DfEE Circular 10/97 (1997)

This Circular set out new criteria for all courses of initial teacher training and specified (in extraordinary detail) the English and mathematics curricula to be taught to all trainees on all courses of primary initial teacher training.

The complete document is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various sections.

Introduction

Annexes

A Standards for QTS
B Primary English
C Primary maths
D Initial Teacher Training

See also Circular 4/98 (May 1998) which added curricula for ICT (information and communications technology), primary science, and secondary English, maths and science.

The text of DfEE Circular 10/97 was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 20 October 2021.


Circular 10/97 (1997)
Teaching: High Status, High Standards

Department for Education and Employment
London: 1997

Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[cover]


[page 1]

Circular number 10/97

Requirements for Courses of
Initial Teacher Training


Summary of contents

This Circular sets out new criteria which all courses of initial teacher training must meet and specifies the English and mathematics curricula which must be taught to all trainees on all courses of primary initial teacher training. The criteria set out the standard of knowledge, understanding and skills all trainees must demonstrate in order successfully to complete a course of initial teacher training and be eligible for Qualified Teacher Status.

This Circular sets out more fully the requirements described in Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/97, and in specified respects and from specified dates replaces DFE Circular 9/92, DFE Circular 14/93 and Teacher Training Circular Letter 1196 (see 'Timing of Implementation' on Page 4).


All enquiries about this Circular should be sent to:

Colin Seal
Teacher Supply, Training and Qualifications Division
Sanctuary Buildings
Great Smith Street
London SW1P 3BT

Tel: 0171 925 6014
Fax: 0171 925 6073

Further copies of this circular are available by telephoning 0171 510 0134.

This circular is available on the Internet. The address is

http://www.open.gov.uk/dfee/dfeehome.htm

The four annexes to this Circular are available as separate documents from:

Louise Bratton
Teacher Training Agency
Portland House
Stag Place
London SW1E 5TT

Tel: 0171 925 3834

Audience:
All schools (maintained and independent)
LEAs and Local Authority Associations, Teacher Associations, Providers of initial teacher training in England, Teacher Education Organisations, OFSTED, SCAA, Higher Education Funding Council - England, TTA, CVCP and SCOP, Religious Bodies, Business Organisations, Parliament and Political Parties, Government Departments and Non-Departmental Public Bodies

Subject Area:
Initial Teacher Training (ITT)

This Circular is guidance. It should not be treated as a complete and authoritative statement of the law.

Date of issue:
July 1997

Expiry date:
-

Related documents:
-

Superseded documents:
DFE Circular 9/92,
DFE Circular 14/93,
Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/96 and Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/97

DfEE
Department for Education and Employment


[page 2]

Contents

Pages

Introduction
3

Summary of Requirements
3

Timing of Implementation
4

Annex A: Standards for the award of Qualified Teacher Status
6-13

Annex B: Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary English
14-26

Annex C: Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary Mathematics
27-41

Annex D: Requirements for all courses of Initial Teacher Training
42-46





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Introduction

The White Paper 'Excellence in Schools' makes clear the Government's determination to raise standards across the education system and to ensure that all pupils have access to the high quality teaching they deserve.

We have placed particular priority on the early years and on raising standards of literacy and numeracy as essential keys to unlocking access and achievement across the curriculum.

To raise the standards we expect of schools and pupils, we must raise the standards we expect of new teachers. This Circular sets out a range of new requirements for initial training intended to ensure that all initial training providers match the quality and breadth of the best and to underpin higher standards and effective teaching in schools.

Summary of Requirements

The requirements are in four parts:

  • Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) (Annex A);
  • Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary English (Annex B);
  • Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary Mathematics (Annex C); and
  • Requirements for all Courses of Initial Teacher Training (Annex D).
The QTS standards represent a full and detailed codification of requirements for new teachers. New teachers must not be admitted to the profession if they fall short of these clear standards. The standards are intended to ensure that, before taking responsibility for their own classroom for the first time, every new teacher will have proved his or her ability in a wide range of knowledge, understanding and skills including effective teaching and assessment methods, classroom management, discipline and subject knowledge.

Qualified Teacher Status is awarded after successfully completing a course of In at an accredited institution in England or Wales, either concurrently with or after the award of a first degree of a UK university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or after the award of a degree of the CNAA, or after the award of a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree.

The standards for QTS will replace the competences set out in Section 2 of the current course criteria (Circulars 9/92,14/93 and nCL 1/96). They apply to all courses of ITT. To complete a course of ITT successfully and be eligible for QTS, a trainee must be assessed against and achieve all the standards.

The new national curricula for primary English and Mathematics represent a key element in the Government's plans for raising attainment in literacy and numeracy and making progress towards the new targets. The curricula specify the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees, on all primary courses of initial teacher training, must be taught and be able to use in relation to English and mathematics. They do not cover everything that a trainee teacher needs to be taught; we expect that providers will include other aspects of the subjects not specified in the curricula. The curricula do not specify a course model or scheme of work and providers should decide how training is best delivered, nor do they repeat the National Curriculum for pupils which will underpin all training.


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The Government intends to introduce teacher training curricula for primary science, for secondary English, mathematics and science, and for information technology for all trainees in due course.

The new course requirements replace the sections of the current criteria, which do not cover competences. They also lay down minimum requirements for all courses in relation to selection, course type, partnership arrangements and quality assurance.

The new requirements provide more flexibility in the type of courses that can be offered. The new course models allow teachers to train for the early years, Key Stage 2 teaching or the upper end of secondary school (14-19), as well as the full primary or secondary range. All primary courses must prepare trainees to teach at least one specialist subject. The TTA Career Entry Profile, which will be introduced for all newly qualified teachers (NQTs) from May 1998, will record the course followed by a newly qualified teacher as well as their strengths and development needs. This will help employers deploy and support new staff effectively during their first year of teaching.

More detailed requirements for partnership and quality assurance arrangements are also set out to facilitate effective working relationships between providers, schools and colleges. All trainees must have substantial practical experience if they are to achieve the QTS standards and qualify as teachers.

Timing of Implementation

The new requirements will be phased in starting from September 1997:

September 97May 98September 98May 99
QTS Standards (Annex A)All courses must comply*All trainees seeking QTS must meet all the standards*All courses must comply fullyAll trainees seeking QTS must meet all the standards fully
Primary national curricula (Annexes B&C)--All courses must comply fully
Course requirements (Annex D)--All courses must comply fully
TTA Career Entry Profile (Annex D, Section B, 2.15)-All newly qualified teachers must receive a TTA Career Entry Profile-

*subject to the exemptions listed below

All courses of initial teacher training, whether recruiting for the first time in September 1997, or already underway, must comply with the standards for the award of qualified teacher status specified in Annex A from September 1997 [with the exception of the following standards which all courses


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must comply with from September 1998 - Annex A, standards A.1.xii, A.2.d.vii, A.2.e, A.2.1**, and B.1]. From May 1998, in order successfully to complete a course of initial teacher training all trainees - both those starting training and those continuing training - must be assessed against, and achieve, all of the standards specified in Annex A [with the exception of the following standards which all trainees must be assessed against, and achieve, from May 1999 - Annex A, standards A.1.xii, A.2.d.vii, A.2.e, A.2.1**, and B1.

All primary training courses recruiting for the first time from September 1998 must cover the training curricula for primary English and mathematics; all existing primary courses must be revised to cover the curricula from September 1998.

Where primary courses currently have one or more specialist subjects, for each designated specialist subject, each trainee, in order successfully to complete the course, must from May 1998 demonstrate a secure knowledge to at least a standard approximating to GCE Advanced level in those aspects of the subject taught at KS1 and KS2 as specified in Annex A, standard 2F.

For all other primary courses, including six subject BEds, providers must from September 1998 designate at least one specialist subject for each trainee. For each designated specialist subject each trainee, in order successfully to complete the course, must from May 1999 demonstrate a secure knowledge to at least a standard approximating to GeE Advanced level in those aspects of the subject taught at KS1 and KS2, as specified in Annex A, standard 2F, and achieve all of the other standards specified in Annex A.

Accreditation of IT providers

All courses of initial teacher training, whether managed by higher education institutions in partnership with schools, or by schools themselves through school-centred initial teacher training schemes (SCITTs) must meet the Secretary of State's requirements.*** Providers will therefore need to ensure that their courses are revised as necessary to bring them into line with the new requirements set out in this Circular, as a basis for their continued accreditation as a provider of initial teacher training. There is no requirement for providers to seek reaccreditation as a result of this Circular.


MICHAEL BICHARD



**Where primary courses currently have a subject specialism, standard 2f(Annex A) applies from September 1997 for all trainees qualifying from May 1998.

***The statutory requirements which underpin these arrangements are Section 218 of the Education Reform Act 1988 and the Education (Teachers) Regulations 1993 (as amended by the Education (Teachers) Regulations 1997). The Education (Teachers) Regulations 1997 amend the 1993 regulations with effect from 1 September 1997 so as to define an accredited institution as "an institution accredited by the Teacher Training Agency (TTA) or, in Wales, by the Higher Education Funding Council (HEFC) for Wales as a provider of courses satisfying such provisions as to curricula and other criteria as may from time to time be specified by the Secretary of State."


[page 6]

Annex A

Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status


Introduction

The standards apply to all trainees seeking Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and, except where otherwise specified, should be met by those to be assessed for QTS from May 1998. Successful completion of a course or programme of ITT, including employment based provision, must require the trainee to achieve all these standards. All courses must involve the assessment of all trainees against all the standards specified.

Qualified Teacher status is a requirement for all those who teach in a maintained school. Qualified Teacher status is awarded by successfully completing a course of ITT at an accredited institution in England or Wales, either concurrently or after the award of a first degree of a UK university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or after the award of a degree of the CNAA, or after the award of a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree.

The standards are set out under the following headings:

A. Knowledge and Understanding

1. Standards for secondary specialist subjects

2. Standards for primary subjects

3. Additional standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses.

B. PlannIng, TeachIng and Class Management

1. Standards for primary English and mathematics

2. Standards for primary and secondary:

a. planning;

b. teaching and class management.

3. Additional standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses.

C. MonItorIng, Assessment, Recording, Reporting and Accountability

The standards in this section apply to all trainees seeking Qualified Teacher Status.

D. Other Professional Requirements

The standards in this section apply to all trainees seeking Qualified Teacher Status.

The standards have been written to be specific, explicit and assessable, and are designed to provide a clear basis for the reliable and consistent award of Qualified Teacher Status, regardless of the training route or type of training leading to QTS. To achieve this purpose, each standard has been set out discretely. Professionalism, however, implies more than meeting a series of discrete standards. It is necessary to consider the standards as a whole to appreciate the creativity, commitment, energy and enthusiasm which teaching demands, and the intellectual and managerial skills required of the effective professional. While trainees must be assessed against all the standards during their ITT course, there is no intention to impose a methodology on providers for the assessment of trainees against the standards.


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It is not intended that each standard should require a separate assessment occasion. Groups of standards are closely linked and are designed so that they can be assessed together.

A. Knowledge and Understanding

1. Secondary

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

i. have a secure knowledge and understanding of the concepts and skills in their specialist subject(s) (1) at a standard equivalent to degree level to enable them to teach it (them) confidently and accurately at:

  • KS3 for trainees on 7-14 courses;
  • KS3 and KS4 and, where relevant, post-16 for trainees on 11-16 or 18 courses; and
  • KS4 and post-16 for trainees on 14-19 courses;
ii. have, for their specialist subject(s), where applicable, a detailed knowledge and understanding of the National Curriculum programmes of study, level descriptions or end of key stage descriptions for KS3 and, where applicable, National Curriculum programmes of study for KS4;

iii. for Religious Education (RE) specialists, have a detailed knowledge of the Model Syllabuses for RE;

iv. are familiar, for their specialist subject(s), with the relevant KS4 and post-16 examination syllabuses and courses, including vocational courses (2):

v. understand, for their specialist subject(s), the framework of 14-19 qualifications and the routes of progression through it (2);

vi. understand, for their specialist subject(s), progression from the KS2 programmes of study (3);

vii. know and can teach the key skills required for current qualifications relevant to their specialist subject, for pupils aged 14-19, and understand the contribution that their specialist subject(s) makes to the development of the key skills; (2)

viii. cope securely with subject-related questions which pupils raise;

ix. are aware of, and know how to access, recent inspection evidence and classroom-relevant research evidence on teaching secondary pupils in their specialist subject(s), and know how to use this to inform and improve their teaching;

x. know, for their specialist subject(s), pupils' most common misconceptions and mistakes;

xi. understand how pupils' learning in the subject is affected by their physical, intellectual, emotional and social development;

1 Required subject knowledge for those teaching English, mathematics and science at secondary level will be specified when the relevant ITT National Curricula are implemented.

2 This does not apply to trainees on 7-14 courses.

3 This does not apply to trainees on 14-19 courses.


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xii. have a working knowledge of information technology (IT) to a standard equivalent to Level 8 in the National Curriculum for pupils, and understand the contribution that IT makes to their specialist subject(s); (4)

xiii. are familiar with subject-specific health and safety requirements, where relevant, and plan lessons to avoid potential hazards.

2. Primary

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. understand the purposes, scope, structure and balance of the National Curriculum Orders as a whole and, within them, the place and scope of the primary phase, the key stages, the primary core and foundation subjects and RE;

b. are aware of the breadth of content covered by the pupils' National Curriculum across the primary core and foundation subjects and RE;

c. understand how pupils' learning is affected by their physical, intellectual, emotional and social development;

d. for each core and specialist subject (5) covered in their training,

i. have, where applicable, a detailed knowledge and understanding of the relevant National Curriculum programmes of study and level descriptions or end of key stage descriptions across the primary age range;

ii. for RE specialists, have a detailed knowledge of the Model Syllabuses for RE;

iii. cope securely with subject-related questions which pupils raise;

iv. understand the progression from SCAA's "Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education" to KS1, the progression from KS1 to KS2, and from KS2 to KS3;

v. are aware of, and know how to access, recent inspection evidence and classroom relevant research evidence on teaching primary pupils in the subject, and know how to use this to inform and improve their teaching;

vi. know pupils' most common misconceptions and mistakes in the subject;

vii. have a working knowledge of IT to a standard equivalent to Level 8 in the National Curriculum for pupils and understand the contribution that IT makes to the subject (4);

viii. are familiar with subject-specific health and safety requirements, where relevant, and plan lessons to avoid potential hazards;

e. for English, mathematics and science, have a secure knowledge and understanding of the subject content specified in the ITT National Curriculum for primary English, mathematics and sciences (6);

f. for any specialist subject(s), have a secure knowledge of the subject to at least a standard approximating to GCE Advanced level in those aspects of the subject taught at KS1 and KS2 (7);

4 Trainees may omit the "control" element of the IT National Curriculum Order if this is not relevant to their specialist subject. This standard does not apply until September 1998.

5 A specialist subject may be one of the core subjects.

6 This does not apply until September 1998. Required subject knowledge for primary science will be specified when the relevant ITT National Curriculum is implemented.

7 The requirement for all primary courses to include a specialist subject does not apply until September 1998, but where courses already offer subject specialism(s), this standard applies from September 1997.


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g. for any non-core, non-specialist subject covered in their training, have a secure knowledge to a standard equivalent to at least level 7 of the pupils' National Curriculum. For RE, the required standard is broadly equivalent to the end of Key Stage statements for Key Stage 4 in SCAA's Model Syllabuses for RE (8).

3. Additional standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses

For all courses those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. have a detailed knowledge of SCAA's "Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education";

b. have a knowledge of effective ways of working with parents and other carers;

c. have an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of other agencies with responsibility for the care of young children.

B. Planning, Teaching and Class Management

This section details the standards which all those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must demonstrate, when assessed, in each subject that they have been trained to teach. For primary non-core, non-specialist subjects, trainees being assessed for Qualified Teacher Status must meet the required standards but with the support, if necessary, of a teacher experienced in the subject concerned.

1. Primary English and Mathematics

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they have a secure knowledge and understanding of, and know how and when to apply, the teaching and assessment methods specified in the In National Curriculum for primary English and mathematics and science (9).

2. Primary and Secondary for all subjects

Planning

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. plan their teaching to achieve progression in pupils' learning through:

i. identifying clear teaching objectives and content, appropriate to the subject matter and the pupils being taught, and specifying how these will be taught and assessed;

ii. setting tasks for whole class, individual and group work, including homework, which challenge pupils and ensure high levels of pupil interest;

iii. setting appropriate and demanding expectations for pupils' learning, motivation and presentation of work;

iv. setting clear targets for pupils' learning, building on prior attainment, and ensuring that pupils are aware of the substance and purpose of what they are asked to do;

8 Where providers offer more limited coverage of subjects than the required non-core, non-specialist subjects, eg. a few hours of taster training in a foundation subject, safety training in PE and/or design and technology, the nature and extent of such training can be recorded on the newly qualified teacher's TTA Career Entry Profile.

9 This does not apply until September 1998. Required teaching and assessment methods for those teaching primary science and secondary English, mathematics and science will be specified when the relevant ITT National Curricula are implemented.


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v. identifying pupils who:
  • have special educational needs, including specific learning difficulties;
  • are very able;
  • are not yet fluent in English;
and knowing where to get help in order to give positive and targeted support;
b. provide clear structures for lessons, and for sequences of lessons, in the short, medium and longer term, which maintain pace, motivation and challenge for pupils;

c. make effective use of assessment information on pupils' attainment and progress in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons;

d. plan opportunities to contribute to pupils' personal, spiritual, moral, social and cultural development;

e. where applicable, ensure coverage of the relevant examination syllabuses and National Curriculum programmes of study.

Teaching and Class Management

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

f. ensure effective teaching of whole classes, and of groups and individuals within the whole class setting, so that teaching objectives are met, and best use is made of available teaching time;

g. monitor and intervene when teaching to ensure sound learning and discipline;

h. establish and maintain a purposeful working atmosphere;

i. set high expectations for pupils' behaviour, establishing and maintaining a good standard of discipline through well focused teaching and through positive and productive relationships;

j. establish a safe environment which supports learning and in which pupils feel secure and confident;

k. use teaching methods which sustain the momentum of pupils' work and keep all pupils engaged through:

i. stimulating intellectual curiosity, communicating enthusiasm for the subject being taught, fostering pupils' enthusiasm and maintaining pupils' motivation;

ii. matching the approaches used to the subject matter and the pupils being taught;

iii. structuring information well, including outlining content and aims, signalling transitions and summarising key points as the lesson progresses;

iv. clear presentation of content around a set of key ideas, using appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and well chosen illustrations and examples;

v. clear instruction and demonstration, and accurate well-paced explanation;

vi. effective questioning which matches the pace and direction of the lesson and ensures that pupils take part;

vii. careful attention to pupils' errors and misconceptions, and helping to remedy them;

viii. listening carefully to pupils, analysing their responses and responding constructively in order to take pupils' learning forward;

ix. selecting and making good use of textbooks, IT and other learning resources which enable teaching objectives to be met;


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x. providing opportunities for pupils to consolidate their knowledge and maximising opportunities, both in the classroom and through setting well-focused homework, to reinforce and develop what has been learnt;

xi. exploiting opportunities to improve pupils' basic skills in literacy, numeracy and IT, and the individual and collaborative study skills needed for effective learning, including information retrieval from libraries, texts and other sources;

xii. exploiting opportunities to contribute to the quality of pupils' wider educational development, including their personal, spiritual, moral, social and cultural development;

xiii. setting high expectations for all pupils notwithstanding individual differences, including gender, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds;

xiv. providing opportunities to develop pupils' wider understanding by relating their learning to real and work-related examples;

l. are familiar with the Code of Practice on the identification and assessment of special educational needs and, as part of their responsibilities under the Code, implement and keep records on individual education plans (IEPs) for pupils at stage 2 of the Code and above;

m. ensure that pupils acquire and consolidate knowledge, skills and understanding in the subject;

n. evaluate their own teaching critically and use this to improve their effectiveness.

3. Additional standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. plan activities which take account of pupils' needs and their developing physical, intellectual, emotional and social abilities, and which engage their interest;

b. provide structured learning opportunities which advance pupils':

i. personal and social development;

ii. communication skills;

iii. knowledge and understanding of the world;

iv. physical development;

v. creative development;

c. use teaching approaches and activities which develop pupils' language and provide the foundations for literacy;

d. use teaching approaches and activities which develop pupils' mathematical understanding and provide the foundations for numeracy;

e. encourage pupils to think and talk about their learning and to develop self-control and independence;

f. encourage pupils to concentrate and persevere in their learning for sustained periods, to listen attentively and to talk about their experiences in small and large groups;

g. use teaching approaches and activities which involve planned adult intervention, which offer opportunities for first-hand experience and co-operation, and which use play and talk as a vehicle for learning;

h. manage, with support from an experienced specialist teacher if necessary, the work of parents and other adults in the classroom to enhance learning opportunities for pupils.


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C. Monitoring, Assessment, Recording, Reporting and Accountability

This section details the standards which all those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must demonstrate, when assessed, in each subject that they have been trained to teach. For primary non-core, non-specialist subjects, trainees being assessed for Qualified Teacher Status must meet the required standards but with the support, if necessary, of a teacher experienced in the subject concerned.

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. assess how well learning objectives have been achieved and use this assessment to improve specific aspects of teaching;

b mark and monitor pupils' assigned classwork and homework, providing constructive oral and written feedback, and setting targets for pupils' progress;

c. assess and record each pupil's progress systematically, including through focused observation, questioning, testing and marking, and use these records to:

i. check that pupils have understood and completed the work set;

ii. monitor strengths and weaknesses and use the information gained as a basis for purposeful intervention in pupils' learning;

iii. inform planning;

iv. check that pupils continue to make demonstrable progress in their acquisition of the knowledge, skills and understanding of the subject;

d. are familiar with the statutory assessment and reporting requirements and know how to prepare and present informative reports to parents;

e. where applicable, understand the expected demands of pupils in relation to each relevant level description or end of key stage description, and, in addition, for those on 11-16 or 18 and 14-19 courses, the demands of the syllabuses and course requirements for GCSE, other KS4 courses, and, where applicable, post-16 courses;

f. where applicable, understand and know how to implement the assessment requirements of current qualifications for pupils aged 14-19;

g. recognise the level at which a pupil is achieving, and assess pupils consistently against attainment targets, where applicable, if necessary with guidance from an experienced teacher;

h. understand and know how national, local, comparative and school data, including National Curriculum test data, where applicable, can be used to set clear targets for pupils' achievement;

i. use different kinds of assessment appropriately for different purposes, including National Curriculum and other standardised tests, and baseline assessment where relevant.

D. Other Professional Requirements

Primary and Secondary

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status should, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. have a working knowledge and understanding of:

i. teachers' professional duties as set out in the current School Teachers' Pay and Conditions document, issued under the School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act 1991;

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ii. teachers' legal liabilities and responsibilities relating to:
  • the Race Relations Act 1976;
  • the Sex Discrimination Act 1975;
  • Section 7 and Section 8 of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974;
  • teachers' common law duty to ensure that pupils are healthy and safe on school premises and when leading activities off the school site, such as educational visits, school outings or field trips;
  • what is reasonable for the purposes of safeguarding or promoting children's welfare (Section 3(5) of the Children Act 1989);
  • the role of the education service in protecting children from abuse (currently set out in DfEE Circular 10/95 and the Home Office, Department of Health, DfEE and Welsh Office Guidance Working Together: A guide to arrangements for inter-agency co-operation for the protection of children from abuse 1991;
  • appropriate physical contact with pupils (currently set out in DfEE Circular 10/95);
  • appropriate physical restraint of pupils (Section 4 of the Education Act 1997 and DfEE Circular 9/94);
  • detention of pupils on disciplinary grounds (Section 5 of the Education Act 1997).
b. have established, during work in schools, effective working relationships with professional colleagues including, where applicable, associate staff;

c. set a good example to the pupils they teach, through their presentation and their personal and professional conduct;

d. are committed to ensuring that every pupil is given the opportunity to achieve their potential and meet the high expectations set for them;

e. understand the need to take responsibility for their own professional development and to keep up to date with research and developments in pedagogy and in the subjects they teach;

f. understand their professional responsibilities in relation to school policies and practices, including those concerned with pastoral and personal safety matters, including bullying;

g. recognise that learning takes place inside and outside the school context, and understand the need to liaise effectively with parents and other carers and with agencies with responsibility for pupils' education and welfare;

h. are aware of the role and purpose of school governing bodies.


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Annex B

Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary English


Introduction

The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for primary English specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees, on all courses of primary initial teacher training, must be taught and be able to use in relation to English.

These requirements come into force for all courses from 1 September 1998.

The curriculum has been written for those who have a background in English, including providers of primary English ITT in schools, higher education institutions and elsewhere. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

The curriculum is in three sections:

Section A Knowledge and Understanding Required by Trainees to Secure Pupils' Progress In English

This section sets out the knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in English. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching English at KS1 and KS2 and, where applicable, to children in nursery and reception classes.

Section B Effective Teaching and Assessment Methods

This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use. Only teaching and assessment methods specific to primary English have been included in this curriculum. Standards which apply to more generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A to this Circular).

While the curriculum includes some references to information technology (IT), the ways in which trainees should be taught to use IT in primary English have not been specified in detail. It is expected that, as part of all courses, providers will teach trainees how to use IT effectively in the teaching and assessment of English.

Section C Trainees' Knowledge and Understanding of English

This section sets out the knowledge and understanding of English which trainees need in order to underpin effective teaching of English at primary level. Providers of ITT must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the English content contained in National Curriculum programmes of study for English at KS1 and KS2, and that specified in paragraph 12 of this document. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of ITT must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of English in their teaching. It is likely that many aspects of Section C can be taught quite quickly. In providers will decide how best to teach the content of Section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported self-study or through guided reading prior to the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of Sections A and B of the curriculum.

NB. All entrants to ITT are required, in the Requirements for all Courses of Initial Teacher Training (Annex D), to be able to communicate clearly and grammatically in spoken and written standard English.


[page 15]

The ITT National Curriculum for primary English does not attempt to cover everything that needs to be taught to trainee teachers. It is expected that providers of In will include in their courses other aspects of English, not specified in this curriculum.

This Annex specifies a curriculum. It does not constitute a course model or a scheme of work. There is no intention to impose on providers of ITT the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Although the curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. There is considerable flexibility for providers of ITT to integrate aspects of the three sections of the curriculum in order to provide coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging courses of primary ITT.

As part of all courses, providers of In are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for primary English does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively. While the ITT National Curriculum for primary English includes the key areas contained in the pupils' National Curriculum for English, it is not set out under the same headings as the pupils' National Curriculum, nor does it give the same emphasis to each area of English as the pupils' National Curriculum. In setting out a core In curriculum for primary English, greater detail has been given on those areas of English teaching where research and inspection evidence indicates that trainees need to focus most if they are to teach effectively. Areas such as reading and writing, which are separated in the pupils' National Curriculum, have been closely linked in the ITT National Curriculum to ensure that the teaching of one reinforces the other.

Providers must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach effectively are judged to have successfully completed a course leading to Qualified Teacher Status. Detailed requirements are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A to this Circular).

A. Knowledge and Understanding Required by Trainees to Secure Pupils' Progress in English

1. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning, and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in English, as part of all courses trainees must be taught the essential stages of development and progression in pupils' reading, writing, speaking and listening.

As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of ensuring that pupils progress from:

a. their implicit knowledge of how language works, to understanding it explicitly so they can evaluate how they and others write and speak;

b. using predominantly informal and personal forms of language in both writing and talking, to being able to select and use formal and impersonal forms;

c. a limited awareness of audience, to writing and speech which shows adaptation to different audiences;

d. their use of non-conventional writing, to the use of conventional letter formation, spelling and grammar;

e. reading, writing and speaking where fluency is dependent on adult intervention, to independent control of a variety of forms of language.


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2. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. the importance, in order to secure pupils' progress in English, of ensuring that pupils of all ages develop their skills in English at:

  • word level, through being taught phonics, spelling and vocabulary;
  • sentence level, through being taught grammar and punctuation; and
  • text level, through being taught comprehension and composition;
b. the importance of securing a close relationship between work at each of these levels;

c. about the emphasis that should be given to teaching at each level depending on pupils' ages and the stage of their development in English eg. giving greatest attention to teaching word level skills to beginning readers.

3. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. that pupils' progress in speaking, listening, reading and writing depends on their early and continuing experience of:

i. spoken language in a wide variety of contexts for different purposes;

ii. language sounds, structures and patterns that come from extensive exposure to oral language, and the relationship between these and written text;

iii. hearing, discussing, re-telling and inventing stories and recounting and describing events;

and on their understanding of:

iv. how spoken language is related to written language;

v. the conventions of writing in English eg. that writing progresses from left to right, from top to bottom and from the front to the back of a book.

b. that in order to enable pupils to read, write and spell individual words, they must teach pupils:
i. to recognise and be able to write the letters (graphemes) that represent the initial dominant sounds;

ii. to hear, identify and blend phonemes into words;

iii. to identify the phonemes in words and segment words into their constituent sounds;

iv. that phonemes may be represented by different graphemes eg. play, place, rain, weigh, and know the range of spellings that can represent a single vowel sound;

v. to recognise patterns of spelling related to word families, letter strings and derivations;

vi. to distinguish syllabic boundaries and use this skill to build up multi-syllabic words in their reading and segment words for spelling;

c. that, in order to enable pupils to understand the meaning of individual words, groups of words, sentences and groups of sentences they must teach pupils to:
i. recognise individual words and groups of words rapidly and automatically;

ii. use graphic, syntactic and contextual cues to monitor the accuracy of their reading and to detect and correct any errors;


[page 17]

iii. recognise the syntactic boundaries in text, including the use of punctuation to separate clauses and phrases, in order to gain meaning from groups of words;

iv. combine the meanings of phrases and clauses to gain an understanding of sentences and whole texts;

d. that in order to extend pupils' reading and their ability to understand the meaning of whole texts, they must teach pupils to:
i. recognise and recall simple and more complex material which is explicitly stated in the text;

ii. make simple and more complex inferences and deductions, drawing out implications, reasons and conclusions which are not stated explicitly in the text;

iii. analyse aspects of the text including:

  • character, plot and setting;
  • organisation and structure;
  • argument and viewpoint;
  • the effects of the language used;
  • relationship to other texts;
e. that in order to extend pupils' understanding of the structure of written and spoken language and how language works they must teach pupils:
i. how word order influences meaning eg. that putting the object first in a sentence gives it greater emphasis;

ii. how different kinds of words function in sentences (parts of speech) eg. that adverbs usually qualify verbs;

iii. how language can be described in terms of various functions eg. questions, statements, commands;

iv. how sentences can be analysed into their constituent parts and how they can be connected in different ways eg. dependent clauses and phrases;

v. that some words are more essential to meaning than others eg. that the modal verb has little meaning unless used in conjunction with the main verb, and to use this knowledge in their reading and writing.

4. In order to understand how to develop and extend pupils' reading and writing skills, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught the range, structures and features of literary and non-fiction texts suitable for use with pupils, either in print or IT-based, and how to evaluate their quality and their suitability to meet different teaching objectives.

B. Effective Teaching and Assessment Methods

5. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. that teaching programmes must include time dedicated to the explicit and systematic teaching of reading, writing (including grammar, spelling, punctuation and handwriting), speaking and listening eg. a dedicated literacy hour,

b. the importance of building pupils' skills in English from word level, to sentence level, to text level, as well as from the text "down" i.e. starting with text and analysing its component parts at sentence level and word level;

c. how to develop pupils' enthusiasm for reading so that they read independently for pleasure and information;


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d. how to teach the essential core of phonic and graphic knowledge explicitly and systematically, first teaching:

i. the alphabet and how the letters of the alphabet are used singly and in different combinations to make graphic representations of the sounds of English, eg. digraphs - sh, ch, th, and trigraphs;
then
ii. how to identify initial and dominant sounds in words and how to identify and write the graphemes that represent them;
then
iii. how to identify and blend sounds into words, starting with consonant-vowel-consonant words eg. c-a-t, and moving on to words requiring more complex blending; how to read such words automatically; and how to split them into their constituent sounds, identifying each sound in order to spell the word;
then
iv. how sounds can be represented by different graphemes, including common ways to read and spell each of the long vowel sounds, eg. ay, a-e, ea; y, igh, i-e; ow, oa, o-e; oo, ew, u-e, and ways to represent other common vowel sounds, eg. ur, er, ir, au, ow, or, a, aw.
In teaching this essential core, all courses must ensure that trainees are taught to use:
v. direct instruction and well-paced, interactive oral work;

vi. multi-sensory approaches, including seeing print and hearing it read simultaneously, hearing words or parts of words and writing the corresponding word or part-word accurately;

vii. activities and teaching materials which focus directly on the letter pattern being taught, eg. common letter clusters, onset and rime, including those which involve alliteration, sound patterns and rhymes, and the skilful use of songs, stories, poems and language games.

e. how to teach reading at word, sentence and text levels so that pupils are able to understand and respond to increasingly challenging and demanding texts through:
i. shared reading of texts, including enlarged texts of high quality with the whole class and with small groups, in order to teach reading strategies in the context of a text, and demonstrate effective reading with larger groups of pupils, using appropriately differentiated questioning to match individual ability;

ii. reading aloud expressively to the whole class and engaging pupils in discussion about key features of the text at text, sentence and word level;

iii. guided reading of multiple copies of the same text with groups of pupils, including how to:

  • select and present texts which are appropriately challenging and which allow teaching objectives to be met effectively;
  • discuss key features of a text, eg. vocabulary, sentence structure, themes, both in advance of and during pupils' reading of the text;
  • structure and support independent reading and re-reading of the text;
iv. guided individual reading, including how to:
  • select texts which present pupils with adequate challenge and support;

[page 19]

  • identify teaching objectives for the task;
v. focused reading sessions with individual pupils, including how to:
  • assess the knowledge and skills which pupils use when reading and their fluency, accuracy and understanding;
  • use instructional dialogue which directs pupils' attention to reading errors and helps them to use phonic, graphic, syntactic or contextual cues appropriately to correct errors for themselves;
  • develop critical responses and help pupils to make connections between books;
vi. oral and written activities which require pupils to make critical and imaginative responses to aspects of literature and to evaluate the texts they read, referring to relevant passages or episodes to support their opinions;

vii. teaching methods which show pupils how to locate and use information efficiently from non-fiction texts and to compare, evaluate and synthesise information from different texts;

viii. the use of information technology to develop pupils' reading skills.

f. how to teach writing so that pupils write confidently, accurately, fluently and with understanding, including how to:
i. teach compositional skills through:
  • setting clear objectives in terms of features to be included in pupils' writing, including content, structure and organisation, and setting clear criteria for assessment;
  • providing examples drawn from different types of text, drawing attention to their characteristic features eg. the use of imperatives in instructions and the use of connectives in explanations;
  • ensuring pupils are taught how to write in a range of genres, including extended non-fiction writing;
  • teaching and exemplifying each element of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, proof-reading and presenting), and knowing:
    • when it is appropriate for pupils to undertake only aspects of the process rather than the process as a whole;
    • how and when pupils should use word-processors for writing, and when their use is not appropriate;
    • when and how to intervene to improve pupils' writing;
  • drawing on pupils' knowledge of spoken language and reading as a model or stimulus for writing and for increasing their awareness of differences between spoken and written language;
ii. teach grammar systematically, through:
  • direct instruction on grammatical rules and conventions;
  • investigating word order in sentences, the ways words function in sentences, the effects of deleting words and the ways words and sentences can be transformed eg. made into plurals, negated, turned into questions;

[page 20]

  • requiring pupils to use relevant subject specific terminology when discussing their own and other people's writing eg. past/present tense, pronoun, singular/plural, direct speech;
iii. teach punctuation, including through:
  • direct instruction on the rules and conventions of punctuation in order to emphasise the role of punctuation in making meaning clear to a reader;
  • ensuring that punctuation is taught as part of the process of writing, and particularly through proof-reading and requiring accurate presentation of texts;
  • activities which include reading aloud, through which pupils recognise the role of punctuation in marking grammatical boundaries and in symbolising and replacing the intonation of speech;
  • marking pupils' written work for punctuation in ways which ensure that pupils proof-read and correct their own work independently, eg. using editorial conventions;
iv. teach spelling, building on pupils' reading in ways which promote independent spelling and improve pupils' accuracy, including teaching:
  • strategies for learning to spell, which draw on sound-symbol relationships, including:
      segmenting words into phonemes;
    • splitting words into syllabic boundaries and sub-lexical units of meaning eg. re-mem-ber.
    • sounding words as they are spelt eg. Wed-nes-day, rasp-berry;
  • strategies for learning to spell which draw on visual skills, including:
    • use of analogy eg. relating night to fright, plight;
    • look, copy, cover, write, check, particularly for words which do not follow clear phonic patterns eg. said, their, one, once;
    • visual reinforcement eg. highlighting the difficult part of a word, for example, conscious (relate to science) or believe (relate to lie);
  • strategies for learning to spell which draw on pupils' knowledge of word meanings and derivations, including:

      using word families, roots and derivations eg. using classical roots, for example, highlighting "tract", from the Latin meaning draw or pull, in "protracted", "intractable", "traction", "retract" etc;

      knowledge of prefixes and suffixes and their meanings, so that the relationship between prefix, suffix and stem is clear eg. dis-satisfied, hence two Ss; love-Iy;

      knowledge of comparative and superlative forms of words and how they are built eg. shin-y, shin-ier, shin-iest;


[page 21]

    • knowledge of how word endings relate to verb tenses eg. -ing, -ed;
    • knowledge that many interrogatives begin ''wh'' (why, what, where, who, which);
    • reference to family words which articulate letters which are silent or less obvious in the word to be spelt eg. bomb/bombard; muscle/muscular.
  • other strategies, including:
    • using spelling rules and knowing any exceptions;
    • using dictionaries/spell checkers/word user lists;
    • inventing mnemonics which suit the individual;
    • regular spelling tests;
v. teach handwriting so that pupils acquire a fluent, joined and legible style which can be adapted for different purposes, through activities which develop:
  • motor control, posture and pen grip;
  • letter formation, including knowledge of:
    • where letters start and finish;
    • orientation;
    • height, size, spacing and the relative size of one letter to another, including capital letters;
    • "families" of letters and the relationship of one "family" of letters to another;
  • pupils' ability to join letters, using serifs and ligatures where appropriate;
  • a familiarity with the links between writing common letter strings and spelling;
g. how to teach speaking and listening through planned activities which require pupils to be articulate, coherent and effective in standard English, including how to teach pupils to:
i. adapt their speech for different purposes and situations using different registers as appropriate;

ii. listen attentively for different purposes eg. in readiness to respond, take notes on specific points;

iii. participate effectively in discussion eg. taking turns, taking different roles;

h. how to develop and extend pupils' vocabulary through work on:
i. subject-specific terminology;

ii. imagery, idiom, figurative language and other imaginative ways of conveying meaning;

iii. new and unfamiliar words, including synonyms;


[page 22]

i. how to make effective provision for those pupils not yet fluent In English, including through:

i. ensuring pupils have ample opportunities to listen to well-spoken, standard English and to engage in activities before being asked to make spoken or written responses;

ii. extending pupils' spoken standard English through activities in which they are required to initiate talk, ask questions and engage in extended talk, in settings where their efforts can be supported and developed eg. through teacher-led activities in small groups;

iii. making clear links between pupils' learning of spoken and written English;

iv. carefully planned involvement of bilingual and other support staff and use of additional resources such as visual aids, talking books and dual-language materials;

j. how to identify and teach pupils whose difficulties In acquiring literacy skills arise out of a particular learning difficulty, including:
i. how to diagnose each pupil's specific difficulties and to teach using an approach which is most helpful to that pupil eg. using visual or multi-sensory approaches for children who have difficulty in discriminating sounds;

ii. how to use Information technology to foster the development of literacy skills.

6. Common errors in English

As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. to recognise common pupils' errors in English, to understand how these arise, how they can be prevented and how to remedy them, including, among others:

i. errors arising from failure to select the correct grapheme/phoneme correspondence eg.
  • spellings containing incorrect representation of long central vowel sounds because pupils' knowledge of letter/sound correspondence has not encompassed the range of spellings available to represent a single sound - "smiyl/smiul" for "smile";
  • spellings which omit the weaker elements of consonant blends, eg. omitting "b" from 'thing";
ii. errors arising from over-reliance on one reading strategy, eg.
  • inability to decode words using phonic strategies in unfamiliar or complex texts, because of over-dependence on contextual cues;
  • sounding out an unknown word using phonic strategies but being unable to self-correct if this approach leads to an incorrect word;
iii. inaccurate use of commas, speech marks and apostrophes;

iv. inconsistent use of verb tenses and the past participle;

v. repetition of "and"/"then"/"next" in chronological writing due to poor knowledge of the range of connectives available;

vi. inappropriately organised written work eg. poor paragraphing; unshaped, rambling text containing under developed ideas following one another in rapid succession; lack of conclusion etc;


[page 23]

vii. difficulties with pronunciation for those not yet fluent in English eg. "asked" pronounced "askid";
b. how to avoid teaching English in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupil errors, for example through:
i. asking pupils to "guess" unknown words when they are reading, rather than teaching them how to use phonic strategies to decode, and other reading strategies to check meaning;

ii. over-generalising eg. teaching that adding "-ed" to verbs is always the way to form the past tense;

iii. teaching pupils that commas and full stops used in writing correspond exactly to pauses in spoken language, rather than denoting units of meaning.

7. In order to understand how to evaluate and assess their teaching and their pupils' learning in English, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing progress in English, including how to:

i. make effective use of assessment information on pupils' attainment and progress in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons;

ii. set up assessment activities so that specific assessment in English can be undertaken for all pupils, including the very able, those who are not yet fluent in English and those with special educational needs, through:

  • assessment, at an early stage. of pupils' strengths and weaknesses in using language, including through listening to pupils talking and reading, observing them writing and analysing the strengths and weaknesses shown;
  • the analysis of pupil errors through the use of miscue analysis and running records;
iii. make summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in English, and present the outcomes for reporting purposes through the use of National Curriculum tests, baseline assessment where relevant, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment, including the appropriate use of standardised reading tests and spelling tests;
b. how to recognise the standards of attainment In English they should expect of their pupils, including:
i. the expected demands in relation to each relevant level description for KS1 and KS2 in English and how to judge levels of attainment against these;

ii. how to identify under-achieving and very able pupils in English;

iii. how national, local, comparative and school data about achievement in English can be used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets;

c. how inspection and research evidence and international comparisons on the teaching of English can inform their teaching.

8. Opportunities to practise

As part of all courses, trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.


[page 24]

C. Trainees' Knowledge and Understanding of English

9. All trainees enter a course of primary initial teacher training with a minimum qualification of GCSE Grade C (or its equivalent) in English. However, the equivalence of such qualifications does not necessarily reflect a common range and depth of study. The English qualifications held by trainees may not be sufficient to provide them with a systematic understanding of language and how it works, or to enable them to feel confident in those aspects of English which they have studied and which they are required to teach.

10. Providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of spoken and written English against both the English content specified in the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study and that set out in paragraph 12 below. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge and understanding are identified, providers must make arrangements, for example, through supported self-study, to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge and understanding during the course and that, by the end of the course, trainees are competent in using the specified knowledge and understanding of English.

11. In relation to the English content set out in paragraph 12, therefore, the course must ensure that trainees are given opportunities to:

a. understand, and use correctly, the terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum English Order, are necessary to enable trainees to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss spoken and written English at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding;

b. consider how the different elements of the system of spoken English and the system of written English relate to each other and the implications of this for teaching;

c. make explicit reference to their subject knowledge when analysing, describing and explaining pupils' developing competence and their errors in reading, writing, speaking and listening;

d. use information technology when appropriate and to become aware of its strengths and limitations.

12. Subject knowledge and understanding

This section has been divided into two columns. The left-hand column specifies the knowledge and understanding of English which all trainees are required to demonstrate by the end of their course, in order to underpin effective teaching.

The right-hand column has been included to indicate the relevance of the required subject knowledge to the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study, which trainees are required to teach.

As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand:

a. the nature and role of standard English as the medium through which all subjects are taught and as the general, public English used to communicate within the United Kingdom and throughout the English-speaking world;

b. the spoken and written language systems of English.

Lexical

As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
i. phonology - the sound system of language
ii. graphology - the writing system, ie. the English alphabetic system
iii. how the writing system represents the sound system
for example:
  • to teach pupils to read and spell using phonological strategies

  • [page 25]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    iv. morphology - word structure and derivations
  • to enable pupils to break down words into their constituents, eg. compound words - head/ache, prefixes and suffixes;
  • to make links between words in order to derive meaning and spelling
  • v. word meanings and how words relate to each other
  • meanings, use and interpretation of words in contexts;
  • vocabulary characteristics of standard English;
  • choosing vocabulary for different contexts, purposes and audiences.
  • Grammatical

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    vi. the grammar of spoken and written English, including:
  • the grammatical function of words/phrases in clauses and sentences eg. subject, conjunctions, verbs, nouns, adverbs, predicates etc;
  • word order and cohesion within sentences;
  • types of sentences - statements, questions, commands, exclamations;
  • simple, compound and complex sentences in writing;
  • for example:
  • to show pupils different ways in which ideas can be ordered and organised into sentences;
  • to help pupils read and re-read texts to establish, confirm or check meaning;
  • to improve pupils' understanding of the grammatical; strictures appropriate for different purposes, and their ability to write in a variety of forms and styles;
  • to contribute to pupils' acquisition of standard English in speech and writing;
  • to stimulate pupils' interest in the ways in which language works;
  • to analyse pupils' writing in order to determine what has been achieved and what needs to be taught for pupils to progress.
  • vii. punctuation - its main functions and conventions;to help pupils understand the role and importance of punctuation in marking grammatical boundaries, and the relationship between grammar and punctuation in establishing and clarifying meaning, eg. where different punctuation can change the meaning of or alter the emphasis of a sentence even if the word order remains unchanged.

    Textual

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    viii. cohesion - the way that individual words, sentences and paragraphs work together to convey meaning, including the logic and sequence of ideas;for example:
  • to enable pupils to understand the importance of vocabulary and grammar in creating coherent and cohesive texts, such as by helping them to understand that words and phrases such as "first", "second", "third", suggest sequence, "thus" or 'Therefore" suggest logic, and "as a result" suggests causation; and to help pupils understand the purpose and effect of the use of pronouns or topic sentences.

  • [page 26]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    ix. layout including paragraphs and conventions associated with particular forms of writing;
  • to help pupils understand how meaning can be conveyed by the layout of text;
  • conventions, eg. the layout of a formal letter.
  • x. organisation including the structure of written text, the order of paragraphs, and the chronology of plot;
  • to help pupils understand the choices available to them in the way they organise their writing, eg. the order of the key points for and against an argument; the way ideas can be grouped for emphasis or effect.
  • c. how to evaluate texts and language critically, including:

    i. an ability to analyse different types of fiction, poetry and non-fiction texts, evaluating their quality and making judgements about them;

    ii. an awareness of how information and ideas are presented and can be interpreted in different ways, depending on point of view, context, purpose and audience;

    d. technical terms including:
    • sub-lexical features, including: grapheme, digraph, trigraph, phoneme, blend, onset, rime, syllable, morpheme, roots of words/word stems, diphthong, prefix, suffix;
    • syntactic and grammatical features, including: word classes, eg. adverb, pronoun, preposition, word function, eg. subject, object, predicate; simple, compound and complex sentences, clauses and phrases, finite and non-finite verbs;
    • textual features, including: figurative language, eg. simile and metaphor, cohesion, voice, style, genre.




    [page 27]

    Annex C

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary Mathematics


    Introduction

    The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for primary mathematics specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees, on all courses of primary ITT, must be taught and be able to use in relation to mathematics.

    These requirements come into force for all courses from 1 September 1998.

    The curriculum has been written for those who have a mathematical background, including providers of primary mathematics ITT in schools, higher education institutions and elsewhere. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, correct mathematical terminology has been used where appropriate.

    The curriculum is in three sections:

    Section A Knowledge and Understanding Required by Trainees to Secure Pupils' Progress in Mathematics

    This section sets out the knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in mathematics. It lists the mathematical knowledge, understanding and skills which trainees need to be able to describe, explain, manipulate and use when teaching mathematics at KS1 and KS2 and where applicable, to children in nursery and reception classes.

    As part of all courses trainees must be taught how these mathematical ideas are connected and how they underpin pupils' understanding of and skills in mathematics.

    Section B Effective Teaching and Assessment Methods

    This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses of ITT, all trainees must be taught and be able to use. Only teaching and assessment methods specific to primary mathematics have been included in this curriculum. Standards which apply to more generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A to this Circular).

    Section C Trainees' Knowledge and Understanding of Mathematics

    This section sets out the knowledge and understanding of mathematics which trainees need in order to underpin effective teaching of mathematics at primary level. All providers of ITT must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the mathematics contained in the National Curriculum programmes of study for mathematics at KS1 and KS2, and that specified in paragraph 13 of this document. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of ITT must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using the mathematics in their teaching. It is likely that many aspects of Section e can be taught quite quickly. ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of Section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported self-study, or through guided reading prior to the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of Sections A and B of the curriculum.

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics does not attempt to cover everything that needs to be taught to trainee teachers. It is expected that providers of ITT will include in their courses, other aspects of mathematics, not specified in this curriculum.


    [page 28]

    This Annex specifies a curriculum. It does not constitute a course model or a scheme of work. There is no intention to impose on providers of ITT the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Although the curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. There is considerable flexibility for providers of ITT to integrate aspects of the three sections of the curriculum in order to provide coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging courses of primary ITT.

    As part of all courses, providers of ITT are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and understand statutory requirements. The In National Curriculum for primary mathematics does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' curriculum but rather sets out the core of what it is that trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively. While the ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics includes the key areas contained in the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics, it is not set out under the same headings as the pupils' National Curriculum, nor does it give equal emphasis to each area. In setting out a core ITT curriculum for primary mathematics, greater detail has been given on those areas of mathematics teaching where research and inspection evidence indicates that trainees need to focus most if they are to teach effectively. The curriculum gives particular attention to the teaching of number.

    Providers must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach effectively are judged to have successfully completed a course leading to Qualified Teacher Status. Detailed requirements are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A to this Circular).

    A. Knowledge and Understanding Required by Trainees to Secure Pupils' Progress in Mathematics

    1. Early mathematics (nursery and reception)

    As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the Importance of pupils in nursery and reception classes acquiring the basic mathematical concepts necessary for later progression in mathematics, including the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to:

    a. recognise and use numbers, including:

    i. counting;

    ii. appropriate recording of numerals and counting;

    iii. understanding the value of small numbers, and combining them;

    iv. becoming familiar with larger numbers;

    b. compare, as a basis for recognising relationships, eg. in measures and shapes;

    c. order and sequence, as a basis for understanding number, spatial relationships and measures;

    d. identify the properties of, and sort, sets of objects, numbers and shapes as a basis for classification;

    e. establish invariant properties as a basis for work in number, measures and shape;

    f. use mathematical language to describe shape, position, size and quantity, eg. circle, in front of, bigger than, more than, and become familiar with the language associated with carrying out simple number operations;

    g. use their developing understanding to carry out simple number operations and to solve practical problems.


    [page 29]

    2. Progression in pupils' mathematics

    a. In order to ensure that pupils develop a progressively more powerful, abstract and precise understanding of mathematics, all courses must ensure that trainees are taught that pupils' progress depends upon teaching which enables them to go beyond their concrete experiences in order to establish general concepts and develop the use of flexible and efficient mental and written procedures.

    b. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in mathematics, all courses must ensure that trainees are taught the essential stages of development and progression in pupils' mathematics.

    As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the Importance of ensuring that pupils progress from:

    i. using informal mathematical vocabulary, to using precise and correct mathematical vocabulary, notation and symbols;

    ii. counting, ordering and sorting small whole numbers, to using and approximating numbers within the extended number system and using the number operations to calculate accurately and efficiently;

    iii. guessing unknown numbers as a basis for trial and improvement and forming simple statements with unknowns, to solving simple equations using inverse operations, manipulating algebraic symbols, and constructing general expressions;

    iv. sorting and classifying shapes and identifying properties, to transforming shapes, recognising invariant properties and using precise geometric language;

    v. using simple drawings and diagrams to represent mathematical ideas, to using conventional diagrams, graphs and notation;

    vi. measuring with non-standard units, to understanding the systems of measurement in common use and using them to measure and calculate angle, length, mass, area, volume, capacity, speed and time, give approximate answers and estimate;

    vii. collecting discrete data by counting and recording these with simple diagrams and graphs, to handling both discrete and continuous data, classifying, representing and interpreting the data, employing more sophisticated graphical forms and summary statistics.

    3. Key aspects of mathematics underpinning progression

    In order to understand how to develop pupils' mathematics, all courses must ensure that trainees know and understand the following key aspects of mathematics. They must be taught how and why the different elements work, how they are connected and how they underpin pupils' progress in developing understanding of, and skills in, mathematics.

    a. Structures and operations, including:

    i. the structure of number eg. order and size;

    ii. the conceptual links between different aspects of number eg. place value, zero, fractions, powers of ten, and how the relationship between these provides a conceptual framework for decimals;

    iii. the nature of the four operations and the relationships between them eg. subtraction as the inverse operation of addition; multiplication as repeated addition; if ab = c (and a ≠ 0) then c ÷ a = b;


    [page 30]

    iv. the precedence of number operations eg. in the absence of brackets, multiplication and division take priority over addition and subtraction;

    v. the manipulation of numbers and part numbers eg. multiplying and dividing by 3, 30 and then 300 etc.; using the sequence 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 to find 7/16;

    vi. the basic rules of arithmetic

    • a + b = b + a; a x b = b x a (the commutative laws) eg. that 4 x 3 = 3 x 4 [but 4 ÷ 3 ≠ 3 ÷ 4];
    • (a + b) + c = a + (b + c); (a x b) x c = a x (b x c) (the associative laws) eg. that (2 + 4) + 1 = 2 + (4 + 1) [but (2 - 4) - 1 ≠ 2 - (4 - 1)];
    • a x (b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c); a x (b - c) = (a x b) - (a x c) (the distributive laws) eg. that 2 x (5 + 3) = (2 x 5) + (2 x 3) [but 2 ÷ (5 + 3) ≠ (2 ÷ 5) + (2 ÷ 3)];
    vii. the effect of operations eg. knowing when and why multiplying by a number results in a larger value and when it does not, (1/2 of 1/2 is 1/4); repeated transformations in geometry;

    viii. how and why algorithms work, including standard and non-standard written methods for the four rules of arithmetic, including subtraction by decomposition and subtraction by equal addition, long multiplication, long and short division;

    b. Equivalence, including:
    i. numbers represented in equivalent forms eg. fractions/decimals/percentages (1/2 of 6 = 0.5 of 6 = 50% of 6); 362 = 300 + 60 + 2; 78 = 7 x 10 + 8; 36 = 2² x 3²; and how and why to move between different representations eg. converting fractions to decimals and explaining the reasons for the equivalence;

    ii. that forms of notation can be equivalent eg. divide "÷", "/"; multiply "x". ".", 5(4), ab; 2³ = 2 x 2 x 2; and that the same form of notation can represent different concepts eg. that 1/4 can mean: 1/4 of a whole; 1/4 of a number; 1 ÷ 4; 1/4 on a number line; ratio; a scale factor etc;

    iii. that algebraic expressions can be equivalent eg. that 2n + 2 is equivalent to 2(n + 1);

    iv. that certain mathematical terms relate to equivalent operations eg. the use of a scale factor, enlargement or reduction, involves multiplication;

    v. that a mathematical term can define a class of items that meet specified properties eg. "pentagon" represents all 5-sided polygons;

    vi. that, in some cases, ordinary words used in a mathematical sense can mean different things eg. and does not mean add in the sentence "find the difference between 6 and 4" but it does in "total 3 and 4"; and that use of the same language may require different operations eg. if 20 is shared equally between 4 children, how much will each child get (division); and if 4 children shared equally a sum of money and each gets 6, how much did they share? (multiplication);

    vii. that combinations of operations may or may not lead to equivalent outcomes eg. the final position of a shape when reflected then rotated may be different if rotated then reflected;


    [page 31]

    viii. conservation of properties under operations eg. angles in a triangle remain unchanged after scaling; some transformations lead to congruence;
    c. Classification, including:
    i. properties of numbers eg. odd, prime, squares, factors, triangular numbers;

    ii. properties of shapes eg. categorising shapes according to properties, such as regular polygons with equal sides and equal angles; the relationships between the interior/exterior angles and sides of 2-D shapes; the faces, edges and vertices of 3-D shapes;

    iii. summary statistics of sets of data eg. range, median, mode, mean;

    iv. comparison and ordering eg. ordering containers by capacity, finding numbers greater than a hundred or less than -2, using relationships, such as "in proportion to", "similar to", "congruent to";

    d. Diagrammatic, graphical and algebraic representation, including:
    i. construction of 2-D and 3-D shapes;

    ii. representation of algebraic relationships using co-ordinate systems eg. transformation of shapes, scale factor; mappings such as x → + x + 2; functions; converting Fahrenheit to Celsius using C = 5/9 (F-32);

    iii. representation of discrete and continuous data eg. using tally charts, frequency diagrams, line graphs, pie charts, scattergrams, tables and charts;

    iv. interpretation and prediction eg. recognising trends, effects of sample choice, extrapolation from data to predict;

    v. representing a numerical problem as an equation, which can then be solved;

    e. Methods and applications, including:
    i. use of correct mathematical terminology eg. product, sum, mean, zero, perpendicular;

    ii. the difference between mathematical conventions and inherent mathematical properties eg. the order of mathematical operations is a convention, but the fact that multiplying two negative numbers gives a positive answer (-3x - 4 = + 12), is inherent in the mathematical structure;

    iii. selecting and using the most appropriate and efficient mathematical methods to solve problems;

    iv. testing, conjecturing and justifying eg. stating and showing that the sum of any two odd numbers is even; testing whether, and understanding why, the sum of 3 consecutive numbers is always divisible by 3; explaining why multiplication does not always make numbers bigger;

    v. the application of number to shape and space, data handling and measures eg. the use of percentage to compare properties in samples of different sizes; the relationship between measurement and the concept of ratio;

    vi. the use of mathematics across the curriculum eg. collecting, presenting and interpreting data in science, history and geography; measuring in science, and measuring and using properties of shape in design, technology and art;


    [page 32]

    vii. reasoning and proof eg. reasoning that the exterior angles of a polygon sum to 360° and proving it through the use of geometrical properties.
    4. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of engaging pupils' interest in, and developing their enthusiasm for, mathematics.

    B. Effective Teaching and Assessment Methods

    5. As part of all 3-8 courses and 3-11 courses, trainees must be taught:

    a. how to teach the early stages of mathematics to pupils in nursery and reception classes through:

    • high quality, interactive oral work;
    • demonstration; and
    • structured practical activities
    eg. using construction activities, physical activities, stories, rhymes, songs and everyday experiences

    in order to develop pupils' understanding of number, measures and shape and space, their awareness of simple number operations, and their use of mathematical language.

    6. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

    a. how to teach accurate and rapid mental calculation, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. identify and use the properties of number and the relationships between them: size (including estimation and approximation). order and equivalence;

    ii. understand the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division;

    iii. have instant recall of number facts, including multiplication tables;

    iv. use known number facts to derive others;

    v. build effective strategies for dealing with mental calculations and use and adapt these for more complex cases;

    vi. use a variety of mental strategies including:

    • rearranging numbers eg. putting the larger number first for addition - recognising that 7 + 23 is the same as 23 + 7;
    • using repeated operations eg. finding 1/9 by finding 1/3 of 1/3;
    • halving and doubling eg. 14 x 3 = 7 x 6 = 42; 15% of 60 is 10% of 60 (=6), plus 50% of 6 (= 3) to give 9;
    • recognising and using near doubles or halves eg. 16 + 17 = (16 x 2) + 1 or (17 x 2) - 1; realising that 24 - 13 is the same as 24 - 12 - 1 = 11;
    • using patterns of similar calculations eg. since 25 x 4 = 100 then 26 x 4 is 4 more, working out the 6x table by doubling the 3x table;
    • partitioning eg. 27 + 34 = 20 + 30 + 7 + 4 = 50 + 11 = 61;

    [page 33]

    • bridging eg. through the nearest 10, or a multiple of 10, working out mentally that 158 + 17= 175 and explaining that 158 + 2 + 15 = 160 + 15 = 175;

    b. how to teach efficient standard and non-standard written and part-written methods of computation for calculations too complex to be undertaken by mental methods, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. understand and know how to use at least one standard method of calculation for each operation;

    ii. practise and refine written methods derived from mental methods;

    iii. contrast the efficiency of standard and non-standard methods of calculation and assess the extent to which they apply to particular problems;

    iv. are presented with calculations in a format which allows them to select and use the most efficient method for any calculation eg. presenting calculations in horizontal format which encourages a choice of method, rather than presenting calculations set out vertically, which implies that a standard written method must be used;

    v. select and use the most efficient standard or non-standard written method for the calculation in hand, recognising where a mental method is more efficient eg. that 2001-1999 is best done mentally;

    vi. determine a correct sequence of operations to use for calculations;

    vii. use mental and written methods to approximate expected answers to computations and check for reasonableness and accuracy;

    c. how to teach the solving of numerical problems involving more than one operation, through ensuring that pupils:
    i. read, interpret and simplify problems;

    ii. determine which operations are needed to solve problems;

    iii. select the most appropriate mental, partial written, written or calculator strategy;

    iv. carry out accurately the mathematical operations required to solve the problem;

    v. check their answers for reasonableness and accuracy;

    vi. present solutions logically, whether orally or in writing, as appropriate;

    d. how to teach the appropriate and efficient use of calculators, especially when working with large numbers and realistic data, ensuring that they are not used to replace mental calculation;

    e. how to teach the foundations of algebra, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. are taught how to make general statements using words, pictures and symbols that they can record and interpret;

    ii. move from using words and pictures to represent values, to using letters to represent unknowns and variables;

    iii. make succinct general statements arising from examples and observations, and begin to recognise the power of algebra to do so;

    iv. use the equals sign accurately in different mathematical statements or sentences, so that they understand where and why the sign must be used, and that the quantities or expressions on either side must be equivalent;


    [page 34]

    f. how to teach shape and space and measures, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. handle and construct shapes in order to begin to classify them, identify their properties in order to form generalised concepts of 2-D and 3-D shapes, and use the associated vocabulary accurately;

    ii. understand that angular measure describes the amount of turn, before identifying, constructing and measuring angles;

    iii. appreciate the effect of enlargement and reduction of 2-D and 3-D shapes, recognising which properties are conserved and which change, including the relationship between length, area and volume;

    g. how to teach data handling, through ensuring that pupils are given the kinds of examples and tasks which lead them to appreciate the advantages and limitations, according to context, of different forms for representing discrete and continuous data;

    h. the ways in which information technology can be used to support mathematics teaching, including its potential for use by pupils in:

    i. the rapid exploration and manipulation of data eg. through using a spreadsheet to find a mean and draw a bar chart;

    ii. working with dynamic images;

    iii. learning from immediate feedback eg. entering an instruction and changing it in the light of an observed response, for example, when building a shape on the screen using Logo;

    iv. developing logical thinking eg. writing short programs or using a spreadsheet;

    v. practice and reinforcement eg. using software designed to "teach" a particular skill and receiving rapid assessment feedback;

    i. how to plan and pace individual mathematics lessons and sequences of lessons in the short, medium and longer term which:
    i. ensure that the introduction of any new topic incorporates the essential features of the mathematical concepts which pupils must ultimately acquire;

    ii. include sufficient time dedicated to the systematic and regular teaching of number, including mental work eg. a dedicated numeracy hour;

    iii. secure deeper understanding of the connections within and between different areas of mathematics, including through purposeful enquiry within mathematics;

    iv. allow rigorous application of mathematical knowledge and understanding to new and real contexts and problems;

    j. how to select and use materials, including:
    i. how to evaluate, choose and use mathematical resources effectively to support and enhance teaching, including textbooks, mathematics schemes, teachers' resource books, materials, apparatus, calculators, software, educational broadcasts, visits and real life materials and situations;

    ii. how to identify when it is appropriate to use apparatus to support progression in mathematics and when it is not;

    k. how to lead oral work while teaching whole classes or groups which:
    i. has pace and variety, and flows well from one section of the mathematics lesson to the next;

    [page 35]

    ii. includes sufficient teacher exposition, direct instruction and effective questioning to secure the involvement of the whole class and to enable pupils to contribute actively to discussion, and allows time for pupils to think through answers before a response is demanded;

    iii. includes teachers' questions which are adjusted and targeted to ensure that pupils of all abilities are engaged;

    iv. encourages and enables pupils to show their understanding of mathematical operations, and elicits any misconceptions they may have;

    v. requires pupils to provide clear explanations to the teacher and to other pupils, as well as giving answers, and encourages them to ask questions;

    vi. provides clear feedback, indicating how pupils' work can be improved and remedying misconceptions;

    l. how to structure their teaching and use interactive methods with whole classes, groups and individuals, including:
    i. introducing the lesson to command attention, to set out what mathematics is to be taught and, where appropriate, to review and draw upon previous work;

    ii. using skilfully framed open and closed, oral and written questions which elicit answers from which pupils' mathematical understanding can be judged and giving clear feedback to take pupils' learning forward;

    iii. using oral and mental work, in particular to develop and extend pupils' use of mathematical vocabulary and accurate and rapid recall of number facts;

    iv. giving clear instructions eg. how to measure angles using a protractor; how to present a mathematical argument;

    v. providing clear explanations when introducing an area of mathematics work and when resolving pupils' misconceptions and errors;

    vi. demonstrating and illustrating mathematics using appropriate resources and visual displays eg. effective use of an OHP or board; showing the structure of place value using appropriate apparatus; using spreadsheets for data handling;

    vii. providing opportunities for follow-up, guided practice and consolidation in mathematics, including how to:

    • use diverse activities on a mathematical topic in order to consolidate and extend understanding;
    • provide pupils with opportunities to solve problems through applying mathematical knowledge, understanding and skills to new situations;
    • intervene constructively, eg. to monitor progress or inject pace and challenge, and not just when pupils request help;
    • provide corrective instruction for pupils who have not grasped the material being taught;
    viii. summarising and reviewing during and towards the end of lessons the mathematics that has been taught and what pupils have learnt, and using this to engage pupils in the presentation of their work, to identify and rectify misunderstandings, and to give pupils insight into the next stage of their learning.

    [page 36]

    7. Common errors and misconceptions in mathematics

    As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

    a. to recognise common pupil errors and misconceptions in mathematics, and to understand how these arise, how they can be prevented, and how to remedy them, including, among others:

    i. counting on 3 from 7 to get 9 as result of starting with the 7;

    ii. reading 206 as 26 as a result of misunderstanding about the number system and place value;

    iii. misunderstanding the order of the subtraction operation eg. 3 - 7 = 4;

    iv. an expectation that the outcome of division always gives a smaller value eg. 4 ÷ 1/2 = 2;

    v. lining up columns of' numbers for operations against a left or right hand margin, irrespective of the position of the decimal point;

    vi. thinking that numbers are larger if there are more decimal digits eg. 3.16 is larger than 3.2;

    vii. stating that two identical angles are unequal because the length of the arms are different in each, as a result of thinking that an angle is the distance between the ends of the lines;

    viii. misreading the scale on a ruler, starting at 1, rather than 0, as a result of not understanding that the measure starts from 0;

    ix. not using the scale when interpreting a graph, treating the graph as a picture rather than a scaled representation;

    x. thinking that, when throwing a die, a 6 is harder to get than other numbers, through not understanding the nature of equally likely and independent events;

    b. to avoid teaching mathematics in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupils' misconceptions by, for example:
    i. recognising that if pupils are taught to add a zero when multiplying by 10, they may also assume the rule works with decimals and numbers less than 1 eg. avoiding errors such as 2.3 x 10 = 2.30 or 2.3 x 10 = 20.3;

    ii. making it clear that it is the relative position of the digits which is altered, and not the decimal point which moves, when multiplying and dividing by powers of 10;

    iii. ensuring that algebraic symbols are used to represent values and not as shorthand for words eg. 2a + 3b is not shorthand for 2 apples plus 3 bananas;

    iv. recognising that if examples of geometric shapes are always presented in the same orientation this may limit pupils' concept of these shapes;

    v. recognising the need to use precise mathematical vocabulary or notation eg. avoiding the use of "take away" as the general word for subtraction, or avoiding misuse of the "=" sign to carry on part of the same calculation (eg. 3 x 10-2 written as 3 x 10 = 30 - 2 = 28, rather than 3 x 10 - 2 = 30 - 2 = 28).


    [page 37]

    8. In order to understand how to evaluate and assess their teaching and pupils' learning in mathematics, all courses must ensure trainees are taught:

    a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing pupils' progress in mathematics, including how to:

    i. make effective use of assessment information on pupils' attainment and progress in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons;

    ii. set up assessment activities so that specific mathematical assessment can be undertaken for all pupils, including the very able, those who are not yet fluent in English and those with special educational needs, through preparing oral and written questions and setting up activities and tests which check for:

    • misconceptions and errors in mental arithmetic and in written methods of calculation;
    • understanding of mathematical concepts and the connections between different mathematical ideas;
    iii. make summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in mathematics and present the outcomes for reporting purposes through the use of National Curriculum tests, baseline assessment where relevant, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment, including the appropriate use of standardised tests;
    b. how to recognise the standards of attainment in mathematics they should expect of their pupils, including:
    i. the expected demands in relation to each relevant level description for KS1 and KS2 in mathematics and how to judge levels of attainment against these;

    ii. how to identify under-achieving and very able pupils in mathematics;

    iii. how national, local, comparative and school data about achievement in mathematics can be used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets;

    c. how inspection and research evidence, and international comparisons on the teaching of mathematics, can inform their teaching.

    9. Opportunities to practise

    As part of all courses, trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.

    C. Trainees' Knowledge and Understanding of Mathematics

    10. All trainees enter a course of primary initial teacher training with a minimum qualification of GCSE Grade C (or its equivalent) in mathematics. However, the equivalence of such qualifications does not necessarily reflect a common range and depth of study. The mathematics qualifications held by trainees may not be sufficient to ensure they feel confident about, and are competent in, the mathematics they have studied and which they are required to teach.

    11. Providers should audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in mathematics against both the mathematics content specified in the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study and that set out in paragraph 13 below. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge and understanding are identified, providers must make arrangements, for example, through supported self-study, to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge and understanding during the course and that, by the end of the course, trainees are competent in using the mathematics specified.


    [page 38]

    12. In relation to the mathematics set out in paragraph 13, as part of all courses trainees must be given opportunities to:

    a. understand, and use correctly, mathematical terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum Mathematics Order, are necessary to enable trainees to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss primary mathematics at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding;

    b. identify how the different areas of mathematics relate to each other in order to provide coherence and progression in mathematics, and to make conceptual links across the subject and consider the implications of this for their teaching;

    c. solve problems that require the use and application of mathematics;

    d. use technology such as calculators and computers when appropriate, recognise when they might be inappropriate and become aware of their strengths and limitations;

    e. enjoy mathematics so that they can teach it with enthusiasm.

    13. Subject knowledge and understanding

    This section has been divided into two columns. The left-hand column specifies the mathematical knowledge and understanding which all trainees are required to demonstrate by the end of their course, in order to underpin effective teaching. Trainees should be able to make conceptual links between the aspects of mathematics listed in the left-hand column.

    The right-hand column has been included to indicate the relevance of the required subject knowledge to the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study, which trainees are required to teach.

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    a. number and algebra
    i. the real number system:
  • the arithmetic of integers, fractions and decimals;
  • forming equalities and inequalities and recognising when equality is preserved;
  • the distinction between a rational number and an irrational number; making sense of simple recurring decimals.
  • for example:
    the order and size of numbers;
    place value;
    the relationship between different representations, eg. fractions, decimals, percentages, and determining which representation is most appropriate;
    extending the number system to negative numbers, fractions and decimals;
    effects of multiplying positive numbers less than one;
    methods of computation, including the interpretation of remainders: 1/3 = 0.3'; 1/9 = 0.1'; 1/3 + 1/9 = 0.4'.
    ii. Indices:
  • representing numbers in index form including positive and negative integer exponents;
  • standard form.
  • for example:
    finding and recognising squares and cubes of numbers;
    ways of representing very large and very small numbers;
    developing understanding of lace value based on powers of ten (integers and decimal fractions).


    [page 39]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    iii. number operations and algebra:
  • using the associative, commutative and distributive laws;
  • use of cancellation to simplify calculations;
  • using the multiplicative structure of ratio and percentage to solve problems;
  • finding factors and multiples of numbers and of simple algebraic expressions;
  • constructing general statements;
  • manipulating simple algebraic expressions and using formulae;
  • knowing when numerical expressions and algebraic expressions are equivalent;
  • number sequences, their nth terms and their sums.
  • for example:
    using efficient written methods of computation eg. 8 x 5 x 2 = 8 x (5 + 2) = 8 x 10 = 80;
    using algebraic structure to develop flexible, efficient methods of mental calculation eg. 17 x 9 = (10 + 7) x 9 = 10 x 9 + 7 x 9;
    sharing 12 in the ration 1:2;
    moving from boxes and words to letters and symbols, eg. from 13 + [] = 17 to 13 + n = 17;
    exploring number sequences, recognising and explaining patterns;
    expressing a general term of a number sequence as an algebraic expression.
    iv. equations, functions and graphs:
  • forming equations and solving linear and simultaneous linear equations, finding exact solutions;
  • interpreting functions and finding inverses of simple functions;
  • representing functions graphically and algebraically;
  • understanding the significance of gradients and intercepts;
  • interpreting graphs, and using them to solve equations.
  • for example:
    representing general statements about numbers in algebraic form eg.
    - recognising that a number is a multiple of 5 and that 5 therefore is a factor of that number, and representing it as 5n;
    - recognising that an even number can be represented by 2n and an odd number by 2n+1;
    finding numbers that satisfy different conditions eg.
    - a number plus three equals eighteen. What is the number?
    - the sum of two numbers is 27 and their difference is four, what are the numbers?
    - the sum of a number and its square is 2 less than 14, what is the number?
    linear relationships and simple mappings;
    recognising the relationship between co-ordinates of points on a straight line;
    drawing graphs to find approximate solutions of equations;
    using graphical representation of data to make predictions;
    understanding the different kinds of graphical representation in mathematics, across the curriculum, and in real situations.


    [page 40]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    b. mathematical reasoning and proof
  • the correct use of =, ≡, →, ∴ ;
  • the difference between mathematical reasoning and explanation, as well as the proper use of evidence;
  • following rigorous mathematical argument;
  • familiarity with methods of proof, including simple deductive proof, proof by exhaustion and disproof by counter-example.
  • for example: demonstrating and checking a particular case;
    the dangers of drawing conclusions after an event has occurred a few times;
    recognising the difference between something that happens occasionally and something that will always happen;
    using experimental evidence to determine likelihood and to predict;
    proving, for example, that numbers divisible by 6 are also divisible by 3 (deduction);
    proving, for example, that there are only 11 unique nets of cubes (exhaustion);
    disproving, for example, that any quadrilateral with sides of equal length is a square (counter-example).
    c. measures
  • understanding that the basis of measures is exact and that practical measurement is approximate;
  • standard measures and compound measures, including rates of change;
  • the relationship between measures, including length, area, volume and capacity;
  • understanding the importance of choice of unit and use of proportion.
  • for example:
    the relationships between imperial and metric measures in daily use;
    compound measures;
    work in shape and space including calculation and measuring length, area, volume, capacity;
    measuring time;
    measuring angles in degrees, half turn, quarter turn (right angles);
    measuring on scale diagrams;
    using given measurements to produce accurate diagrams.
    d. shape and space
  • Cartesian co-ordinates in 2-D;
  • 2-D transformations;
  • angles, congruence and similarity in triangles and other shapes;
  • geometrical constructions;
  • identifying and measuring properties and characteristics of 2-D shapes;
  • using Pythagoras' theorem;
  • recognising the relationships between and using the formulae for the area of 2-D shapes; including rectangle and triangle, trapezium, and parallelogram;
  • for example:
    using co-ordinates to study locations;
    relationships between co-ordinates of related points on a line or in a shape;
    making and moving shapes;
    recognising the names and characteristics of transformations eg. translation, rotation, reflection, enlargement;
    visualising transformations;
    visualising and drawing nets of solids;
    understanding the properties of position, direction and movement;
    identifying conservation following certain transformations;
    understanding and using the properties of shapes, including symmetry;
    calculating perimeters and ares of simple shapes;
    measuring perimeters and areas of more complicated shapes;


    [page 41]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    d. shape and space (cont'd)
  • the calculation of the area of circles and sectors, the length of circumferences and arcs;
  • recognise, understand and use formulae for the surface area and volume of prisms;
  • identifying 3-D solids and shapes and recognising their properties and characteristics.
  • for example:
    introducing the relationship between circumference and diameter and finding the area of a circle;
    identifying the numbers of faces, edges and vertices of solid shapes and the relationship between these;
    sorting solid objects according to specified characteristics;
    comparing the volumes of different objects;
    finding volumes of cuboids;
    finding, by practical methods, volumes of more complicated shapes;
    recognising reflective symmetries of 3-D shapes.
    e. probability and statistics
  • using discrete and continuous data and understanding the difference between them;
  • tabulating and representing data diagrammatically and graphically;
  • interpreting data and predicting from data;
  • finding and using the mean and other central measures;
  • finding and using measures of spread to compare distributions;
  • using systematic methods for identifying, counting and organising events and outcomes;
  • understanding the difference between probability and observed relative frequencies;
  • recognise independent and mutually exclusive events.
  • for example:
    counting (discrete data), measuring (continuous data);
    tabulating results from a survey;
    selecting tables and graphs to display different types of data and justifying choice;
    using a spreadsheet or data handling package;
    interpreting data in other subjects;
    understanding and using measures of average, the mode, the median and the mean in relevant contexts, and the range as a measure of spread;
    using tree diagrams to sort and list outcomes; listing the total scores possible when using two dice or two spinners;
    recognising where probabilities must be estimated and where they can be based on assumed equally likely outcomes;
    recognising that if a head results from the toss of a coin this does not influence the outcome of the next toss;
    recognising that when selecting a card from a pack, drawing a spade and drawing a heart are mutually exclusive events.


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    Annex D

    Requirements for all Courses of Initial Teacher Training


    Introduction

    This Annex sets out requirements for all courses of initial teacher training (ITT). These requirements come into force for all courses from 1 September 1998 (10).

    The document is divided into four sections:

    A. Trainee Entry and Selection Requirements

    This section sets out the entry requirements for all courses of initial teacher training and details the selection criteria to be applied by all providers. These are minimum requirements and providers will wish to develop additional criteria.

    B. Course Length and Coverage

    This section lists the types of course which may be offered and the minimum requirements for each type of course. The minimum requirements for all courses of primary ITT are set out at paragraphs 2.3.1, 2.3.2 and 2.3.3. Where, in addition to the specified minimum, providers of primary In choose to offer one or mere non--core, non-specialist subjects, the standards trainees must meet before being awarded Qualified Teacher Status are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) at A.2.g. and in the introduction to Section B. Providers may also wish to offer more limited coverage of other subjects, than that required for non-core, non-specialist subjects, eg. a few hours of taster training in a foundation subject, safety training in PE and/or design & technology. The nature and extent of any such training can be recorded on the newly qualified teacher's TTA Career Entry Profile. The specified types of course provide a basis for further continuing professional development. It is expected that teachers will continue to develop and broaden the range of their expertise throughout their careers.

    C. Partnership Requirements

    This section applies to training which takes place in partnership between schools (11) and higher education institutions or other providers, and sets out requirements relating to the involvement of schools, including the amount of time which trainees must spend in schools.

    D. Quality Assurance Requirements

    This section applies to all courses of initial teacher training. It sets out the arrangements which providers must put in place to ensure that training is of high quality, is regularly reviewed and that the award of Qualified Teacher Status is securely based.

    Similar requirements apply to employment-based routes into teaching, such as the planned Graduate Teacher Programme.

    10 The requirements at B.i.2.1.3, 2.1.4 and 2.1.5 apply 10 all those awarded QTS from May 1998.

    11 Throughout this document, requirements relating to partnerships between HEIs and "schools" apply equally to partnerships between HEIs and Further Education colleges, VI form colleges and departments within schools and colleges.


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    A. Trainee Entry and Selection Requirements

    I. General

    1.1 In the case of all courses of initial teacher training (ITT), providers are required to ensure that:

    1.1.1 all entrants are able to communicate clearly and grammatically in spoken and written standard English;

    1.1.2 all entrants have attained the standard required to achieve at least a grade C in the GCSE examination in mathematics and English; (12)

    1.1.3 all those born on or after 1 September 1979 who enter primary and KS2/3 courses of ITT after 1 September 1998, have attained the standard required to achieve at least a grade C in a GCSE examination in a science subject (including combined science). The science qualifications which were approved by the Secretary of State under Section 400 of the Education Act 1996 for the year in which the qualification was awarded are acceptable to meet this requirement (12);

    1.1.4 all entrants meet the Secretary of State's requirements for physical and mental fitness to teach as detailed in the relevant Circular (currently DFE 13/93);

    1.1.5 entrants have not previously been excluded from teaching or working with children;

    1.1.6 systems are in place to seek information on entrants' criminal backgrounds which might prevent employment as a teacher or with children or young persons (currently set out in DfEE Circular 11/95). Guidance can be found in DFE Circular 9/93;

    1.1.7 selection procedures include representatives from those centrally involved in the training process, including school staff;

    1.1.8 all trainees possess the personal, intellectual and presentational qualities suitable for teaching; providers should seek evidence of relevant experience with children;

    1.1.9 as part of selection procedures, all candidates admitted to a course have been seen at an individual or group interview (13);

    1.1.10 in order to ensure a high rate of course completion and award of Qualified Teacher Status, selection procedures and data, including entry qualifications, completion rates, newly qualified teachers' destinations and employers' satisfaction with newly qualified teachers, are monitored and action is taken to ensure that high calibre entrants are recruited to courses of ITT.

    II. Postgraduate courses

    1.2 In the case of postgraduate courses of ITT, in addition to the requirements set out at 1.1, providers should satisfy themselves that:

    1.2.1 entrants hold a degree of a United Kingdom university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or a degree of the CNAA, or a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree;

    1.2.2 the content of entrants' previous education provides the necessary foundation for work as a teacher in the phase(s) and subject(s) they are to teach.

    III. Undergraduate courses

    1.3 In addition to the requirements set out at 1.1, providers should satisfy themselves that:

    1.3.1 entrants fulfil the academic requirement for admission to first degree studies; and

    12 For prospective trainees without standard qualifications, providers should set their own equivalence tests. The TTA will audit samples of tests to ensure that standards are appropriate.

    13 There is no need to interview all those who apply for courses and who are eligible.


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    1.3.2 in the case of two-year courses, entrants have satisfactorily completed the equivalent of at least one year of full-time higher education studies. The content of entrants' higher education studies must provide the necessary foundation for work as a teacher in the phase(s) and subject(s) they are to teach.

    B. COURSE LENGTH AND COVERAGE

    I. Types of course

    2.1 All providers must:

    2.1.1 ensure, where applicable, that courses comply with requirements set out in any relevant ITT National Curriculum which is in force;

    2.1.2 ensure that course content, structure and delivery, and the assessment of trainees, are designed to develop trainees' knowledge, skills and understanding to ensure that the standards for the award of Qualified Teacher Status are met; (14)

    2.1.3 ensure that courses involve the assessment of all trainees against all the standards specified for the award of Qualified Teacher Status;

    2.1.4 ensure that trainees meet all the standards specified for the award of Qualified Teacher Status before successfully completing a course of ITT;

    2.1.5 ensure that all those trainees who successfully complete a course of ITT leading to Qualified Teacher Status receive a TTA Career Entry Profile.

    2.2 All primary ITT courses must prepare trainees to teach at least one specialist subject and ensure that trainees are assessed against the relevant standards in relation to subject knowledge set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A), Section A.2. Specialist courses may also include advanced study of subject pedagogy and the foundations of preparation for subject co-ordination. The particular areas of strength which trainees acquire through specialist subject study can be recorded on the TTA Career Entry Profile.

    2.3 Courses must cover one of the age ranges below:

    2.3.1 3-8 - these courses must include specialist training for early years (nursery and reception) (15), the core subjects across KS1 and KS2 as specified in the ITT National Curriculum, and at least one specialist subject (16) across KS1 and KS2; in addition they must equip trainees to teach across the full primary curriculum in this age range;

    2.3.2 3 or 5-11 - as a minimum, these courses must cover the core subjects across KS1 and KS2 as specified in the primary ITT National Curriculum, must equip trainees to teach across the entire primary age range with an emphasis on 3- or 5-8 or 7-11, and must include at least one specialist subject across KS1 and KS2. 3-11 courses must include specialist training for early years (nursery and reception); (16 & 17)

    14 Qualified Teacher Status is awarded on successful completion of a course of ITT with a TTA accredited provider. This award is either concurrently with or after the award of a first degree of a UK university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or a degree of the CNAA, or a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree.

    15 Additional specialist standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 courses and 3-11 courses are included in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    16 A specialist subject could be one of the core subjects or an additional subject.

    17 Where providers choose to offer one or more non-core, non-specialist subjects in addition to the specified minimum, trainees being assessed for Qualified Teacher Status should be able to demonstrate a secure knowledge of the subject to a standard equivalent to at least level 7 of the pupils' National Curriculum, and meet all the other required standards, but, if necessary, with the support of a teacher experienced in the subject concerned. For RE, the required standard is broadly equivalent to the end of Key Stage statements for Key Stage 4 in SCAA's Model Syllabuses for RE. The newly qualified teacher's TTA Career Entry Profile can indicate priorities for induction in each of these subjects. Providers may also wish to offer more limited coverage of other subjects than that required for non-core, non-specialist subjects, eg. a few hours of taster training in a foundation subject, safety training in PE and/or design and technology. The nature and extent of any such training can be recorded on the trainee's TTA Career Entry Profile.


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    2.3.3 7-11 - as a minimum, these courses must cover the core subjects across KS1 and KS2 as specified in the primary ITT National Curriculum, and must include at least one specialist subject across KS1 and KS2; (16 & 17)

    2.3.4 7-14 - as a minimum, these courses must cover the core subjects as specified in the primary ITT National Curriculum, and a specialist subject at KS2 and KS3; (16)

    2.3.5 11-16 or 18 - these courses must cover at least one specialist subject;

    2.3.6 14-19 - these courses must cover at least one specialist subject, the 14-19 qualifications framework, including the relevant KS4 and post-16 examination syllabuses and vocational courses, and the relevant key skills required by 14-19 qualifications.

    II. Length of postgraduate courses

    2.4 The minimum amount of time which will be spent on courses of ITT is:

    2.4.1 38 weeks for all full-time primary postgraduate courses;

    2.4.2 36 weeks for all other full-time postgraduate courses.

    C. Partnership Requirements

    3.1 In the case of all courses of ITT, higher education institutions and other non-school trainers must work in partnership with schools (11) ensuring that:

    3.1.1 schools are fully and actively involved in the planning and delivery of ITT, as well as in the selection and final assessment of trainees. The full partnership should regularly review and evaluate the training provided;

    3.1.2 the division and deployment of available resources has been agreed in a way which reflects the training responsibilities undertaken by each partner;

    3.1.3 effective selection criteria for partnership schools have been developed which are clear and available to all partners and trainees,and which take account of indicators such as OFSTED reports, test and examination results, exclusion rates, commitment to and previous successful experience of involvement in ITT;

    3.1.4 where partnership schools fall short of the selection criteria set, providers must demonstrate that extra support will be provided to ensure that the training provided is of a high standard;

    3.1.5 where schools no longer meet selection criteria, and extra support to ensure the quality of the training process cannot be guaranteed, procedures are in place for the de-selection of schools;

    3.1.6 effective structures and procedures are in place to ensure efficient and effective communication across partnerships.

    Time spent in schools

    3.2 The amount of time spent by trainees in schools during their training, excluding school holidays, must be at least:

    3.2.1 32 weeks for all four-year undergraduate courses;

    3.2.2 24 weeks for all three-year undergraduate courses;

    3.2.3 24 weeks for all full-time two-year secondary and KS2/3 undergraduate courses;

    3.2.4 24 weeks for all full-time secondary and KS2/3 postgraduate courses;

    3.2.5 18 weeks for all full-time primary postgraduate and two-year primary undergraduate courses;

    3.2.6 18 weeks for all part-time postgraduate courses.


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    D. Quality Assurance Requirements

    4.1 For all courses of ITT, providers must ensure that:

    4.1.1 the quality of provision across all aspects of the course is of a consistently high standard and complies with all the requirements set out in this Annex;

    4.1.2 the training process is kept under regular review to ensure that the division of training responsibilities continues to reflect the strengths of those involved, that the standards and quality of the training process are identified and that, where necessary, action is taken to secure improvements;

    4.1.3 trainees are given opportunities to observe good teachers at work and to work alongside them, to participate in teaching with expert practitioners in their chosen phase(s) and subject specialism(s), and to undertake substantial and sustained periods of class teaching in more than one school, observing, teaching and assessing pupils of differing abilities across the full age range for which they are being trained;

    4.1.4 the roles and responsibilities of all those involved in ITT are set out clearly and are available to all participants, including trainees;

    4.1.5 all those involved in training understand their roles and responsibilities and have the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to discharge these competently;

    4.1.6 only those schools (11) and teachers who can offer appropriate training and support for trainees are used to provide ITT;

    4.1.7 there are sufficient books, information technology resources and other specialist teaching resources, relevant to the age ranges and subjects offered, to enable all trainees to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills to at least the standard required for the award of Qualified Teacher Status;

    4.1.8 the competence of trainees is rigorously, accurately and regularly assessed in order to evaluate their progress towards achieving the standards required for Qualified Teacher Status and to enable training to be focused on trainees' achievement of those standards;

    4.1.9 internal and independent external moderation procedures are in place to ensure consistent, reliable and accurate assessment against the standards for Qualified Teacher Status;

    4.1.10 quality issues raised through internal and external moderation are investigated, and that the outcomes of these investigations are used to establish appropriate short term, medium term and long term priorities for improving courses;

    4.1.11 plans for course improvement are acted upon and monitored, evaluated and reviewed against criteria for success, and that targets are demonstrably met;

    4.1.12 information about the effectiveness of newly qualified teachers in their first year of teaching is collected and used to improve training courses.