a "literary proletariate," it may be answered t1mt education is no longer confined to literary subjects, but embraces, or soon will embrace, all thoso arts or crafts, a careful training in which is felt to be absolutely necessary if "England is to retain bel' commercial supremacy"; so that such training, though costly nt the outset, may be expected ultimately to bring in an adequate return to the country. This means that the curriculum of subjects has been greatly widened; hence, the larger will be the proportion of boys and girls who will show special aptitude in one or other of them, the larger therefore will he the number of children to whom it will be worth while to give the best available training, and as this per-centage increases, it becomes increasingly difficult to exclude the remainder from the henefits of free education.

99, On the other side of the question, we shall be reminded that the greater the provision for free education made by the State, the greater w-ill be the check applied to private munificence. Hitherto, so it will he said, great benefits have accrued to the country from the desire of individuals to found schools of a certain educational complexion, or for the benefit of a certain profession. But under an advanced system of free education, such patriotic spirit would languish for want of opportunity, and it is impossible to forecast how fur the movement may advance when once free schools begin to be set up.

Our witnesses were, on the whole, disposed to count upon a substantial contribution from the parent. Many. no doubt were influenced by their sense of the impossibility of inducing the taxpayer or the ratepayer to accept such an enormous burden, rather than by considerations of principle. But these also were forcibly expressed by some, and probably entertained by others, the general tenonr of whose evidence made it unnecessary to press them on the subject. With regard to the possible weakening of parental responsibility, such risk as was apprehended I, om the State provision of primary education, was

186

deliberately incurred in order to avoid greater and more certain evils.t") But the advantages to be gained for the community by relieving the parent of the duty to provide for his child's education, are supposed to diminish rapidly as the kind of education under consideration becomes more advanced. We are also warned of the danger of leading not, the parents but the authorities to fancy that the number of children who Can make good use of sueh education is greater than it really is, and tha,t education is obtained only in schools.P) Again, from an educational point of view, it has been urged that there is a serious risk that the establiebment of free secondary schools might widen the gap between what are called the great "public schools, such as Eton and Rugby, and the ordinary run of grammar schools; that "tho wealthier classes would provide education for them" selves independently of tlre provision made by ~he State, and would beat all the State provision.t'(") But perhaps the weightiest argument of all, in a country where very practical considerations are apt to outweigh first principles or the fear of remote consequences, is summed up in Mr. Roby's emphatic protest against "\Y(L$ting a lot of public money by pa;ying the fees of a number of well-to-do people who are perfectly well " able to pay for their own children/'{')

100. In conclusion we may remark that it has not been contended that the making Secondary Education free will improve its quality. On the one hand, it is recommended to us chiefly on the gl'ound that no child who is capable of benefitillg by the full course of school education should miss the opportunity- by reason of poverty; but no serious attempt has been made to prove to us that this end cannot be adequately attained, now and for some time to come, by the safer method of a liberal provision of scbolarships. On the other hand, the evidence we have received goes to show that the arguments urged against free seconJary education still exercise a potent influence-an influence which has not been seriously affected by recent changes in the elementary school system. Adding to this the geDeral agreement that there is no hope of obtaining the necessary funds either from national or local sources, we may say that our witnesses genorally appeared to believe that the desire for this measure is still comparatively small, and to think that it is scarcely within the horizon of practical polibics.

101. Starti.ng, then, from the position thl1t the normalsystem will be one of payment of fees balanced by a liberal provision of scholarships, we are met by the question whether the lee is to covel' the whole cost of the education or only a part, and, if the the latter, how is that parf to be determined,

In discussing the question. of cost, our witnesses generally assumed that the grefLt need to be satisfied was that of schools of what we have called the second gracl.e, gi\'ing a good general education to children up to the age of 16 or 17, The representatives of the Headmaster's Association, themselves headmasters of flourishing endowed schools, put the cost pel' head of maintaining


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such a school one at 10l.,(1) the other at 12l. This estimate excludes rent or interest OIl. capital for buildings and provision for scholarships, and in the case of the larger estimate assumes that the number of scholars will be uboub 300.(2) Sir Bernhard Samuelson and Mr. Botbamley tLought it should be rather over than under 10l.(~) Miss Beale su~gested the same figLUe.(I) The Assistant Masters' Associt~tion have submitted a detailed estimate, showing that 12l. 48. pel' head would be required for a school of 300,("') The Assistant Misbresses' Association have also submitted ao estimate giving 1 Ol, as the minimum cost pel' head in a school of 2jO girls, but this includes the important item of rent.(o) Comparing these estimates with the actual cost in sc11001s of the same class, as to which we have trustworthy iniormabion, we find that the cost pel' head in the three grammar schools for boys of Ring Edward VI. foundation at Birmingham, where the numbers average about 300, is 10l. lOs.; (1) at the Bedford Modem School with 620 boys it is 10l. 13s.; (8) at Pal' miter's School, London (320 boys), it. is 10l. 6s., and at Owen's Schoo], London (377 boys) it is nearer 12l. than lll.(g) The representative of the College of Preceptors, speaking from a wide experience of private schools, estimated the cost at 10l., but included in that figure, the rent of buildings, and, of course, the profit on which the headmaster lives. The class of school, however, was in this case perhaps rather lower than that generally contemplated.P") In the schools of the Girls' Public Day Schools Company the cost, deducting rent, would seem to be nearer 13l, than 12l, pel' bead,(ll) but these schools are distinctly above the type to which the figures already given refer.

102. Conclusions as to the cost of schools cannot be drawn from these rigures without some important qualifications. The most important Hem in a school budget is the sum required Tor the payment of teachers, and the scale of those payments particularly iu the CI1Se of assistant teachers is a question which is now exciting a great deul of interest, and cannot be determined without taking into account economical and other considerations which vary at different times and in different places. Furbher, even within the limits of the class of school contemplatcd above, there is room for considerable difference in the range of the curriculum, and, as a rule, the requirements of the country in this respect will be found to be more modest than those of the great towns with which our witnesses on this subject mainly concerned themselves. Schools in the country have another .importanb ad vantage over those in the towns in respect of outgoings for rates and taxes. This item, indeed, introduces a serious element of 'variation in the cost of schools in different towns als o. On the other hand, the country school is at a disadvantage ill seldom having 1),$ large a number of scholars as is required for the most perfect combination of economy and efficiency. That number appears to lie somewhere between 200 and 300. Some interesting figures on this subject will be found in all appendix


[page 188]

to the evidence of the Assista.ut 1v1il-'tresses Association.r") But probably, when ali 1111 owances are made, the mean estimate, as between town and country, of 10l. per head will not be very wide of the mark for schools of moderate size.

103. The need for schools of what we have called the third grade is also a pressing one, and there is no less difficulty in estirna Ling the cost of their maintenance. In these schools, even more than in those of the second grade, calculations based on existing facts are apt to be vitiated by the tendency of the school to do work outside the limits assigned in theory to its grade, There will probably be a marked difference 118 regards expense between schools in towns and in the country, but even in the country the advance in the education» 1 standard, the improvement in the elementary schools, and the demand for instruction in science combine to make it impossible that the cost should be as low us the 3l. to 4l, a head contemplated by the Schools Enquiry Commission. The higher grade elementary schools which are conducted as organised science schools in many cases earn more than that in grants from the Science and Art Department alone, and many of them receive in addition as much as 2l. a head in fees, and some aid, direct or indirect, from the rates. The Charity Commissioners think 4l. should be the minimum fee, and as they usually allow some portion of the endowment to be applied towards the cost of maintenance of the school, they presumably estimate the cost ab a higher figul'e.(2) From 6l. to 7l, a head will probably not be an excessive estimate for town schools of this class.

104. There are various answers to the question, what proportion of this cost should be borne by the parent,.(3) The whole, say some. Subsidies to university colleges are admissible, so are those to elementary schools, but subsidies to secondary schools would lead to the extinction of private schools and to free education. The Bishop of London,(4) adhering to the view of the Schools Enquiry Commission, thinks that public funds should not be ell-awn upon for more than buildings, scholarships, and inspection. The Charity Commissioners have cherished the same ideal, though their experience has taught them to regard it rather as a counsel of perfection. It is not the policy of the Commissioners, says Sir G. Y oung,(r.) to let endowments be spent on the reduction of fees. They apply them in the first place to buildings, secondly to improvements and appliances, tbirdly to scholarships, and only where there is still a considerable surplus to fees. And:in many cases this policy has been carried out. Thus, the cost pel' head at Manchester Grammar School is stated by l\fr. Roby to be 13l. 128.; this is nearly covered by the fee of 12l. 128., and more than four-fifths of the endowment goes in sch olarships. (G) But where the endowments were large, local opinion bas been generally too strong for the Commissioners,(7) and this has been especially the case where the endowments had, before they took action, been applied in giving gratuitous.


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education. The great foundations at Birmingham and Bedford are prominent examples, . At Birmingham, in spite of the fact that about one-third of the places in the school are made free by means of scholarships, the fee for the rest of the pupils is less than one-third of the cost ill the grammar schools, and less than one-half of the cost in the high schcolar') At Bedford the proportion of fee to cost in the First Grade Grammar School is about the same as in the Birmingham High School, and in the Modern School so much of the endowment goes in reduction of fees that there does not appear to be adequate provision for the payment of tLe slaft~e)

The more comrnon view among those of our wibnesse s who wished to see fees charged, was that some mean should be taken between the view that the parent should pay nothing and the view that he should pay for all but the buildings.I") The' e is, 'so they seemed to think, a class of people who ought to have Secondary Education for their children, and cannot be expected to pay the whole price.I-) Two witnesses suggested that the parent should not be called on to pay more than one third.I") But the degree in which they should be helped must vary to some extent in different localities, and it will be one of the most serious duties of the Local Authori ty to gi ve due weight to the local or other considerations affecting the problem. They must take account of the means of the majority of those who are likely to use the school. In schools of the less advanced type the problem has, no doubt, been affected, as Dr, Percival points out,(O) by the gift of free education in

Iementary schools, nor in many districts can the traditionary use of endowments to cheapen education to the parent be ignored. But, above all things, the school must be efficient, and when the cost has been estimated, it is the first duty of the Local Authority to see that efficiency is not sacrificed in order to cheapen the cost of education to the parent.

F THE TEACHERS

105. During the last quarter of a century the position of the teacht'r has sensibly improved. The report of the Schools Enquiry Commission, the working of the Elementary Education Acts, the developments in scientific training, the labours of the Charity Commission, and the extension of university influence, have all helped to kindle a new interest in educational questions and have caused the work of the teacher to be viewed by the public with an ever-growing sympathy and respect. Nor have other changes operated less powerfully in the same direction. The new opportunities for the education of 'Women, the increasing proportion of graduate teachers in all grades of school, and the efforts of educational societies have worked almost a revolution in the status of the teacher, and have given a higher tone. aud dignity to the whole profession.


[page 190]

But, though great i mprovenients have been accomplished, mueh remains to be done. Several of our witnesses were disposed to think that in some respects the status of teachers still feU short of that enjoyed by the other professions.(1) Another contrasted the somewhat frigid attitude of the English teacher towards educational theories with the sincere though ofteu crude enbhusiasm of the American.I") And throughout our enquiry, we have been struck by the lack of unity between teachers ill different types of schools, which, in spite of the praiseworthy efforts which are being made to remove it, still remains a weakness of English as compared with American education. (3)

106. There are some, therefore, who perceiving the excellent effects which have resulted from efforts to consolidate the teaching profession-a movement in which the College of Preceptors was the pioneer-would push professional organisation to a still further point. The ideal cf one of our witnesses/") was that "the teaching profession should in the future be a " self-governing profession, 00 a level with law and medicine. " Law is governed by a council elected by itself:. . and " I should look for a time when educationalists would be .r sufficiently homogeneous to elect a council to be entrusted "with their own government." On the other hand, such proposals as tbese did Dot meet with general favour, there being divers objections to any attempt to turn the teaching profession into a close corporation. One witness emphasised this danger, believing that" the system of registration is being carried too "fa!'. We have registration of architects; we have registration " of patent agents; we have registration of accouutants; and " those various bodies arc becoming, to a very great. extent, " holders of monopolies, in some cases exercising their privileges " not altogether to the public udvantage.r'(")

107. The fact is that the body of teachers must necessarily occupy a somewhat anomalous position in the economy of national life. The service which they render is one over which the State must in self-defence retain effective oversight; the provision of teaching and the conduct of education cannot be left to private enterprise aloue.I") Nor, on the other hand) do the teachers stand in the same relation to Government as does the Oivil Service; Education is a thing too intimately concerned with individual preference and private life for it to be desirable to throw the. whole of it under Government control, It needs organisation, but it would be destroyed by uniformity; ib is stimulated by inspection, but it could be crushed by a code. In the public service, where the chief object is ad ministrative efficiency, the individual officer is necessarily subordinate: in education, where a chief object is the discovery of more perfect methods of teaching, the individual teacher must be left comparatively free, Every good teacher js a discoverer, and, in order to make discoveries, he must have liberty of experiment,


[page 191]

The exceptional position therefore of' .the body of-teachers in the State involves 11' double treatment of the problems' with which they arc concerned, On the one hand, their professional organisation needs strengthening and amendment, chiefly because in no other learned occupation is the line between' skilled and unskilled labour more difficult to draw. 011 the other hand, in the ,growing complexity of national life, the position of the teacher must always stand in need of readjustment to the organisation of central and of local government, Here new difficulties and perils arise. How ought the State to deal with teachers 1 Should they bo considered as skilled workmen engaged in work " requiring consummate skill, who understand their work, and are ready to do it; or, 11.'3 carrying out the instructions of a " higher authority that understands the work which they merely execute as instruments 1 If so, who are these autho rities thl1t understand compl icated work which they have rr Dever done j "(I) It was from this point of view that the Bishop of Durham addressed to us the waming "uhat any regulations which impair the freedom and individuality of " the teacher will, just so far, prove to be destructive of that force which has hitherto been most effective in forming English character.t'(")

108. That there is real danger of injury to. education through the over-repression of the teacher is evident from the experience of France, where efforts are now beiIlg made to restore his freedom, and from that of Germany, in which country, though it was in the first half of the century the great source of educational ideas, Frcebel and Herbart had, in consequence of the strict establishment of school systems, few suceesaors-e-the kindergarten, for example, having at one time been banished From Prussia, because the Prussian authorities did not approve of it.(3) Educational progress generally comes, in the first instance, through the originality and experiments of individual teachers, It is worthy of notice trhat much that is best iu our public secondary schools is due to the fact that, in matters affecting curriculum aud the choice of educational methods, almost absolute freedom has traditionally been .left to experienced teachers. Some of OUT witnesses have also laid emphasis on the fact that enthusiastic teachers have taken to pri vate schools because of the g\'eat freedom which these schools afford for experiments;(t) that Kindergarten methods were first introduced into England by private effort; and that thus what may prove to be an almost revolutionary change in English methods of teaching fir::lt entered the national system of education through the channel of private initiative:(O} Milton's scheme of education was the result of his experiments in tc his wonder-working academy in Aldersgate Street." Anch'ew Bell and Joseph Lancaster both developed their systems in little schools in private houses. Indi vidual teachers start reforms, it is for public authority to adopt and to generalise them. But the proper liberty of the teacher does not necessarily


[page 192]

involve free scope for' ignorant imposture. It is possible so to order the conditions of educational life us to secure at once the freedom of the teacher and the protection of the public; and reform in this direction seems to in vol ve the registration of those qualified to teach, their preparative training, and the provision in all schools under public mauagement of salaries on a scale calculated to draw ability and trained skill into work, on the excellent performance of .which national welfare largely depends,

I Registration of Teachers

109. Upon no subject, of all those on which we have taken evidence of received memoranda, was there more general agreement than as to the necessity of some measure for the registration of teachers. The demand has come from all the associations of teachers alike j from the Headmasters' Conference; from the four several Associations of Head and Assistant Masters and Mistresses; from the Teachers' Guild, the College of Preceptors and the National U nion of Teachers; from the Private Schools Association, and from the Association of Headmasters ot Preparatory Schools, And the representations thus made to us by the societies which speak on behalf of different parts of the teaching profession, have been fully endorsed by Individual witnesses, addressing us from the most varied experience and from widely different points of' view-by Dr. Percival, ]\1:.1'. Arthur Sidgwjck, lYIr. Vardy, and Mr. Fitch; by Professor Laurie, Canon Daniel, and 1\1:1', Sharpe.'

The chief purpose for which registration is desired is the exclusion or discouragement of incompetent person::; from the business of teaching. By requiring' evidence of intellectual attainment and of trained power to teach, 11 system of registration would, it is held, shut out the charlatans, and impostors who now prey upon the credulous portions of the public.Is) Any parent who took the trouble to turn over the pages of the register would have only himself to blame if he were misled by the bogus" degrees which are occasionally paraded on pro spectuses.t") The register would help him in the choice of teachers. Its establislnnent, by recognising the Leaching profession, would raise its qualifications and improve its tone.('~) It would stimulate the imperfectly qualified teacher to seek further qualification, and in particular to secure degrees or diplomas certifying professional attainment<5) It has also been pointed out to us that the registered teachers would form a constituency which could be readily consulted on educational questions; and that the register itself µlight serve as an electoral roll.(O)

110. There was general accord with the recommendation of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, and with the provisions of the 'reachers' Registration Bills, that the Educational Council should have power to determine what degrees or certi-


[page 193]

ficates of attainment and skill should be accepted as qualifying for registration. No less geueral WI1S the agreement th:1.t the qualification should include evidence of general attainments, and a certificate L11' diploma of adequate knowledge of the theory and practice of educabion.P) Agtlinst accepting (except as a I merely trausitional measure) a university degree alone as 1 qualifying for registn~tion one of those whom we consulted i spoke in the strungest terms. He thought it would be "a ~ " disastrous mistake; in the highE.t' secondary schools it would i " leave things exactly as they are, 'i.e., the teachers would not i U be trained at all, It would saddle the schools with the same : " number of incompetent teachers, and of teachers who begin by I '" being incompetent, and learn their business at the expense of I " the boys; and it would give explicit support to the baseless " theory that a graduate, as such, is a superior pel'son, who can " teach by the light of nature without having learnt how to ct do it."(2) Another writer, pointing out that the system of, university examination for the B.A. degree is not "pedectly . " adapted to te;;t and attest the qualification of teachers for t< secondary schools," maintained that "it would be a decided ad vantage to education that the universities sbould be made to say how fat' the recipient of the B.A. degree by examination is intended to be certified 3S a qunlitied teacher of the .. , subjects in which he has been examined, i.e., qualified, so far .. , as knowledge is concerned. In such a case," he thought, "the " certification of the university might be accepted without question-reliance being placed 011 the academic conscience, .. , assisted by free criticism from the outside, but it would not be an undue interference to compel it to take the responsibility of " explaining the meaning-for educational purposes-of its "' symbolic pronouncements/'(t) Some of our witnesses main.tained that the requirement as to intellectual qualifications should ultimately not be lower than a university degree,(4) or a certificate aw,Ll'ded by some body recognised for that purpose by the .iEduc.'ltional Council, and accepted by it as satisfactory. 'I'o show .how easily such a requirement might be enforced, evidence WI1S given by them to the effect _that, of the assistant masters 110W employed in 465 public secondary schools in England and Wales, 63 .per cent. are graduutes.t") Others, again, preferred that, the certificate of lcnowledge of the theory and practice of education should also bear the i'T171)_J1'imatur of a univorsity.I") In regard however, to the requirement of evidence of practical skill, some of our witnesses held that a diploma in the :l!t and theory of education would not be sufficient, and that the cundidate should obtain some practical experience in school before his definitive registration was allowed.(7) A similar view is propounded in the draft scheme wibh which we were favoured by the Conference of Headmasters. They suggest that "for registration, evidence " of teaching capacity and professional knowledge should be ~, required, but a probationer should be allowed to teach for a a limited period on giving evidence of sufficient attainments, as


[page 194]

" attested by ~ degree .. or other recognised examination. The cc test of teaching capacity should include the testimony of " the authorities of a school where the probationer has taught. " as well as the certificate of 11 recognised examining body/'(') This suggestion is compatible with Mr. Sidgwick's view that. the training of teachers should consist of three things: (I) instruction in the theory and history of education; (2) instruction in. the practice; and (3) apprenticeship.(~). ',

Whatever regulations,' however, were imposed, hard cases might, occasionally arise. An excellent teach or, of whoseprofessional ability there could be no dispute, might yet beunable, for one reason or another, to produce a formal proof-of intellectual attainment.I") The genera] sense of OUl~ evidenceis that some powers of discrimination should be given to the. Educa.tif)nal Council.

111. The question of rnaldng registration compulsory had engaged the thoughts of many of our witnesses. In the Teachers" RegistJ.ation and the Secondary School 'I'eachers' Registration Bills it was provided inteT al!ia that, after a certain date, unregistered teachers were to' be, disabled from recovering their salaries or fees by process of law. It has been pointed out, however) that the penalty would, be between honourable persons. inoperative, and In other cases an incentive to fraud.I") And theproposal entails the !:It ill more serious difriculty that, were such legal disability imposed on all non-registered teachers, the Educational Council would- find itself practically forced to> prevent unmerited hardship by lowering the standard of registration. To do this would be to defeat the primary object of the measure. It would indeed make bad worse by giving" a State guarantee to comparative inefficiency. If, ou the other hand, this particular disability were not attached to non-registration, the Educational Council would be free to, keep its standard high from the first, and thnsto give distinction to the privilege of admission to the register. There was, however, a general agreement on the part of the witnesses that, registration should be made practically cornpulsory.f') Such a result would be indirectly, but hardly less effectually; secured by the method proposed by the Headmasters' Conference, viz., that" after a reasonable time no unregistered 'person should be " competent to hold office in any registered school.t'(") And, as it is more important that the standard ofbhe register be high than that the legal consequences of non-regietratdon should be serious even this provision might appear somewhat too stringent if not limited to cases of Dew appointment.

112. As to the basis of the register there was sharp difference. of view. Some witnesses wished to include in one register all teachers who could produce the required qualification; others. however,' declared that registration was required only for teachers in secondary schools, 'the objects of ' registration being already secured for teachers working in elementary schools by


[page 195]

arrangements of the Education Depaebment, " Hence the latter witnesses protested emphatically 'against the '~adl1Jissioll' to 'the new register of any certificated teachers enga.ged in +public elementary schools.t") Those who: 'teJ0KJ Wis' more exclusive attitude urged that, in any election' on '0, 'cdrmnon -register, the teachers in elementary wduld: swamp those '~h 'secoudary: schools, the latter being less united and therefore; '!for electoral purposes, comparatively weak.(I'.) They also d1velt on the arguments tbat the spheres of Elementary and-Secondary Education should be kept distinct and separate; than, as"a secondary school teacher, much as he would of ben r~keJto d6 -so, cannot at will enter into certificated SerVlCe in a public elementary school, au elementary school teacher would be unfairly favoured' if, preserving his own territory for his- own exclusive use, he was free to make excursions a~ p1easure'mto the field of. Secondary Education, and finally that, wheh - this partial registration became soundly established; the method' might be extended' downwards so as to make regish~ati6n lake the place of certification. The rejoinder of thos'e who desire t~at employment in a public elementary school should 'form no bar to registration, was that one of the causes of ',yet;J~ness in English education is the social estrangement between different grades' 'of teachers; that the middle wall of partition should be broken down, and facilities given for good teachers to pasll, 8.'> the case may be, from secondary to elementary', from elementary to secondary, schools; that the present; separation between ele,men'ta,ry and secondary instruction has ibsroobs, not in the nature of things, but in the diversity of administretive regulations which Call! be' more easily reformed by a united profession than by one divided into sections; that distinctions I between teachers in different grades of schools are artificial and unreal, save only as they correspond to differences itt intellectual :a'ttf}oiµment 0'1' professional competence i that a register w hich drew a line between secondary and elementary ~chools,il'1'espective of the' attainments or aptitude of the teachers engaged in them, .would include many who should be -shub out, aud shut out manY' who would satiEfy any reasonable: tCf?t of mental' qualification or of: technical skill; that the simple policy of having, one registe» fql' all duly qualified teachers is 1\.1Sd the sound one; that any other plan would fail to achieve 'its ,fundamental object of marking off the skilled teacher from the-unskilled.

This difference of opinion- >" ~'.is -well kllown,_p~e of long standing. It has become alplOf?~ a traditional dispute.(S) It has helped to delay legislation ,1i):pd !Ia§ prevented the teaching profession from realising what seems-s-this one point apal't--to be its undivided aim. Unless, therefore, some ,via medio, of compromise can be found, it would seem as i;f the two parties, ,~h0ugh both desi.ring registration, .must remain, in the ,pos,ition of stale mate. It is consequently InU~P. to be wished that a waymny .be found to compose this difference, . T<2 some extent, indeed, it is


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admitted that the lapse of time bas changed the position of affairs and, by altering the outlook, has opened the way to a settlement of the dispute. . When registration was first proposed in 1860--and it should be remembered that Lllo pioneers in the movement were those who still desire to limit the register to teachers in secondary schools-it was conceived by its promoters that the registration council would be the starting point for the organisation of Secondary Education. They wanted to know the facts; and the machinery of registration would, they thought, make it possible to collect tbem.(l) Obviously, therefore, there were practical reasons why the register should then be confined to teachers actually engaged in secondary schools. To include others would have been to embarrass the council with a mass of irrelevant information. So rar as knowing the exact numbers of teachers 'Working in secondary schools was concerned, they would have been very little the "wiser with a widely inclusive register than they were without it. But now the position has changed. Begistratiun is proposed, not us a single measure to como by itself, but as a part of a larger scheme. For the collection of statistics and information as to the position of schools and teachers other machinery will be provided. Registration can no longer be considered as preceding or preparing the way for further legislatjon, but as one factor in a larger statute providing tbab part, of the machinery which win ensure improvement in the qualification of the teachers.

These considerations suggest the possibility of an arrangement which should meet the views of both parties to this long dispute. Everyone agrees that the register should prescribe a high level of qualification. It should only register what is worth registering. e) To pitch the standard low would be to deprive the register of its chief value as a guide to the public and as a stimulus to the teaching profession, For, if registration conferred no distinction, many teachers of high standing would not trouble to enter their names on the roll, and, consequently, absence from the register would not nedessari.ly imply inferiority of qualification. If, however, the standard were kept high, if admission to the roll were granted only to those who produced evidence of considerable attainment and practised skill, then registration would be coveted as [L distinction, exclusion would be a recognised mark of inferiority and incompetence. The public would soon corr.e to know that, in seeking l'egistration, a candidate had a fair field and no favour, and that they had some gual'antee of the skill and knowledge of those wbose names were inscribed on the 1'9lJ. To the impartial tests imposed on candidates for registration. all teachers would justly be admitted without regard to their sphere (If employment or place of previous preparation, Whether a teacher chose to work in. a private or endowed, in an elementany or a secondary, school, or was engaged by a private family, would be indifferent to the registering auhhority.(3) Its duty would be to secure the due qualification of every person


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who aspired to a place on the list. It is probable that in every grade of the profession some would prudently shrink from such an ordeal. It is certain that in eyery branch of teaching many would be found worthy to challenge it.

113. It was suggestccl by some of our witnessest ') that the register, presumably arranged in alphabetical order, would show in four columns, (a) the names of the teachers, (b) the date of registration, (c) their qualification as regards attainment, and (d) their qualiflcabion as regards professional competence. This would meet the admitted ditJiculty of allY classification by gnl.de of sch 001. (2) The latter plan would, indeed, prove in practice to bo im possible, because teachers already pass from one grade and kind of school (;0 another, and such tr8J)Sferences are likely to become more frequent, not rarer, in the future. Therefore, were classification by schools adopted as the baS1S of its arrangement, the regis tor would need incessant revision, and would at any moment be misleading. At the same time, if classification by qualification were introduced, it would btl a simple matter to add to each teacher's name a letter or mark to show his or her mnge of scholastic experience, Convenience might also suggest a second part of the register in which the same name.'> would be arnmged in separate divisions according to the special character of their qual ification, C') Similarly there would need to be appendices containing supplemental lists of teachers qualified to teach special subjects, such as foreign languu.ges, drawing, music, domestic economy, gymnastics, &C.(4)

114. Upon the question whether, at the first formation of a register, all existing teachers should by vested right be admitted to its privileges, some di versity of opinion showed itself. (a) One view was that, in order to conciliate opposition, all existing teachers, however indifferently qualified, should be allowed to register. Those who held this opinion preferred to have the register complete from the first, and to purge it by degrees.(S) One witness argued that such indiscriminate admission would do no harm because a teacher without cualiflcations, degrees, or anything of the kind, would appear on the register, without anything to recommend him.CO) Another .thought that all who had been teaching continuously for a period or, say, two years, should be placed on the register as an act of fairness and policy." (b) A second view was that, as it is very desirable to diminish anything like fear, jealousy, or antagonism, there should be formed a transitional, or preliminary, as distinguished from the permanent, register. e) Teachers admitted to this would have time given them to prepare themselves for the tests imposed by the Edncational Council. (c) A third view was that proposed by the Headmasters' Conference, viz., that existing teachers should only be admitted to the reg'ister on satisfactory evidence of attainments, Dot suffering, however, any legal disnbil'iby in case of their exclusion. This opinion, which had already received the


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sanction of the Select Committee of the House of Commons, WI1S strongly maintained by some of our witnesses.r') one of whom/'') stated that" he would be very g1ad indeed to take It " class, for instance, before lHr. Fitch, and let him judge " whether he handled the class properly or not." He would value very much, he added, the entry against his name in the register, showing that he WIkS qualified to teach as well ad that he possessed a. university degree. It may be presumed t11at if persons who had been engaged in . teaching in secondary schools for, s~y, throe years, before the formation of tIle register, were entitled to registration on producing satisfactory evidence of intellectual acquirements and competence to teach, the Educational Council would exclude very few existing teachers possessed of reasonable qualifications and of long experience.P)

It should be added that several witnesses expressed the opinion that the formation of a register should take place as early IkS possible and might well precede the organisation of Secondary Education.I") . In this way, it was explained, there would be constituted a professional body whom the central and local authorities could, on their establiahment, consult, from whom, as they thought, the teachers' representatives could be drawn, and by whom they could be elected. There was also a general disposition among the witnessas to concur with the proposals made to the Select Committee that a Tee should be charged :[01' registration, but that its amount, which it was thought should be kept as low as possible, might properly be left to the determination of the Educational Conncil.

PROFESSlONAL EDUCATION OF TEACHERS

115. With two exceptions the witnesses who dealt with this subjecf agreed that intending teachers, should prepare for their work by going through some course of special professional education. Jlrh. Bowen, of Harrow, (5) expressed the opinion that such preparation was not worth the trouble, expense, and delay which it involved. In his view, the teacher's natural gifts and character are so pre-eminently the determining cause of his success that the addition of training as a qualitication has a value so small thfl.t it may be disregarded. He admitted, indeed, that he spoke specially from the point of view of the ga:et1.t pll blic boarding school, and thought it possible tbn,t the value of pro~essi.onnl education, 118 compared with that 6£ Ql'iginitl character, might count for mora in day schools of all grades, Mr. Raleigh, who holds that "i.it is not the office of the " university to train men for teaching, or for any other pro" Iession.t'(") combined with this the optimistic view that" almost " any honours man will make a good, teacher, if he is con" scientious, and if he has the luck to fall into .the hands of a good headmaster."

116. But the case for professional preparation was 'Urged with impressive force by many witnesses who had paid considerable


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attention to the subject. Mr. Fitch, Mr. Sharpe, Canon Daniel, Mr. Barnett. represent a very wide ex-perience of trainin~ colleges iforteachel's 'both in secondary and in elementary schools. Miss !Beale, Miss Hughes, and Miss Woods were able to lay before us in detail an account of the ideals and methods under which women are trained for the work of teaching in the women's training collegos. University witnesses in their memoranda -aflirmecl, on genel'al grounds, the needs of the case; and Professor Sully' ,iii particular contributed to the salle effect the result of much experience as a lecturer to teachers on ,the sciences that 'underlie their subject, N or did the witnesses from the schools dissent: masters and mistresses were generally agreed, no less that professional preparation is a proper means to practical efficiency, than that practical efficiency is a necessary condition Tor registration.

An idea so generally accepted scarcely seemed to need defence, but its more ardent advocates were prepared to expound and defend it. There is a great deal tbat can be learnt by C experience," said Miss Hughes,(l) "that can also be learnt by gaining a certain amount of knowledge of the sciences that c underlie the art of education," These sciences are psychology, logic, and ethics, regarded more especially as throwing light on the natural development of thought and character, and the part which the educator can play in stimulating, modifying, 01', by inadvertent ignorance, checking this development. To Jearn by reflection before experience is better than to learn by experience merely, because thus the pupils are protected from injuries wrought by a mere" 'prentice hand," and also because experience, apart from a thoughtful habit of analysing and understanding it, is apt to degenerate into a routine, which. is Iikcly to remain unoribicised so fur as it may be fairly comfortable, Experience may confirm error, instead of correcting it. The problem of kep,ping order in a ClI1S8(2) was frequontly reierred to as an example of what preliminary study and discipline ran do to prevent failure from the firsb. It furnishes no less an example of what may be done by study of the human sciences to prevent the iron-handed pedagogue from imagining that the silence or terror which be succeeds in inspiring has-much in COJ)lOlOlJ. with the orderliness of a selfreapecting will. The man who fails to keep order is the bugbear of the schools" but the man who succeed" in keeping it by the wrong means is as gl't'at a danger. '1:0 keep order with" the least friction' possible 'J is to solve the problem of combining freedom with law, and this is obviously a problem on tli e solution of which philosophy has-much to say, ana. the experienced teacher much to tell, by which-the novice can profit beforehand.

The need of minimising the proportion of experience gained at the expense of the children was insisted upon :in answer to the argu.men,t agaillst professionul education based on the greater .importance of natural ability., ct The very good men who, would


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" be good teachers under any circumstances were saved a very a great deal by the training they got; they did not make the " same number of mistakes, nor was it necessary tor them to make " the same number of experimenta{') The same witness, after having instanced several special points of method in which the novice could be trained, went 011 to point out that the chief' value of such study of method consists in the suggestion thus made to him, in a gTeat variety of. ways, that jt may always be possible to discover more scientific methods of work.i 2) Thus. be is guarded permanently against becoming a bond-slave to mere tradition. In short, the object of professional education and, to a large extent, its defence, consist, as the witnesses conceived it, in laying the foundations for building up in the teacher a right attitude of mind towards all questions of teaching and influence, and this on the moral no less than on the intellectual side. Even the teacher's necessary qualities of sympathy and patience may be taught,(3) i e., "developed under instruction and counsel," in the teacher's novitiate.

Course of Professional Education

117, Here again there WI1S considerable agreement as to the

ssential factors of the teacher's professional education. This should include a careful and thorough study of principles " along with that of methods, and adequate practice iu the actual business of teaehing.t'(") According to their personal experience and natural bent" different witnesses were disposed to lay different degrees of stress on these three parts of the necessary preparation. Miss Cooper felt tbat it was more important to see to the theoretical than to the practical side.e) Mr. Barnett emphasised the self-critical habit of mind and practical interest in the discovery of method developed by thediscipline of ten ching under criticism.(G) But no one recommended practice only, or theory only, though many dwelt on the difficulties of securing conditions favourable n.t the same time' to both.

The study of principles includes such study of physiology, psychology, logic, and ethics, as bears more especially on educational problems. The limits of tills study were not discussed by the witnesses, bUG obviously it has no definite limit, and, in so far as the propel' Iife-study of the teacher is tlreproblem of education, his preparatory studies can only be' resarded as laying the foundations of an interest to be afterw~rds satisfied rcore fully. As an educator, he is called upon to study without ceasing the endless variety of human nature. As an instructor, he needs to be master of logical method in the subjects of knowledge with which he deals.

With this study of the ground sciences of education should go the consequent study of methods, both general and speeia], The witnesses were also of opinion, and the custom of tho


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colleges corresponds, that some time should be devoted to the history of education. Out of this study treated by a skilful lecturer there arises, in perhaps the easiest an.d most attractive way, the philosophical discussion of fundamental questions as to the nature of the object pursued in all educational efforts, Principles, methods, and history together constitute what is known as the theory of education.

118. By "practice" is meant for the most part. " practical teach(; ing under the eye of the teacher.jmd also watching the teacher teach." This includes the supervision of notes 1)£ lessons, criticism oftbe leseons as giveo,O reports of progress, the observation of individual children, the discussion of concrete difficulties as they arise in the student's experience of the schools, the malll1gement or partial management of a class continuously, and visits to schools to bear teachers.

Apart from difficulties of execution, to be considered presently, there was a fairly general presumption in favour of carrying on pcwi passu, as far as possible, the two sides of the teacher's training. That the practice should not precede the theory is of the very essence of the conception as above deacribed.t") But there is more room for debate in determining how far it is necessary that practice should not Jag far behind theory in time. On this point Professor Sully is the most emphatic witness, speaking for practice in the interest of theory much as the teachers speak for theory in the interests of practice, "The C( theoretical and practical parts of training ought, I think, to C( be brought as closely together as possible, in tume, and to inter-penetrate each obher/'(") This is done by the appeal to principles in the criticism of lessons and notes of lessons, It is C( only when students have thus clothed the principle with " ample practical illustration that it acquires a definite meaning; " but for this it is apt to lie in their minds as little ruore than a u meaningless verbal formula," As thus regarded, the relation of theory to practice is similar to the relation of books and lectures on chemistry to work in the laboratory.

Miss Beale, whose ideal was a course of two years, held that the best arrangement is to attach the theory to the practice, by establishing departments for the professional education of teachers in connexion with large schools.o) This view was bound up with the opinion that students should not begin to practice themselves until they bad made some progress in educational studies, and spent time in observing good teachers, it being better to begin by understanding why a good lesson is good than by criticising the bad points of a bad one. Contrasted with this is the custom of the Cambridge 11:aining CoUege, where model lessons arc not given by bhe staff; on the gl'olmd that the danger of blind imitation is serious,(5) and where the ideal is that in all particulars, the student's own mind must take the lead in his tl'aining.(~) The sbudeut's own practice, rather than observation of another person's methods, is, on this view, even from the first, the true necessary complement


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of the lecture on theory, The model lesson corresponds to the demonstration in science beaching. Like the demonstration, however, its value cannot be denied, though it should noli, as it can, be overrated, If the object of training. is to make the teacher scientific in his work, then the essential conditions are that the studies of the lecture-room shall go hand in hand with Lhe student's own experimental work in the school, and with observation of similar work more skilled.

119 . For bhe length of the training course, a session of about 30 weeks extending through an academic yeaI' was claimed generally for the teachers' colleges, though two years would have he en preferred by some,(l) and the year of probation after training, suggested by several,e) and supported by the experience of Germany, goes neal' to being a variant of this view. According to it, the one year spent in combined study and practice, as above described, is to be followed by another year of practice with some supervision under the actual conditions of regular school work.

Machinery of Professional Education

120. Opinions uncler this head fall into three divisions, but in each case +'het'e was a notable absence of dogmatism and a most tolerant. desire that different. experiments should be tried, and every variety or effort made in order to (cover the ground and overcome practical difficultiea

a. Colleges for Teachers The ideal of the coUege for teachers, as carried out in those that have been established specially for women teachers in secondary schools, is the association of 40 or 50 students under the control of one educational head, to attend lectures, and practice under collegiate supervision in a school or schools, This is the experiment that has been tried In London Cheltenham, and elsewhere, and, combined with the use of the university lectures, at Cambridge. ..8..paJ:'G from the difficulty of inducing" the best educated students to spend another year, and its cost, on professional education, there is evidence to show that this method has worked wen and is capable of groat developments. The close association in collegiate life of :t group of persons for a limited time, all intent on the same study-a study fraught with incitements to intellectual interest and social enthusiasm -i~ in itself certain to develope a concrete unity of. thought and character corresponding to the aim proposed. To several otoui' witnesses the college for teachers seemed the ideal. .

"I'he English colleges for women teachers send out annually 'ovm! 100 women prepared to teach, exclusive of kindergarten mistresses. It must be admitted, however, that in the amount 91 their knowledge equipment there is great variety among these teaS!l~ei's, From all, at entrance on the trainip.g course, some certificate of knowledge is required, but the requirement varies between wide limits, those examinations which correspond


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to a goo-i school leaving examination standing at the lower lilllit,(i) The requirements are in the main the same as those prescribed for admission to the Cambridge examination for teachers. The evidence goes to show that the less qualified at present predominate in numbers over those more fully equipped, a facfif which is no doubt 'largely due to the difficulty many students have in providing funds Ior one year's professional education in addition to a three or four years' university course, and to the' objection whichmore have to so large an expenditure with so uncertain a result. But, whatever the cause, the fact is certain that, notwithsbaading the excellent work that has been done, there is still a scant supply, even of women, who are trained and, at the same time, highly qualified in Imowledge. There are, on the other hand obvious reasons why those less qualified in knowledge should turn to the teachers' colleges for the sake of making up their deficiencies. It still remains to find means by which students of academic standing shall be drawn freely into these colleges; and in due course, no doubt, the standard for admission should be raised for all.

It nevertheless remains as a solid, fact(2) satisfactory so far as it goes, that 86 women who had previously received a university education have been trained to teach at the Camhridge College. 52 of these are graduates of London, Victoria, or the Royal University; Ireland : 10 have taken. a Cambridge Tripes, and I the OxfordExaminabion equivalent to the degree : the remaining 23 have taken It course of two years or so at one of the women's colleges. This college, it should be noticed, "was " originally started to train those who had been graduates." The S6 above-mentioned are out of a total of 283 .

.A. more general demand on the part of schools {01: the double qualification would certainly increase the number of, teachers possessing it, One large girls' school, for example, has on its staff 13 women hole ling certificates as secondary teachers, of whom 9 have also, "with more or less cl istinction, the qualification of university graduates, Out of 140 graduates on that staff these 9 have the teachers' qualiflcation.P) But as a general rule there can be no doubt thl1t women.Jike men, with good university qualifications can obtain employment without special professional preparation.

121. b. Apprenticeship in Schools The primitive form of apprenticeship is the 'student-teacher system, still much used in some girls' schools, and affording at least a partial training to many girls who afterwards become teacliers. n resembles the pupil-teacher system of the elementary schools, differing, however, in the superior age and attainment of the student teacher in the secondary school, who is an ex-school girl combining a continuance of some portion of her school studies with a certain amount of ~ching. Miss Kennedy found student teachers employed in three-fiftbs of the public schools, endowed. and proprietary, which she visited in the West Rirlirig.(


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Kitchener (1) found in the part of Lancashire she visited, that schoolmistresses, (C all, without exception, spoke highly of the (I student-teacher system. and said thnb, provided these girls (( did not count as part of the school staff and there were not " too many of them, there was not the least danger to the " pupils of the schools where they were trained," This approval of the student ' teacher system was in contradistinction to p.xpressions of doubt or disapproval of training as gillen in training colleges. The former makes of course no provision for instruction in theory, but there are those who think sueh instruction of little value,

The school apprentice proper differs from the student teacher in this essential respect, that he is givillg his whole. time to the study and practice of his profession. He has already been equipped with knowledge of his subject. The proposal to train schoolmasters by apprenticeship in good schools found favour with the Headmasters' Conference, as a proposal, as long ago as 1873, but it does not ::Ippear to have been systematically carried into effect in English schools for boys, It 'has been put on trial in some girls' schools, but we were told by two headmistresses who have tried it that their inability to combine the t.raining of a few apprentices with other work have proved a serious drawback to the experiment. This experience points to the employment of a mistress or master of method as an essential part of the scheme, which on the whole cannot be said to have had a rail' trial in England as yet.(2) The desirability of giving it such a. trial in the present experimental stage of rl e matter was recognised by witnesses who did not specially ad vocate it.

It remains, for the most part, still as an idea very imperfectly realised, obviously in Deed of development, and apparently capable of such development, The German system of " probationers" who are attached for one year to an accredited school before admission to the ranks of teachers, may be taken, however, as the same idea realised in its simplicity. It is noteworthy t])[l,t in Prussia a year's training at a Seminar has now been made a previous condition of the probationer's-' Probejahr," This is Dot so much the development of the probation or apprenticeship system as the addition to it of something like the college for teachers.

122. Certain of our witnesses proposed to develope the apprenticeship system in two ways: (1) by securing in the schools the presence of a master or mistress of method to take charge of the apprentices; (2) by making definite provision for instruction in the theory of ed u cation , According to ODe scheme, the student') would be attached to particular schools in a local group, and instruction in theory added by attendance on occasion at one centre.f'') According to another scheme, the university colleges were to become the centresj") where theory should be studied with 11 first-rate professor, while practical experience should be gained, first, as in Mjss Beale's view, by visiting schools to hear


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teachers, and afterwards by being attached to special schools givinp: part time under experienced teachers. It was thought that, by the development of these schemes, more variety of experience could be gained than is possible to the teachers' college and vits practising schools. On the other hand, it should be noticed that the students of teachers' colleges do visit other schools, and if this be not sufficient it would be possible to remedy the detect by systematically adding a period of such study to the regular course. Miss Cooper's proposal, however, approximates to the improved Prussian practice of a year's training in a university " Seminat," followed by the probationer's year in a school. It is not, far from coincidence with the next proposal iu its most developed form,

123. (c) Provision of professional education by the Universities There was a consensus of opinion in favour of associating all methods for the professional education of teachers as closely as possible with the universities. The problem of the direct provision of such education by the older universities is discussed most fully in the memoranda from members of the University of Oxford, Lectures on theory could readily be provided, and the weight of opinion inclined to the view that studies in educational science, in order to be real, should form a post-graduate course.t'') Several were, -and, as we think, rightly, disposed to consider this rule absolutely necessary. There is no room for professional studies in the years now devoted to other work by aspirants to university honours.

As regards the provision of a complete course, including practice in the schools of the university town, opinions were divided, Some held(2) that the university should provide for courses in theory, and that the half-fledged teachers should then be scattered to the schools, where arrangements for practical tmining should be made, this being no concern of the university lecturer on theory. On the other hand, the experience of the University of Cambridge/") appears to be in favour of making it somebody's business to undertake the supervision of the work as a single whole, Owing to a formal request, made by the headmasters in J 873, and to a memorial in 1877 addressed to the older universities, a teachers' traini11g syndicate was formed at Cambridge in 1878, to give opportunities for teachers to be trained mainly on theoretical, partly on practical, lines. The university supplied, and has ever since continued to supply, courses of lectures on teaching. Appointments to masterships, however, continued to be made independently of any previous professional preparation, and facilities for supplementing the university lectures by practical training in the schools were not forthcoming, In its original form the attempt failed, although the opportunity of connecting colleges for teachers with a university was speedily utilised' on behalf of women, and the university lectures were made the starting point for the foundation of the Cambridge Training College ~ol' Women.


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Mr. Arthur Sidgw.ick's proposalr') may be taken as the most complete expression of the idea that the training of teachers as a. whole is the Lusiness of the universities. He divides training into three parts: (1) instruction in the theory and history of education; (2) instruction in the practice; (3) apprenticeship. (2) corresponds exactl!f to the practical. work in the training college at Cambridge. (3) is a furtber stage added' to this: ,( A prolonged period of trial where the student is teaching " largely by himself, but under the general supervision of au! ': experienced person." Of tbese three parts of tra>ining, ,t the " two first might be taken at the university, find the third at school." For (2) of course a praccising school would be required, but experience shows tbat it would not be diflicult to obtain," On the other hand, Dr. J ackson(2) proposes that schools should be selected throughout the country suitable for practice in its first stage, and points out that the number of intending teachers is too great to be provided for in Oxford practising schools. To this contention the answer may be made that at £1'8t there will certainly be no excess of numbers, that all the university colleges, us well as the uni versibies; will, as the demand increases, take part ilJ the work.i and that the difficulty of: numbers had better be faced. when it arises, by new developments, the nature of which will become clearer by solving the problem in its limited form as it presents itself now, The training of 50 students a year for five years in the best conceivable way will make it easier to face the demand of ,500 at a Intel' date. ':L'oLtchers, like doctors, will not all require 10 be trained itt the Uni versities, Much will no doubt be done by the co-operation of schools and univeisity.celleges, as .in the Birmingham scheme described by Miss Cooperf"), and any scheme which holds good f01: a university may he undertaken also by a university college.

We are glad to learn that steps are being taken at the University of Oxford to realise the idea sketched by Mr. Al'Lhur Sidgwick. A group of universily students, under one master of metbod assisted by a lecturer on educational science, would have all the advantages of the training college, practice in the schools concurrently with study in the lecture room being granted. If to this the year of probation. in a school CIUl be added-a supervised, -but not an unsalaried year-all the advantages claimed. for the roost developed type (of the upprenbiceship system would be secured also.

The University of Cambridge has already done so much, both: by ibs examinatious and its lectures for teachers, that we look forward. with confidence .to some development of this work by it which will take practical effect on young men, as well as young women, intending to teach,

Nevertheless, there will no doubt be room and need for otherexperiments, one important type of: which might, in the absence of a university college, be apprenticeship in a group of schools with a university extension centre to maintain collegiate unity of influence, and provide lectures on the educational sciences.


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Secondary Departments of Day Training Colleges

124. An obvious additional means of trilinillg for secondary school teachers is the use of the day-braining colleges for el-mentary school teachers attached to the university colleges and universities. Hence the importance of deciding whether there is any reason why teachers having these two different destinations shall not be trained together. The evidence tends to show that there is some difficulty in adapting the same courses of lectures to both,(l) but that the difference is in the kind of education each has previously received, "rather than in the I( spheres to which they go.'\~) The secondary student comes better provided with general education, the elementary student has already some practical skil1.(S) The training college has to deepen and widen the culture of the one, and to teach the most elementary technique of his profession to the other, And when they meet in the lecture room to study educational theory, the better educated mind is more prone to seize on principles, the less educated, but more practical, to look for rules.r') The inference is not far to seek So rp,r as secondary teachers. are trained, the order of development in their training is better: (1) general knowledge, (2) special training. The elementary system needs reform/") to bring it more into line with this order; and by such reform the special training of the elementary training college would become available for secondary teachors, at the same time that the elementary school teacher in his novitiate becomes more capable of taking 'his special course in the university training' college. This view carries with it the suggestion that the literary course should precede the traming course in the training departments of the university colleges.

But at present there is some difference in the work traditionally required in the spheres to which, respectively, the secondary and the elemcutary school teachers go, a difference mainly consequent on the large classes required by the economy of elementary schools. Large classes require methods of teaching which secure order, attention, and clearness of exposition; but the subtle educational ali; which makes every learner do his own thinking -n'ot rote Iearning-c-for himself can only be exercised in a large class when both its teacher and ifsmembers havereceived part of their training ill smaller groups,' The elementary school teacher aims at the virtues incident to a large well-managed class-order, attention, a clear lead by the teacher, docile co-operation in the class. The secondary school teacher, wi th his smaller group, needs these virtues less, whilst he needs others more, because it is more open to him to cause his pupil to learn by stimulus rather than guidance, by suggestion rather than exposition, by the active effort of thought rather than by comparatively passive attention. The teachers in the two spheres have tasks laid upon them which do so far differ in the first requirements of each; but neither is a masher in his own sphei e if he cannot practice the arts most necessary to the other, The


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faults of the commoner sort in each may be cured by study of the other's perfections. And so an inference may be drawn in favour of unity of training. Separate provision may always tend to stereotype the characteristic faults to which each is liable.

General Relation of the Universities to Professional Education for Teachers

125, Almost all the advocates of professional education for teachers looked to the universities(l) for at least such supervision as consists in gran~ing certificates of efficiency to the trained teacher, The Universities of Cambridge, London, and quite recently Victoria, have already undertaken this function, The present examinations are, however, of an elementary character, regarded from the point. of view of those who are nnxious for the developmenb of the science of education. Several witnesses ad vocated, for the encouragement of higher sbudies, the establishment of a degree in educational sciencet-), to follow the regular degree and be of an advanced character; and Professor Sully submitted to us a definite scheme for such a degree pussed. in 1893 by the Convocation of the University of London,

Cost of Training

129. We were met on all sides by two difficulties as regards the cost of training: (3) (1) It was shown by the experience of the two women's training colleges that with 40 or 50 students the current expenses could be just paid a.t a moderate fee, 65l. for residents, 30l. for non-residents, but that buildings and equipment could' not be provided without endowment in some form. Suggestions as to the possible source of such endowments were, however, conspicuously absent. Private donation may be expected to aid in the future as it has done in the past, and there appears to be no reason why the supply of buildings, when these are necessary, might not even be made the object of grants from local authorities of the State. (2) While there seems to be it gene!';'ll acceptance of the view that, apart from buildings, training colleges should be fee-supported-that :it was better for education that the rank and file of teachers should pay for their professional preparation-the need of an ample scholarship fund was pressed 1lpon us by evidence, again and ngain repeated, that the expense and time req uired for an additiouad year of preparation was a serious stumbling block to the uni versity student intending to teach. SI)JIle means for enabling university scholars to hold their scholarships for an additional year after graduaLion does certainly seem necessary. There is much to be said for leaving others to train at their own expense. This is the case in other professions; there is no good object to be gained by bribing ordinary persons to enter iuto anyone rather than another of the learned professions. If professional qualifica-


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tion is required by law, and the professional outlook fairly good, a sufficient number of the rank and file will be found ready to pay their way.

Salaries

127. As regards school finance and the remuneration of the teacher, some interesting and important, though necessarily incomplete, evidence has been submitted to us, more especially by the Associations of Assistant Masters and Assistant Mistresses respectively, The masters estimated the necessal'y current cost of education per boy in a second grade school as ranging from 1M, in a school of 100 to 12l. in a school of 300,(,) The mistresses os tim ate the corresponding cost per gil-l to range from 13l. io a school of 100 to lOl. in a school of 250l" it being expressly stated that this is the lowest possible cost, salaries so low as BOl. being given to same of the mistresses. e) The masters estimate the average salary of assistants necessary in the smallest school at 150l., in the largest at 200l. The mistresses tiuggest the corresponding figures very modestly at 112l, and ll7l., but allow a rather larger staff for the same number of pupils. It should be noticed that in these estimates, as well as in the actual facts, it appears that there are two causes which tend to make the salaries of the women less than those of the men. The sum allowed pel' girl is less, and the number of teachers among whom it is divided is more. The desirability, where women are concerned, of a staff large enough to do the work efficiently without overwork and over-strain is so great, as to suggest the warning that, if cost is forced down ,,0 low as to make salaries lesa than will permanently attract well-qualified women, it may become necessary to force tbem up again by diminishing the staff to the detriment, doubtless, of the education giveu. A. very cheap school means either a very small staff:' or a very badly paid one, and in neither case can the efficiency of the worker be maintained,

128. The statistics collected by the assistant masters show that while in 10 of the best schools the average salary is 242 . 771. the average in 190 others is only 105 . 19l" the average of all being no more than 135 '22l,(3) These figures can, of COLll'S~, only be treated as affording true averages with the reservation that the schools to which they refer have not actually been shown to be typicnl of the whole, As far as they go, they indicate clearly the existence of a large number of very small salaries, and correspond, without doubt, to the existence in the schoolmaster's profession of many who are mel'e birds of

*This Table docs not include any estimate for (i) rent, interest on capital, or. expenses of management of endowment, (ii) rates and taxes on school buildings, (iii) provision for physical education (iv) scholarships aud exhibitions. Repairs ure included.

†Rent, rules, taxes, lind insurance uro included, but the rent is only suflicieut to allow for makeshift buildings.


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passage picking up a small income 0.11 their way to other careers, of some, moreover, who are permanently worth for any career no more than they get, and of better men who are forced to eke out a living by doing other work in time saved by. the perfunctory performance of their scholastic duties. One or other of these evils is sure to ensue where salaries are insufficient to induce able men' to enter a profession permanently and with intent to give themselves to its work.

The assistant mistresses' statistics show the average salaries given in four types of schools. For 11 of the best schools the average reaches 1471., as compared with the masters' 242l. which latter :figuro does not of COUl'Se include the salaries of the great public schools. The other averages are n3t. for the Girls' Public Day Schools, 112l. for ~L group of. seven second gl'ade, and 84l, for a group of cight third grade schools.ft) The mistresses' minimum, as here indicated, sinks much below the masters', and the depression as regards thc maximum is still more marked. The pressure is, no doubt, most relt in the difficulty of securing a rising salary for the more experienced teachers, and points to a condition of affairs in which the young and inexperienced, though POOl', are happy in hope as compared with their seniors. The juniors in a school with average salary of 84l" however, can certainly not maintain themselves in a state of efficiency, nor are young women with such professional prospects likely to take much pains and spend much money on qualifying themselves as really skilled labourers in education.

In neither case are these salaries supplemented by allY T)rovision f(Jr old age. 1£ there is to be such provision, it must be saved ott\; of them, a consideration which, taken with the longer normal period of a woman's old age, makes the smallness of the women's salaries more glaring.

The headmasters were quite in agreeme with the assistants as regards the inadequacy of the salary fund in lDany schools. Salaries as low as Sot, or 70l. were reported,(2) and stress laid on the still more dispiriting circumstance thnt men go on from year to yettr with salaries never rising above 100l, or 120l.(3) These low salaries occur when the cost of education pel' boy is 10l" and the witnesses held that the propcr estimate of cost.is 12l. pel' head in.a second grade school of 300 boys, whereas .the school finance in many cases allows UI') more than 7l.('I) In consequence of the low salaries mauy masters in these schools :11'0 not university graduates, and many give as little time as they CUll to their school work, bcing obliged to take other work to make up an income.I'') Thus, there are clear indications from the evidence that, the best work of efficient men is prevented-by inadequate salaries from flowing into the schools. It should be noted that the low salaries at Bedford, of which Dr, Poole spoke, go with very low fees, and the low fees 'With the well-known extraordinary flow to Bedford of parents with children requiring education. (G) ,


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Respecting assistant mistresses' salaries the headmistresses told a similar tale, but withoub details. A joint committee of heads and assistants had been appointed to enquire into the subject, and the results of enquiry so far were given by the assistant mistresses, it being understood that the heads were e~ilirclyln a,gl'eement. As examples of'-Iow salaries 60l" 40l., 35l. were stated from personal experience.r') It is believed, too, that the tendency of salariea is to fall. In many schools the finance is so strait that the school is kept going by a succession of junior teachers at low salaries, As soon as these teachers wane more, and are fairly entitled to it, they have to go,(2) The injurious effects of such a condition of finance is obvious. "The efficient scuools in educational results are those whore the staff " is a fairly permanent one and a fairly well paid one."(3), H may be added that better salaries would make it better worth the teacher's while to enter the profession fully equipped, i.e. by a university and training course exten(ling over foul' or five years. There are gradations of efficiency in teaching-more than in most other profeasious, and this lays it open to a special danger of falling easily into the hands of the less efficient, if salaries arc not good enough to secure a better article.

129. With a view to remedying the lowness of salaries; the witnesses relied mainly on the sug'gestion of a more thoughtful administration of finance, so that in the determination, as well as the distribution, of the school fund the amount required for assistants' salaries should receive due conaideration. " We cc consider that it is necessal'Y in. establishing any school, to (C consider what is the minimum cost of efficient education per head, and to assign a certain proportion of that minimum to ct salaries for assistant ll1asters,"(~) Five pounds per boy was suggested as an "irreducible minimum" for aesietants in a second grade school, and, in the tables supplied, from fil. to n. was seb down as necesaary.I") The mistresses relied on the simple proposal that it should be the business of the educational authority to satisfy itself as to the soundness 01: finance in the schools which it eupervises.t") Particulars of salaries ought to be, but generally are not, set down in the accounts submitted by endowed schools to the Charity Commissioners. It was felt that the worst abuses would not occur if salaries were supervised by public opinion,

130. But behind <1,11 defects of cognisance lies, no doubt, the fact ,that low salaries cannot be raised without increase 'of school income, The obvious means of increase is to raise the fees in existing schoools, but this was thought impossible in many cascs,(') if not in general. TIle teachers refrained from any inference, but the inference certainly would seam to be tuat where the expenditure per head is too low, and the condition of the neighbourhood such that the authority judges it unwise to raise the fee, a grant must, be made to secure increused efficiency. With regard. to, the finance of new schools that may be established,


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there can be no doubt that local authorities will do well to' consider the importance of making adeq uute provision to secure the Sel'ViC83 of elficieut teachers, and the proposal deserves consideration that out of the generul income of the school there should be set apart for the salaries of assistants a definite sum in respect of every scholar on the books. Adequate salaries will not, indeed, create the educational zeal and self-devotion which must characterise the whole body of teachers if national education is to be the great force which it may become. Zeal and sell -devotion gro\v from other seeds than those of self-regard, but the absence. 01 conditions neceseary to a reasonable degree of well-being must nevertheless, in the long run, quench their vitality, Salaries below the level necessary for the fulfilment of tbese conditions tend. to unsettle the young, to dispirit altogether the old, to discourage the skilled, and make inevitable the unskilled worker, to 10,,\Ter the scholastic tone by privation of the means of culture in mallY ways, and to depress, by the constant vexation of poverty, spirits that should be always ready to 'respond to the elasticity of youth.

Theiinetincb of the teachers is no doubt correct in leading them to trust that remedies will, be found more readily if theattention of local authorities is given to the subject, when questions of fees are under discussion, The willingness of parents to pay may easily be under-estimated, if it is not borne in mind that deterioration lurks in the cheapness of the over-cheap school. The establishment' of county scholarship schemes OIl a Iarge. scale, with benefits limited in application to the poorer children, will make it more possible to maintain, at an adequate level, the. fees of those who pay,

APPOINTMENT AND DISMISSAL OF THE TEACHING STAFF

131. "With regard to the appointment of the head and assistant teachers, our witnesses have shown themselves in general agreement with the recommendation of the Schools Enquiry Commission, viz., that, subject to certain conditions as to the. intellectual attainments and practical experience of the candidates, the governing body should appoint the head, and the head the assistant teacbers.P) EXCE'pt in the case of third grade schools, where they place the appointment in the hands of the governors, (2) this plan has been adopted by the Charity Commissioners, and seems to have worked well.l") In girls' schools, however, they have, until recently, followed a slightly differen t practice, In the King Edward's School at Birmingham, for example, while the headmaaters appoint their assistants without any check or control, the headmistresses make their appointments subject to the approval of the govemors.r') This distinction ~ppear8 to date from a time when women were comparatively unaccustomed to positions of administrauive .responsibility, and, in practice, the proviso has already become little more than nominal. Thus we


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were informed/") that, in the case of the Girls' Public Day School Company, though the assistant mistresses are appointed by the council, the Iatter rarely initiates a nomination, but acts on the advice of the headmistress, whose recommendation seems to be virtually an appointment.P) No one, indeed, has more to lose by the unwise choice of an assistant, or by the loss of an able and experienced colleague, than the head himself. The tone, the efficiency, and the success of the school largely depend on the loyalty and ability of his staff. It is wisest, therefore, to rely upon his judgment in the choice of assistants. A man ploughs best with his-own heifer,

132. As to the regulations which should be laid clown with regard to tlle dismissal of teachers, there has been a long controversy and is still much conflict of opinion. The Schools Enquiry Commission recommended that the governors should have po,ver to dismiss the headmaster at discretion and without appeal, and that to the headmaster should be ass}gned the dismissal of his assistants, the governors not being allowed to interfere in the matter at flll.e) On this recommendation the Charity Courmissioners have based their policy, which is thus defended in their report for 1894: "Without assuming to decide authoritatively " the vexed questions as to an appeal against dismissal, either (( by a goveming body of a headmaster or by a headmaster of ,H an assistant master, we desire to lay stress on the importance " of keeping in view, above all, the interests of the scholars; l( and next, of securing the headmaster from rL too great weaken(( ing of his position, such as' would follow if he were himself ' dismissible at pleasure wibhout assignment of cause, and had " not an equivalent power over his assistants, upon whose " co-operation his own success must in large measure depend, ,( Whcn difficulties have arisen in either of these respects in the " working of schools, it will generally be found that the system " which has been followed in our schemes, of making the " governing body fully responsible for the appointment and -cc retention of the headmaster, and the headmaster in turn "solely responsible for. the selection and retention of his (( assistants, has riot been to blame, but that, owing to the " existence of vested interests, or from other causes, that system 133. There are obvious and weighty arguments in favour of the Schools Enquiry Commissioners' plan. It is simple, effective, final It makes responsibility individual, direct, clear, and, if the conditions of engagement are set forth in a legal agreement, welldefined. It has behind it all the force of the analogy which may be drawn from the organisation of the workshop. There, as in the school, it may be argued, the authority of the chief ultimately depends on his power to dismiss his su bordinates, One of om witnesses went so far as to urge the maintenance of the present system on the ground that "a school is a monarchical institution.t'(") nor would he give to the head the right of appeal


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which he refused to the assistant teacher. Admitting that there might have been cases in which the dismissed headmaster- was in the right and the governing body in the wrong, he sbill maintained bhat in :the long run it was better not to limit the latter's authority, as H"hard cases make bad law/'(')

Nevertheless, it is clear, that the"present system ma,y lead to occasional hardship, and is regarded by many persons with disfav~ur.(2) The objections, however, are more strongly urged against the absolute power of the headmaster 'bhau against the absolute power of che governing body. Indeed', one 'of out' witnesses held that there was no need 'to give a 'headmaster the l'igh~ of appeal against unjust dismissal, and that, even-if necessary, it would be impracticable. Suppose, he" argued, tha;t; such an appeal were successful and the headmaster were . reinstated, .in whab-position would he .be placed towards his govel'Ding, body? They could retaliate by cutting off part of his aalary,' "if a " headmaster cannot get on with his ,governing body, -it is " better for the school thit 1)(~ should go. If you; arc to take ~( your choice of two evils, between being unjust. to the head" master or unjust to the school, it is better to be unjust to the headmaster.' (3) ,

134. It is chiefly, therefore! in regard to the dismissal of assist;:tIl.t.teachers, that we have- received evidence whichpointe to the existence of some dissatisfaction with the present system, Thus, the representatives of the Association of Assistant Masters stated that, "The system of-dismissal at pleasure is felt by the " assistant masters as the keenest disability' under which they "suffer. Theil' salaries are .low, but they feel much more keenly " this system of dismissal at pleasure.t'(") Asked whether they "Iconld point to any case of an assistant masterin which there bad " been real hardship, i.e., where, through the action of a head" master, a man -had been discharged who.iif there had been an " appeal to the governing body, would not have been discharged," tuey-eeplied that (I Such cases are very difficult to speakabout, because the men affected are very ueluctant to make' ,any public statement of their case, ,Fortunately the " majority of headmasters are able and upright men, and it is " very much to the interest of a headmaster that he should not "act unjustly; but there is a considerable step between " knowing your interest and acting IIp to it. , . . An " assistant master never knows when he may nut be under a " headmaster of a different elass (from that described above), ", and it is that uncertainty which makes the regulation so -" objectionable." Similarly, the representatives of the~A3sista,nt Mistresses iµ:fol'med us that their Association'" thinks that in any

*Resolutions of the Incorporated Association of Headmasters:
"1. That this Assooiation is of opinion thnt, in the interests of secondary schools. it is desirable tbut the appointment and dismissal of assistant masters should remain entirelv in the hands of the headmaster.
2. That this Association is opposed to any appeal in cases of the dismissal of assistant-masters.
3. Thut the headmaster should promptly report propcsedchanges in the staff to his governing body."


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" scheme for the government of a school, there should be a right " of appeal to the governing body in the case of dismissal by " the head mistresses; in fact, tha~ the headmistresses should " have to apply to the governing body before ,giving notice of "dismissa.l.'~ Asked whether this is not already the practice in most proprietary or endowed schools for girls, ~he witnesses informed us that there wore a few exceptions, and that they thought the rule, which is now usual, should be made general in its application.Il)

Nor is this feeling against the absolute power of the head confined to ,the assistant teachers. Some headmasters are opposed .to the system, pal'tly because they believe that the sense of greater security which the right of appeal would give would bring to the school advantages more than counterbalancing the disadv.:mro.ge to the headmaster -. (2) The latter might lose somewhat in personal authority, but the school would gain by the greater contentment of the st3ttf. And, it :µJay be added, a strong headmaster derives his moral authority oyer his .colleagues from other sources than legal powers of dismissal at pleasure. Others, again, believe that a headmaster would often feel more at liberty to dismiss an inefficient, assistant if the latler had a right of appeal to the govenring body. For in such a case the governing body would have an opportunity of acquainting itself with the rights and wrongs of the case if it felt a,ny suspicion of the justice of the dismissal.I") Some headmasters, agaiu, may desire to be relieved from the responsibility of dischaT'~ing what must always be a painful duty, Further evidence of a feeling against the present system is found in the fact that some of the Joint Education Committees in Wales have preferred not to give the headmaster' :the. right of dismissing his assistants, but have stipulated thu.t the cousent of the goyerning body should be first obtained. C) Nor is. the feeling of recent origin,;:)0 long ago as 1872, between 3.PO and 400 assistunt masters in secondary schools addressed a"memol'ial to the Endowed Schools Commissioners, in which they submitted that "in all cases of dismissal of assistant " masters by the headmaster, there should be an appeal, either " to the governors 0,1' to some other court of appeal to be here after constituted." The reply of the Endowed Schools Commissioners was that they proposed" henceforth, in all schemes t( which gave the headmaster the right of dismissing assistant " masters to make such dismissal subject to an appeal to the governors," The subsequent action of the Commissioners shows that they adhered to this undertaking in the great majority of cases, but found ill necessary to make occasional exceptions. For example, the right of appeal was withdrawn from the draft scheme for Uppingham School, though the same privilege was retained in the scheme made at the same time for the sister school at Oakham. Objecting to this withdrawal, the memorialists again addressed the Commissioners in 1873, nnd received the reply that nothing which had previously been said DlUS~ be taken 3.'3 fettering the Commissioners in the free exercise ox their


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judgment, when considering the particular circumstances of each case, as it came before them.(l) But since 1874, when the Endowed Schools Commission was merged in the Charity Commission, 'the policy of the latter has reverted to the form recommended by the Schools EnCJ uiry Commissioners.

135. It should, however, be noticed that, in the schemes of the Charity Commissioners, the headmaster's right to dismiss his assistants is usually subject to certain practical limitationa The governing body generally fix the number of assistants to be employed, and yearly determine the amount which they think proper for the maintenance of the staff The headmaster's proposals for the division of this sum among the individual assistants have, usually, to receive the-approval of the governors. And, as he is required to make each yen!' a report to the governors on the work 01 the school, any action of his ill regard to the dismissal of the assistant masters is brought under the notice of the governing body, who, by their control of the purse, may influence his procedure in future cases, and, if they disapprove of his policy, may dismiss him from his office. The headmaster's power over his assistants may thus be practically less absolute than the governing body's power over him.

There is much to be said ror the contention that objections to the present system are not equally felt in a1.1 grades of secondary schools. III the gl'eat public schools, the assistant masters have every opportunity 01 making an effective appeal to public opinion in the event .or injustice being done to them. Thus, the Bishop of London had " no doubt tliltt in the schools which are " commonly called the public schools, it is quite right that the '. " headmaster should have the absolute power of' appointment " and dismissal, But to say the same thing of all headmasters " of secondary schools is, he thought, going too far, and he would be inclined to give an appeal." (2) It is chiefly in the small second g~'ade schools, and especially in those so situated as to be remote from public opinion, that safeguards seem to be required in order to protect the assistant masters ngainst capricious dismissal.I")

But it is easier to recognise the evils which may arise from the working of the present system, than to devise a remedy for them, No regulations indeed can make all hardships impossible. It may become necessary to reduce the staff through fluctuations i.n the attendnuce at the school. Changes in educational requirement may compel a headmaster to seek nm assistant with qualifications not possessed by some older member of the staff, with wbose services it may thus be round necessary to dispense. Teaching power, again, is subject to rapid decline. These ai'e all unavoidable causes of painful dismissal, the hardship of which can at best be lessened in some cases by a scheme of pensions or superannuation, But what can be checked is inconsiderateness and caprice, And it is to Jessen the liability of evil from these causes, that suggestions have been made to us for a change in the present conditions of employment.


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136. Some have advocated a right of appeal to the central or local authority. Thus, the Bishop of London would give assistants in second-grade schools an appeal to the county council.r') Dr, Scol.b would give assistants an appeal to a pro, fessional body, which might be constituted out of the registration council, forming a particular branch or committee of it,(2) But to give an appeal, over the head of the governors, to the local or central authority would embarrass the Iatter with a mass of difficult and contentious business, almost necessarily inviting frequent and costly litigation.

The only alternabive to this, apart, from continuing the present practice, is to transfer the power of the dismissal of assistant mcsters from the head to the governing body, In that case a suspensory power should be given to the headmaster, the latter being required to bring the matter at once before the governing body. (oS) In most cases no doubt; the governing body would support him in his decision, But the fact tbat the matter had to be brought before the governors would be sufficient to shay the hand' of a hasty and capricious headmaster, and to give the assistant teacher all the protection which he might need, beyond that which he would always receive from the pressure of professional opinion. To prevent the suspension from remaining unsettled for an inconvenient Iongtb of time, the matter should be treated as urgent by the governing body; and, if the lutter should f~1.n to meet within a prescribed limit 01 time, authority might be given to the headmaster to act on their behalf, During the period of his suspension, the assistant. might be entibler' t.o his salary, subject to tL deduction Lor the payment of a subst.tute.

In the case of the Girls' Public Day Schools Company the dismissal of assistant mistresses rests with the council, the headmistress concerned being consulted on this as on aU other points of internal discipline and administrabion.]") In other high schoolaulso, the headmistress has no power to dismiss, but has the right to report to the council on a question which might lead to dismiseal.I") A system which apparently works well in these schools would presumably succeed in others of a similar character. On the other hand, there are cases ill which an appeal to the governors would actually produce a new kind of evil. Thus, a case was cited to us in which an assistant master, who happened to be a relative of one of the governors, was actually protected by the governing body against the just indignation of the headmastenf'') And in order to secure the smooth and effective working of a scheme which placed the dismissal of (he assistants in the hands of the governing body, it would be necessary for the latter to keep themselves more continuously acquainted with the actual workiog of the scaool than;)ppears in some instances to be at present the case, The best hope, indeed, for improvement will lie in the increase of public interest in the secondary schools of each district, through the creation of local authorities.


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It is said that the present arrangement, which makes the assistant masters the servants of the headmaster and not of the governors, hns.one curious result which was brought under our notice by two witnessesf") They slated that, when a headmaster resigns, all his staff theoretically cease to hold office, and, unless they are reappointed by the succeeding headmaster, lose their positions, It; does not appear, however, that wholesale clearances of this kind take place ill practice. At the same time, it deserves to be considered whether there would not be utility in It provision requiring a headmaster, for a certain time after his appointment, to refer to the governors any proposal which he thought, well' to recommend for a change in the staff. 'Large changes in the staff, coming at the same time as a cluLDge of headmaster, may be It source ox injury to the school by breaking the continuity. of its educational tradition.

G THE RELATION OF THE UNIVERSITIES AND UNIVERSITY COLLEGES TO SECONDARY EDUCATION

137. It is clear from the evidence, that the efforts which have been made by the universities for the improvement of Secondary Education have met with much succeas. Thus, we have received abundant testimony to the generally beneficial influence of the examinations which they conduct for scholars in secondary schools.P) It appears, again, that an increasing number or-tbe teachers, both men and women, receive their education a£ a univ ersity. (3) The courses of university extension lectures have, in many places, stimulated the desire for improvements in secondary and ad vanced educabion.I") Moreover, the changes of the last 30 years have done more than is perhaps generally realised towards opening a passage, up which promising pupils are able to work their way to the universities from the clemen-. tary schools.I") It is doubtful, indeed, whether at any former time the eonnexion between the masses of the people and the centres of the highest teaching bas been so close .. And the general recognition of the fact that the .relations between the universities and secondary education are' necessarily intimate,(G) seems to have led to a no less general desire that, alike in the central and local authorities, representatives of academic experience should find a place.F)

188. So rapidly, indeed, have Dew avenues to the university been opened out, that some of those whom we have. consulted express alarm at the danger of an "aca,demicall pl'oletn.l'i(ltl?"(B) Care, they think, is needed to prevent an increase in the class of men whom a university education "disqualifies for the rougher " tasks of life, without eua.bling for the more subtle."(9) Several college tutors, referring to the difficulties experienced by many young graduates in finding employment, urge that, in the overcrowded state of the professions, "ib js a cruelty to tempt poor " men without ability, without connexions, and without any " personall'ecommendations, to spend three or £.)Ul' yoars at' a

*The memoranda referred to in this section are contained in Vol. V.


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"university, The usual result is bitter disappointment, and often a blasted life."(l)

In so far, indeed, as a uni versity training is regarded as the door to the. ]Jl'ofessions, it would clearly be a mistake to lead pOOl' students of average, or less than average, ability, to look to it as a means of certain or even probable advancement to some profitable occupation. A s competition grows keener, it inevitably becomes more difficult for men with no special gifts of intellect or character to attn.in professional success, The foundation of new universities, and the fact th~Lt Oxford and Cambridge are now largely recruited from sections of society which have had no long-standing hereditary connexion with them/2) have doubtless made the struggle harder even for those who, under former conditions, would have readily found a, career. With still less hope of success, therefore, must poorer men, endowed with no exceptional capacity or attainment, enter a competition which year by year becomes more intense. Only in the case of students of special aptitude or promise can a university education be looked upon as a safe investment lilkely to be 'repaid by profitable employment in later years.

139. But it is not solely for advancement in life, or only by the exceptionally able or the ambitious, that education of the university ty.:pe is rightly desired, '1'0 a large and probably increasing number OJ men and women it is attractive for ips own sake, not as a means of getting on in the world but because of the opportunities OI intellectual training and stimulus which it affords. They crave for it because they seek an entrance into the intellectual world, for which it provides the almost necessary preparation. They know that by means of it tbey can enlarge and strengthen interests which. will be a delight and a solace to them in whatever position they may spend their life, Such students, who are often late Iearners and marked rather by strength of character than by brilliant ability, deserve consideration and encouragement. It is true that their needs are not best met by the university course in its ordinary form.(3) They cannot afford, nor would it be l'ight to encourage them, to break away from their employment for three or four years' residence in a university town under conditions which, it not provoking actual dislike for their former occupation, might at least impair their fitness to return to it. But it is possible to satisfy their needs without detaching them from their old conditions of life and from their natural opportunities of livelihood. All that they want would, in most cases, be supplied by courses of higher instruction given in the evening within easy reach of their own homes, care heing taken that a,ny students of exceptional promise, whose abilities were discovered through these local courses, should be drafted by scholarships to the university itsel£.(1)

Such an arrangement as this, while securing further advantages for those students who were specially qualified to profit by them, would at the same time satisfy desires which are naturally and rightly becouring more common, without giving higher education


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in such a way as to injure the happiness of 1l1any of those .ceceiving it. The universities would in some measure be relieved from the danger of congestion by students of average ability, while the latter, so rat' from being shut out from the advantages to which tbey haye a just claim, would actually enjoy them in a form at once more accessible and 1110I'e adapted to their special needs. (1) And the diffusion of such opportunities would remedy SODle of the evils to which higher education may at present give rise. It is partly because such education is exceptional that it separates those who receive it from the commoner occupations of life, The pursuit of higher studies is not necessarily incompatible with the forms of employment to which it is sometimes alleged to give invincible dislike. On the contrary, lines of life, which are in themselves monotonous and uninteresting, may furnish special opportunities for stud y and reflection. An educated man's -distaste for them often springs rath.er from the lack of congenial companionship than from any objection to the work itself. And the increase of educational opportunities, by mlarging the number of persons with cultivated interests and sympathiea, would tend to lessen the intellectual isolation from which there must always be a longing to escape.

A remedy, therefore, for the dangers to which our attention bas been called by those well acquainted with the present state of the universities, is to multiply the opportunities by which all adult students who desire higher education may obtain a fitting measure of it without leaving their homes or cutting tliomselves off from their natural means of livelihood, while n.t the same time giving free passage to the universities to all those who, however poor, are endowed with abilities likely to command success in the professions to which the honours COUl'$O at a university is the best preparation, "Lay the foundations of Secondary Education wide and deep, , , . Give every man, " rich or poor, his chance-put sound educational opportunity in his way, use endowments wisely so that those who are worth " helping and need it are helped by them and then, a'l men well prepared and trained pass into the university, tlie " standard of matriculation at the colleges will rise, and a " university career, instead of beio~ so much n luxury for the " rich, will be within the reach of all who ought to come.t'(")

140. But though the advantages of university education have already been made attainable by large numbers of promising students who under former conditions would JJa\7e been practically debarred from them, OUl' attention has been caned to certain gp,ps in the upward ladder which still remain unfilled. Several witnesses expressed the opinion that an increase of scholarships is needed to give clever girls the opportunity of university training.e) Another witness, who spoke from special knowledge of the industrial classes, pleaded for more liberal scholarships to enable exceptionally promising children of artiaans to prepare themselves for places of higher education, without undergoing the double strain of manual and mental labour which is


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often imposed on them to the permanent injury of their health,(l) By ODe writer it was urged that the formerly intimate connexion between the universities and the. smaller gfilmmar schools has, in such cases as Lincolnshire, been actually impaired by" the extinction of the close scholarships ': which a,t one time maintained a healthy competition among ".the principal schoola of the district to which they were confinecl"(2) Another pointed out that technological institutes often stand out of all relation to the universities, and that consequently 1;l,01'e is some danger of the L1tter failing to provide the education needed by the future teachers of technical subjects.e) The Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University informed us that thore is a want of' organic connexion between the constituent colleges of that university and the secondary schools of the dietricb=-bhe schools not generally shaping their curriculum SQ that the pupil may take up the college education at the point at which the school education ceases.r') And, finally, allusion was made to the fact that the present system of competition for scholarships "discerns, advances and rewards, not capacity " as such but, attainment; and that, as attainment in the earlier " years of lire largely depends on opportunities and advantages " which cost money, students of real promise may be excluded " by early poverty from the benefit of endowments upon which they have a just claim.(5)

The remedy for these defects, however, obviously does not lie with the universities alone. Changes in the distribution of population, and the rapid growth of great cities, are affecting the usefulness of many of the older endowments. In education, as in many other things, the country districts are being placed at a disadvautage as compared with the towns, and one of the most interesting and difficult duties of the local authorities will be to redress the balance so far as the nature of things will allow. Again, any lack of scholarships for girls desiring to study at the university will doubtless be supplied in parb by the action of the local authorities, but possibly to an even greater extent by the liberality of those who are interested in the education of women, Some of the other points, however, at which there is alleged to be defective connexion between the universities and secondary education, have a more direct bearing on academic policy, Upon these matters we have received, almost exclusively from resident members of the universities, a number ot interesting suggestions, which we here proceed to summarise.

Have entrance scholarships, awarded by open competition at the universities, a good effect on secondary schools?

141. On this subject a very strong opinionjwas expressed by the Bishop of Durham, He urged that no foundation scholar" ships should 'be offered for competition to students who have not " completed a year's residence in the university." Believing" the " present system to have grown up under external pressure, and


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" against. the judgment of educational authorities at Cambridge," he condemned it as "injurious to education, botb at school and at " university, and injurious also morally i as encouraging the premature acquisition of results, available for ptuposes .of ex-; amination, without the patient investigation and study which " gives to them their intellectual value i as tending to deprive' " university work of its peculiar character and interest; and .. " as practically desbroying the class who in former times repre" sented ' plain living and high thinking.' "(1)

Dr, Jackson, of Trinity College, Cambridge, though he would retain, or where necessary esbablish, entrance exhibitions for poor students, was no less emphatic against scholarships open to competition n.mong schoolboys wi thout restriction. Such scholarships, he believed to have done, and to be doing, seuious harm. to sobools.P) Sir George Young, again, maintained that, the) numerous entrance scholarships offered for open competition at Oxford and Cambridge are having" an injurious effect on the " Secondary Education of the middle classes." In his judgment: such competitions, because they involve examinations imposed by authorities outside the schools, fetter the best teaching ': they drag many schools into a curriculum little suited to the needs of their scholars, they excite objectionable rivalries, and render far' more difficult than need be the work of adapting th~ schools to the requirements of the class for which they were intended.t") But, while dl'awing attention to what he regarded as the great evils of the system, Sir G, Young was not prepared to suggest any parbiculac remedy, though he proposed au dncrease in leaving exhibitions to be awarded in schools which would doubtless satisfy in another form some of the needs now met by the open scholarships offered at Oxford and Cambl'idgel~)

142. On the other hand, several of those whom we consulted' bore equally strong testimony to the valuable effects of the system of open competition for entrance' scholarships. There is no doubt, wrote the Rector of Exeter College," that secondary schools, a.'> ","en as the older universities, have been greatly benefited " by the removal of restriction on scholarships and exhibitions, " r.rhe Commissioners of 1852 righbly remarked that C what the ,,( State and the Church require is not poor men, but good and' r able men whether poor or rich.' They also expressed a hope, that, if a large nurn her of open endowments were established very few poor men of merit would be kept back from obtaining an academical education. This hope hall been to a great (( extent fulfilled, Any young man of ability and industry who has been trained (in classics or mathematics) can make sure r< of obtaining a scholarship or exhibition." (G) Mr. Wells remarks that "nothing tends more to encourage width of interest and reading than the conviction, which all sixth-form " boys now have, that any form of knowledge will help them: c, in a scholarship examination. At the same time, the tradibion" that scholarships are given for excellence in one subject and" not for a smattering of rnany, tends very much to discourage


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cram, And the honours paid to a scholar-elect at his school (I (he ranks even. with successful athletes) is a great stimulus to the studious boy."e)

143, The truth probably is that thesystem has brought with it both loss and gaiu,(2) It" gives point, direction, stimulus, and reward to school studies: it supplies the schools and the public " with some standard and measure of efficiency. Small or new (r schools become known and reputed through winning scholar" ships; clever boys are discovered and encouraged, and other " parent-s aye induced to make efforts to give them university opportunibies.l'(") It is from a sense of these advantages thab thetauthorities of the Owens College, Manchester, have recently reorganised their entrance 'scholarships, consolidating small exhibitions for that purpose. They hope that these scholarships will have a considerable effect on the curriculum of schools, encouraging special lines of study (8,g., the study of physical science in schools where it has till now held a subordinate place), and inducing schoolmasters to fill up gaps which have hitherto been conspicuous in their system (e,g., the provision of a sufficient instruction in English language and history).('I) On the other band, the system is undoubtedly apt to stimulate an undesirable kind of com petition between schools;(5) the destruction of special ties wi;t;h gronps of schools has, while helping some of the newel' boarding schools, injured many of the old foundations in remoter districts;(())! the scramble for endowments has engendered in some, cases a commercial spirit far removed from the love of learning for its own sake, which collegiate endowments ought Ispecially to foster and reward;C) the examinations themselves, either by their too early date(S) of their distracting number and variety (evlls which are, however, considerably lessened by the grouping of different colleges), harass the schools and disturb the regularity of their work, and may sometimes keep boys waiting at school when they had better be at the uuiver, sity;(O) and, moreover, the nature of the examinations is alleged to be causing in some eases undue specialisation in studies.P")

The last charge is in many ways the most important, and cans for more detailed investigation, Thai; the evil is felt in the schools appears from the evidence of Ml', Eve and }\Ill'. StOlT, The former would "be very glad to see colleges giving their !( scholarships for a rather wider range of studies, and not ",necessarily for great excellence in one particular subject. " ', . . Specialisation begins in the- school, and my ex""perience is that it begins in the school much earlier than it ct did when I was at school myself."(ll) Mr. Storr, regrettiug the absence of all-round scholarships," informed us that" boys who are likely to win scholarships are allowed to drop in part, or " in some cases entirely, all other subjects of work except that (~ subject in which they are going to compete.t'(")

Nor is this tendency to premature specialisation denied j by 'our university witnesses. ,( In the case of scholarslrips for t mathematics or natural science, and in a less degree for those


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" in history, the early specialisation encouraged by scholarships " results. in some cases in an illiberal educatdon.t'(") Another writer explains the actual ';\forking 01 the system. "Schoolmasters " have found that scholarships in modern history and science " are attainable by dull boys, while, owing to the conditions " of competition in history, and the fact that advanced science " must (economically) lie outside the avera.ge school curriculum ""the competitors are fewer than in classics or mathematics. " Hence they specialise dull boys in these subjects from an early "age."(2) The Rector of Exeter College thinks that "the " proportion of scholarships given for proficiency in classics is, a at the present time, sxcessive.t'(") The President of Magdalen on the other hand, believes that specialisation is probably worst in mathematics, and not unusual in history and natural science, but that it is less observable in the case of classical scholarships, as the examinations for the latter include a greater variety of subjects.(")

144. A remedy for 'this evil is indicated by several writers, and notably by the President at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, who suggests that the more equable intellectual development " of boys would be promoted by encouraging in our scholarship " examinations some competent knowledge or other subjects " taught in schools in addition (,0 the main subjects for which " the scholarship is awarded. . Possibly the result " might be that'n lower standard than at present would be " attained in the special subject of eacb scholarship examination, " but in the long run this defect would be far more than com" pensated by the wider interests and increased intellectual " aptitude of our students.t'(") It is certainly desirable that, as fa,r as lUay be, youths should be elected to scholarships propter spem. rather than propter?'em, for promise of general ability rather than for precocity of special attain.ml'lnt,(6)

Is it desirable to impose a poverty qualification on candidates for entrance scholarships?

145. A question closely connected with that discussed above is the pvopriety of confining the award of the entrance scholarships to pOOl' students, Upon this' subject there is evidently a great variety of opinion. Only two indeed of those whom we have consulted appear to regard the present system of open cornpeti,tion as beyond the reach of criticism. Professor Holland is " strongly of opinion that there should be no restrictions on the " grouncl of poverty," and Mr. Raleigh, while thinku1g it l'igbt that a college should giw special assistance to tbose who cannot come to the university without it, holds that scholarships and exhibitions are prizes and should be opeD to general compebitiou.I") Several writers, 011 the other hand, draw attention to certain evils produced by the present arrangements. IVIr. Huddleston points out that" in competing for college scholarships and exhibitions, (( not only has the son of well-to-do parents the advantage of " flrst-class school training, but he can command, if thought


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expedient, special private tuition in view of the college examination, Proceeding to the university, these well-to-do a scholars and exhibitioners are able to push up the standard of living, and make it difficult fur poorer students to live eeonomi(( cally."(l) Mr. Arthur Sidgwick sa,ys, (( there is no doubt at : " all that many college scholarships are held by men whose' " parents could easily afford to pay the full expenses of their education," and that this is "plain waste of endowments.'Y'') ~ and similar evidence is given by the President of Corpus Christi College, Mr. Oscar Browning, and Mr. Wells.(3)

On the other hand, it is clear that the extent of the grievance may easily be exaggerated, The Rector of Exeter College informs us, that in his own college (( about three-fourths of those who have held scholarships for some years past, could not have come to the university without substantial aid.. In every college " there are far more men than formerly whose friends make it " great I:;truggle to send them to Oxford, aud who are obliged to " practise the most rigid economy, The advantages of Oxford " are now by no means confined to the well-to-do classes. Oollege " scholarships, as a matter of fact, largely benefit poor men, " though not limited to them,"eJ Mr. Matheson believes that tc a very large proportion of the existing holders of scholarships " and exhibitions (he is speaking of those which are open and " given purely by examination) would find it impossible, ({ and many more would find it difficult, to come to Oxford (( without such help.t'(") Mr. Strachan-Davidson has (( made inquiries as to the circumstance of the open scholars and " exhibitioners now in residence at his college. The result is, .that he finds in nearly every ease that the holders are in need " of assistance. At the present moment he knows of only one " notable instance to the conbrary, and in' this ca-se the holder ({ contents himself wibh using the rig'ht to wear the scholar's u gown, and declines to receive the emoluments to which he is "entitled. III most cases the recipients could not have come to the university at all without assistance; in others, they could " have come only at the cost of much privation. In a few " cases he received the answer that ODe brothel' might have " been sent without emolument, but that it depended on the success of the first whether the parents could afford a university education for the second.t'(")

And there are obvious advantages ill the present system, in spite of its occasional anomalies, Open competition has conferred dignity on the college scholarships, The scholar's gown is a distinction, and no longer, as in former clays, carries with it the stigma of poverty, This advantage is strongly urged by Mr. Sidgwick, who points out that. (: the honour and position of " a scholar are highly valued, and act as a stimulus to industry. The stigma of poverty is severely felt by the young, and it 'is " 011 all grounds undesirable that, in a society of young students, tt it, should be _ publiclJ: known which are poor.t'(") The President of Magdalen thinks that the danger of a revival of


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the despised servitors and: sizars of clays happily bygon.e" should not be forgotten.I") Professor Prothero and Llir.lV1atheson point out tl?at amy lowering of the status of ,the scholars would have a bad effect both on the schools and on college life.(2)

146. Nor is it easy to find a remedy for such evils as are' inherent in the present system without being inquisitorial, arbitrary, or unfair. Were regard to be had for the pecuniary circumstances of all candidates, only poor students being allowed to compete, ib would often be difficult to assess the cluims of relative poverty. "A poverty clause," says M». Matheson, cc would I< be difficult to work. If liberally drawn it would effect s,om" paratively liWe saving, while if too rigidly drawn (i,e., with a definite limit of parents' income without regard to family " necessities), ib must exclude many members of a class, not .of " the absolutely poor, but of the comparatively poor, the sons of the poorer clergy, teachers.nnd other professional and business i c men, who giye their children the educational atmosphere a which fits them for university Iife, but are often not rich " enough to send them to a university.t'(")

147. These difficulties have led some to look to the action of local authorities as affording the best means of remedy. Mr. Gerrans thinks that" it would be better that local authorities, as. " knqwing the circumstances of each case, should award bursaries " tenable at the university, and that colleges should add the distinction ~ scholar ' or ' exhibitioner,' as the case may be, after " due .examination.t") Similarly, ~fl'. Grose suggests tbap it " would be well if there were funds attached to schools or " districts, appropriated to the aasistance of poor studeuts from u the school or-district, who have proved then: merit uy winning " scholarships OL' exhibitions and who require further assistance. " The circumstances of a poor man are best judged in his, " own ne~ghboUl'hood, and help of this kind is perhaps rather " a local duby.i'(") The Dean of Christ Church points out that ~(in many places endowments might well be administered ., by local authorities, .who might send poor students f.1'o111 their "own town or district to OXloTCl or Cambridge, providing them with sufficient means and recommending them Ior admis" sion to :l, college with the status of honorary scholar, honorary u exhibitioner or commoner as the college authorities, after " inquiry, might decide." In the good administrabion of SU9h endowments, he points out that the local committees foruuiversity extension teaching might often. render valuable, service.I")

148. Another remedy, however, not inconsisteut with j;bis,eol11 .. mends itself to the large majority of those who have Iavoured us' with suggestions on this difficult subject. In their judgment ~t. would be possible, without altering the conditions of open examination or the status of the scholars, to reduce the annual value of the scholarship to an amouut variously estimated at 50l., 40l, s- 30l., or even 20l, a year, the balance thus saved being spent jn increasing the value of supplementary exhibitions to be awarded,


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only to scholars who could privately show tbeir need for further pecuniary aid.e) At some colleges exhibitions are now awarded to undergraduates who satisfy the Head that they require such assistance in order to complete tbeil' university course. And the arrangement seems to have worked so well that the w,ay may now be open for a cautious extension of the same principle. Care, however, would be necessary to avoid the danger of inducing a number of students of merely average ability to embark on an academic career for which they were imperfectly qu alified. (2)

149. But much may also be done by the pressure of public opinion. I( the enjoyment of large scholarships by the children of well, to-do families becomes generally recognised as au improper use of educational endowments, there can be little doubt that the wealthier parents will more commonly avail themselves of the right to retain the status of scholar for' their sons, while resigning the emoluments which legally accrue to it. The opporbunity of doingthis is already afforded by the statut:es of some colleges, and, in the opinion of some of' our witnesses, might well be more widely extended.P) It should be pointed out, however, that if the emoluments resigned by honorary scholars were expended in providing additional scholarships for competition, or if honorary scholarships were bestowed in addition to those already offered, a.large proportion of clever youths might be drawn to two or three favourite colleges, with the .result that the scholarships offered by other foundations might be filled by candidates whose abilities would not at present command success,

Are local restrictions on college scholarships desirable?

150. Closely connected with the foregoiIlg question is that of the desirability of confining the competition for college scholarships to schools or scholars in certain districts, Some of the old close foundations have got a bad name, and we are informed that " they bring in a class of men who would not gain scholarships " open to general competition, and then these men seldom rise " to the level of the other scholars among whom they find "themselves,"('l) How this may come about is shown by another writer, "The best boys are sent in for open scholar" ships, and the weaklings are entered for the close competition. " This depresses the standard and frequently leads to friction " between the nominating and awarding bodies.t'(") It is generally agreed that the revival of local restrietious, in cases where they have been abolished, would be undesirable and that any general return to the system of close foundations would be a mistake, At the same time, a large body of opinion favours the retention and even the establishment of certain kinds of close scholarships, as an element in a g'enel'al system of open competition.


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151. (a) For example, several witnesses have spoken with approval of the close attachment of some great school to a particular college. "The historical connexion between N E:W College and Winchester, St. John's and Merchant Taylors', Christchurch and Westminster, will bear very close scrutiny. No doubt it is open to criticism, and has its weak points, It " will, however, favourably compare with the system which has " grown up under the influence of unlimited competition.t'(J) "A long standing connexion between a college and a. great " public school is to the adyantage of both."(2) The President of Magdalen calls our attention to the fact that the scholars on these close foundations have for some time past reached a high standard of attainment, the Ireland scholarship, which is still " the most distinguished prize in the university, bas, for ma.ny " years, with only a single exception, been won either by an " (open' scholar at one single college, or by a ( close' scholar at one of the colleges named.t'(") It should be noted, however, that the schools in question draw their scholars from all parts of England.

It will be remembered that the Oxford University Commissioners of 1852, while holding that to the efficiency of the " colleges, open scholarships to supply good learners are as essen" tial as open fellowships to supply-good teachers," stated their opinion that some exceptions to the general principle of setting " aside all restrictions might with advantage be made in favour of schools connected with colleges,"(,1) Similarly, the Cambridge University Commissioners "recognised in such foundations an " interest sufficiently definite and distinct J, to be treated as an exception to what they called (' the one good rule of unfettered " and open competition.t'(") But there are still some who regard with disfavour a special connexion of this kind between n school and a particular college.t") It may be argued that eclioolfellows are likely to derive more advantage from their university life if they are scattered over several' colleges than if they are drawn together into one, and that the whole university gains by the wide diffusion of' the influence and traditions of a great school. Many, again, would fake a middle view, ana, though conscious of the objections to the system, by which the intimacies of schoollife may sometimes be too closely .reproduced at college, and an undergraduate may live so entirely among his old schoolfellows ItS to be isolated from the rest of Jus college and the university, would, nevertheless, wibh the Iate Mastel' of Balliol, be unwilling to give up the associations of " William of Wykebam or the glories "of King's ColJege, Cambridge."(7) The removal of restrictions on fellowships and other changes in academic life have, it should be added, done much to remove many of the objections which were felt to the close connexion between particular colleges and schools, The value of the connexion has in consequence become more widely felt and the


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drawbacks to it, though they may occasionally re-appear, have been greatly mitigated. As things stand at present, whether the close relation is advantageous or harmful depends on the good sense and loyalty of those concerned.'

(b) Several writers regard with approval restrictions in favour of special districts, the remoteness of which places them at some disadvantage. Thus, the connexion of "Wales with Jesus College (Oxford), and of the West of England with Exeter College, are commended as satisfactory. "The feeling of attachment between a favoured locality and a college, tends at the present " time to become stronger rather than weaker, There is a general sentiment in favour of inaintaining existing preferences. Where there are endowments at any college on which natives " of certain localities have the first claim, persons are not un" frequently drawn from those localities to the university, " even when they do not attain a scholarship or exhibition, who would not otherwise come thither.t'(') But the same. writer adds that a college ought always to have the power, " which it generally has, of throwing open any close endowment for which there is no sufficiently qualified candidate." This would act as a safeguard against the obvious dangers of such restriction.

(c) Experience seems, moreover, to approve the connexion between local groups of schools and the university, In this case the scholarships may either be tenable at a particular university or at a particular college. Each plan has something to recommend it. Certain north country schools have' a special connexion with Queen's College, Oxford, and we are informed that the restriction works advantageously and has produced admirable results.(2) Dr, Percival, on the other hand, while endorsing this view, is of opinion that the system would be improved by confining the scholarships to a group of schools, but leaving the winners free to choose their own college, The chief advantage claimed for these close foundations is that they stimulate higher education in country districts which, without them, would slip back into a lower standard- of instruction, "It is most important that " the first grade element in grammar schools and other schools " of that type in thinly peopled areas should not be allowed to elisapreal',. The. question must nut be settled on merely numerical grounds; the number of boys passing C( to the university may be small, but it is a great matter " for the school and for the neighbourhood to maintain the " contact with the university unimpaired, and the loss to the higher education of any severance of this connexion would be great."(8) Another writer believes that a duly guarded system of restriction would be in the interests of pOOl' students and of the local schools, and would provide the universities" with a more varied field of candidates, often possessing more origin ali ty " and more force of character than that from which they now


[page 280]

"draw,"(l) It is interesting also to note that, in the case of the scholarships established as a memorial to Mr. George Moore, the promoters began with an entirely open system of competition for the diocese of Carlisle, The diocese, however, includes Barrowin-Furness, and nearly all the exhibitions were carried oft' by children connected with the higher grade board school in that town, This was found so discouraging to the more remote and, country districts that the system was 'changed in such a way as to encourage and protect the scattered country schools. In the judgment of Dr. Percival, a similar restriction might also' be necessary in the case of other scholarships.P) and his, view seems to be confirmed by another witness)(S) wbo wouldexclude the large public schools from the competition for thepurely local scholarships,

The effect on secondary schools of the age at which it is now customary to matriculate at the university

152. It is well known that in the course of generations the normal age of matriculation at the:universities has steadily risen, and the effect of this on the secondary schools and the educational life of the country has engaged the attention of several of our witnesses. Whether the tendency for the limit of age to advance has continued during the last few years is uncertain,e) but the usual age at which youths now go up to Oxford and Cambridge may be roughly stated at 19. In the Victoria, University residence begins at a somewhat lower age, though the standard may vary a little in the constituent colleges; Thus, the Yorkshire Oollege has is students, under 16 years of ag~,'ancl 24 between 16 arid 17; all the rest are over 17. 4\.t University College, Liverpool, there are 26 students between Hi' and 17; ~9 between 17 and 18 i 47 between 18 and 19, anc137 between 19 anc120. At the Owens Oollege there are 41 students' between 16 and 17, and 923 above that age, there being in bhe 'arts department alone 304 students over 2~ years.t")

According to one view, while the danger of an early age for n:iatriculation is that the university may overlap the school, the objection to a more advanced age is th~t the, SCl:lOOl may be encouraged to do work which properly belongs to the university, and that some students may be lost to the latter through inability to wait so long before beginning their professional studies or commercial career, With regard to the danger of the university competing with the school, our witnesses from. the Victoria University believed that 'thel;e is no serious over.Japping in the case of the colleges at Manchester, Liverpool, and Leeds.r') "

153. As, however, this view cloes not seem to be universally accepted, we may bake this occasion to point out that a


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certain amount of overlapping between school and university is unavoidable and need not be disadvantageous, Boys do not all leave school at the same time or with the Same attainments. A. hard and fast line drawn 'between school and academic studies would limit the propel' freedom of both insbibubions, and prejudice the interests of many pupils. The undesirable form of overlapping is when the university or university college draws boys away too soon from the discipline of school, or when the school keeps back youths who would gain more from the freedom and keener competition of the university than from the prolongation or'their school life. In these matters no absolute rule can be laid down. Much depends in: each case on the character of the pupil and on the nature of the school, but the danger of objectionable overlapping, as Mr. Kitchoner points out, is not more than " can be easily guarded against. by a good understanding ," between the university and school authorities.t'(") and, in so far as complaints of overlapping have arisen with regard to 'the university colleges, it should be remembered that most of them are still YOllng and pioneer institutions, engaged in a " missionary work, in trying to raise the standard of education (C in the manufacturing districts, . . . and compelled to '" struggle against temporary difficulties.t'(")

154. The principals of the constituent colleges gave interesting evidence as to the age at which matriculation 'may be expected to take place in t.he Victoria University. Dr. Ward thinks that We cannot expect university education to be largely l( taken part in, in the great northern centres, unless we " generally regard 17 or 18 as a suitable age for beginning (f university -work/'(") Mr. Rendall is of opinion that studenbs 'Of natural science rightly begin ilit about 17 years of age, and students of arts at 18; and that women students are wise in l,eginning their course at a rathe» later period than men; (I) A.s for the age at which a lad should leave school for the university, much depends on whether, if he remains at school, he will have the necessary conditions of intellectual competition surrounding him.C') Thus, youths will tend to leave the smaller secondary schools for the university at an earlier age than they would be encouraged to leave the larger ones.

155. As to the proper ago of entrance at Oxford and Cambridge, there is some difference of opin.ion. Among our witnesses, there were SOUle who thought that the older custom under which boys 'Went to the universities at an earlier age was better than the present practice.I") They urged that, if boys could go sooner, more fathers would be able to send their sons to the uni versity, and that the rise in the age, lJY lengthening the period of education and deferring entrance to life, bears hardly on the poorer paTents, and especially on those who desire their sons to enter professions :for which a long and expensive training is


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necessary at the close of their academic career. Nor, it was alleged, is the present practice good lor the schools. As the discipline which is suited for younger boys is not adapted to the older ones, the order of the school is apt to become relaxed, or its rules to appear inappropriate. The advance in the age at which boys leave school was ascribed partly to the increased pleasantness of school life, partly to the desire to retain good athletes in the school, partly to the fac.t that the competition for college scholarships is open nl) to 19 years of age.e) *

156. On the other hand, some headmasters of great experience upheld the view that 18 or 19 was the best age for entering the university. e) Th02e who maintain this opinion, argue that the school would be injured by the loss of its best monitors at an early age; that the standard of a,ttainment, both at school and the: universibies, has been raised by the prolongation of school life; and that the increased provision of scholarships fully compensates poorer parents for the lengthening of the period of eclucation.

157. A middle view, which may be taken to harmonise the: more extreme opinions, is that urged by Dr, Percival, who pointed out that there are two classes of boys n.t a public school, "those " who rise to the top of the school, and who are better occupied n,t school up to the age of 18 or 19 than they would Le auycc where else;" and those who, from their eircumseances; have to complete their liberal education at 19, and whose parents at present as a rule lease them at school till that age.(3) For the former class, he believed the present arrangements to be well suited.(8) For the latter, he thought thl1t some of the colleges should open hostels, in which youths, going up to the university at 16 or 17, might reside under certain restraints of discipline until perhaps the last year of their academic life, By this arrangement, the class who at present go straight ont from school into business or to prepare for professions, would enjoy the intellectual sbimulus of a uuiversity education under conditions modified to fib their age,(4) while the advantages of the present system would be retained £01: those who are able or qualified to benefit by them,

How far the present arrangements for the secondary education of girls are correlated with those of the universities

158. Several of those whom we have consulted laid stress on the imperfect connexion between the universities and the secondary schools :for girls, and various aspects of the question are dis-

*On this question a Memorandum by one of our members (Mr. Lyttelton) may be referred to. Vol. V p.7.


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cussed at length in the interesting meinorand urn of Mr. Ad,hur Sidgwiek.f") Another writer, it is true, declared that he would, not place the universities in correlation JJ with any arrange- ' ment made for the benefit of girls,(2) holding that" the higher I (( education of women ought to be worked out by women "and on independent lines," But this view was excep- tional, Professor Henry Sidgwick, after noting the imperfect correlation between the universities and modern schools, wrote th!1t "the relation of Oxford and Cambridge to the school education of girls is in a, tal' more satisfactory condition, since (( both universities have refrained in the case of women from requiring a knowledge of Latin and Greek as a condition of " entering the examinations that test academic WOl'}r,(3) In connection wi th this matter, however, it should be noticed that the students at Girton College are, by the rules of' the college, obliged to take the Previous Examination, which require both Latin and Greek, the view of the College Council being, as we understand, that the course lor its students should be throughout identical with that of the undergraduates,

Miss M. G, Kennedy points out as a cause aftecting the correlation of the schools with the universities the interesting fact that, with two exceptions, all the public schools for girls have grown up side by side with the colleges for women; all increasing proportion of the women students have been drawn from them, and in turn the students have gone to them as teachers, This leads to an interchange of communication as to common aims and mental needs, which should gradually bring about a satisfactcry correlation or arrangement, and she proceeds to show that.for example, out of 667 students of Newnbam CoUege no less than 374 adopted teaching as a profession. Thus the schools and the colleges, acting and reacting one on the other during the last 20 years, have together felt their way towards the settlement of the type now taken by the higher education of girls. She also thought that the opening of the universities' honour examinations is giving definiteness to girls' educutiou.C') Miss Rogers, while not desiring to see girls' schools" classicized," thought that definite preparation for the university should begin in the last two years of a gil:l's school course; that the more advanced teaching in girls' schools should be under the care of a competent classical scholar; and t~a.t there should be more communication between the mistresses of schools and women university teachers.r") The difficulties felt by Miss Rogers may, however, be clue not so much to insufficiency of opportunity in schools where the classical scholars are so abundant, but to the fact that a university course is often determined upon for a girl quite late ill her school career, which career itself begins later than does a boy's. In some girls' schools the necessary provision is simply rmde by substituting Latin for German at an


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early stage, and Greek for French in the last year or two for girls with any prospect of a. university career,

Several writers also dwelt on the disadvantage under which girls now suffer from the want of sufficient endowments; especially for scholarships.f') lVIr. A, Sidgwiok informed us that, apart from school exhibitions and close college exhibitions " confined to boys from particular schools, there are annually " awarded in Oxford about 150 open scholarships andexhibi(' bions to boys, of the total VMUO of about 10,000l., and to " girls about six scholarsliips, of the total value of 250l," :

A somewhat larger question, but closely connected with the same subject, was broached by two writers who drew attention to the tact that, at some of the universities, "while a man " who has resided the required bime and has passed the required " examination is allowed a degree, to a woman who has done " exactly the same it is rerusecl,"(2)

Imperfect correlation between the universities and modern schools

159, Several witnesses laid stress on the imperfect connexion between the universities and many secondary schools of the modern type, It University recognition of such schools is " essential, and would benefit both school and ull\Tersity."(3) It appears, indeed, that there is very little contact between tIle higher and lower grade of Secondary Education in this COUlltry.('~) Thus, the headmaster of the higher grade elementary school at Leeds, at which boys and girls are prepared for the universities, stated that he cannot get boys to go to Cambridge, and has

The connexion between technological instruction and the universities and university colleges

160. Different opinions are held as to the degree in which a university should connect itself with technological studies, and the present may bo regarded as a time of experiment, during which


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the various universities in England are approaching the question from somewhat different points 01 view, The urgent importance of .maintuining a high standard in the education of those who propose to undertake the duties of inatructors in technical institutions is, of course, admitted on all hands, For, were the training of this class of teachers to become narrow or mechanical, the technical school might eventually prove an actual obstacle it,O industrial progress, But there is far from being general agreement as to the place in which the training of these technical teacher's may best be carried on.

161. In France and Germany, the work is almost entirely carried on, not at the universities, but in separate institutions. C) In England, there Is a tendency to attach certain parts of these professional studies to the universities. Thus, Cambridge, by establishing an honour course ill mechanism and applied mechanics, bas definitely accepted technology as an academic subject.(2) The Victoria University has brought itself into close relation with the technological needs of the surrounding districts, though, in respect of the Owens College, 'Principal Ward and Dr. Wilkins regard the correlation as being less 'satisfactory than, if some better tests were prescribed for the award of local scholarehips, it might easily become.I") The University of Durham has encouraged technological instruction at the Newcastle College of Science, with which its statutory connexion has recently become more intimate. The . recognition. and fitrtherance of applied science form an ir(1porta,nt pa.rt of- the scheme recommended by the Gresham Commissioners 'for the 'new University of London.P) Both by Oxford and' Cambridge special encouragement has recently been given to the study of the science 'and practice of agriculture by the award of diplomas for proficiency in th~t subject. -

One of our informants, however, speaking with special reference to Oxford, expressed a "fear that technological instruction and scientific teaching may become separated." . At present," he remarked, "technological institutes al)pear - .to stand out of all relation to the universities. It is impor" tant _ th!1t the latter should not cease" to perform, their -cc prop_el' function, viz., to provide 'a thorough scientific 'educa" tion for those who are likely to be called upon to teach " technical subjects; and it is equally necessary that technical " schools should aim at educating as well as training, More ." frequent consultation between the' teaching authorities at the '" universities and the various technical schools would 'be " beneficial to both arid to scientific education genel'ally."(~) ,"

162. The last point was emphasised by the representatives of 'the Victoria University, who drew OL1r attention to the evils likely to result from a confusion of thefnnctions of an a,ppl'en;tic~ship or trade school with those of a higher technical .institute or


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polytechnicum. A university college situated in a Iaroe manufacturing or industrial centre will, whether a constitue~t member of a university or not, naturally and effectively undertake the duty of providing those higher branches of technological instruction in which theoretical knowledge or scientific training are of pre-eminent importance.P) Besides such a higher school of technical studies, however, a great town will need an institution in which may be given less advanced forms of teaching. But it would be a great error so to equip the last-named institution as to enable or encourage its staff to compete with the professors of the university college.I") . Between the technical side of the university college and the ordinary technical school there should be close relations, but no competition. The one is the supplement of the other, not its rival.

In the developmenb of technical instruebion in England close attention has rightly been given to foreign, and especially to German, experience, But in the matter to which we have alluded in the preceding paragraph, a too hasty imitation of German models may lead to wasteful expenditure and duplication of effort. When provision fbI' the higher technical instruction began to be made in Germany, the universities stood aloof from the movement. They were unwilling "to admit within cc their walls a class of men who would be likely to devote them" selves to industrial pursuits; nor would they lower or alter cc the standard required of university students, on entrance as ascertained by the. (leaving examination' of the classical "schools. Moreover, at that time the practical teaching even " of the pure physical sciences was only in its infancy in the "uni.versity,(4) The result was that technical instruction, even in its highest grades, had to be provided by new and independent establishments. Hence followed the foundation of the great polytechnic schools.

But in England the position is different, Here the development of technical Inatruction has been less rapid tban- 111 Germany; the need for it having been less acutely felt. 1u- the meantime a great change has come over our universities, which have shown much interest in scientific education and sympathy with its various developments and their bearing on national needs.t") It naturally followed, therefore, thftt when the demand ror higher technical ed ueation began to show itself in our gr.en.t centres of industry, the university colleges, which were already established in those towns, set themselves to meet this new educational need, their efforts being so successful that within recent years tbey have received large grants from the, State to enable them to make more extensive and elaborate provision for the new class of students thus brought. within their walls.

Thus in England, the university college has combined with its other functions some of those of the Po"lytechnic~vn~.(6) Care should therefore be taken, in establishing municipal institutions


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for technical teaching, to avoid inconsiderate imitation of the German Polytechnic school, which, as we have explained, took its present form because the help of the universities was not available. To set up a copy of a polytechnicum alongside of a well equipped university college would be waste of educational effort, and would almost necessarily lead to hurtful competition.

163. The relation of the university colleges to technical instruction has, moreover, led to further results in the educational system of tills country. Since their foundation, three of the chief university colleges have been recognised as the constituent members of a new university, and another has been drawn into a special relation to the University of Durham. Thus, our Eng1ish academic organisation has been naturally brought into new relations to applied science, and, as the experience of one university has great influence upon the policy of the rest, there is reason to expect that technological studies will in the future receive an even larger measure of academic recognition.f'')

That this is likely to be the effect of what has been already accomplished may be gathered from the remarks of the Gresham University Comiuissioners on this subject:" The question was " raised," they say, "whether the group of subjects, comprised a under the head of applied science, should be included as such " within' the scope of a university, or, according to the method pursued for the most part in France and Germany, should form " a group outside the university system. This latter view is not in accordance with the practice of this country, is not supported by a uniform opinion or practice abroad, and appears to us to rest on no sufficient grounds of reason. Its " acceptance, moreover, would be in singulnr conflict with the " state of facts with which the university will have to deal. " For it a11peal's from the ev-idence that in the case of two " colleges (University and King's) the department of applied science is, if not the strongest, at least one of the strongest departments in each college."(3)

Thus it is probable that Secondary Education, even on its more technical side, will gradually be drawn into closer connex.ion with. the universities, and that the latter will, in this, as in other branches of study, be the training ground of a large proportion of its teachers. But the actual relation in which each university will elect to stand towards technological studies must to a great extent depend on its environment. Thus, as might have been expected from its _Em:ition in an industrial and manufacturing district, the Victoria 'University has led the way, though its representatives lay emphatic stress on the fact that it regards itself as not less concerned with liiero: lturauiavioree than with teclmology.r")

There might, indeed, be in this matter It eli v ision of labour between the various universities. For the furtherance of certain


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branches of technological study, the new University of London: would have unrivalled opportunity, And. the connexion between the University of Durhaan and the College of Science ilft Newcastle and between the University of Oxford and the University Extension College at Reading, indicates the possibility of another' means by which universities may encourage and develop the higher forms of technical education.

The provision by the universities of teachers for the various types of secondary schools

164. It is clear, from the evidence which "we have received, that an increasing proportion of' the teachers in secondary schools, both men and women, are drawn from the universitie~,(l) In the great first grade schools for boys practically all the masters are university gr3;duates.(2) There is also a marked increase in the number of university women who receive appointments us teachers in high schools for girls. Thus, out of the 720 students who have left Newnham College between October' 1871 and June 1893, 374 are engaged as teachers, 49 being headmistresses, and 105 assistant mistresses in endowed, proprietary, or other high SOl;1001s. Of the 170 students per- manently registered on the books of the Association for the Education of Women in Oxford, 89 are teachers, or preparing toteach, in secondary schools, Q£ the 29 women students of Owens College who have attained a Victoria University degree, 21 are engaged as teachers, six being in endowed or othersecondary schools of the.high school type,(8) Reference is also made to the :rl1ct that athletic skill is regarded as an important qualification for many assistant masterships.r') It is stated by one writer, that many secondary schools are showing a prefer ..... ence for having modern Iauguagee taught by Englishmen who have been at the university first and then have completed their studies abroad(5) The special requirements, insisted tJPOtl by the headmasters of various types of secondary school in seekingassistant masters from the university are analysed in detail l)y a writer who has had special experience in this matter, (G) There. appears to be a largely increased demand for graduates as teachers in the smaller secondary, and in preparatory, schools,e} The .reburns from OU1' selected areas show that in blie private schools for boys and girls respectively the per-centage of graduateteachers is '27 . 86 and 30 ' 90.(8) One writer believes that the increase in the number of university men now seeking work in schools has lowered the scale of salaries.

165. In the second grade schools, however, the proportion. of university men is .muoh smaller. We are informed that in endo wed second grade schools the principal is generally a gra.duate and in most cases he has under him. one or two men who are also graduates, but the whole staff seldom consists of " university men exclusively. In private second grade schools


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" there is every variety of qualification, and a large number of men are engagr;lcl in schools of this type after leaving the "univer3ity."(l) Thus, iu respect of: the teaching staff as well as the curriculum, the connexion between the older universities and the second grade school') is still defective. This.Iiowever, is mud, less true of the University of London, a, large number ox the teachers in such schools in and neal' the metropolis being graduates of that university. '

In the third grade schools there are among the graduate teachers few members of the. older ul'liversities,(~) the staff being largely recruited from the London Uni versity and the uniyersity colleges.

Many of our witnesses had formed a strong opinion that graduates are often deficient in skill as teachers, having had no training in the methods of education, (3) This subject, however, is discussed at length in another part; of this Report (see p. 205).

The work of the universities in examining and inspecting schools and in conducting the local examinations

166. To the great value of the services rendered by the uni velsities by the conduct of their various schemes for the examination and inspection of secondary schools and. for the examination of individual scholar", testimony has been borne by many of our witnesses.j") The Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board, for example, is said to have worked exceedingly well. Schools which had no test ut ftU,bltv~ been brought under a test, and iL bas generally awakened schools to a sense of their duty. (6) Other witnesses, speaking from experience in girls' schools, stated that the certificate examination of the board is "very goocl"(6) Reference sbould also be made to the inspection and examination of schools conducted by the University of Londonj") and to the benefit which some of the secondary schools in Yorkshire are receiving from the schools examination and inspection scheme of the Victoria University.f") The effects, ngaiu, of the local examinations conducted by the universities have been highly commended, one witness stating that" nothing has so mneu improved the schools- attended by boys and girls "from rural districts as, the Oxford and Cambridge local "examinatiQus. The result is to be seen in the much greater appreciation by young farmers ,(from 35 downwards) of the " advantage of education.t'(") Another witness, speaking from experience of town schools, expressed f1, very high opinion of " the local examinations both of Oxford and Caanbridge.t'(l'')

All these examinations have undoubtedly done much to raise the standard of teaching in the lower and higher grades of secondary schools. They have provided an impartial test of attainment. They have the advantage of being self-supporting. They have established a closer connexion between the universities and secondary schools, and have facilitated


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constant communication between the teachers and the examining authorities. In the case of the joint board, greal; advantage' has been derived from the common action of the universities in administration, while the diversity of' management iL1. the case of the local examinations, almost necessitated by the greater volume of work and the multiplicity of detail, has led to many developments which, while specially desirable in view of the great variety of schools under examination, would probably have been less easily undertaken by a combined authority elljoying less freedom of .independent initiabivej,')

The great majority of those who have communicated with us from the uni versibies, concur in expressing a favourable opinion as to the results of these- examinations.P) Two, however, make adverse comments, the one on the work c£ the joint boardI") the other on that of the local examinanions.t") the former on educational, the latter on administrative grounds,

167. It will, therefore, be convenient to summarise tbecriticisms which have been made upon these university examinations during the course of our inquiry.

Two witnesses complained that the universiby exauiiuers were occasionally deficient in special experience of the schools under examination, and one, of them urged that the staff or exaaniners should be recruited from public schoolmasters and ex-public aehoolmnsters.I") The representatives of the headmiebrcsses, on the other hand, referring to the joint board examination, expressed themselves as "well satiafied with "the papers on the whole,"(O) and Mi. Eve pointed out that the general organisation of the joint board examination has been materially altered by the criticisms of the Headmasters Oonference.F) To how gl'eab an extent the university authorities welcome the suggestions, and are guided by the experience, of the teachers, is shown by the memoranda with. which they have favoured us, Thus, the Oxford Delegajes of Local Examinations state that "they have always given (( careful consideration to any representations made to them by " persons of experience in education." The delegates add, that " in the appointment of examiners the delegates have always deemed it a matter of vital importance to secure the services of graduates who have had experience of school teaching, and ct not merely of the training of undergraduates, On the staff " of examiners are retired schoolmasters and country clergymen " acquainted With the 'needs and capabilities of secondary schools.t'') The Cambridge Syndics for Local Examinations similarly enc eavour 0 secure ill ell' OC y 0 exarruuers a combination of those who are engaged in university teaching }~~d,~;~~~ests " and those who are immediately conversant with the actual of schools would H state of education in secondary schools, Hence it will be be found that a considerable number of the examiners appointed by the syndicate have been actual teachers in schools, or are in direct and continuous contact with school work by means of t.h~ universi- "of the examination and personal inspection of individual


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" schools, which they undertake on behalf of the syndicate. "All the papers of questions are discussed at meetings of " examiners, and are thus brought under the consideration of " critics who are directly acquainted with the actualities of " Secondary Education.t'(') Professor Sidgwick considers that " the want of experience of school teaching has been a serious " drawback-as it is only by accident, so to say, that the syndi,. cate includes among its members any persons who have actually " taught in schools." But, the effects of the' drawback, which is to some extent inherent in the system, have" diminished as time " has gone on, partly through the experience acquired by " examiners who have frequently inspected and examined " individual schools for the syndicate, partly through the " experience gained by the managing secretaries who are in " continual communication with schoolmaeters/'(")

On the same subject the members of the Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board report that "from the first they have " invited and received criticism from individual headmasters " and headmistresses;" and that they have had several conferences with representatives of the Headmasters' Conference, the council of the Girls' Public Day Schools Company, and the educational committee of the London Chamber of Commerce. And they attribute much of the success achieved .by their labours "to the maintenance of free communication between " the board (and, through it, the universities) and the schools, " and to the fact that the board has been able to secure the " services of some of the ablest members of the universities, " many of them men of experience in school teaching.t'(")

168. Stress has also been laid on the danger that some teachers are led to concentrate their attention on the pupils sent in. for the local examinations to the comparative neglect of others. One witness said, that" in many schools girls are interrupted " in their regular work, and for a year do nothing but the " particular subjects that they mean to pass in at the local "examinatiolls."(,') The Cambridge Syndicate have no doubt that "this is a real danger," but "believe that in the case (If. " schools which regularly send in candidates, the danger is " counteracted by the consideratdon that, although the special " preparation for the local examinations is confined to certain " classes, there will be no constant supply of suitable material " for that preparation to take effect upon, unless the teaching is " thoroughly sound throughout the school.t'(v) And Professor Henry Sidgwick points outdn his memorandum that the eviL " might be adequately guarded against by systematic inspection " and examination of each school as a whole.' \ 6) He adds. that "it is obviously expedient that such inspection and " examination should be managed by the body that manage '.' the external examination for which the school in question H prepares."


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169. Another drawback which: has. been mentioned, is, the distraction of .the schools by the multiplicity of different .. examinations conducted under independent authol'it,ies.(l). This evil attaches. to many other examinations besides those . under the direction of the uni versities. Indeed, the- only. 'complete remedy n"~oulc1 be the, unification of -examinatious in=the hands of the State. But against this alternative the majority-of our witnesses entertain far graver bbjections.(2) The educational council would, however, be in a position. to lessen- the' .present confusion by making arrangements with the various examining authorities to recognise one another's certificates.

170. -Exception was taken by some witnesses to part of the work of the university authorities for local examinations.von the ground that the system of simultaneous written examination injures the teaching given in schools by discouraging variety in method and curriculum. Those who held this view pointed out thab bhe method of the simultaneous .",vritten examination was dntroduced as " a cheap and convenient.device; " which -couid be readily employed to cure idleness;" or '5 inefficiency 0lil the part of "the teachers, bur that it £a~ls to Cl discern or to encourage the best v,ray of teaching;:'(3) .It should be remarked, bowever, that in 1851 and 1858 the Oxd'or.'d and Cambridge examining authorities [wailed theiuselves of-the only method which it was really practicable fOT them to propose in view 0'& the.circumstanees of, the time. Many of the schools were.poor, some were unwilling to welcome examinatinn, Had the universities insisted on. the more expensive system .of inspection, their useful labsurs would have. been confined within: far narrower limits than" hua.laappily been the case. Much:ihat they have done. in stimulating secondary schools to higher standards of efficiency and excellence would have remained undone. 1'1.'here can be no doubt, therefore, that th~y were we~ advised to adopt the system of simultaneous 'examination -papers at the outset-and throughout the eaelier-stages of their- work. Nor, indeed, is it likely that so convenient and economical a system, which, has special advantages-of its own, will fall' into -disuse,;For, it is a reall merit-of the system that, within certain limits, 'it secures ~'an independent test- and- attestation of efficiency" applicable' at the' same time: to a -larg~' number-of di;fi'eretlt .. -schools, land rtheeefore -available 'fOl~ purpeses-v of compflil'isoll'.(49 "The wide- competition thus =introduced; -and 'i.: the- publicity and '.the identity of the sbaudard, SC1'veJ to' . determine the position of each school .relabively- to' others, . Deficiencies, moreover, are brought to light which may escape . notice when the schools are considered singly, and an additional " 'stimulus is applied/'(")

On the other hand, it is to be generally admitted tliat the method, of simultaneous written examination.tconducted by an external authority over a-wide area is open to grave objections. Thus, Professor Henry Sitlgwick writes that "~t drawback, " inherent in any system of external examination, lies in its


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" tendency to hamper n. good teacher in his choice of educational " methods and instruments, and to encourage thl) use of methods " which, though well adapted to secure success in examinatdon, " ate nob so, well adapted for the communication of solid U knowledge and the development of intellectual fnculty."(l) ,The~,&ol'ce of this objection ,hall clearly been. recognised by the Cambridge Syndicate and the Oxford Delegacy from an early stage of their work, for, from 1862 and 1877 respectively, they have .. maintained, in addition to the examination of individual boys and girls by means of the local examinations, an alternative system of inspection dealing with each school as a whole. The method of the. Cambridge Syndicate is to appoint 1lD examiner or exnminera to conduct an inspection or examination according to a schedule, drawn up by the school authorities, showing the work prepared by the- school. "The syndicate are anxious not q to interfere unduly with the freedom of each school to develop ~;,., its work according to its own. ideal, aud, therefore, the utmost " freedom is allowed in the preparation of the schedules." The examiner in, his report deals, n,_.t merely with the actual attainmen ts of the pupils in the subjects. presented Tor examina.tion, but also .with any points affecting the efficiency of the school, such as cunriculum, .the staff of teachers, and the school buildings. The same examiner is generally appointed for two or three years in succession, this aernngernent giving continuity ,to. the estimate of progress while preventing the examination from falling into a groove, as might happen if the same examiner took the work for an indefinite period. The oral examination of classes forms part of the inspeetion.P)

Similar arrangements, though differing' in details, are made by the Oxford Delegacy for Local.Examinations. Inmost of the schools .inspected by them, the upper forms are examined on the papers of the.Iocalexaminations propel', with or without a few other. pa,pers specially set. Lower forms may be examined eithol'l(l) by means of easier papers specially set and looked over by the examiner appointed by the delegacy; or (2) by means of papers marked by the teachers and submitted to the examinee of the delegacy, who inspects and reports on them; or (3) vi'uri vOCe! T.he delegates allow any combination of these methods which the circumstances of each school may requine. Tuey repor.t that " they usually.fled, .that the authorities of the schools desire. to ~'have some- viva voce examination a~ least, and they are .of =, opinion tbat this is a; valnable test of the general condition. of ~~ schools, .especially ..... of the .Iowest forms, bu.t 6£ little use for discriminating between indi vidual. pupils." (3) ,

The methods above described form a valuable alternative or supplement to l,ilhe"sYdtem of. applying a simultaneous test to the individuallacholare 'in, a large,pumber of .. schools. According to their needs. and' circumstances.achoola are I able to select one of the other . method of examiuatdon, each of which has ius.own drawbacks Q-nct. advantages. The system OI. inspection allows more .regard ,to .bo gjyen. to the speoialtcondi tions of each school,


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but at the same time it is necessarily more expensive, and it provides a different, if not a. less searching, test of comparative efficiency. But, by means of it, viva 'Voce call be made to play a more or less important part in the examination, and the syllabus of examination can follow the curriculum of the individual school, instead of, in large measure, prescribing the curriculum for a num bel' of schools by appointing set books.

It was on the ground that the local examining authorities set prescribed books that Mr. Craik preferred the system of ' the Scottish leaving certificate examination. e) To prescribe books for examination is apt, he argued, to narrow the education given in the schools. It should be remarked, however, that the system of set books is not necessarily inherent in the method of the local examinabione.f'')

171. Another objection to the system of school examinations conducted by an external authority was of a more general character. It was stated in detail by Lord Reay, who urged that" we need great elasticity in secondary schools, and should " not stereotype education by any kind of examinations which " are held by bodi.es of outsiders.' "I do not wish," he said, "to " make the leaving examination by an extraneous body the " be-all and end-ali of the teaching of a school. The respon" sibility for the education gi.ven at a school must not be " transferred from the teachers, or from those who appoint and " control the teachers, to those who, unconnected with the " school, set examination papers." Sets of examination papers, he went on to say, are not a substitute for sound metbods of examination and systematic grading of schools. "I attach " much greater importance to the organised inspection of the This view throws the chief stress on inspection, on which it relies for a continuous audit of the efficiency of schools in place of the periodical audit which is at present furnished by means of external examination. The examination would thus, in so far as it is regarded as supplying a test of comparative efficiency, fall into a subordinate position. No longer needed as a standard by means of which the work of one school can be measured with that of others, it could be left more to the teacher himself, and, therefore, allowed to adjust itself more freely to varieties of curriculum.

But it should be remarked that the university examinations for secondary schools have grown up in the absence of any system of organised inspection. They, therefore, seek to combine two functions, viz., to provide a test of the work in each individual school and an external standard by which the merits of different schools may be compared. The methods of


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these examinations must, therefore, necessarily be somewhat of the nature of a compromise, seeking to unite, as far as possible, freedom of examination with the strictness of a comparative test, and the difficulty of combining these two objects becomes the greater, in proportion to the variety in the curriculum and methods of the schools examined. As might be expected, there-fore, the methods of those of the university examinations which concern the higher secondary schools have been criticised on the one hand as not necessarily maintaining a uniformly level 'Standard,(l) and, on the other hand, as not having sufficient 'regard to the kind of school examined.

The regulations of the various authorities show what care is taken to secure elasticity together with a sufficiently uniform standard. Thus, the London University examinations for schools "follow, as nearly as possible, the course of the ordinary U school work," and schools desiring to be examined are invited to specify" the extent to which the teachers of the school will .u be willing, if desired, to assist in conducting the exam il< nation." The examiner visits the school and reports" on the :" work of each class, on the proficiency attained in respect to " each subject of instruction, and on the method, discipline, and " general condition of' the sehool.i'(") Some secondary schools in Yorkshire have availed themselves of the Victoria University schools' examination scheme, to the great benefit, we are informed, of their educational work. "The headmaster of the " grammar school in a small town or country place, no matter " how able he may be, must tend in course of time to get out ", of touch with new educational developments, and must find " the criticism and suggestions of someone who is a thorough " master of his subject aud comes to inspect his school of great u value/'(') Similarly, the Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board provides for elasticity in the case of the certificate examinations by the variety of subjects offered to the eandidate's choice and the option of selecting It book or period alternative to tbose prescribed in the regulations, and, in the ease of school examinations, by holding examination by means .of papers, or orally, in any subject forming part of the course of -a - school of the highest grade. In all cases of school examinations, the board require" at least one examiner to yisit the school, and at a fair number of schools a 1;iva voce examination -is conductecl ill some or all of the su bj ects of instruction.P) The board has also provided for the inspection, by examiners appointed by the board, of answers to papers set by them and of marks assigned to these answers 'by masters at the schools on a scale fixed by the examiners. This method of inspection, however, is never applied to work done for the purpose of obtaining certificates.

Uniformity of standard is sought from year to year, and doubtless obtained, by means (If a system of revision by' a practically permanent staff of central examiners, and by certain general regulabions as to the range of knowledge to be required from candidates in the highest form of a first grade


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scbcol.t") It is clear, however, that this Aystel.lf of central revision, combined with visits by the examiners to tb:e individual schools, is necessarily somewhat elaborate, and might not be easy of application to the whole of England.(2) The difficulty of maintaining equality of standard. does not present itself in the same degree in the case of the London and Victoria University Schools' examinations, as both are a-t present conducted on a much smaller scale. So long as the examining duties of a university body are comparatively limited in extent, it is doubtless easier to find examiners able to report on the general arrangements of the schools. At the same time, it does not follow that the schools" examinations of the joint board, though general:).y limited to the upper forms, have failed to affect the whole of the schools examined. On the contrary, " the work. of the lower forms is really and efficiently " tested by the examination of the uppeL' forms! where bhe " results of, the grounding in all subjects is put to the test."(J) The "inspection," however, of the joint board has not meant complete inspection of the general arrangements and curriculum. of the school, though, under exceptional circumstances, an examiner has beeu requested to, report on the general arrangements for teaclring a particular subject.

172. Two of our witnesses, therefore, have expressed a preference for a change of system. Mr. Storr advocates an examination', on German lines, " the masters in schools conducting the " examination with some outside assessor to see that everything " is fair1y done, and that a tolerably uniform standard of " attainment is preserved." Desiring to secure" uniformity of " standard, with the greatest diversity of subjects consistent " with that uniformity," he suggested that the general lines of the examination should be laid down, the authorities of each school conducting it with an assessol'.(5)* Mr. Craik drew our attention to the Scottish leaving certificate examination, which allows each candidate to take as many or as few subjects as he Iikea, the examiners reporting howhigh a standard the candidate has reached in each subject offered by him. The other examining authorities, such as Oxford and., Cambridge, the Scottish Universities, the Civil Service Commiseioners, the Medical Council, the Law Societies, and so forth, are left' to decide which and how many certificates they. will require. their applicants to produce.I") 'rile work of paper-setting and looki!lg over answers is to a large extent done by professors of the universities, and special arrangements are made with the-joint, boards of Oxford and Cambridge and of the Scottish Universities for conferences as to the standard of the examination.(1) '.-

Both these systems, however, involve a general system of inspection of secondary schools, distinct from the systenr of examination.r'') But in judging the work of the' university examining agthol'ities, regard should be had to the fact 'that

*A Memorandum on the working of this Abiturienten Examen in Prussian Secondary Schools has been prepared by one of our members and will be found in Vol. V, p. 27.


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considerations of expense would in any case have made it impossible for them to require inspection of nil schools examined by them.(1) The Oxford and Gam bridge Board also pointed out" the difficulty of providing inspectors whose opinions would " be recognised as authoritative as against that of a headmaster " of a public school of the first rank. It must be remembered " that for a comprehensive inspection of this sort, much more " special and much rarer qualifications are demanded than " for an examination in specific subjects.'{") " The number of men," writes Mr. Matbeson, " qualified to speak with authority " on the general arrangements and conduct of, e.g., Eton or H Harrow, or Clifton or Rugby, is very small indeed, and it is " next to impossible to secure their services. Such men, to " speak with any weight, must be D1:en of the very first rank /, in the teaching profession.T") On the other hand, the headmaster of Clifton points out in his memorandum, that as inspection, unlike examination, can be held at any time in a term, one inspector could take charge of 30 or 40 schools. e) We are assured, moreover, that" there is nothing in the constitution of " the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board to " prevent its extending its work in this direction, if requested " to do so by the authorities of schools.Y") And its close communication with both the above universities and with the schools which mainly feed them, and its knowledge of the pe?'so'"fII'Mlof examiners and inspectors, would certainly, us has been remarked, give it great advantages in the discharge of such additional duties.

173. A further objection to the system of the university local examinations was . urgeq by the President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, who argued that, "however excellent their On the other hand, Principal Rendall thought that these external duties and responsibilities did not distract the attention of the uni versities from their more academic work. " These ~' things :&igh.t themselves; examination work falls into ~he :: .hands of bhose meat, fitted to discharge it, and those who are u not fitted abstain naturally from the work of examination. ~: ~e universities fire strong enough in men to have men whom .~~ they can 'ialuillb1y use in all ,tho work of examination that " comes iiito their hands.t'(")


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Moreover, the assignment of precisely defined provinces to different educational institutions is foreign to the conditions of our national life. The limits of influence and responsibility are hard t) draw, and could be effectually' maintained only under a more rigid system of State control than public opi.nion in this country is likely to tolerate.

174. It is clear, at any rate, thn,t the universities are necessarily concerned in the improvement of secondary schools, from which, directly or indirectly, they draw the great majority of their undergraduates. The better the secondary schools, the higher may become the standard of academic work. "Intermediate " education must necessarily be closely allied to the univer" sities, and, therefore, the universities are more or less l'espon~ " sible Ior its efficiency, because they' can close their doors to " those who are ill prepared.l'(') and because they can exert, by means of the examinations under their direction, a beneficial influence on the curriculum of the schools from which the undergraduates come.

Moreover, by means of these examinations, the universities have become more familial' with the educational difficulties oil the schools, and the schools with the requirements of the universities. The need of such a connexion is emphasised by many of our witnesses. "The closer the relationship between the univer" sities and secondary schools in knowledge of each other's " wants the better.i'(") Principal Rendall would 'f regret the " creation of a body of official examiners acting for a Depart. " ment of State rather than a body of examiners who take " school examinations in conjunction with' their work in the " university. because the latter are teachers as well as examiners; " they are learning ae well as imparting, for they are learning " school standards, school methods, the subjects of study at " schools, and they enable the university itself to form a far " better judgment of what standard should be required for the " whole series of examinationa{") The same witness also regarded the administrative experience ga.ined by a university body in conducting a system of examination, as in itself valuable to the university, and distinct in kind from the examination experience which might be gitined by indi vidual graduates acting in their personal capacity.

175. It is not, indeed, the duty of the universities to organise or control Secondary Education.r') Such a task is obviously beyond their resources, alike of men and of money, and one in which the State and the representatives of public opinion in each locality must properly bear a still more important part. But, on the other hand, they cannot" stand.aside from the problems of Secondary Education as if its condition and difficulties had no bearing on academic work. The schools and the uni versitiee are bound together by ties which cannot be weakened or neglected without injury to both. And the efforts which have been made by the universi ties to fulfil these responsibilities, during. a critical


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period of educational change, have met with the success and public recognition which they fully deserve.

The relation of University Extension Teaching to Secondary Education

176. Though university extension lectures are intended primarily for adults, it not unfrequently happens that a limited number of the elder scholars in secondary schools attend the courses.and several writers have referred to the advantagea deri ved by secondary schools from this addition to their ordinary curriculum.(l) The returns obtained by the Cambridge Syndicate for Local Lectures, and the Oxford University Extension Delegacy show that, in ordinary centres, elder scholars from secondary schools form from 11 to 15 pel' cent. of the audiences.f'') In London, however, the proportion is less than three per cent.(3) The various authorities for university extension teaching do not encourage the attendance of the younger scholars, and two of them refuse to admit to their final examinations any candidate under 15 years of age.

177. The courses are however attended by large numbers of persons who, though not at school, are still within the limits of school age. Several witnesses have urged upon us the importance p£ providing, by means of evening classes, for the needs of poorer students who are willing to avail themselves of facilities for continuing their education after the early end of their school life. (4) Principal Symes, believing that this class of students is much more numerous than is generally supposed, points out that the university extension system has been "most helpful" in meeting their case. He thinks, however, that the universities should give more recognition to a high standard of knowledge acquired by means of private study and evening classes, "the " degrees of the Univeraity of London having been most helpful " to vast bodies of students who never would otherwise have " obtained a university education at all.(5) Such encouragement appears, however, to be already given by the affiliation scheme of the University of Cambridge, and by the higher certificates awarded by the Oxford, Cambridge, and London authorities for university extension. It, seems, therefore, to be the general wish that while, as now, e r the universities should, by means of the " university extension movement, bring themsel ves into connexion " with education of very various kinds, and grant certificates of " official recognition for various branches of study, including "technical proficiency of various kinds, residence in the " universities with the degrees attained by a course of study " during residence, should, as heretofore, be connected with " learning in the higher sense."(O)

Stress is laid on the service which the University Extension Colleges at, Reading and Exeter, have rendered to the class of younger students who' can only attend courses of instruction in the evening. With regard to Exeter, Miss Montgomery writes: ~' By far the Iarger propol tion of' children leave the elementary


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" and secondary schools at an early age, with .no idea of 'going " on to the higher schools, where they do not find' precisely " such teaching in Latin, modern languages, English geography, " history, and mathematics, as would :fit them for commercial " life, clerkships, appointments in the civil service, &c.; there " was, in fact, great want of such teaching as is given in the " German Real schmlen. This want [among others] the Technical ~' and University Extension College eupplies.i'(') Similarly, the curriculum of the Reading University Extension College provides for the needs of those who come from the elementary or evening school, or from the second grade school at 16, as well ae those who leave the :first grade school at 18.(2)

178. Several of our witnesses thought that the university extension authorities might provide some of the travelling teachers whose services will probably be required. to give supplementary instruction in schools (e.g., in history, literature, and geo~ graphy),(3) and more especially in schools situated in' country districtaf") In order to meet this need, Mr. Raleigh suggests that the work of the university extension might be "supple" mented by arrangements for giving iustruction of a more " elementary and systematic nature, than can be given in a " short course of lecturea/'(") This has recently been done by the new regulations for class teaching in languages and mathematics adopted by the Oxford, Cambridge, and London authori= 'ties. While, however, the services of travelling teachers m~gh:t usefully be employed in many schools, it is clear that thest! visits can only be regarded as supplementary to the work of ~ resident staff. It is on the daily intercourse between tlu1,:>il and 'teacher that the more permanent influences of secondary educstion depend. Occasional visits from teachers, who must necessarily have far less knowledge of the needs and character of the individual scholars, can form DO substitute for the work of the resident masters or misbresses.I") Class work,' for example, must always be chiefly entrusted to the resident st::iff of teachers, and it is "in the class-room, not in the lecture room, that the " more solid part of secondary education must always be carried "on. The lecturer deals with his audience as a whole, the u : teaelier with the separate individuals who compose it. W]lile " the lecturer may not know whether his hearers work for them'!. il selves or not, it is an essential part of the teacher's function to I' direct the efforts of his individual pupils, to address himself to " their different difficulties, to set them' working on, their own " account, and to satisfy himself that they understand what he " teaches them. Lecturing may be occasional, teaching is neces" sarily continuous; and, while the flrst may be effectually done " by a stranger at comparatively distant intervals, the other must ,; be entrusted to some one in daily intercourse 'With his pupils, rr and in 11 disciplinary relation to them."O But it does riot follow that the lecture plays no useful part in scl1001 education, It is not a substitute for class work, but it may be made l~ valuable supplement to it. It may stimulate thought, give new


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points of view, and add interest and variety to the instruebion I given in the class.e) I

179. A. similar educational difficulty has to be met when the lecture is used, not as' a part of school work, but as a means 0,£ . imparting instruction to elder pupils who have left school. It should be pointed out, however, that in the university extension system the lecture does not stand alone, but is followed by a class for further instruction, in which the student has an 0PP01'tunity of asking questions and clearing up his difficulties. Only By attending these classes, by writing weekly papers ioi: the lecturer, and by entering for the final examination on the course, can any person be regarded as obtaining the full educational advantage which university extension teaching is designed to supply. Bteps have also been taken by the various university extension authorities to provide special forms of class teaching as a supplement to the ordinary courses, or as a substitute for them, in subjects for which the lecture is an unsuitable method of , instruction. e)

180. As, however, the lectures are generally suspended through, ~lie summer, the interval between the courses must be bridged over by Some form of tutorial or class work. Mr. Headlam, who discusses this difficulty in some detail, recommends "the ,~ establishment of strong and vigorous unions of student') of "I-the kind which have often grown up round university " extension centres.t'(") Well organised associations of students ill:e now found at all the best centres of university extension teaching, and facilities are also provided by the various university "authorities for continuing the instruction, begun in the winter, through the summer months. Arrangements of this kind, however, entail much labour and continuous attention on tlie part of residents, 'and can only be made where there is a sti;ong local inte\:est in the work of the travelling teachers.r-) It has, accordingly, been found by experience that the value of university extension teaching largely depends on the voluntary efforts of the local organising committees. It is, indeed, one of the great advantages of the system that it calls forth and makes use (If local interest in higher education. Wbere the labours of a local committee have not prepared the way;'the lectures have generally failed to attract large audiences Or to draw together a body of real students. The formation of ~'strong local committee might, therefore, well be madea condition of financial aid. It seems better to work through the local university extension committees, where they already exist, and by means of small grants to enable them to put their work on to a more permanent and systematic basis, than to attempt, by means of larger subsidies, to create suddenly a local interest and form of organisation which must necessarily be of slow growt.b. "When courses of lectures are pressed on a town or


[page 252]

" neglect it. As a consequence of this, the lectures have often " failed in places where efficient local organisation would have " ensured their complete success.t'(') But experience has made it equally clear that gra.nts from a public autboriby may be of the greatest value in enabling the local university extension committees to make their work more continuons, more systematic, and more available for students with narrow means.(2) The provision of courses of higher instruction, arranged in educational sequeDce and in sufficient variety to meet the needs of different classes of students; is frequently beyond the means of the local committees, especially in small towns and poor districts, where the need is often greatest. By the help of COIDputatively small grants from public fUDd'3, given in such a way as to call forth local subscriptions instead of superseding them, increased service could be rendered by the universi.ty extension system to public education. "If continuous systematic courses " of study can be regularly arranged, extending over a period Ct of years, and especially if they can be made to lead up " eventually to a university degree, many will be encouraged, " after leaving school, to carryon higher education side by side " with the learning of a trade or profession In any " adequate system of secondary or higher education there " should be some means by which the pupils on leaving school " might have immediate opportunities opened up to them of (I carrying on special studies into higher stages. By means of (I the university extension system, this might be done in a most " effective and thorough way/'(") "The maio function of the " local lectures in relation to secondary education will consist " in carrying to a higher stage the education begun in schools, " and. in particular, in keeping alive or reviving intellectual " interests which fire fostered by intelligent school teaching and " are only too often allowed to disappear in after years, owing " to want of suitn ble opportunity for their c1evelopment."(l)

181. It bas been pointed out to us, however, that the limitations of the present law prevent the necessary help being given to the systematic courses on historical and literary subjects which are much needed. The committee of the educational committee of the Co-operative Society at Todmorden write that" instruction " defined as technical is not the only instruction needed and we " think that the scope of the Act ought to be extended so as to take in historical, literary and economic subjects.e). The " tendency of the Ac~ is to develope "a one-sided educational 'C system. If we could have had a reasonable grant in aid, " T.odmorden would have looked forward as regularly to a course " of lectures year by yea.r as it looks to its dividend day. We " have an'exceptionally good school board ill 'I'odmorden and they are doing far more in the direction of technical education than " we possibly could. Yet three yl:'al'S ago our committee had " a course of lectures and a technical subject was selected. We " got 30Z. from the West Riding County Council and how was " it expended? By covcring the same ground that was being


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" covered in the same district by the school board. We made " no application afterward, for we regarded the money as almost " wasted; whereas, if we could have had a grant for a literary or " historical subject, we should have broken up new ground."(l) We were also fissured that the same view is taken by other working men in Oldham, in the neighbourhood of Bristol and in Cornwall, And in a memorial from -80 University extension committees, 71 "express themselves decidedly in favour of such " an extension by the powers of the county cooncils.'{")

182. Several witnesses refer to the help which teachers receive from courses of university extension lectures. Thus in Huddersfield the system "has been a very valuable stimulus to Secondary " and Elementary Education. It bas. been of very great value " to our ex-pupil teachers especially.Y") At Reading and Exeter, the classes are attended by large numbers of teacbers.(4) Special courses for teachers are arranged by the Victoria University in Manchester and Liverpool. The importance of this service is emphasised by the Cambridge Syndicate who point out that" the lectures afford an opportunity for teachers " to pursue their studies in their own special subjects, or in " others, and thus contribute towards keeping up the freshness " of their teaching."(5) A special memorandum from the Same body describes the university extension courses which have been arranged under the Norfolk County Council with a view to giving further qualifications to teachers, engaged in eontinuation schools and village classes. Large numbers of teachers in secondary as well as in elementary schools have also attended the vacation classes held at the different universities and at the Exeter Technical and University Ext.ension College.(G)

183. The establishment of university extension lectures has led in many towns to further educational developments. Thus" the " desire for advanced education in Sheffield has been greatly u stimulated by such movements :IS the university extension, " the Gilchrist lectures &c. We had large audiences attending " these lectures and classes, and the public mind was being "educated."C) In Somersetsbire, again, the increasing interest in educational matters is partly traced to the work of the university extension lecturers.I") In Sheffield, the Fir~h College was "the natural outcome of the Cambridge University " Extension Classes,"(9) And the same movement led up to the establishment of University College, Nottingham. Within the " last few years, the election of a university extension lecturer " to a studentship at Christ Church, Oxford "with a view to " giving system and completeness to the educational work of " the extension centre at Reading " has led to the foundation of the University Extension College in that town, and the action of the Cam bridge Syndicate for local lectures has similarly brough t about the este blisbment of the Technical and University Extension College at Exeter. These colleges appeal' to have been instrumental in co-ordinating the educational agencies in


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the towns in which they are placed, to have grea,tlyc stimuJated public interest in higher education, al!ld to have pvovided facilities for continuing the studies -as wElII of adult persons as of. pupils fresh fuom the secondany tsclioola ,Spe~l\jing 0£ the Reading College, Captain Abney informed-us that.ita work has led to the most ,sBltisfaetory 'results. , Un1ting tilile university extension system with, the scienc-e and-arb-classea, "act_combines the I~ advantage @f both and the disadvantages ofr neither," He held it out" as a model on which the same combination might " .be made. to work under the same system" in other places,(I)

184. The important services which may be rendered by the university colleges. to a system of Secondary Education -have been urged 9Y many of our witnesses.(1l) One of them tbought th!J.t "Technical or Secondn,ry Education cannot be satisfactorily " carried out in any'part of Englund unless there is in thedietrict " some institution (of the nature of a university college), to which the more promising students can be sen t for their h,igheJ.' eduoa"tion."Ci) Three of the greatest of the university '(alleges. are already federated in the Victoria University, and thus have a nationjJl as "well as a local function, Nearly all the smaller university colleges, not being cousbi ttl ents of a university, are -more exclusively local in their character, and one of. them (Netting.haan) is a municipal institution.I") Centres. for, h~gber ~dpca~ipp are, however, needed in. many towns which cannot maintain a fully-equipped. university college, and it js to meet tl;ljl3 A,e~~l that theuniversity extension authorities have taken part in the establishment of ~µe colleges at Reading' and Exeter. On Fh~ir technical sic1e,. tEcse cplleges can obtain adequate support f~oJ:p. public grants/ but then' efforts to provide historical and Jiperl1l'Y teaching have been cramped by want of fllpds.(5) The importance, however, of maintaining in each large centre of population a college which shall encourage humanistic as well as' technical studies has been atrongly - urged.t") And: the efforts - of those who J desire to maintain a well-balanced :cal'1-doulum of studiea will nabua-ally be helped by;, dwect connexion with the university on Lhe one hand, and wich the local authority for secondary and technical instruction on the other.

The value of this double connexion was further explained by Canon -Moore .Edo, who, in his memorandum, pointed out thatbho work which has been done at Reaaing aJl~l Efxeter might, with due adaptation to local circumstancesybe "I'epl'oducecl elsewhere. !' Given an educational board as the sole authority, and COI"I. trolling all moneys to be expended on the education of those " who have left school, their first step should be: to " appoint a capable man to organise the. education other than !' ordinary school work throughout the district, Such -appoint" ment might- be permanent: OL' arrangements might be made " with the uni versity extension authorities for some one of their " staff of lecturers to underta ke the work for three or five "years. In some places ,it would be desirable to have a change


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" of man, and a change in the subjects of lectures given by the " principal, every few years."(l) In order to inspect and systemntise the university extension classes in certain districts, and to draw their work into closer connex.ion with .otber branches of education, the Oxford Delegacy and Cambridge Syndicate have recently appointed three superintendent lecturers or directors of studies, whose labours mll,y do something towards bringing about the co-ordination which is generally desired.





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Part IV

Recommendations

Having now described the present state of schools and other educational agencies in England, and examined the various proposals that have been laid before us, and the arguments by which they are respectively supported, we may proceed to state the measures which we humbly recommend to Your Majesty as calculated, in our opinion, to bring about that correlation of existing agencies and economical application of existing funds, which are required for the proper organisation of Secondary Education. Here, as elsewhere in this Report, we include Technical Education in the term Secondary, and we desire our suggestions to be taken as bearing upon both alike.

These measures appear to fall into five classes, viz.:

I. Those which relate to the constitution and powers of It Central Authority calculated to bring the state into a fitting relation to Secondary Education.

II. Those which relate to the constitution and powers of Local Authorities, rural and urban.

III. Arrangements for the better organisation of schools, including-

The kinds of schools needed, and their classification and co-ordination.
Special provisions for rural districts.
Local governing bodies of schools.
Scholarships and exhibitions.
Examination and inspection.
IV. Financial arrangements.

V. Questions specially affecting teachers, including the registration of teachers and their professional education.


I THE CENTRAL AUTHORITY

1 We have already (see p. 64) stated the reasons which lead us to believe that some central authority is required, with power to discharge certain functions which are of common concern to all parts of the country. N early all the witnesses who have appeared before us have argued in favour of the creation of such an organ of the State; and the need :for it is indeed shown by the fact that two organs exist which practically discharge some of the functions proposed to be allotted to the new authority, viz., the Charity Commission and the Science and Art Department. We are


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however, anxious to disclaim at the outset nny wish to set up a new branch of the Executive Government with the duty of effecting reforms and compelling obedience to its commands. So far from desiring that Seeondary Edncation 'should be a matter for a Department of State to control, we pl'opose to leave the initiative' in public action to local. au thori ties, and to :prevent even those authorities from superseding the action of individuals. So £~1r from attempting to 'induce uniformity, we tru8t .that a free and spontaneous v::tl!iety: and 'an open field for experiment and, enterprise of all kinds, will be scrupulously l)Jleserved- "~eive, in short, tbatsome central authority is l'eqirired, not in order to control, but rather to supervise the Seconda-ry ]lduca~ion of the. country; not to override or snpersede local action, but to endeavour to bring about among the various agencies which provide that education a harmony and co-operation which are now wanting.

The functions we propose to entrust to this authority will be presently specified in detail. They will include a general oversight of the action of such local authorities as may deal with Secondary Education, the supplying of information and advice to those' authorities, the power of framing or approving schemes for the reoTgll'nislltion of endowments, and rules for 'fhe application of public funds, the deciding of appeals from local authorities, together ' with some m~asure of jurisdiction over those important e~ucational foundations which, being used by the country generally, cannot properly be subjected to local jurisdiction. And with these will go the' management of a Register of 'I'eachers..

-2. The central authority ought to consist of a Department of the Executive Govemment, presided over by a Minister responsible to Parliament, who would obviously be the same Minister as the one to whom the charge 0:£ elementary education is entrusted. In order to secure harmony and economy in the wo~1cing of the various branches of the Education Office as thus enlarged it seems desirable that there should be under the Minister a permanent Secretary with a general oversight of those several branches. Whether there should further be created a staff .of officials for Secondary Education, distinct from those who administer the work of the present Education Department, or whether that Department should merely be expanded andstrengthened to undertake the new functions which W~ propose to have devolved upon it, is a question which may be left to be settled by those who will have to organise the office. The new work, however, will be in SOUle respects so unlike the work now being done, as. to require different methods, and at least some officials specially devoted to it. Several of these would naturally come to the new department from the bodies which we propose to merge therein. See paragraphs 6 and 7 post.)


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3. Most of the work to be assigned to the new Central Office would, naturally, be despatched by the Minister and ills departmental staff in the usual way. There will be some matters, however, ill which the counsel of persons specially conversant with education and holding an independent position, may be so helpful, and there will be some duties in their nature so distincbly judicial rather than executive, M to make it desirable to secure for the Minister the advice of persons not under his official direction. There will, moreover, be some work to be done ill a Central Educational Department, so purely professional, as to belong rather to an independent body than to a Department of State. For these purposes we propose that there be created an Educational Council, which may advise the M i!}isler in the first-mentioned class of matters ana inappea1s, while such a professional function as the registration of teachers might be entirely committed to it. We do not advocate such a council on the ground that it will relieve n. Minister of responsibility, for we conceive that the responsibility both for general policy and for the control of: administrati ve details ought to be his and his alone; but we believe that the unwillingness which doubtless exists in some quarters to entrust to the Executive any powers at all in this branch of education would be sensibly diminished were his position at once strengthened and guarded by the addition of a number of independent advisers.

4. Such au Educational Council ought to be small, not exceeding 12 members. Of these, one-third might be appointed by the Crown; one-third by the four universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London, and Victoria (one member by each); and one-third might be selected by the rest of the council from among experienced members of the teaching profession. The term of office might be six years, and arrangements ought to be made which would prevent all the members from going out of office at the same time, so as to secure the continuance and transmissiou of experience, and a certain permanence of policy, Once the council bad been formed, all the members ought to take part in the co-optation of such members 0,1 will from time to time have to bo co-opted.

It is not easy to suggest a satisfactory means of obtaining members whose mode of appointment will tend to secure their independence; but on the whole we think that this object l11A.y best be attained Ly allowing the universities to choose a number of the members equal to the number chosen by the Crown; and this plan would be in accord with the policy whicli bas conferred on the universities the right of appointing persons to sit on the governing bodies of some of the greatest schools, as well as with the right similarly enjoyed by them of nominating some of the memb~rs of the General Medical Cmmcil*

*The General Medical Council meets only twice !\ year, but it is much IlIrg~l' (2S persons) than we think the Educational need be, and some of its members hnve to travel from Scotland and Ireland. Elich receives besides his travelling expenses a fce of 5/, 55. for eTCl'Y day <1uring which the council sits.


[page 259]

We were at one time disposed to recommend also the election. of some members of the council by the teaching profession as a whole, a scheme supported by not a few witnesses, but the practical difficulties in the way of arranging for such an election, by a vast number of persons scattered over the country and divided into several sections with interests not altogether the same, appear to us to be at present insuperable; and we therefore think: it better to attempt to ensure by the method of co-optation the presence of a professional element."

It will nevertheless deserve to be considered, after the register herein-after recommended has been formed, whether regulations may not usefully be framed, under which those who are to constitute this professional element may be chosen On the recommendation of the teaching profession itself instead of at the discretion of the co-opting members of the council.

5. The Educational Council should meet at least four times a ye~\.l', and at such other times as it may be called together by the Minister. Its members should be paid their travelling expenses and a fee (to he fixed by the Treasury) for each day of attendance. The Council should have power to appoint a standing committee, or other committees, and to entrust to these committees such of its functions as it may think fit, and it might be allowed to appoint, with the sanction of the Minister, aseessora to aiel it for special purposes.

Relation of existing Authorities to the new Central Educational Authority

6. On a balance of the considerations which suggest and dissuade the merging of the Charity Commission in the Central Office, a difficult question fully discussed in rut earlier part of the Report (see amie, pp. 88-98), we conceive t11at the gain of bringing the whole manag-ement of educational endowmenta under the direction of a Minister responsible to Parliament and a Department equipped for the supervision of Secondary Education is evident under such a system. The policy of a Department is likely to possess more definiteness, and the power of carrying that policy out to be greater, than can be secured under the present arraugemonts, Whether the present Charity Oommission sbould be left iu existence for the purpose of dealing with non-educational endowments, or whether it ought to be placed under the proposed Minister for that part of its work also, is a question which may seem to be beyond the scope of the Reference with which Your Madesty has honoured us, We, therefore, confine oursel ves to recommending

*Upon this subject reference mny be ninde to a Memorandum by two of our members which will be fbnud in the Appendix, Vol. V., p. 20.


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that the work now done by the Charity Commissioners, so fat' as regards educational endowments, be transferred to, or placed under the direction of, the proposed Central Office, but without prejudice to any existing right of appeal to the courts of law from decisions of the Charity Commissioners. (See pp. 22, 26, a1~te.)

7. FOil the reasons already stated (see p. 10], cvnte) we think that the Science and Art Department ought to be absorbed into the reconstructed and enlarged Education Office, those of its functions which relate to Secondary Education being transferred to the new Department for Secondary Education, while those which touch elementary schools would go to those officials of the Education Office who already deal with such schools. ".i.

Powers and Functions of the Central Authority for Secondary Education

, 8. One of the first duties to be discharged by the Central aubhority will be to aid in the establishment of those local authorities for Secondary Education with which the next following section of this Report deals. It will be there noted that we have thought it desirable to provide for a certain amount of elasticity or variation in the constitution of thoseauthorities, and for the appointment by the Minister of Education of a eerbain small number of their members. '].'0 see thesebodies duly consti.tuted, and to give them all such help as they need in setting to work, seem to be functions in which the intervention of the Central Office is necessary, and may b~ exerted without any restriction of the free scope which we desire to secure to local action.

9. We have already intimated our opinion that there are many districts where the existing supply of Secondary Education iii very deficient, and not likely to be supplied by the gl'OWt11\)I "proprietary or private schools; and we further think that, although the local authorities which H is proposed to establish, will, in most instances, show themselves active in endeavouring to supply these deficiencies, sbill it canuot be assumed they willo always have the knowledge, perhaps not always even. the will, required -to enable them effectually to do so. We accordingly tl).ink it is desirable tbat some central aubhority should have the right and duty of requiring local authorities to fulfil the trust: to be committed to them, and of aiding them in such fulfilment; and we conceive .that a precedent for imposing such a duty upon -a Centl'fl,l Office may be found in the duty cast upon the Education Department under the Act of 1870, to secure the performance of the obligation devolved Ul)f)ll localities by that Act, although the method prescribed by that Act would be inappropriate to the present case. --

We, therefore, think Lhat it should be the duty of the Central Office, as 800:0. as constituted, to require from the


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various.Local A-'lthorities for Secondary Education (herein-after mentioned), Il. statement of the provision existing, or proposed to be by them created, for Secondary Education in their respective areas, and to consider these statements for the purpose of ascertaining whether that provision is, or will be when the proposals have been carried out, sufficient in quantity and quality, duo regard being had to the character and wants of the population of each area, whether urban or rural.

10. The difficulty of determining what in any given case is a sufficient supply of Secondary Education is greater than in the 9a'3e of elementary education; because the population of f1u\y given area is only one of several elements affecting the amount of the demand for such education, and indicating the type to which it ought to conform. The wealth or poverty of the inhabitants, the nature of their occupations, the degree of culture they have reached, the possibility of exciting their desire tor a higher degree, must all be considered. In proposing to entrust to a central authority the function of stimulating and advising local authorities in this matter, we do so in the confidence that an administrative deparbment would proceed with caution and tact, judging each case by its own conditions rather than by any rigid rule, and endeavouring to lead and guide rather than to apply legal pressure to a dilatory Jocal authority. The exercise of such pressure would, in our opi.nion, btl very rarely needed; bu b in. view of extreme cases we dou bt whether it would be safe to omit altogether to provide lor it. We, therefore, recommend that--

The Central Office may, when it considers that a statement shews the provision of Secondary Education in a,ny area to be defective, require the Local Autbority for that area to take steps for making a due provision, and obtain from time to time ~l'om the Local Authority an account of the action it; has taken for that purpose, and may, if it deems that action maufticicut, continue to require furbher action, until the provision made appears to it to be satisfactory.

n. In the improbable contingency of ~ a Local Authol'iliy refusing.to fulfil its obligation, it should ~be in the power of the Central Office to withhold the grant which we propose should be given to Local Authorities in lieu of the present Science find Art grants (see para, 145), and even to forbid the upplication of the grant under the Act of J 890, in other parts of;the area of the recalcitrant Local Aub'aoriby, until the part held, to be iusufficiently supplied had been provided for. If it be 'Suggested that even this ])l'essure might fail, it would become necessary for the Central Office to consider the propnieby of mstituting such proceedings 3.'3 the gen.el'allaw provides for the case of Local Authorities neglecting a duty cast on them by statute. But we do not at all apprehend that auy recourse tv such extreme measures will ever become necessary.


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12. Though we shall presently have to propose that Local Authorities shall receive the power of framing schemes for educational endowments within their respective areas, a power now enjoyed by the Charity Commission only, it is obviously necessary to subject those schemes to the judgment of a central authority before they can be laid before Parliament or approved by Your Majesty in Council. We, therefore, recommend that-

Where a Local Authority has (in manner herein-after 1Uel1~ tioned) framed a scheme reJating to all endowment within its area, whether for the altering the place or mode of application or administration of an endowment, or for the consolidation of several endowments into one, such a scheme shall to be submitted to the Central Office, and that Department shall have the power of sanctioning it, or of suggesting amendments to it, and. refusing its sanction except npon the acceptance of those aruendmen ts.

In many cases the Local AuthOl:ity lUay feel iLself scarcely qualified to prepare a scheme, and then the work will virtually be done by the Central and Local Authority together, the former supplying the general principles which govern these matters, the latter the special knowledge of the needs and wishes of the inhabitants of the given area.

13. The Central Office in considering schemes submitted to it should take means for ascertaining the wishes of the people of the place, should give objectors to the scheme an opportunity of being heard, and should, in propel' cases direct a local enquiry to be held (ns is now done by the Charity Commissioners), more particularly if it is proposed to di verb non-educational endowments to an educational pmpose.

14. Any statute that may be passed for the merging of the Charity Commissioners (wholly or partially) in the proposed new Central Office, ought to provide that all the powers which those Commissioners uow enjoy, so far as they relate to, or can be used for the purposes of, educational endowments, should be transferred to and vested in the Central Office, but without prejudice t.o the dght of Local Authorities to initiate schemes (as herein-after mentioned) for endowments within their respective areas and jurisdiction.

15. We have already stated om view the (; endowed foundations which are non-local in their character, that is to say, which are mainly boarding schools, and are largeJy resorted to by scholars from far beyond the area of the Local Authority in which they are situate, ought to be exempt from the jurisdiction of that Local Authority. To declare what schools ought to be deemed to fall within this category is no doubt a matter of much difficulty, and not the less so because there are some foundations which have gl'O"wn from being local grammar schools into what are popularly called "public schools," i.e., large boarding schools


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of the so-called" first grade" type, while there are others which show a tendency, after having for H. time drawn the bulk of their scholars from a. distance, to become again local in their character. The determination of the particular schools which ,111:e to be treated as "nonlocal " must, we think, be left to the proposed Educational Council, whose experience, judgment, and non-political character appeal' to fit it for this delicate task. The list once formed, it seems to follow that such schools should be placed under the supervision of the Central Office. (See paragraphs 82, 85, post) We think, therefore, that that Office ought to have the exclusive right and duty of framing as well as sanctioning schemes for schools which may be declared to. be non-local, and thereby exempt from the jurisdiction of the Local Authority within whose area they are situate.

16. Where any question requiring adjustment or determination arises between two or more Local Authorities for Secondary Education the Central Office should have power to settle it.

Questions (such as those relating to the establishment of scholarships for several areas, or the use of schools in one area by pupils-from another) are likely to arise in which the action 01; jurisdiction of one Local Authority will touch or overlap that of another, or in which combination is desirable, and from this contact disputes may occasionally grow. It is desirable that the Oenbral Office should have the function of arbibrating on and set cling illlY such dispute.

17. Where an urban Local AuthuriLy requests that the area of its jurisdiction may be enlarged, or where any Local Authority requests that it may be united with some other Local Authority or Authorities, the Central Office ought to have power, after due inquiry, and after communication with any other Local Authority affected, to effect such enlargement or union if satisfied that it is for tile public benefit, and if the 'other Local Authorlty or Authorities consent thereto.

18. For reasons already stated (see P: 150) it will sometimes be the wish of a;Local Authority, instead of setting up a new school, to acquire and use some existing proprietary or l)rivate school. Such a method, however desirable in propel' cases, is evidently open to abuse; and its application ought therefore to require the, approval of lin impartial authority, which can ascertain that public interests are not likely to suffer. We recommend, therefore, that- -

When a Local Authority, in providiog a due supplyof Secondary Education, proposes to acquire by agreement a proprietary or private school, any arrangements it may make for that purpos<.' ought to be submitted to the Central Office for its aanction, and- be valid only upon receiving such sanction,

19. The Central Office should have power to appoint such officers as it may find to be needed, to aid it locally in the per-


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formance of the work now done by the Assistant Commissioners of the Charity Commission, and also such work as may have to be done in the way of supervising the application of grants made by the Central Office .to Local Authorities or otherwise.

20. The Central Office should have power to appoint persons to conduct such inspection as is heroin-after mentioned, and to prepare and publish a list of persons duly qualified for employment as inspectors by Local Authorities, and to sanction, 011 the application of' a Local Authority, the employment of some other qualified person not included ill such a list.

21. The Central Office may advantageously compile and publish such educational information as it may think useful, and should be prepared to advise Local Authoribies and governing bodies of schools on educational matters, when requested so to do.

lt should also have power to publish, and from time to time to revise and republish, general regulations adapted to the circumstances of urban and rural districts respectively, regarding the sanibary arrangements of school buildings and classrooms, sending copies of all such regulations to local educational authorities, such regulations to be enforced by the Local Authorities as hereinafter mentioned, It deserves to be considered whether, in order to mark the importance of the subject, the minimum of requiremen.ts relat.ing to health should not Le prescribed by statute without prejudice to the right of the Department to raise that minimum subsequently, if experience shall show the need for doing so and public opinion seems likely to support such a policy,

Functions to be discharged by the Minister with the aid of the Educational Council

We now come to certain functions of the Central Authority in which, as we conceive, a Minister will be aided, and public confidence in his decision increased, by the advice of 3JJ Educational Council such as we have proposed. In each of these functions we think the responsibility of the decision ought to rest with him, i,e., that he ought to be able, if he thinks fit, to overrule his Council.

22. Where any appeal from a decision of a Local Authority is given to the governing body of a school, or to the inhabitants of a Iocaliby, or to the owners or owner of a proprietary or private school, such appeal ought to be entertained and determined by the Minister at the head of the Central Office, the Educabionail Council having first examined into the matter and tendered to him their advice upon it.

23. Any appointments of persons to be members of Local Authorities for Secondary Education, which may be directed to be made by the Minister at the head of the enlarged Education Department, ought to be made by him after haying received the advice of the Educational Council.


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24. General regulations for the inspection or schools by Local , Authorities (as herein-after mentioned), and [01' the holding of ' examinations under the direction of Local Authorities or otherwise, in manner herein-after mentioned (see paragraph 127, post) ought to be made by the Minister with the advice of the lEcluc3Jtional Council.

26. Any jurisdiction, (other than the function of framing i schemes) which may be conferred on the Ocntral Office to be exercised over endowed schools, or other educational endowments declared to be non-local in their character, ought. to be exercised by the Minister with the advice of the Educational Council.

Functions of the Educational Council alone

26. The only function, other than that of determining whether or not an endowed school ought to be deemed nonlocal, in which we think that the Educational Oouncil ought to act independently of the Minister and his Department, is that of instituting and keeping a register of teachers. This subject will be dealt with later, so we need here say no more than thisthat while holding on the one hand that such a register must, if it is to be useful, be placed under the care of some central body, we hold also that such a body ought to be independent of the Executive Government. The duty of purging the register by striking off any person who had been improperly placed on it, or who had forfeited by misconduct his or her right to be on it, would, of course, also rail to the Council.

27. While assiguing the above duties to the Educational Council as those for which it seems needed and qualified, we do not exclude the possibility that the Minister for Education might find himself able to use it for other pm'poses also, such as for instance, in settling those questions of curriculum and internal 'School arrangements, which may arise in approving schemes submitted by It Local Authority, as well as in framing those for" non-local " schools, which are to be Iramed by the Central Office. N or, again, do we exclude the further possibility that. the Council may be made available for various purposes connected with elementary education." Such a course would have obvious advantages. The council would constitute, ifjudiciously chosen, a standing body of skilled advisers, who might sometimes be able to aid him by acting a-s a sort of departmental committee to whom the Minister could refer, for enquiry and report, quescions 011 which he desired to have facts collected and sifted, or practical suggestions formulated. In this way his hands would be strengthened by it. We repeat, however, tbat, except jn those few matters which '~e propose to leave to the Council

*Upon the wider issues which this remarks suggests for consideration reference may be made to l\ Memorandum by ono of our members (Mr. J. H. YoxlIll), which will be found in Vol. V, p.33.


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alone, it should have no power to fetter the Minister's discretion, and he ought Dot to be required to record any reasons for differing from the advice given by the majority.

28. Noone, we think, who has carefully followed the recommendations which we have made on the subject of the Central Authority, will suppose that they practically amount to an extension to Secondary Education of ,the functions of the present Vice-President of the Committee or Council (with an altered title). Nothing. certainly, would be further from what we propose or desire. Though holding that whatever the State does for Secondary Education, it had better do through the Minister who is already responsible for elementary education, we should deprecate the extension to schools of a more advanced typ~ of the methods and principles hitherto generally applied to primary schools. The law may, indeed, empower the Executive to require from Local Authorities evidence that they bare provided such a supply of secondary instruction as their district needs, for if such a duty is imposed there must be some means of en£ol'cing it. But when this has once been secured, a wider discretion ought, in our opinion, to be left to the Local Authorities than the local authorities concerned with elementary education now enjoy. The interference of the State should be confined within narrow limits, and virtually restricted to the aiding and advising of the Local Au thorities, the prcvention of needless competition or conflieb between them, and tlle protection of private or proprietary schools from any disposition on the part of those Authorities, should such u disposition appeal', to force competitors out of the field. Such It code of regulations and such Hi system of examination and inspection as the Education Department, 11M applied to elementary schools, would, in our view, be noli only unfitted but positively harmful to Secondary Education.

II LOCAL AUTHORITIES

We have found the constitution of Local A nbhorities ODe of the most difficult, as it is certainly one of the most important, portions of our task. Both in town and in country, existiug public bodies are, to some extent, in possession of the field; and we have had to consider, not merely what plans were best in principle, but which could be introduced with the least friction and the least disturbance of existing arrangements.

29. Assuming - what may be taken to have been proved by the fact that circumstances have forced certain bodies to take up and deal with the subject - that some local authority is needed, both in the country and in towns, to deal with the problems of Secondary Education-=two questions "presented them-se1ICs. First, what should be the area<:! of local managemenu; secondly, how the authorities for those areas should be formed, Recent


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legislation seemed to indicate clearly that the propel' rural area is the county, and the proper urban area the county borough. Some considerations pointed to a union of several of the smaller contiguous counties into one administrative area, and others pointed even more strongly to the inclusion of the smaller county boroughs in the administrative area of the county which contains them. Bub the hostility likely to be evinced to such proposals dissuaded us :fi:om them, though we do not abandon the hope that a sense of the advantages of combination, may induce some of the smallest counties to unite, and many of th" smaller county boroughs to join their county. A..lthongll we are aware that a desire exists among some of the boroughs, with a population under 50,000 (and not county boroughs under the Act of 1888), to be treated as disbincb areas for the purposes of Secondary Education, we hold that; such communities are not sufficiently large to need a separate authority and will gain more by being united #Ol' educational purposes with the county in which they are situate.

30. The second question suggested at once the enquiry whether any of the existing authorities was fltted for the work to be done, or whether 11. new body must be created. When we had been . led by the reasons already set forth (see pp. 116-19) to embrace the latter alternative, the question followed whether this new body should be formed by direct popular election. Having rejected that idea In the belief tbat there were already elections enough in England, the only course that practically remained was to create the new authority by indirect election; that is t9 say, to allow its members, or the majority of them, to be nominated by existing authorities.

Areas of Local Authorities

31. We therefore recommend that there shan be created a Local Authority for Secondary Education in every county and in every county borough; that is to say, speaking generally, in boroughs with a population exceeding 50,OOO.'x,

32. We think that adjoining counties and adjoining county boroughs should have power to unite, on aueh terms 3.'> they may arrange and as the Central Office may approve. There are several instances, such as those ofManchester and Salford, and of Liverpool and Bootle, in which a union is evidently desirable in the interests both of economy and of efficiency. Similarly, any county borough should have power to unite with the county in which it is situate, ou terms to be arranged between its Local (educational) Authority and that of the county, such terms to ,be approved by the Central Office,

*There are a very few boroughs above this population which nrc not county boroughs, find, similarly, one or two county boroughs with a smaller population.


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33: We think also that, a.'j itmay be found that the area of a borough autbovity might sometimes be-advantageously, for the purposes of Secondary Education, extended beyond the area of the county borough, so as to take in adjacent districts whence soholars .resorb to the schools of the borough, the Local Authority of that bOl.ough ought to be able to apply to the Ceutral Office for an extension of its area, and the Office, aft~r hea.ring all parties interested, ought to have power to extend the area if satisfied that the educational interests of the population require this to be done, and if the other Local Authority or Authoritie affected consent.

Constitution of the County Authority

. 34. The couuty authority for Secondary Education ought, in 0\11' opinion, to have the majority of its members appointed by the county council, as being the general representative authority :[01' the county, such members being chosen by the council either from within or from without its own number. Of the remaining members, about one-third (abou:t one-sixth of the whole) ought to be nominated by the Education Minister (see paragraph 23, cl"ltte), aifter consultation with the authorities of whatever university or university college or colleges is or are situate within or neal' the county, or are otherwise so connected with it as to give them an interest in and knowledge of its COllCel'US;:~ The remaining members, constituting from one-third to onefourth of the whole (according to the number allotted to the county council), should be co-opted by the members already chosen. In this way a majority of the whole would owe their appointment, directly or indirectly, to the choice of [Ii popularly elected body, and would therefore themsel ves possess a measure of representative authority, while at the same time the element of special knowledge and experience would have every chance of being duly.recognised.

Although we conceive that, as a general rule, the county council should appoint only a bare majority ofthe whole body, we do not think. it necessary to lay this clown as an inflexible rule conceiving that it will be better to leave some little margin for such variations as the special conditions of particular counties IDfLy require. "Ve have already suggested (paragraph 8) that these variations might be left to be settled by the Central Office.

35. Several witnesses urged upon us the desirability of giving to the teacbing profession the right of direc.tly choosing some persons to represent them on the Local A.uthorIty: and supported this view by arguments which are summarised in a memorand um prepared by two or our members.j We are fully sensible of the

*We include any college in Oxford or Cambridge which has a special connection . will. any partioular county.

†Memomadum by Mr. Sadler lind Mrs. Bryant, Vol. V, p. 20.


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great value to a Local Author~ty of that special knowledge and familiarity with the details of educational work which 1)1'0- fessional men can supply, mid we accordingly recommend that the presence on these bodies of persons possessing such edueaiional experience as teachers should be required, The Central Offi.c~ in ma,king' its appointments, and those who co-opt the members left to be co-opted will no doubt have due regard to this requirement, and the latter ought, for the purpose of securing the persons best qualified, to take counsel with the teachers wibhin bheir area, It will be wibhin the province of the Centr~l Office to see that in one way or another clue effect is 'given to this requirement, to which we attach much=importance. It, need hardly be added that, in .referring to -tho educational profession, we include women teachers.

< 36. It is evidently desirable that. there should be ~tmong the members of ~he Local Authority persons who are or have been engaged in the managemenb of public elementary schools within the county. If such persons are not to be found among those chosen by the county council or the Central Office, regard might be had in exercising the power of co-optation to the proptiety OE adequately securing their presence. '"

37. The size of a county authority for Secondary Education .must depend qn the population of the county, but ought in our opinion to be net less than 14 nor more than 42. Taking 28 as the number for one of the larger counties, the composition of the body would be somewhat as follows:

Chosen by the county council16
Chosen by the Central Office4
Co-opted by the above8

and of the 12 not chosen by the county council, several ought to be taken from persons actually or recently engaged in teaching.

38. Members appointed by a county council ought to hold office for the term of office of the council; other members for a term of five years.

Constitution of the County Borough Authority

39. County boroughs (with the exceptions of Preston, Bury, Chester, Lincoln, St. Helens, and Stockport) possess two authorities already concerned with education; the borough eouncil, which (except in one borough) disbributes grants, hut for technical instruction only, and the school board, which, though legally responsible for elementary schools only, has in lllauy places hecome Uoll important fnctor ill t.])e provision 0.£

*On the further question of ns to whether both elementary and secoudnry cducatiou can be placed under the control of the same locnl authority, reference may be made to the memornudum by Mr. J. IT. Yoxnll, which will be found in Vol. V., p.33.


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secondary instruction. Each of these bodies has It p1'i?ncl, facie claim, but neither of them a claim excluaive of the other, to have a voice in matters of Secondary Education, and the reasonable course appears to be to recognise in each an equal right to representation upon the proposed new Local Authority. We suggest, therefore, that the borough council and the school board should each appoint one-third of the members of the new borough authority for 8ecoudary Education, being free to select those persons either from within or from without its own body. Of the remaining one-third of the members, one-half, or one-sixth of the whole, ougbt to be nominated by the Central Office after communication with any university or university college or colleges which may be situate sufficiently near the borough, or may be otherwise so connected with it us to be capable of influencing its education. Should the borough however contain iii university college, this one-sixth of the whole might be left to be appointed directly by that college. The other one-sixth of the whole ought to be co-op led by those previously chosen. Here, as in the case of the county authority, we think. that the power of co-optation and that of appointment by the Central Office may fitly be required to be used so as to secure for the Local Authority the benefit of that special experience which teachers possess.

40. The numbers of a borough authority for Secondary Education ought to vary from 12 to 24, according to the population of the borough, the comparative smallness of the area making so large a num bel' as may be required in the largest couuties unnecessary, Members appointed by the borough council ought to h01c1 office for three years, those appointed by the school board for lfu.e term of thc board that appointed them; other members for five years.

Constitution of the Local Authority for London

41. The circumstances of London appeal' to require special treatment. After some hesitation, we have concluded that fer educational purposes it is best to adopt the area of the present administrative county of London, under the Local Government Act of 1888, and we have therefore included neither the borough of Croydon nor n,ny pad of the administrative county of Middlesex. Ai; the county borough of West Ham is practically part of London, and ought to be so dealt with for educational purposes, we think that if it desires to come into London, so far as Secondary Education is concerned, it may properly be allowed to do so, and in that event may receive a member for its borough council and another for its

*These cnses may he best dealt with all lL plan similar to that we have recommended for rbo constitution of II county authority for Secondary Edncatlou, tIm details being souled by the Central Office.


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school board. The great variety and complexity, as well as the quantity of the work to be done, seem to make necessary, for London, an unusually large Local Authority; which can, divide itself into committees, and we accordingly recommend one of 42 members.

In London, the Technical Education Board of the county council affords an excellent' example of a board which represents the chief educational bodies of its area. Its constitution, though formed with a special view to technical education, bears some resemblance to that which we have proposed for Local Educational Authorities in counties; and including as it does many of the elements we desire to see represented, it has been able already to exercise a salutary influence on seconciary schools within its area. There are, besides the school board, two other public bodies, the City and Guilds Institute nnd the Trustees of the City Parochial Cbarities, which, in respect of the large funds they administer, ough t to be connected with those responsible for the supervision of Secondary Education, The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have, moreover, through the university extension lectures and otherwise, become so much associated with the educational life and movements of London that they, no less than London University, ought to be represented. These considerations lead us to recommend that the London Secondary Education Authority be composed as follows:

Appointed by the County Council18
Appointed by the School Board7
Appointed by the City and Guilds Institute2
Appointed by the City Parochial Charities Trustees2
Appointed by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (one each)2
Appointed by the University of London2
Co-opted by the other members9

Of the two members we have suggested to be chosen by the

University of London, one ought to be allotted to that university only after it bas become (as we trust it SOon may become) a teaching university,

Among the eo-opted members there ought to be.as recommended for the county and county borough Local Authorities, some who belong or have rccently belonged to the teaching profession, unless the presence of this professional element has been already duly secured among tho.appointed members; andwe conceive that a certain num bel' might wen be selected from among persons possessing special knowledge of London industries, whether as employers or as workmen.

Provisions relating to Local Authorities generally

42. We think that both county and borough authorities for Secondary Education ought to have power to choose their chairman either from within or from without their body.


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43. We think that women ought to be eligible for appointment (whether by a public authority or by co-optation) upou both sets of authorities, and that ib is indeed desirable to provide that a certain number shall be women, as experience seems to have shown that the interests of girls often receive insufficient attention, and that there is also It risk that women may not be chosen unless some special provision for their presence is made.

44. We think that if the Central Office is empowered to appoint inspectors for the PUl'po!'3es herein-after mentioned, or assessors to assist local authorities, such inspectors or assessors should be entitled to sit, but not to vote, at meetings of Local Authorities for the districts for which they are respectively appointed.

45. Although we have sketched out the above plans for constituting educational authorities for rural and urban areas, as being on the whole, generally applicable, we are aware that in Some counties or boroughs there mtty exist circumstances such as the size of speeial needs of the area, or the presence of some important educational institution, which may render 11 vaa-iation from them desirable. We therefore conceive that it will be propel' to permit the council of a county or the council of a county borough, in consultation with the school board of that borough, to submit to the Central Office, before the authority for Secondary Education within its area has been constituted, proposals for varying' the constitution from that of the type we have indicated; and wethink that Department should have power to frame the eonstitutiou of the authority in question with such a variation, so long as the principle that the majority of the members of the Local Authority are chosen by popular bodies (the county or borough council, or the school board) is adhered to. Weconcei ve, moreover, that such a power to propose variations. (subject to the above condibion) might be given to the Local Authority for Secondary Education itself when constituted, should supervening circumstances suggest a variation and bedeemed by the Office to be a sufficient reason for sanctioning it.

Duties and Functions of Locai Authorities

46. We have already so fully described the need which exists for a local authority to deal with Secondary Education, and the functions which such an authority may properly discharge, that it is enough to say here that we conceive these functions to fall under the following tour heads s->

1. The securing a due provision of secondary instruction.

2. The re-modelling, where necessary, and supervision o£ the working of endowed (other than non-local) schools and other educational endowments.

3. A watchful survey of the field of Secondary Education, with the object o£ bringing proprietary and private schools


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into the general educational system, and of endeavouring to encourage and facilitate, so rar as this can be done by stimulus, by persuasion, and by the offer of privileges and advice, any improvements they may be inclined to introduce.

4. The administration of' such sums, either arising from rates levied within its area, OJ' paid over from the Nationai Exchequer, as may be at its disposal for the promotion of education.

47. The facts set forth in the second part of this Report {and more fully in the reports of Our Assistant Commissioners) show that in some parts of the country, and not always the :pcol'e!';t part:.s, secondary schools are wanting; while in many other places such secondary schools as exist are insufficient in 'number and deficient in their capacity to supply the kind of education which the locality requires, While trusting that the other measures we .recommend may stimulate private enterprise to do much to supply.these deficiences, we conceive experience to have conclusively shown that private enterprise cannot be entirely relied on, and that the duty of seeing that an adequate 'Supply of secondary iustruebion is provided must be thrown on a public authority. In our opinion this duty ought to be imposed by statute on each Local Educational Authority, and the Central Office should be empowered to see tllat the duty is .properly fulfilled.

To define this obligation, and to ::ay what is to be deemed an adequate supply is a more difficult task. In the Heport of the 'Schools Enquiry Commission there appears (Vol. 1, p. 98) a caleulation going to show that the n umbel' of boys between the -ages of eight and sixteen who may be expected to require 'instruction higher than elementary is, in towns, 12 28 pel' thousand. This per-centage, however, could hardly, in many places, have been expected to be attained, and it is now even 1ess likely to be attained than it was in 1867, because an increasing' proportion of children belonging to what is called the middle class resort to elementary schools. Further difficulties arise in determining how far existing schools are to be deemed to be supplying adequatel:il:lconclary instruction. Many of the smaller private schools, nominally secondary, are really elementary, and not very efficient as elementary, .Some of . the public elementary schools are (as has been already pointed out, see pp. 53-54 ante) virtually secondary in. their highest classes. We have therefoue found it impossible to Jay down any precise rules or definitions. It is, in om' judgment, safe to leave the working out of the general principle above enunciated to the action of an enlightened public opinion working 'both within and from without upon the Local Authorities, and .reinforced, in extreme cases, by the action of the Central Executi ve. We believe that the occasions for this reinforcement are Jikely to be few; and the Executive, when it has occasion


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to ~se its .ult imate right of insisting' on ,the .fulfilment of the statute, will ,be well advised in using (ns we believe it will) this right. ~el'y' cautiouely, with a lru;ge regard to. the differences between one locality and another, and a 'perception of the truth that more can generally be effected by lqading Local Authorit,ies than by attempting to FlrfY~ them,

48. V.,Te conceive that the Ldcal.8.uthol'it~, when constituted, should proceed to enquire how far the schools existing within its. area provide secondary instruction adequate ill quuntity and quality to the needs of each part of that area. It ought, of course, to have regard to proprietary and private, as well as to endowed or other public schools, and as it will be to tile interest of the former classes of schools that tlley should be recognised as contributing to the llrlJmsio)1 made, they may be expected to furnish willingly such information as the Local Authority requires. y..r e are far from desiring to see Secondary Education pass wholly under public control, and into the bands of those who are practically public servants, as elementary education, has done, and we believe ~llat where proprietary or private schools are found to be doing good work, it would be foolish as' wen a~ unfair to attempt to drive them out of the field. We accordingly recommend in a later paragraph (see para. 95 post) tha, it shall be the duty of the Local Authority to make, with tile proprietary or private schools, arrangements, by virtue whereof they will be recognised as supplying efficien» ediieation so long as they comply with certain prescribed conditions calculated to secure efficiency. These conditions, or the. chief sroong' them, (,ugllt to be approved by the Central Office, and otlght, as far as possible, to be uniform. It may sometimes happen that a proprietary or private school, while used hy a certain number of scholars, and enjoying someIocal reputation, will be found to be below the level of full efficiency, wh.ile sometimes, such a school, though rendered efficient by n. particular master or mistress, may have no certainty of l'emaining so. In such cases. and in others that can be imagined, it may be good policy for the Local Authority to take over the school, but before doing so, it ought, in order to prevent any abuse of the pow~r, to be required to submit the facts tQ, and obtain the sa~ction of) th~, Central Office. (See para. 101 pOl}t.)

49. Where a Local Authority, after due enquiry, finds that a supply of efficient secondary instruction is wanting' in any part of its area, it ought to 'take steps to.supply that deficiency, ~nd should have pO'Ner for that purpose to' establish, when needful, a new school or schools, and to appropriate thereto such cap'ital or annual sum' as seems necessary.

50. Should it be brought to the knowledge of;the Ce'~Lwl Office that. in any place ~ supply of efficient secondary instl'l1ction is wantingvnndthat the Local Authority is not taking steps to P:j:ovide such supply, the Office ought to address the Local Authority


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pointing out the statutory obligation .incumbeut on it, ODO enquiring what steps are Pl',9l?Os~clr to ge taken for the fulfilment of that obligation. $hOl:ijd the ,Local Authm'itJ\ neglect-without sufficient excuss, for one year aftel;' the receipt of such a communication from the Office, .to proceed to ful:6.~ the obligation, the Depart ~11e~b ,shoL11~1 haver ppwer to proceed in bhe.manner mentioned in paragraph Jl ante, and, in the last resorb, to report the case to the Attorney-General.

51. When any proprietary or private -school th inks itself aggrieved by any action of n. Local Authority in omitting ,tq inquire how far it is s'lpplymg efficient iristruction, or in unfairly excluding it from the list of schools deemed to be supplying efficient instruction, such school qught to be permitted to appeal to the Central Office (as herein-before , mentioned), and that Office ought to have power to deal withthe ease as justice may require, and to require the Local Authority to remedy or desist from any action unfair to the school appealing. Nor do we exclude the possibility that if a Local Authority sbould ever be found' proceeding wa.ctonly to establish, by the aid of tlr<;l rates, a .J?ublip school whose competition .... vill evidently injure on existing school Jwhether public or "reoognised " in manner herein-after mentioned) (see para. 96 post) that school shall, after representing its case to the Local Authority, be pc.rmihtM to appeal to Lhe -CentralOffice. ,

52. The Local A.uthority ought, :in our opinion, to ihave 81,general oversiglrt, and jurisdiction over all educational endow-, ments (other than the non-local schools herein-before mentioned) within' its area, In particular it ought to have the !ligbt:. of framing schemes for the' Letter management of e~1 ucabionalendowments, whether or not now-applicable to Secondary Educa-, tion, including their transfer from one place to another; their consolidation or division; their diversion to purposes, Ol', their, application in modes, of greate» uti.lity; the removal of any.j restrictions confining them to particular classes of persons, or tothe teaching of parbicular subjects. Such schemes, when framed, ought to be submitted to the Central Office, which should eonsider tbem, taking due steps to ascertain local reeling, and, when, necessary, holding a local l'>nquiry, and should confer witlu the Local, Au thol'ity, and suggest to it any amendments that mruy, seem necessary. The Central Office should not have power to', compel the acceptance of arnendmeuts, but might make it,§.!. sanction conditional upon their acceptance. After be.ing saner; tionecl by the, Central Office, the scheme would proceed in manner prescribed by the Endowed Schools Acts._ Tms power of ff'l.1.ming schemes ought to be exerciseable from time to .time, and should include cases in which proposals are made (see Endow ... ed pchoo]s Act, 1869, s. 30) for the application to education of non-educational endowments, of course with due regard, to, "G!1e interests: of the class now receiving their benefits.


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53. The Local Authority should also have the duty to supervise, and the right to enquire into, the administration and working of all endowed schools within its area, and to call the attention of the governing body of any such school (whether on the repreaentati6n of any person interested or on their own initiative) to any breach of, or omission to fulfil, the provisiona of the scheme regulating the same, and if necessary to direct the governing body to correct such breach or omission. Should the govel'llir.g body refuse or neglect to comply with such direction, the Local Authority ought to be empowered to appeal to the Central Office, as invested with the powers for dealing with such matters which are now enjoyed .by the Charity Commissioners.

54. There are many unendowed schools which, in respect (if their public character, will properly fall under the jurisdiction of the Local Authority. It ought, in our opinion, to have the power of making schemes for these schools, not, of course, under the Endowed Schools Acts, which have no application to such schools, but of its own right, subject, however, to the power of the Oentral Office to determine any question which may arise over such scheme between the Local Authority and the persons or body which had previously managed the school in question. (See paragraph 94 post.)

55. It is a matter of some difficulty to determine the degree of permanence which should be given to the disposition by a Local Authority of funds other than endowments. On the one hand, there are serious objections to the plan followed in Wales, by which money applied to Secondary Education out of the rates or under the Local Taxation Act is treated as endowment. Checks and restrictions which may be desirable in dealing with ancient endowments are often inapplicable and unnecessary in the case of money derived from rates and taxes. The public would, not, unreasonably, complain of the time required to authorise them to dispcse of money raised yearly by themselves, and which they are at present accustomed to see applied under a more elastic system; while the Central Office would, to avoid being overwhelmed by the amount of business thrown upon it at the outset, seek to impose upon the various schemes a degree of uniformity which would go far to counteract the decentralising policy on which this Report is founded. On the other hand much embarrnssment is found to arise under the present system, out of the attem.pt to provide secondary schools partly by permanent. endowment, partly by grants of uncertain duration. For example, there is obvious inconvenience and risk in allowing the capital funds of a charity to be sunk in buildings the ulility of which will mainly depend on the continuance of a grant made from year to year. Again, it will be difficult for a Local Authority to appeal 10 the 'iohubitants of any locality for voluntary contributions towards the expense of establishing a school, as it may sometimes with advantage do, if there


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is no security that the school will be properly maintained by the successors of those who make the appeal, Nor can we overlook the value of some degree of permanence in gi \ring dignity and authority to the local managers of public schools which olay not, in a strict sense, be endowed. On a consideration of all the circumstances we have come to the conelusion that, whenever a Local Authority proposes to establish or reconstitute a school or institution on a permanent basis, it should propo::;e a scheme for its governmcnt and constitution and report that scheme to the Central Office i that every SUCll report should be duly published in the area. of the Local Authority, and that a fixed time (say one month), which might if necessary be extended, from the date of the publication, should be allowed, during which an appeal might be made to the Central Office by any institution conceiving itself likely to be injuriously affected, and dm-ing which suggestbns and objections might be made to the Local Authority itself by other persons. The Local Authority should have power, if it though] fit, to include in the scheme proposals for devot.ing part of the sums coming to it under the Local Taxation Act, oi: of other local funds, to the maintenance of the school in such a manner as to bind its successors. If the report contained no such proposals, we think that, subject to the determination of any statutory appeals and to any modifications of detail which. the Local Authority might itself see fit to introduce, the Local Authority should be at liberty to gi ve effect to its scheme without the sanction of bhe Central Office. Nor should further reports be required in the case of mere modifications in detail. Where, however, there were proposals intended to bind the successors of the Local Authority, the sanction of the Central Office should be required in respect of such proposals; and a scheme so sanctioned should be binding either tor a term of years to be named, or until the sanction of the Central Office to its modification or repeal had been obtained. Procedure npon the Iines indicated would be simple and rapid as compared with that now required in the case of endowments. It need not be made obligatory, but the importance of the element of permanence to be so secured win, in our opinion, be sufficiently present to the minds of a Local Authority invested with purely educational functions, and be so obviously advantageous to the localities severally interested as to lead toits frequent adopt-ion.

AnoLhel' safeguard against a capricious withdrawal of variation of grants might. be found in some statutory provision that the Local Authority ahall be bound to maintain in an efficient condition the schools established or taken over by it, unless it is able to show that sufficient provision has been otherwise made.

56. The right of a Local Authority to supervise tile working of educational endowments and, indeed, of all schools that can be called public, is much clearer than are (he functions it may


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properly be allowed to exercise over schools generally, including proprietarv and private schools. We conceive, .however, that -two propositions will now be pretty. widely accepted. One is that all schools ought to be, required LQ conform. to the primary conditions of' health, and ought &01' that purpose to be opeD to the inspection of a public auth01'ity. The .other is, that schools which obtain recognitien as supply,lng. efficient .instruction, and which, in;J;espect'of that recognition, are permitted to have the benefit-of .public examinations, and to share. inscliolarsltips and exhibitions supplied from public funds, may be expected to submit to a certain amount of 1m blic supervision. Thus regarding the mll.,ttel:, schools will. full into 'three classes. Endowed and other public (except 110n local) schools will be, as a ,:maHel' ,of course, tsubjecb to rthe jurisdiebion. of the' Local Auj;hol?ity, though ~hat juriediction will be limited lDy bho rights of the IIgov6rning :bodies 'of the schools secured- by their respective schemes. I\:.ivate fund proprietany 'schools' placed 0.11 the list of recognised schoois will- be; for certain restricted' purposes, within the range of its supervision, receiving certain benefits in return. Other proprietary and private schools, which have not sought, or have sought but failed tq obtain f,L place on the "recognised" list, will. nevertheless be subjecb to have their buildings inspected in the interest of the health of the: scholars" but, otherwise will remain entirely ~µt~cle the purview.and action .o;f: the Local Authority, Thus, wlrile there will be no enccoaohment 0)1; individual freedom, securities will be takenthat public funds and privileges shall be properly used, and their use duly tested.

57. We accordingly recommend that the Local, Authority be empowered to cause all schools, whether endowed (or in any other-sense public), proprietary, or private, within its area to be inspected as respects the Hanitary condition of their buildings and olass-rooms, and to require them to conform to such general regulations for securing health as may be issued qy the Central Office, who, ill case of refusal so to conform, should have power :to direct any insanitary school buildings to be no longer used for :school purposef;, subject, however, to an appeal on the parb of the owner or occupier of such buildings to the Central Office, (See paragraphs 21, 22 cvnte.)

58. We recommend further that the LocaLAuthority should prepare a list of proprietary and private schools within its area supplying efficient Secoodary Education, having ascertained that they satdsfy certain requirements and are willing. to comply with certain conditions .herein-aftor set forth. (See para, f>6, 97 post.) All schools while they remain on this list, which should be revised from time to time, should be entitled. to the benefit of whatever inspection and examination may be provided, aud to a share in such eeholarebips and exhibitions as the Local Authority may establish.


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59. The Local Authority, in.order to enable it to be satisfied of t.h.e efficiency of all.theschools, as well endowed as ,pl'oprietary or private, recognised by it as supplying efficient secondary Instruction, ought to have power to select and pay fit peraons to act-as-inspectors. Since llfany counties and borougbs would not have -continlloµs employment for ~ highly skilled person- acting in that capacity-nob to add that specialists will in some branches be needed-e-we conceive t,bat -it will be desirable that the Central Office should issue a list of persons' qualified by professional eXp'erience~ or otherwise specially competent, to act as jnspectors, and that Local Authorities, who may often with advanta~e combine £()l: fhis purpose, should' eiBq.el' select from this list these whose services tolley 'need, or from time ~o time may submit to 'the Central OfficeL for its approval the nathe, ofsome other person whom they wish '£0 be' permitted to employ, As in our view it is better that the powel' of inspection should rest with .the Local rather than witb any Central Authority, we COliceive that it is by the Local Authoritythe' inspector should' 1)8 chosen, thougli. tlie,..cTifficultysuch au authority may experience in £in~ing -fit mel~ points to the formation of such a lisb 'as we have sugg~ste(~:, . .

60. 'I'be-inspecbion we contemplate is somethiUg quite. different from the work hitherto done by Your Majesty's Inspectors in. the -eleru~J;ltally schools. All thf.llt it 'seems necessary for, th13 Loca] Authol'i:i:y' to secure is a repcrt from a. competent. han5l UpOliL the. ~genel'!I.1 condition -and equipment- of each school, including particularly the number and qualifications. of the teaching staif:

There ought also to be power to require that each school; or it. certain ,Portion of the scholars, should be annually examined by some 'jndepe~cl~mt and 'competent person, 'but this may, under prope).' r~gulations (to be framed by the-Central Office), be allowed' to be donu" at the instance of the schools themselves 'I'othese ' topics, howe;rel';'we shall return 'in a'latel; paragraph. (See para. 12'i;.post.)

61. "w;hel'e a.Local Authority -seea reason to bhinl;:)tb:::Li;>a~school is ineffioienc; it will have aeveral.mennsran-irs- disposal d'or-dealing with the' peccant' institunion.: One is to.publishthe reporbs.it.I may receive from its inspectors; An(ilthel':is to withdraw any i grants of money-db may IUlJVe' been-allotbing.: A bbind, available in the case.of proprietaey or, private schools,.wo.uld be tostrike the school off- the Iist of .. those recognised as efficient. '~d in the case of endowed schools, it. will-be able not only to act under para. 53 (ante), l}ut to direct the-person.or persons..whom, it has appointed to- sib . on, the gov.erning' body (see r para. 6fjpest),. to bringto the.notice ef that body the defects which.if finds to-exist ill order that" they ID().y, be duly, remedied. -.,.... ~

'62. We thinlt that'~: Locail Au;thbHty 9iIghtr ,to establish' scholarelfips 'and exhibitions to-aid deserv'.i.ilg scholars wibhin its area" and ought to lay down regulations as to th.6 schools whose


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pupils shall be allowed to compete, and at which such scholarships may be held. To this subject, also, we return in a later paral$'raph. (See pera.l If post.)

63. The functions which the Local Au bhority has to discharge, as respec.ts endowed schoola ought to extend also to other schools, whi-h, though not strictly speaking' endowed, are in receipt of :1Dy grant of public money or under public management, such as technical schools and institutes (unless when these lire to be, deemed to be rather colleges than schools), higher grade elementary schools, and the so-called "Ol'ganisell science schools," as well as those evening schools and continuation schools which do so much for the education of adults. Whenever pu blic, money is received, public control must be recognised, and it will primarily be by the Local Authority that such control ought to> be exercised.

64. The Local Authority ought to have power, not only to establish schools of its own where necessary, but to aid schools: and institutions not under its direct management in such ways' as it may find expedient. Ib might, for instance, send visiting: teachers or lecturers to give instruction in subjects for which it may be difficult to procure or to pay an efficient teacher as part of the regular school staff. It might establish classes, especially in technical subjects, to be used by the pupils. attending different schools. It might give assistance to university extension lectures, which have been in time past made available in some places for the more advanced scholars in. secondary schools.

65. Another relation which, in our opinion, ought to exist. between the Local Authority for Secondary Education and public schools of all kinds within its area, will be created by giving the former the right of appointing one or more persons. to sit upon the governing bodies of these schools. The right which the county councils have exercised of making such appointments in the case of schools to which they grant money will naturally pass to the new Local Authorities. And it deserves to be considered whether even the non-local schools, or at any ratetbose among them in which the proportion of local scholars is. such as to justify a provision of this kind, migh.t not whileotherwise exempt (save as respects sanitary matters) from juris-diction of Local A uthoribies, be usefully connected. with them by such a limited right of nomination.

66. Our view of the financial duties and functions of the Local; Authority cannot be fully stated until we have explained th~ general financial policy we recommend. Here, however, it may beconcisely said that we conceive it should be the rating authority for the purposes of secondary instruction, not itsel£ levying the rate, but determining the amount and issuing a precept to the. county or borough council (as the case may be) requiring the.


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same to be raised. It should also be the channel bhrough which whatever sums Parliament ma.y grallt in aid of Secondary Education should flow to the schools or institutions assisbed. And, finally, it should supersede the county councils and borough councils as the distributor of the money available for technical instruction under the Customs and Excise Act of 1890. In administering the money at its disposal arising from these three sources, as well as whatever funds may come to it from private gifts 0[' by the provisions of schemes regulating endowments within its area, it should have a large discretion as respects that which arises from the Customs and Excise Act and that which it raises tram its own area by its rating power, but should, as respects all strictly national funds, be controlled by regulations to be issued hy bhe Department of State responsible to Parliament for the propel' employment of the sums granted.

Other Duties and Powers of the Local Authority

67. The Local Authority ought to have the right of addressing the Central Office on all matters within the scope of the latter's functions, including the power of suggesting amendments of regulations issued by the latter, and of asking advice on any educational question arising within its own area. It should also have the function of collecting and issuing such information on educational, subjects as it may deem useful to schools and teachers within its area.

68. The accounts of the Local Authority ought to be annually audited by some person appointed by a Department of Government.

69. The Local A uthority ought to issue an annual report of its proceedings (including a statement of its accounts, showing how the funds raised by it or paid to it have been expended) and to send a copy thereof to the Central Office.

70. Every Local Authority for a county, or for a large county borough, ought to be empowered by statute to appoint district or local committees to act as respects any parts of the county or borough for certain specified purposes affecting those parbs, such as (for instance) the management of a technical institute or evening and other schools and classes not governed by a

. scheme; but every such committee should act under regulations issued by the Local Authority, and periodically report its proceedings and submit its accounts to the Local Authority.

71.. Local Authcrities ought to be empowered to co-operate by means of joint committees with one or more other neighbouring Local Authorities in matters of common interest and concern, such as the maintenance of any school, or the creation of allY scholarship, capable of being used or 'competed for by scholars from adjoining areas. We have already observed (para. 16) that


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the action of the Central Office may often be-useful in promoting such a combination or 'in adjusting uuy difficulties tblLt may arise where two or more J ... ocal Au thorities are concerned.

III ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE BETTER ORGANISATION OF SCHOOLS

The Kinds of Schools that are needed

72. There are two sides from which the question of providing schools of various types may be approached, We may, on the one hand, enquire what 'sods of schools are' needed in order to secure forJrevery class in the communiby the kind of education it desires a.uU will profit by. We may, on tlie other hand, survey the schools which actually exist, and determine how and with what changes they can best be fitted into a compreltensive system, and made to provide the several kinds of instruction, more or less advanced, and more and less general or special, which experience shows to be required.

73. The various types of schools needed, and in partic'!1la): the types of instruction they ought to give, are broadly conditioned and determined by the l.engbh of time illPing which various sets of' scliolars 11't11Y be expected to remain at school. Tile Schools Enquiry Commissioners (If 1864-67 distinguished ~lu'ee, such sets of 'scholars; 'firsb, iJb.e sch61al1s who were to remain :~t; school till' the age -of 18 or thereabouts.tand a respecta-ble' proporbion of whom were to enter the universities; secondly, the scholars who left school about 16, and were intended for some of the professions.or for the higher walks of commercial life; thirdly:, the scholars who left school about 14, belonging as a rule to a humbler social stratum and designed to begin forthwith to earn their living in sbops or warehouses, or in SOUle industrial occupation. Corresponding to these three sets of scbolars 1 he Commissioners recommended three sets of schools, to be distinguished, not hy their social rank, but merely. by the length of time dUl'i!fg which they were to retain their .pupils, and for these tl),ey, proposed the names" of First grade, ,Second grade, aud TW1~q, grade schools respectively. This classificacion lIas peen followed by subsequent writers.rand indeed, )-las .largely -passed into common speech, although circurnstancea have so far- changed since i867 that the boundaries of the three so-called." grades" are much less easily, definable now tban they .were then, while elementary schools have lorgely. encroached on the province which. the Commissicners allotted to theil'.,th:il:df.gl'a.r~e, schools .. We resort to these terms with some reluctance. But uo better nomenclature has been yet suggested.; and we have had, and shall have, frequent; .occasicn to use it as a convenient, if~solllewhat rough, loose, and conventionalway of classiilying schools.

Taking this familiar classificationr as a previsional. basis.ewe found ourselves confronted by two problems.


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First: In whab places should the Local Authol'ity be required to secure a due provision of schools for scholars of bhe first, second, and third grade types respectively.

Secondly: What should be, speaking" broadly, the propel' curriculum of instruction; for schools of these three types respectively, "

74. We were at first disposed to recommend bhab in, all (O\\'11S with a population exceeding 40,000 there should be a first grade schooi, in towns with a population exceeding 8,000 It second grade school, in towns exceeding 2,QOO a third grade school. Bub further investigabion of the problem convinced us that mere population was no sufficient glliile to the educational needs of each. locality, and that it will be safer to leave to the L0Cl11 Authority, movc-l by public opinion-which is always g1'OlVingmore enlightened-and stimulated, if necessary, by the Centr~l Office, the duty of providing for each area schools of the type which seems to be locally required. Much will depend on the character of the population in each area; something also upon the resources which exist in the way of endowments, and upon the position which the leading endowed foundation of a particular town or disbrict holds. It seems impossible to formulate with any approach to accuracy a. general rule for determining' the per-centage to the population of children in an area of given size who may be expected to attend H, secondary school of any one' ~f bhe, so-called grades. Figtll'es will be found in the Appendixt") sbowing-bhe number who actually atten d secondary schools in several towns where the provision of schools 'appe:lrs to be sufficient; and we have there a159 placed an interesting return compiled by the London County Council, which contains similar figures showing the boys who attend secondary schools in London.t") But these tables, though useful, do not furnish data for general conclusions. The circumstances uf different towns vary gl'eatly, as does also the extent to which pupils £I. om ou tsiJe any particular town may be looked foe, and we have concluded, after much consideration, that it is be~ter not to attempt to lay down any positive and definite rule on the subject, conceiving that such a rule might, in the long run, be found as likely to retard as to further the efforbs of those who seek to raise the general level or" secondary instruction, and. relying on the. 'upward tendency which has marked the educational history Of the last 30 years.

75. Similar reasons dissuade any attempt to prescribe in wbat cases schools of second and first gl'l:0e should be distinct, or should, be formed as separate departments of the same school. In ,many 'lllaces it will be found. conxenient to combine and to provide a "first grade" top, intended for those who mean to remain till 18, in. a school which will Iose the bulk of its pupils at 16. But in very large centres: of population it may often be more convenient, having regard to the construction of a


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suitable curriculum, to organise It' distinct school for scholars of the former class.

76. Neither do we deem it desirable to Iay down definite model curricula for schools of the various type!" referred to." It is now pretcy generally agreed that besides that literary and hurnanisbic course of instruction, based upon the Ianguages of classical antiquity, which tradition has established among us, and whose incomparable value no thoughtful man denies, ample provision must be uiade in schools for scientific teaching, beginning, if possible, with natural hia.ory and the other sciences of observation, and working up into chemistry and physics. It is further agreed that mathematics, while more closely allied to scion ific subjects, ought to enter also into a literary course; that the chief tongues of modern Europe ought to be studied not only as instruments of linguistic tTilining, but as the keys to noble literatures; and that full opportunities to boys and girls to prepare themselves for the particular occupations which they intend to follow in after-life, whether industrial or eornmercialought to be supplied by the teaching of the practical arts, such as the elements of applied mechanics and the subjects connected with agriculture, us well as of modern languages and of the kinds of knowledge most useful to the merchant or trader. These three elements, however, which we may cal] the literary, the scientific, and the technical, may be combined in a great variety of forms and proportions. Experience alone can show which forms and which proportions are most likely to be absolutely best, we will not say as a scheme of intellectual training, but even as fitted to the needs of particular classes of persons inhabiting particular areas and engaltcd in particular kinds of industry. Htwing recommended to Your Majesty the coustitution of Local and Central Authorities likely, as we venture to believe, to be sensitive to public opinion and willing to obtain light from every source, competent, as we venture to believe, to try experiments and to profit by their results, we hold it unadvisable to attempt to fetter their discretion by any rigid rules; and we should deplore, as certain to be hurtful to educational progress, the uniformity of system which such rules would tend to produce. Each of the three elements above named has vigorous forces behind it. )fot merely tradition, but the influences of imagination and philosophy commend the first. '1'he second is strong in the pride of its recent triumphs and still swift advance. The sense of its practical utility in days when industrial and commercial competition grows constantly more severe is enough, perhaps more than enough, to secure its rightful place for the third. All have, in our view, a claim to be considered in the co.mse of studies 'of every secondary

*Upon the subject of curriculu much intcrestin~ matter will be found. in the report of the Committee on Secondary School Studiesy issued by the United States Bureau of Education (1893), where the respective. claims of various subjects, the. mode of ndjusting those claims, and the best methods of teaching each subject will be found acutely and [ndlciously discussed.


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school, and the last of the three will thrive all .tbe better if the two former receive their fitting meed of recognition. Technical instruction must be considered not as the rival of a liberal education but as a specialisation OI it, which, whether it comes earlier or later in the scholar's life, ought to be, as I.tl' as possible, made a means of mental stimulus and cultivation, and will be most successfully used by those whose intellectual capacity bas been already disciplined by the best methods of literary or scientific training.

77. For the reasons above stated we think that the Local Authority may be left to make clue provision for technical instruction, either by adding a technical department to a secondary school (of whatever" grade "), or by supplying visiting teachers for special subjects, or by a separate technical institution, technical classes, or by all these several methods, Under the Germ" technical" we include ull such special preparation for mercantile business, or for particular branches of the public service, as it may be found possible to make.

In many places special provision ought to be made for giving technical instruction to girls in such ind.istries and occupations us are chiefly followed by women, including some of the matters most needful to be known tor the purposes of domestic life.

78. M~n.v difficulties of organisn,tion rnay be obviated, especially where the number of pupils iu a school or a department of a school is comparatively small, and some educat ional advantages secured, by establishing schools ill which boys and girls me educated together. This system has been tried with so much success in other countries, and to some extent in Great Britain itself, tlH.t we feel SU1'e irs use may be extended without fear of any undesirable consequences, and probably with some special advantages for the format jon of character and general stimulus to intellectual. activity. Such a school may Le organised either [I.'; a mixed school, the boys and girls beiog taught in the same classes throughout, or as a so-called" dual" school, having two distincb departments, but with a common staff and arrangements under which SOlUe subjects are taught to both sexes together. We have in an earlier part of this Report stated the considerations which have led us to this conclusion (pp. 159-60).

79. The subject of preparatory schools for boys and girls intended to continue at school till 16 or later, and especially for those intended to proceed to the universities, requires a brief notice. It has been stated to us that parents residing in rural districts or small towns often find it difficult to secure efficient school teaching for children before the age of 12. The elementary day schools are, in most of such places, unsuited to the requirements of children whose Secondary Education is to be of an advanced type; and w bile the private. preparatory boarding schools of recognised excellence are often so high in their charges as to be practically unavailable, there are few or no


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endowed boarding schools which m~lce for the yO\lDg~1'; pupils the' kindi of, separate provision which pgrents generally.iand, perhgps, righ~ly, desire. We conceive, therefore, that cases may arise ,4~~which Loc~}:,:A.,u~horities may think it desjrable.jto, set up It prepacatory boarding school; and We conceive that they should n9)~ qe c!eqal'resl from .. doing SO,. .' Any such school, however, since designed for the children of persons compa.ra tively well-off ought to hMT9 fees calculated to cover -the cost of board and education, but might have a certain number of free places for children of exceptional promise, whose :paren\;s could not afford" the regiilfl.l' 'fees. As regards the larger .towne, no such boarding schools would be needed, because preparatory instruction can be sufficiently given either in separate day schools or in junior departments' of endowed or other' public day schools. In which of these modes the Local A'.uthority should provide for the -edueation of the 'younger scholare.-or of such of them as may no't find' all they need iii the elementary schools, is a question which ,may iJ:Je left, 'to -tbose authoritiesthemselves. In many cases preparatory private schools will be likely to supply all that the place requires. .

Special Kinds of Existing Schools

80. We now come to consider in what manner certain classes of existing' secondary schools ought to be dealt with, so' he 'to make them fit most helpfully into a well-constructed sche-r.e' of Secondary '~ducation, These schools faµ into three groups': the first whereof includes endowed schools; the second, three kinds of schools which, though not endowed, are in so ,far public thrut they have received, or 811.'0 now receiving, public money, or are under the management of I. public authority; the third, proprietary' and private -schoole, hibberto entirelyunaffected by interference on the part of the State.

A Endowed Schools

81. Endowed schools have already been :tlie, subject of general legislatiolJ",.~nd are go.verned, either. by their own roharters, statutes, ordinances, or hy schemes framed by the Court of Chadcery or. the Ch3trity Commissioners. We reserve for a later pa,it of this Report bur recommendations ds to the' constitution '0£' the governing bodies of such schools, and here confine ourselves to recommending' ~ehn.in changes in the law which regulates 'the framing and passing of schemes for their government.

82. An organisation of Secondary Education which shut ouf the seven great public schools named in the Public Schools Act, 186,~, 'i9Uld be obviou~ly incomplete, and would ~not~ we have reason to believe, be satisfactory to the schools themselves.


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principle there n.ppe8!r~ ~o be .no good reason w~y. t4.e .:.coll~g,es of Eton and Winch,estql' should be excluded, from such !3'2p'~1'vision as the Central Qfrice would, according, to the plan, 'Ye propose, exercise over non-local schools, nor why the endowed foundations of Charterhouse, or S];u'ewsbul'y' should .not stand on the same footing 11f? tbat,,£Lt Up;pingham.- We.l?-l'e ,sensible that various circumstances ~night JHtVe to be taken into account in the application of the principle we recommend, bnt educational considerations evidently point to the conclusiqn that such supervision as non-local schools are. to receive from the Central Office, should not be withheld from the colleges of Eton and Winchester, nnd the schools of Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury.

83. We have Already stated our view that the LocalAuthoriby should have power to Initiate schemes for educational endowments within their jurisdiction, whether or not now applicable to Secondary Education. Among these woul.l be the consideable clasa of endowments mentioned on p. 39 o£ this Report, which may be described generally as elementary school endowmerrts with a yearly income not exceeding IOOl. Since. the practical abolition of school fees in elementary schools, many of these endowments have ceased to be of any real benefit, either to parents or scholars. They 8J.e, at present, excluded from the jurisdiction of the Endowed Schools Acts in England, but not in Wales, and we recommend that this exclusion should cease.

84. Educational endowments originally founded less than. 50 years before the pHs~ing of the' Act of 1869, cannot, unless the trustees consent, be dealt with by scheme under the Endowed Schools Ads. The method of calculating the period of exemption from the date of the Act is not a sa;nisfactory one. Endowments founded in 1820, and exempted from the jueisdiction because they were given ],~SS than 5@ years before the Act, are still exempt, altnough another quarter of a century has elapsed. The readjustment of the limit ofexernpbion, which this circumstance alone would make. necessary, should, we think, be made on the lines adopted by Parliauienb ill the case of the appointment of trustees of })arochi:ll. charities under the Local Government Act. 1894 s. 14" (8); and we accordingly recommend bhao -no scheme shall he made for any endowment until the expiration of 40 years from the date of its original foundation, unless the governing body assent to the scheme.' We have the less hesitation in making this recommendation because the remarkab~e facts as t'J' the conbinued growth of educational f85. There are, no doubt, ma,ny cases.where educational endowments are applied for the benefit of distcicts lying within the area


[page 288]

of more than one Local Authority, besides those cases in which an endowed school can properly be classified as non-local, It appears, therefore, neces:;ary to further define for this p1U'pose the limits of the jurisdiction of a Local Authority. We recommend that no endowment, of which the benefits are, uy foundation or scheme, expressly extended to tlre area of more than one Local Authority, shall be under the jurisdiction of ilny Local Authority, except in pursuance of directions given by the Centm]. Office. III such cases we think the Ocntral Office should have power to provide a scheme of its own for the administration of the whole endowment, or to invite from the Local Authorities concerned proposals for a scheme for their joint administration of the endowment, OJ' simply to apportion the endowment among the Local Authorities concerned, In which case the amount apportioned to euch would constitute au educational endowment within its jurisdiction.

86. The pOWf::l' of diverting certain classes of non-educational charities to educational purposes, under the Endowed Schools Acts, though sp:1l'ingly exercised of late years, has been one cause of the hostility wibh which the Charity Commission has been, in some quarters, regarded; and it is importaut to note that the consent of the trustees, required by the statute, is apparently considered;IS an inadequate security that the diversion shall not do violence to the wishes of the locality concerned. \,\T e recommend that the Local Authority should have the inibiatory power of framing schemes for charities of tIllS kind as well at; tor educational endowments but that the Central Office, before giving its sanction to allY such scheme should direct a public enquiry to be held in the parish or locality for the benefit of which the endowment is applicable,

87. We have already (p. 23) drawn attention to the complicated process involved in the establislirnent of a scheme under the Endowed Schools Acts, and to the circumstances which make this process inevitably tedious. In the recommendations we he.ve already made, this inconvenience has been kept steadily in view, and some important steps have been taken to reduce it to the narrowest limits consistent with a due regard for the interests affected. In thc first place, we are of opinion that the machinery of the Endowed Schools Acts should be prescribed in the Ca.'36 of charitable endowments only, and not, as under the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, for the application of other public funds, that is to say, the Local Authority may make arrangements for the dis tri bu tion of funds at its disposal, and report these to the Central Office (see para. 55 ante) without being required to do so by way of scheme under the Endowed Schools Acts, or otherwise coming under the provisions of t"ose Acts.

88. As regards educational endowments, the propose I transfer of the functions of the Charity Commission to the Central Oflice


[page 289]

will effect the saving of the time involved under the present system in the submission of a scheme by the Charity Commission to the Education Department, the re-publication of the scheme by that Department, and the subsequent negotiatious between the two Departments which are of common occurrence. It may also be anticipated that in these earlier stages the inibiation of schemes by the Local Authority will tend substantially to shorten the time now. consumed in ncgobiationa between the Charity Commission and the trustees of endowments or the inhabitants of localities.

89. We further recommend that every scheme for an educational endowment, with a yearly income exceeding lOOt., may be required to be laid before Parliament, as provided by the Endowed Schools Act, 1873, s. Ii); but thab the rejection of any such scheme, or any part thereof, shall require the consent of bobh Houses. And if it bad been within our province to consider how far the methods which Parliament applies to these questions are suscepbible of improvement.we should have venturer! to express the hope that Parliament will, at; some future time, consider whether a scheme laid before it migbt not; with advantage be, by a vote of each House, referred for consideration and amendment to a Committee of each House or to a Joint Committee of both Houses.

B Unendowed Schools with a more or less Public Character

(a) Higher Grade Elementary Schools

90. The double aspect which these schools wear has already been described. They are, in one sense, elementary schools, as being under the management, either of school boards or of manll,gers of elementary schools, and there is always (except in that part of some of them which forms !1 separate department and is called all organised science school ") more or less of elementary instruction given in them. But in another sense they are either wholly or largely secondary schools, teaching subjects which cannot be deemed elementary, and not receiving, in respect of' those of their pupils who are beyond the so-called cc standards," :tny grant tram the Education Department, And, in point of fact, they do supply, in those populous places where they exist, much the kind of Secondary Education which the Schools Enquiry Commissioners proposed to have supplied by what they called secondary schools of the third grade.

In considering how t.o deal with these schools we have deemed these latter facts to bo decisive, ann accordingly recommend that the cr higher grade elementary schools" be treated as secondary schools, and placed under the jurisdiction .of the Local Authority for Secondary Education, subject to the pro-


[page 290]

visions, regarding' the bodies which manag'c them, to be presently mentioned (see para. 94, post).

91. How far these schools (so far as secondary) should be dissociated from the elementary schools, of which they now frequently form a pnrb, so- as to become separate institutions, is a problem which does not seem to need, if indeed it admits of, any general solution. We are disposed to think that it may be left to be solved by the Local 1.\ uthority in each particular instance, according to the particular circumstances of the place. We conceive, however, tuat it will be everywhere desirable to bring these schools into a definite and organic relation with the other secondary (including technical) schools and institutions of the districts, so that they shall rather co-operate than compete with the latter (where they exist), and shall be made more available as places of preparation for advanced education. This may be largely done by imposing, as a rule (tI1O:.Jgh a rule which may well be subject to exceptions), stricter Iimits of age, and by establishing graduated scholarships, both from the elementary schools to these schools, and from these schools to other secondary schools and technical institutes.

(b) Organised Science Schools

92. The term" organised science school" does not, 3.<; has been already explained (see ante, p. 54), describe any distinct class or schools, but is a purely artificial one, employed to denote such schools, to whatever other class they may belong, as the Science and Art Department has recognised to have complied WIth certain conditions which it imposes, and to be, under those conditions/the recipients of Science and Art grants. All such schools, to whatever other ClrLSS they may be referred, fall, in respect of the instruction which they supply, within the description of secondaey schools, and ought, therefore, to be placed- under the jurisdiction of the Local Authority for Secondary Education, subject to the provisions contained in a later paragraph (see para, 94, post). The method of awarding grants to them needs to be altered; but to this subject we shall return hereafter (see para.' 145, post).

(c) Evening Schools and Continuation Schools and Technical Schools or Institutes

93. We have already (see p. 54, cvnte) dwelt upon the important, place now occupied by these schools and institutions, as supplying secondary instruction-c-uaually, but not always, of a scientific type-to those who have passed through elementary schools and desire to ca1Ty their general education further, or to superadd technical education to it. They are largely used by adults, and,


[page 291]

therefore, nequire to be dealt with .on lines somewhat ,different from those applied to places of instruction for the young. But whatever particular type they belong to, whether they ape 'e (ll'ga.JVsed -eoienoe-schools," 01.' are connected with. elementary schools, or belong to what are caned mechanics' institutes, or are maintained by town councils, or are technical schools pure and simple, they seem properly to fall within the scope of the action of the Local AuthOlihy for Secondary Education, which can best correlate them with the other agencies under it-s control and help them by such pecuniary resources as it may poss~ss. We therefore recommend that they-and in. speaking of them we include evening Classes and technical classes as well as schools -be declared to be within the jurisdiction of that authority, subject to the provisions mentioned in the next following paragraph.

Recommendations affecting the last preceding kinds of Schools or Institutions

94. 'I'be several classes of schools and institutions referred to in the three preceding 'paragraphs have this feature .in common, tbat they are most of them more or less connected with the elementary schools and school authorities of the places where t[)E)Y exist, while many are associated with public insbitutions in whose buildings they are held, and whose managers i.nfI.uence their administration. The work which has been; and 'is now being, done by these aubhorities and managers, IS work which ought not to be lightly interfered with; and it would be unfortunate if the creation of a new Local Authority; ,vith supervising and helping powers, ho ...... vever' generally useful EUC'h powers might be, should needlessly disturb or cramp the policy which these authorities and managers have (usually with good results) pursued. We therefore suggest that the governing or mamging body of any school or institution of the foregoing classes, and which is of a permanent charactet and not"how governed by a scheme of the Charity Commission, shall either be left to continue to mano.ge that school, subject to the supervisiou ~£ the Local Authority, or else shall. be reconstituted in such, manner as may be agreed upon by-the governing or managing body and bhe Local Authority-and approved by the Central Qffice. Any difference which may arise between the Local Authority and such governing or managing body, as to the need for a reconstitution. or the particular form thereof, ought to .be referred for determination to the Central Office. 'We conceive that in the first instance it will often be desirable that the present managers should. continue to act as now, but in course of time' otner~ar1'l(ng!3l'nentd may become necessary, and it is with a view thereto that this power of reconstitution will be found serviceable, The schools 'and institutes are now largely managed either by school boards or by borough councils, or by their committees' ~ ,a,n,cl we trust


[page 292]

that the adjustment of their future relations to the Local Authority for Secondary Education may present the fewer difficulties because that Authority will, in the county boruughs, consist mainly of persons chosen by those two sets of authorities.

C Proprietary and Private Schools

95. We have already (para. 48, ctnte) indicated an oplDlOn that any school which is the property of: and managed by, a group of private persons, whether corporate or unincorporate, or is owned by one person and managed for his own profit, may properly be recognised by the Local Authority as contributing to the local supply of Secondary Education, whenever such a school call show that the instruction it gives is efficient of its kind. So far from desiring to displace, or even to weaken such schools as these, we trust that some of the measures we recommend may tend to stimulate and improve them. They must be allowed to subsist, and the only State interference to which, as we think, they ought to be liable, is that which needs to be enforced in the interests of health by way of inspecting their buildings nnd schoolrooms. If such a 'school, therefore, floes not ask for the recognition mentioned above, but prefers to go on its way unaffected by, and in no relation (save that of sanitary inspection) to, public educational authorities, we conceive that it may be allowed to do so in the future as in the past. When, however, recognition is asked for, certain requirements may properly be made as the conditions for grunting that privilege and the advantages which are to £011ow therefrom. We recommend, -therefore, that every proprietary or private school desiring to be recognised as supplying efficient Secondary Education, be called upon to show that it satisfies certain requirements, and also to promise compliance in the future with certain conditions.

96. The requirements would be substantially the following; their precise form being left to be defined hereafter by the Central Office:

(1) The possession of buildings conforming to the sanitary regulations prescribed by the Central Office.

(2) The possession of apparatus and other educational appliances, suited to the kind of teaching which the school professes to give.

(3) The sufficiency in number and qualifications of the teaching staff of the school, having regard to the number of the pupils, and the kind of instruction afforded.

(4) The suitability of the curriculum to the needs anddemands of the pupils fur whom the school claims to be providing.

(5) A scale of tuition fees not too high to be paid by those pupils.


[page 293]

97. The conditions which the school ought to undertake to comply with, so long as it retained its recognition, would be the following:

(1) It should be open to such inspection as the Central Office may, by regulabious to be made by it for that plU'pose, prescribe (see para. 132, post).

(2) It should be prepared to submit its pupils, or such part of them as might be required, to be examined under regulations made by the Central Office, assisted by the Educational Council (see para. 127,post).

(3) It should present to the Local Authority an annual statement of the salaries paid to its teachers, or, in the case or a private school, to its assistant teachers.

(4) Its headmaster, and such number of its assistant masters as the Local Authority might require, should be entered on the register of teachers herein-after mentioned.

98. Upon compliance with the above requirements, and so long as it continued to satisfy them, and to observe the prescribed conditions, we think that a proprietary or private school ought not only to be recognised by the Local Authority for the purposes of para. 95, ante, as supplying efficient Secondary Education, but should, as a consequence of such recognition, be admitted to the following advantages:
(1) It should enjoy the benefit of any such inspection as the Local Authority may provide.

(2) Its pupils should be admissible to any examinations (whether they be examinations of schools or of scholars) which may be provided under regulations. framed by the Central Office.

(3) Its pupils should be admitted to compete . for any scholarships or cxhibi tions established Or administered by the Local Authority within whose area it may be situate for schools generally within that area, subject, of course, to any regulations prescribed by that authority.

(4) It should be deemed to be, equally with an endowed or other public school of the same class, a place of instruction at which a Local Authority may declare any scholarships or exhibitions under its control to be tenable, provided always that the course of instruction conforms to the conditions on which the particular scholarship or exhibition may be tenable.

99. We do not conceal from ourselves that some educational "reformers, eager to sweep away inefficient schools and ineompotent teachers, and to cover the field at once by an ample supply of instruction whose excellence A. pLl blic authority may be bound to glH.lr<1ntee, will think these recommendations timid


[page 294]

and halting, toq, slow in their probable effect, and too tolerant of 'the least worthy members of th~ 'educational profession. "N othing," such reformers may so.y, "nothing short of the ,I imposition of public inspection and examination upon all " schools, and the requirement of certifleates of kjiowledge and " capacity from all teachers, will meet jhe needs oJ a case which " has long been admitted to be urgent; nor will _ a,ny persons be " more forward to welcome the universal imposition of inspec" tion and' the: universal requirement: of certificates than the best " teachers in proprietary and private schools."

, Admitting some force in such criticisms, we must nevertheless observe that, in such 11 country as Engl:mcl, it is unsafe to advance much faster than public opinion-still comparati vely sluggi!'ih on this subject-is likely to follow, and that even under the very cautious and guarded scheme we advocate, a substantial improvement ma.:r before long be expected. AI.ready there are many efficient private and proprietary schools which satisfy the requirements, and will gladly comply with the conditions herein-before" set forth , perceiving them to be' in fact helpful to their: work, The adhesion of suoh schools will tend to raise the general level of instructJl(Jn': -incompetent teachers' will by degrees vanish away, and the'legitimate rivalry of the most efficient private schools will lessen any risk there may be of stagnation or monotony in schools under public management.;[t, is,:in OUl' opinion.. an al'gmnent for the plan here proposed that while the limited public supervision we suggest will, if wisely used, stimulate and guide private effort, and secure r01' parents a certain guarantee of efficiency, it will not trench upo~ any man's freedom, nor secure to public schools a monopoly which might be prejudicial to ultimate p);ogl'ess.

100. The function of the Local Authority 'in determining, whether a school is entitled to be " recognised" for the above purposes is a somewhat delicate one, and questions may arise as to whether the discretion we pl'opo~e to give has been wisely exercised, We think, therefore, that any school complaining that, it ought to have, and has not, been recognised, or is debarred from llny of the privileges attached to recognition, should be permitted to appeal from the Local Authority to the Central Office, which should enquire into the matter, and whose decision should be final.

101. We have already (see paTa. 48, ctnte) observed that cases may present themselves in which a Local Authority may find it well to acquire an existing proprietary or private school. The school .may, for instance, have a good site and suitable buildings, and the educational interests of the place may' be served by permanently securing it, with, perhaps, a part or even the whole of its staff instead of leaving it to those chances with which private enterprises are surrounded. Nor do we see any reason for forbidding even a temporary


[page 295]

arrangement by which it proprietary school might for a certain period, and for specified purposes, be taken over by a Local Authority. In all such cases, however, the terms of (,ne purchase or lease (whichever be preferred) ought, in order to avert any suspicion of sinister bargains, to' be submitted to and (approved, after due oonsiderabion, by the OeD:tral Office.

Special Provisions for Rural Districts

102. We have hitherto bad occasion to advert only incidentally to the special pro blems w hi ch the rural districts of England present. These districts are comparutively thinly peopled, and have therefore been left somewhat 'behind in the general movement of educational progress which has marked the last quarter of a eentury, They POSSElSS prucbically none of those new" higher, grade elementary" \)1''' organised science" schools which have become so important in the towns. »> The endowed gramrnarschools which are scattered here and there over them Lave in some places sunk almost to the level of elementary schools, and in some others have become sluggish and feeble, slow to adopt new methods and introduce newsubjects, and less able than they were, before the development of railway ,communication, to sustain the competition of boarding schools at. a distance, Moreover, ne!l:r~y all of such, proprietary and private schools as have arisen in these districts Iiave relied upon bonrders, and have therefore done little to stimulate a local demand for Secondary Education.

There pre two classes of scholars for whom in these rural districts some .pro\'"rision appears to be needed. One class consists 0.£ the children of farmers, and of the shopkeepers and professional men in the small towns, the other of the most promising among the pupils in the elementary schools, that is to ~fly, those who seem likely to profit by a higher kind of instrnction than those schools, which.are of course as a rule behind the elementary schools in the towns, can supply. -

103. Two methods commend themselves to, our judgment as the most likely to meet the Deeds of these classes of children.

One is the remodelling of tHp. endowed schools in the smaller towns and villages. Much as has been accomplished since 1869 by schemes under the Endowed Schools Acts, and recently in certain counties by the action of County Councils, much sbill remaina to be done to bring these schools into harmony with the requirements of the present day and of their own respective neighbour'hoods. Their curricula ought in many instances to be revised, and arI'angements made for attaching to them boarding-houses Or liostels at;' moderate cllarges, so as to enable the children of parents with limited incomes to resort freely to them. Efforts should be made to relieve them from the _difficulties which

*See Part II., s, 59.


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they so often experience, owing either to the insufficiency of endowment or to the fluctuations of income derived from agricultural land. In some instances it would no doc bt be desirable, with a .view to a larger supply of 104. The other method is to establish, in a certain number of rural elementary schools, a secondary department or gl'OUP of classes, in which the higher subjects may be taught to day scholars from the surrounding district. The schools to be selected for this purpose ought, speaking generally, to be in large villages or small towns, and ought, if possible, to be situate on a, line of railway, so as to gi\re them the greatest possible chance of a good supply of day scholars 'from a distance. Wherever a Local Aut.hority for Secondary I~ducation established such a department, it would of course have to make arrangements with the school board, or school managers, controlling the elementary school, for a joint administration of the school so as to secure the proper working both of its elementary and its advanced classes; and in case any difficulty were found in arriving at an adjustment of the wishes of these respective bodies, the Central Office would have the power of settling the points in difference, which it could do all the better because it will be familiar with the needs both of elementary and of secondary schools. The plan we suggest is not altogether new in England, because the Righer Grade Elementary schools in English towns are both elementary and, secondary. It is, moreover, recommended by the experience of a large rural area in Scotland, the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, and' Moray, where a sum of money bequeathed in last century, has for many years past been employed with excellent results in providing Secondary Education in the parish schools," increasingtheir efficiency J18 places of elementary instruction, while enabling, them to bring forward to the uni versities an unusually large. proportion of capable scholars.

105. How far in any given district both of the above methods will require to be employed must of course depend upon the character of the district, and upon the number and local distribution of its endowed schools. In some districts these schools: may be so few, or so POOl', or so ill-placed, as to make it proper' for the Local Authority for Secondary Educn.tion to set u1'

See the iurerestiug evidence of Mr. John Kerr (Q. 15,230-112), und Memornnduur; Vol. Y., p. 506, on the working of the Dick Bequest.


[page 297]

new schools, in carefully chosen spots, to provide secondary instruction for day scholars and for boarders from the surrounding country. Moreover, Local Authorities will probably find it well to aid both the minor endowed schools and the secondary departments or classes to be attached to elementary schools, not only by money grants but in many cases also by providing visiting teachers, who may give instruction in those special subjects for which the resources of the schools do not enable a resident teacher t.o be provided.

106. It will be the duty of the Local Authority to make due provision for technical instruction, including subjects connected with practical agriculture, in the schools 0)' departments above mentioned, or in such of them as it may select for the purpose.

But in doing this, care must be taken to preserve, as far as possible, the distinctive characters of different schools, and to guard against the excessive and too early development of special branches of practical instruction, to the injury of the general training of the faculties by literary and scientific studies.

107. In order to enable promising children from the elementary schools of a district to obtain secondary instruction in the schools or departments above mentioned, the Local Authority will of course establish scholarships or exhibitions for the benefit of such children. We shall presently indicate the principles upon which this may be best done. (See para. 116, post.)

108. SOIDe difficulty will no doubt arise in making adequate provision for the secondary instruction of girls in rural districts, owing to the fact that in many places the Dumber of pupils to be looked for, will not be sufficient to justify the creation of a separate gil'1s' dopurtmenb either in an existing endowed school or in a secondary department to he attached to an elementary school. In these cases we think that the same school or department ought 1.0 receive both girls and boys, and the evidence we have received leads us to believe that this may safely and properly be done.* We conceive that the duty and the interest of the community l'eq uire equal provision to be made for both sexes, and although some care may be needed in the conduct of the requisite arrang-ements, especially at starting, we are persuaded that the objections to a system of co- education are slighter than those which would apply either to feeble separate departments or to a neglect of the needs of girls in cases where their number might be comparatively small.

109. We do not conceal from ourselves that the plan we suggest for meeting exisbing deficiencies in rural areas is somewhat tentative in its character, and t.hat it may not at once bear all the fruit to be ultimately derived from it. The demand for the higher kinds of instruction is unfortunately not very brisk in many of

*See Part II., s. 90, and Part III., 5S. 61-63.


[page 298]

the agricultural and pastoral regions of the country, while the financial resources available are comparatively scanty, There is, however, some reason to hope-and the example of the Scotch counties above referred to goes to justify this hope-c-bhat the provision of u supply will in time quicken the demand, and that the level of'-elemenbary education, which has already risen in our rural districts, will rise still further when Secondary Education becomes more accessible, and is perceived to have a more direct bearing upon practical life than the agricultural classes have as yet realised. In the present lamentable depression of our oldest and greatest industry, every means that can be taken to stimulate the intelligence and enlarge the horizon of the cultivators of the soil ought to be resorted to.

Local Governing Bodies of Schools

110. Governing bodies of endowed schools should continue, as heretofore, to be constituted 0).' modified by scheme. The Local Authority within whose jurisdiction a school lies, and any Local Authority giving aid to a. school) should be enti tled to-appoint one or more persons to be members of the governing body of the school. The right wliich the county councils have exercised of making such appointments in the case of schools to which they grant money will naturally pass to the new Local Autborities, And it; deserves to be considered whether even the non-local schools, otherwise exempt from the general juriediction of the Local Authoritdes, might not usefully be connected with them by such a limited right of nomination.

111. In the case of schools or institutions not endowed but maintained out of public funds, and either established or taken over by a Local Authority, the constitution of the managing body should be included in the scheme or schemes which it will be the duty of the Local Authority to prepare and to report to the Central Office. We have already (para. 55) recognised the advantage of giving a greater element of permanence and stability to these institutions and their managers than SOUle of them now enjoy, and have suggested a special mode of procedure by which that object might be attained without undue delay or loss of elasticity. Bub, whatever may be the method adopted, schemes for such schools or institutions should, as a 1'1l1e, provide that at least a majority of the managers should be nominated by Local Authorities, including of course the Local Authority for Secondary Education. Auy Local Authority, moreover, which gives aid to the school, and is not already represented on the managing body, should be entitled to nominate one or more of the managers.

112. In every case where a school, whether endowed or not, is designed partly or wholly for the education of girls, due provision should be marie hy scheme for choosing women to be


[page 299]

governors or manag"!1''l. The proportion of women so chosen must vary according to circumstances, but there should he DOobstacle placed in the way of the constitution of a body composed mainly, or even exclusively, of -women.

113. Goyerning bodies ,ana [managers of'. endowed and other public schools under the.jurisdiction of a Locai Authority should be required to',submit annually Ito, the Local Authority the accounts of their schools, to be audited and verified in the manner required by the Local Authority, which should further' ,ha,ve the power to have ,them produced at any other time, if required. The accounts should show, amongst other, "things, the aalaey, paid to each teacher employed in the school.

114. Subject to any general rules that may be made by the Local Authority, we recommend that the governing body or managers should be entrusted with the general administration of the school, and with the exercise of such supervision over the management, teaching, and curriculum, including the fixing of the fees paid by the scholars, as is now usually conferred on governing bodies by schemes under the' Endowed Schcols ve.cts. But-these powers will, of course, be exercised only within the limits assigned by the scheme.

. 115. The relation of the governing body of a school to the head teacher on questions of internal management is in many respects more' one of co-operation than of employer and employed; and the success of the school depends so much on their harmony of aim and action that it appealls to us essential to secure that they should be brought togetber as closeJy as their respective duties will permit. Governing bodies are too apt to call in' the master or mistress when they are already half-pledged to q. conclusion; while the teacher is often a~ a ctisadvan'tage in having to curry out, or even to criticise, decisions of the governing body without knowing the reasons upon which they were based, On the other hand, the head master or miatress is not ana. cannot be. ill the position of an ordinary governor; and mig-lIt 'often be more embarrassed than helped 'by being treated as such. We recommend, therefore, that every head teacher of a public secondary school shall be entitled to sit, but not to vote, on the governing body of his or her school, except when the governing body may for special reasons think his or bel' presence inexpedient. 1

Scholarships and Exhibitions

116. "Ve have next to consider the means whereby the ,children of the less well-to-do classes, of our population may be enabled to obtain suoh Secondary Education as D\ay be suitable and needful for them. As we have not recommended that Secondary Education shall be provided free of cost to the whole


[page 300]

community, we deem it all the more needful that ample provision should be made by every Local Authority for enabling selected children of the poorer parents to climb the educational ladder. Thus, for example, the promising child of an artisan or small tradesman should have the opportunity of proceeding at the age of 11 or 12. from the elementary to the secondary school and so prolonging his education, the cost of which prolongation mi.ght fairly be borne wholly or to a large extent by endowments or other public funds, Again, boys and girls of exceptional ability, whether belonging to the wage-earning class or to the poorer families of the middle class, might be enabled by public aid to proceed at the age of 16 or 17 from secondary schools to the universities or to other places of higher literary, scientific, or technical education, The assistance we here contemplate should be given by means of iL carefully graduated system of scholarships (including in that term exhibitions), varying in value, in the age at which they are awarded, and in the class of school or institution at which they are tenable.

117. Scholarships tenable at a secondary school should be of one or more of the following kinds, the kind to be determined, where the scholarships are founded by the Local Authority, at the discretion of thlLt authority:

(i) Some should be open to children being educated in the ordinary "standards" of public elementary schools within the local area;

(ii) Others should be awarded to children who are receiving their education at a (so-called) higher grade elementary school, or a secondary school (whether public or private) of a less advanced type than the school at which the scholarships are to be tenable;

(iii) Others again might be open to all children attending any schools within the area of the Local Authority, or whose parents reside or are employed within the area;

(iv) In some Iocalities it mn,y also be advisable to have scholarships open to all children free from any resbriccions as to school or residence, but subject to suitable conditions as to age and the means of the parents.

118. Provision should everywhere be made for both boys and girls, and where the same scholarships are open to both sexes, care should be taken that a fair proportion, with regard both to the number of candidates and the comparative excellence of their work, is awarded to each sex.

119. It will be found desirable in many places, for the purpose of establishing a proper connexion and correlation between schools of differenb grades, to attach certain of these scholarships to particular schools, as is often done in the case of existing endowments. Where this attachment is made to a public


[page 301]

elementary school, we think that the scholarship should be awarded either by competitive examinations held at the school, or, where this is considered undesirable on account of the tender age of the children, or for other reasons, upon the joint recommendation of the headmaster, and of the school board or school managers, to the scholars whose record of work is best for a series of school yea! s or quarters, or by a combination of the two methods. Where scholarships are attached to a secondary school, they should, as a rule, be awarded by a competitive examination to be held at that school. Where scholarships are not attached to parbicular schools, they should, as a rule, be awarded by competitive examinations, to be held at prescribed times and at: convenient centres, under the supervision of the Local Authority. We desire, however, to add that, with respect to competitive examinatious generally, we consider they should be restricted as far as possible to scholars above the age of 12, and that the examination, if at all applied below that age, should be of a very simple character. Even where the scholarship examination is held for childrenlof a more advanced age, it should, we consider, be restricted to a limited number of subjects, should include a considerable amount of viva voce questioning, and should be directed principally to ascertaining the general intelligence of the candidates, rather than the extent of their acquired knowledge. The importance, however, of insisting 0)) these conditions, especially the two former, will tend to dimin sh as the ages of the candidates increa-se, and if any rules can be framed UDder which weight could be given to the health nnd physical condibion of the candidates sufficient to avert the danger, now sometimes felt, of unduly pressing children forward and developing their brains at the expense of their bodies, the effect of such rules might be very salutary. \ e do not, however, think that this excellent object could be attained, as has sometimes been suggested, by allowing marks :f01' proficiency in games, for that would induce another and not less mischievous kind of overpressure.

120. As regards value, we think that scholarships may well be of several different kinds, viz.: (a) those which covel' the cost only of instruction, with or without travelling expenses; (b) those which cover the necessary cost of board and lodging, as well as of instruction; and (0) those which consist of an annual payment of a fixed amount, either exclusive or inclusive of free boarding. Special judgment and caution will of course be required in awarding those of the two latter classes.

121. In framing regulations for scholarships, provision should, as a rule, be made for augmenting the value of a scholarship, (a) according to the age of the holder, or (b) according to the pecuniary circumstances of the scholar. It will be usually found desirable to reserve power, either to the Local Authority or to the goveming body of a school, to take both these elements into


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its consideration; and thus~a,flapt its assistance to the actual requirements of the candidate.

122. In many instances the goyer,uing body of a; school will, of its OW!! motion and out of its own funda, provide ~ certain I?-um ber of free places, f9~' scholars, propprtionate to the amount of 'Fhe grant they receive. )o'Tllt're it has not. done so, and where the Local Authority for Secondary Education bestows a.n annual grant upon tire school, that Authority may often find it propel' to I equire the .govern~ug body to provide such places.

123. In order to avoid any abuse of tills scholarship system, w,e think that no scholarship founded by a Local Autli ol.'ity out of its own funds and intended tor the children of poorer parents should be tenable by a scholar, if the aclminister~ng aut]lqrity (whether the Local Authority or the ,governing body of a school) al:e not satisfied that the circumstances of his or her parents a1'.6 such as to make him Or her a proper object pf pecuniary aid. Different tests of pecuniary circumstances should be applied fur different classes of scholarshipa Thus, e.g., free education in a third grade secondary dayschool may be somewhat freely given to children of the wage-earning class, or to those belonging - to families of equally restricted means; whereat> a, higher line, such perhaps, -as that now drawn for abatements of' income tax at incomes of 500l. a year, may fairly he drawn, if the Local Authority i1p,prove, in the case of candidates seeking-aid from public sources to enable them to attend some place of higher education,

124 .. It will be clear from what we have already said, tl1at in our opinion each Local Authority, at any rate in the first instance. should within its own. area be the judge o.fWhat is required in the way of scholarships, both as xegards number lind value and as regards place and cOrlclitions of tenure; This principle will apply not only to scholarships recently founded out or' endowments or other public funds, but at least to some extent also to 'those of older foundation atPll'yhed to endowed schools (other than nonlocal schools) within the area. These latter may often. usefully be modified to suit the varied circumatances of the district, but in' . .theilt case it "v~lJ be desirable to .cons~t, the goveming body of tl~e school, and necessaeyto obtain the.sanction of the Central Office to the modifying scheme.

125. Aclmitping thi,s general principle of. local nutoDoJJ?Y, it will nevertheless often be "vise or even needful for-neighbouring Eocal Authorities to agre,e.on some uniformity of action in respect of' 'scholarships which affect schools situate, or classes of persons resident, in districts with which both authorities are concerned . .Jylost county "boroughs form' natural educational centres for tWe" sUl,_'ouncling- -auburban and rural district's, which are 'Jf'ren. "included for pt1l'pose~ of municipal government. in the adjoining administrative counties. Wherever this is the case,


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it will be highly desirable 10 form a joint committee of members of each Local Authority concerned to make HnlLllgementa for enabling the children from the neigbboming districts to hold scholarships at the nearest school of' suitable, character and grade, in consideration either of a contribution towards the maintenance of the school by the n,utbority of the district benefited or through some other equitable financial adjustment. Where the members of a joint committee cannot agree on the exact terms, they should refer the matter to the decision of the Central 016ce, and that Office should also have power (as we have recommended above, p. 2.63) to require a reluctant Local Authority to co-operate with its neighbours for such plU'poses as we have here indicated,

126. It has been brought to our notice that there are many scholarships of considerable value belonging to existing foundations, especially those of a non-local character, which are legally open to children. of all classes. Some complaint bas been made thfLt the holders of these scholarships, having ceased to be deemed as they once were, socially inferior to their schoolfellows, are now, to a large extenb drawn from the children or well-to-do parents, whose superior means have enabled them, by a special course of training at an expensive preparatory school, to secure the scholarship OVCl' the heads of their less fortunately situated competitors." We consider this practice, which. tends to become more and more common, ought to be checked in the interests of public economy, But we do not think it would be either fair or wise to exclude altogether the children of well-to-do.or even of wealthy, parents from the laudable ambition of winning the distinction conferred by a scholarship, or from the right of sharing, together with other classes of the community, in the superior educational advantages often attaching' to its possession. There are also, as we have pointed out elsewhere, t grave objections to the present system on the ground of the unhealthy competition it induces, and the disadvnntages it imposes on th~ smaller and poorer schools. We therefore recommend that these scholarships should continue to be legaiJy opcn to all classes, but should be restricted to a comparatively low value, the governing body of the school being entrusted with a discretion to augment their value in the case of any individual scholar, if they should consider that such augmentation is required by the pecuniary circumstances of his or her parents.t We moreover consider that, in view of the difficulties in the way of individual schools carrying out such a reform by themselves, i.t should be required by a. general statutory enactment.

*See p. 173.,

†See pp. 173-4.

‡Similar complaints nrc widely made as to the receipt of scholarship stipends at the colleges in Oxford aud Cambridge by the sons of wealthy parenia, but ibis is a matter which, though it indirectly nJfccts secondary schools, seems to be beyond the scope of our recommendations.


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Examinations

127. Passing to the means for securing the efficiency of secondaJ.'y schools, we think that an attempt should be made to guard against excessive multiplication and overlapping of examinations, whether of schools or of individual scholars, M tending to undue pressure and the disorgnnisation of the regular teaching work. But it would be difficult and undesirable. if not impracticable, having regard to the existence of so many efficient and suitable agencies for examination. and of the very various needs of the different classes of schools, for a central authority to conduct or prescribe in detail any uniform system, either of periodical examinations of schools to be conducted from year to year, or of leaving examinations of scholars ann Logous to the abiiurienien: examen of Germany, V{e recommend, therefore, that the Central Office, assisted by the Educational Council, should from time to time frame genernl regulations AS to the times, character, and necessary conditions of the examinations to be held at the schools of different grades, and as to the examining bodies which, in addition to those instituted by the universities, should be recognised I1R competent or suitable to conduct the examination of sueh schools." Subject to these general regulations, which should be of a wide and elastic character, and not necessarily the same Tor all kinds of schools, the local governing body of each school should have a free' hand to choose the pal'ticular examining body, and to direct the course of the particular examination.

128. The Local Authority for Secondary Education should have no direct powers of interference with the examination, as distinct from the inspection, of such schools as are governed by scheme and not under its immediate management or control. But, IlS that Authority will be to some extent responsible Ior the efficiency of the school, it should be entitled to req uire the examiners' report to be annually submitted to it, and Le further entitled to draw the attention of the Central Office to any cases of breach of any provisions of the scheme (if the school is under a scheme), o:r of the regulations made by the Central Office, so as 10 ensure these being complied with, if the school is to continue to receive aid out of Parliumentary grants. It should have a similar right in the case of private schools within the area, recognised or claiming recognition.

129. The Central Office, aided by the Council, should, IT. ore , over, both in framing its regulations, and in the exercise of its

*As instances of matters which regulations might deal with, we may observe that they might prescribe that the school should be every yetiI' (or every two years) examined as IL whole , that the examination should include both oral und pupi-r vork , that the school should he reported upon by classes; that the middle und lower (as well as the upper) forms should he tested in some ordinary subjects of rhe curriculurn , and that, without its being uecessnry to test every subject, fld,' examples uf lhe whole curriculum should be taken.


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general duty of supervision, endeavour, as fiLl' as possible, to bring the examination certificates granted by the University Board and anv other examining bodies into correlation with each other, and make them interchangeable. One of the principal objects in thus systemntising and grading 'the various certificates, would be to make them available as leaving certificates for scholars of different iLges and standards of attainment. We further consider, that leaving certificates of the grade suitable to the office to be filled should be accepted by the Oivi l Service Commissioners, as discbarging the candidate holding them from such parts of the examinations conducted by the Commissioners as are covered by those certificates. Such ccrbificates might also well be accepted by the various professional examining bodies, as covering the preliminary and general portions of their examina tions,

130. Although we do not desire even to appeal' to prescribe any particular method of conducting examinations, '" hich, as we have already indicated, must ViLl'y greatly in different cases, yet we cannot leave the subject without emphasising our view that viva voce questioning should always, as far as circumstances will permit, form part of any examination intended to test the general in telligence and readiness of the pupils, and especially of the younger pupils, who are often unable to do themselves justice on paper, and whom it is not desirable to train for paper examinations.

Inspection of Schools

131. The inspection of secondary schools, as distinct from the examination of their scholars (see pp. 59, 163), should, as we have recomtnended above, be conducted by competent persons appointed by the Local Authority and approved by the Central Office, which Office should also have powerto make general regulations as to inspection. In selecting' persons for these posts, great weight ought to be given to previous experience in teaohing; and duly qualifled women should be chosen where there is likely to be sufficient work for them. The appointment of such inspectors should, we think, be made independent of any limit of age. TIllS rule; which is contrary to the present practice ox the Education Department, would often enable the Local Authority to secure a man of greater educational experience than can be done under the present system. The Local Authority should have power to appoint a separate inspector to conduct the sarutary inspection if they prefer so to do.

132. The inspector (or inspectors) so appointed should visit the buildings, schoolrooms, and playgrounds, examine their sanitary appliances and means of ventilation, and see that they conform sufficiently to the ordinary requirements of health and the


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sanitary regulations of the Central Office, with special regard to the locality in w hich the school is placed, and, to the different, needs o£ town and country. 'I'lris sanitary inspect.ion should extend to non-Iocal schools- situate within the area of the Local Authority appointing the inspector as well as to.Iccal schools, and to .proprietary and private as well as to endowed -schools.

133. In the case of public endowed schools subject to the jurisdiction of the Local Authority and of any other schools asking to be recognised, or in fact recognised, by that authority (see para. 95 ante), there should be a further inspection into the administration and educational efficiency of the school, Where there is a scheme, the inspector should see that its various requirements as to, the constitution and meetings of the governing body, the keeping of accounts, scholarships, examinations, &c., have been duly complied with. He should also in all cases require the production of the school time table, and see that .. it sufficiently provides for instruction lin the subjects of the curriculum as presented by the scheme. He should satisfy himself that the teaching stU/if of t.ile school is sufficient both. in number ~T)d attainments for the work that it claims to do, and that the equipment and apparatus are suitable and sufficient. It wouldfurther be desirable that he should also be present at the teaching of; at ally rate, the principal classes, so as to form a just appreciation of the practical qualifications of the teachers, without in any way interfering with the course of instruction, given. But in view of the disquiet which a general enforcement of such a rule might at first excite, we are not prepared to ay thl;1t this should be deemed essential.

134. The inspector will, of course, report the result of his visits. to the Local Authority for Secondary Education (see para. 60).. His report should always be communicated to the governing or managing body, or to the proprietors or proprietor (as the case may be) of the school, but should otherwise he regarded as confidential, except so far ~ the Local Authority think it desirable to publish it or any port of it. Where the report discloses any serious deficiencies in the school, the Local Authority will have the duty of requiring these to be remedied, if the school is under its management or control, or if, in. the case of an endowed school, the scheme empowers it to do so. And, in the case of default, it will be entitled to refuse aid or recognition to the school, subject' to the right of the governors 61' proprietors of the school to appeal to the Central Office.

135. We do not think that the resources of pacticulur schools, whether public or private, should be burdened qy the payment of any fee for the inspection to which they may be required, either by law or for the purpose of obtaining aid or recognition,


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to submit; and we therefore recommend that the expenses of such inspection should be borne by the funds of the authority whose duty it is to appoint the inspeotor.

IV FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS

136. To estimate the probable cost of the system of secondary education which we have recommended, and the capacity of existing sources of revenue to cover that cost, is one of the most difficult, as it is certainly one of the most important, branches of our task. The extent to which public opinion will encourage the Local Authorities we have recommended to establish new schools, or to develope those which exist, and the amount of popular support they will receive if they' show themselves forward in this work, cannot be conjectured beforehand, and will doubtless differ materially in different parts of thy country. So will the scale of expenditure which those Local Authorities may be disposed to adopt. So will the readiness of parents to pay a fair price for the instruction provided, and thereby to increase tbat part of the schcol revenue which fees may be expected to supply. The possibility of turning endowments to better account, the prospect of making the various sums which are derived from the national exchequer go further than they do as now administered, tile disposition of localities to rate themselves, are all of them matters more or less conjeet ural in any given district of the country, and sLill less capable of definite prediction as regards the whole country. We cannot therefore undertake to establish au exact balance between probable income and probable expenditure. The most we can attempt is to present a view of the several funds now available, and to point out in what ways they may best be used so as to enable administration to be both economical and efficient.

Income may be drawn from five different sources, viz.: (1) endowments, (2) the grant under the Customs and Excise Act of 1890, (3) local rates, ('l!) fees paid by pupils, and (5) parliamentary grants.

Endowments

137. The total annual value of the endowments now applicnbla for Secondary Education in England, and known to be subject to the Endowed Schools Acts, is about 735,000l. gross), omitting the value of sites and buildings, which of course hriu-g the tota] to a much higher figure. That of endowments now applied to elementary education, but at least a part of which, might well be applied to secondary, is, roughly speaking, about 100,OOOl. Wore these endowments thrown into one fund they would provide between 7 d. and 8el. per bead for each inhabitant


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of England (Census of 18\:)]). It will be seen from the tables given in the Appendix (see pp. 438-1,41 post) that in Lancashire, with a population of 3,926,760, the income from endowments applied to education is only 3S,158l.; in the West Riding, with a population of 2,439,895, it is 68,169l.; in Norfolk, with a population of 454,516, it is 12,780l.; and in Devon, with a population of 631,808, it is 17,432l. The distribution of endowments over the country is very unequal (see Tables, ib.), and th endowments existing in each county and county borough are, in many cases, altogether out of proportion to its population and its educational needs. This is especially the case with regard to the newer populous manufacturing, mining, or commercial towns. Liverpool, for instance, has only 386l. per annum of educational endowments (excluding the value of school buildings). Birkenhead, Hanley, South Shields, Middlesbrough, and Barrow have none, while some very large endowments are to be found in small towns or villages. To attempt to redistribute endowments by ttl.king from the wellendowed counties or boroughs what they can spare in order to bestow the surplus upon the poorer areas, however proper it may appear to the eye of theoretical reformers, is, we fear, 80 repugnant to popular feeling as to be, at present, not within the horizon of practical politics. Whether, within the administrative areas we have recommended, endowments may be better utilised by the removal of some from places where they benefit comparatively few persons to other places where they would benefit many, is a different question. Even to this, objection would doubtless be taken by local feeling, because localities are accustomed to regard charitable foundations as if they were local property. Objections of this kind have since 1869 usually prevailed against such attempts as the Charity Commissioners have made to transfer endowments from one place to another, and have, of course, prevented even I1n attempt in many instances where the Commissioners would have been disposed to make it. A popular County Authority, however, such as that which w have recommended will, no doubt, be in a stronger position than a Board in London for carrying through any such proposals, and may be able to effect transfers which the general interest of the county demands. Should this happen, the practical value of our vast but very imperfectly utilised endowment fund will be sensibly increased, and the need for the imposition of a local educational rate proportionately .Iiminisbed,

138. Apart altogether from this question of local redistribution, there are other ways in which endowments may be made more helpful than they now are. Under existing regulations they sometimes merely give an education below cost price to those who can well afford to pay the cost price, while rendering no great assistance to those w ho cannot. In our view the true service endowments onght to render is two-fold.


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(1) They may give to each class a somewhat better and llighel' education than parents of that class are as yet disposed to pay for; and (2) they may provide a nearly or wholly gratuitous education to children of promise, whom poverty would, without such aid, have excluded from Secondary Education altogether. For instance, an endowed foundation with an income of 2,000l. a yenr, in a town of ten thousand people, if the whole of its revenue be left to it, should be so regulated as to supply, not gratuitolls education to all comers, but rather what is called instruction of the" first grade" hype, in addition to that" secondgrade" instruction which otherwise COl. tid alone have been provided, together with sufficient scholarshi ps or exhibitions to enable children of talent and diligence to profit by the existence of a first grade as well as a second grade school, and to proceed to places of still higher education. In other words, it is a better rather tbau a cheaper article that endowments ought to be used to supply: it is by the extension of Secondary Education to the poor rather than the cheapening of it to the well-to-do that we should try to attain the charitable founder's aim.

The Grant under the Customs and Excise Act, 1890

139. By this statute, as we have previously hadoccasion to note, a sum arising from duties on beer and spirits was placed at; the disposal of the county and borough councils, with power for them to expend it eitber on the reduction of their local rates or on .technieal education within the meaning of the Technical Instruction Act, 1889. The sum paid by the Treasury to each local authority, which in 1893-94 amounted in all to 74l:l,OOOl. is allotted upon a basis which does not correspond exactly to the rateable value of property within the area of each such authotity; but has been fixed with reference to ths subventions which were actually given to local authorities in the financial year 1887-88. Thus it is only very roughly proportioned to the population of each area, and still less nearly proportioned toits educational needs, while it stauds in no relation at all to its: endowments. But as each locality receives the grant as a matter of right, it must be deemed for all practical purposes a, local fund, DO part of which can be diverted from less needy to more needy areas.

We have already recommended that this gl'ant, much the greater part of which (556,2271. in 1893-94) is already applied by the county and borough councils to technical education, but only at their pleasure from year to year, ought to be all of it paid in future to the Local Authorities for Secondary Education, oug11t to be declared permanently applicable not to the relief of rates but to education only, and ought to be applied not merely to technical education but to secondary education generally. These changes will not, in our view, prejudicially affect technical


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instruction, in the :first place, because a' good deal of the money which-is now nominally paid in respect of that instruction really serves to support geilel'al secondary instruction, seeondly, .because authorities expressly educational will be able to. use the unoney.thore economically and profitably than it is JDOW used, and thirdly, because the closer union of technical with general secondary instruction which we desire to see carried out, will tend to benefit the former. We conceive however, that in .making the change, the duty of the Local Educational Authority to make adequate provision for technical instruction ought to be expressly declared, and we feel no doubt that public opinion will everywhere secure the clue fulfilment of th~\t duty. :We feel stuOlilgly the importance of securing that the facilities for the continuance of e-ducation, which are now offered by evening institutes and classes (conducted under the 'I'echnical Instruction Acts) to persons occupied in industries during the day .time, should in no way be curtailed, owing to any zeal, however laudable, in developing other branches of secondary education.

Local Rates

140. Already, under the Technical Instruction Act of 1889, every county and borough council, and e"ery urban aauitary authority, has a power to levy a rate not exceeding 1a. in the £, sterling, for the puxposes of technical instruction. The" power has been sparingly used. Such a rate Was, in 1894, levied in forty-eight areas only, (viz., eight county boroughs and furty urban sanitary districts), and its aggregate produce ever the whole country was .only 14,9.027,. Were it levied 0'-01' tile whole of England it would 'produce about 640,000l. The limit ought, we think, for the future to be fixed at' 2d. in the £, but the purposes of the rate extended to include Secondary Education generally.

It is not to be expected that this power-will be for some little time to come very generaJ.l.y used, The;:-.gricultural districts, which receive lenst under the Act of 1890, are.the very districts whore the' pressure of rates is most felt. The urban -al'el:i.S, which are 'usually more wining to rate themselves, are on. the whole better supplied with schools than the rural districts" and receive large sums under the Act of 1890. "We nevertheless hope that the result of the reorgauisation of secondarj- schools, under representative Local Authorities, which we propose, may be so 'to stimulate local interest in education 'as to increase the willingness of the people. to ta:x bhemaelves for it: and it is obvious that the' Local Authorities could not fairly be required, however liberal and elastic the conditions might be, to make dUI) prOVISIon for secondary instruction unless they were able, where oilier sources of revenue proved insufficient, to fall back upon this rating power.


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141. As Local Authorities may often have to raise a sum of money for the building or fitting up of a school beyond what could be raised by one year's rate, they ought to be empowered to borrow money on the security of the Secondary Education rate, with the consent, however, of the Central Office, who would see that proper arrangements were made for paying off the loan by a sinking fund.

Fees Paid by Scholars

142. The fourth source off revenue (irrespective, of course, of those private subscriptions and charitable bequests which may be expected to be made not less freely in the future than in the past") is to be found'jn the sums paid by the scholars tOl' their education. The 'economiats of 50 yea;rs ago held that this source alone would be sufficient to provide good teachiug for all children Belonging to what are called the upper and middle classes, and would have thought that it was only in the way of aiding the pro-.;nising children of the pOOl.' that either endowments or grants of-f public money ought to be expended. However weighty may be the 8;rguments which support this view, jt has at this moment so EWe influence that we feel dispensed from the necessity of discussing. it in principle, and propose-to confine ourselves to two questions : first, the authority which shall :fix: the fees to be paid :in schools, and, secondly, the scale upon which, ill general, fees should be fixed in the three kinds of schools described in pat;agraph 73.

We think that, in all: secondary schools under public management, the fees ought to be fixed by the goveruors or managers of the school, that is to say, j,u the case of an endowed school, by-the governing body, subject" of C()LU'se, to -the provisions of .tbe scheme regulating the school, and in the Case of other schools by the managers, within the limits, if any, which any scheme or, other instrument regulating the school may fix, and where there is no such scheme or. instrument, then within any limits which the Local Authority may have imposed. As respects endowed schools, this follows what has been 'hitherto the-practice of the Ohal'ity:Commissioners in £raming schemes. Those public schools which. are non-local, and. therefore. outside the jurisdiction of any Local Authority, are all of tbem governed by schemes, and are,' so far us nun-local, boarding rather than day-schools, so that: 'the fixing of the fee for tuition as distinct from board and lodging becomes-a secondary matter!

*Though the fact that a public authority will exist for the purpose of providing Secondary Education may be supposed likely to diminish private gifts, we doubt whether this influence will not be more than counterbalanced by the fact that private persons, donors and testators, will note, and be encouraged by noting, that there exist authorities qualified to use their gifts to the best purpose.


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143. The considerations to be chiefly regarded in fixing a scale of fees are, of course, the kind of education which the school provides, and the class of pupils whom it serves. A school which has no endowments and but little public aid to rely upon will be obliged. to supply education at cost price, and be obliged therefore to reduce its fees to what the people of the place can be induced to pay. Schools possessing endowments, or able to. count on subsidies from Local Authorities, will be in a position to reduce their fees as much below cost price as these sources of income enable them to go. We think, however, that as a rule. assuming the school t'l have its buildings found, and the expense of their maintenance not to be included in (( cost price," the cost price ought to be taken as the standard, and that endowments or _public grants ought to be employed chiefly in aiding the poorer children of promise to obtain what they could not pay for, or (as observed in paragraph] 38) in supplying a somewhat higher or better education than the inhabitants generally are as. yet prepared to pay for. The tendency which bas of late years. appeared in places where well-to-do parents send their children to higher grade elementary, or even to ordinary elementary, scuools, to supply Secondary Eduoation to all come