DfEE Circular 4/98 (1998)

Circular 10/97 (July 1997) had set out new criteria for all courses of initial teacher training and specified (in extraordinary detail) the English and mathematics curricula to be taught to all trainees on all courses of primary initial teacher training.

This Circular repeated the content of 10/97 and added curricula for ICT (information and communications technology), primary science, and secondary English, maths and science.

The complete document is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various sections.

Introduction, summary of requirements (page 3)

Annexes

A Standards for QTS (page 7)
B ICT (17)
C Primary English (32)
D Primary maths (47)
E Primary science (65)
F Secondary English (87)
G Secondary maths (102)
H Secondary science (116)
I Initial Teacher Training (134)

The text of DfEE Circular 4/98 was prepared by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 4 November 2021.


Circular 4/98 (1998)
Teaching: High Status, High Standards

Department for Education and Employment
London: 1998

Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[cover]


[page 1]

ADDENDUM TO DFEE CIRCULAR 4/98 'TEACHING: HIGH STATUS; HIGH STANDARDS - REQUIREMENTS FOR COURSES OF INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING'

This addendum summarises some limited changes to DfEE Circular 4/98 which will come into force on 1 September 2000. The changes take into account of the introduction of the ITT skills tests and new, flexible, modular, post-graduate provision. This addendum also provides clarification of the legal status of the Circular and the relationship between the ITT Requirements and the new pupils' National Curriculum and the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies.

Flexible Post-graduate ITT provision approved by the Teacher Training Agency (TTA)

The revised Circular sets out the requirements that the new, flexible, post-graduate provision, approved by the TTA, must meet. Flexible provision must meet all of the Requirements in Circular 4/98, with the exception of a few Requirements at Annex I. Flexible provision will not need to meet the Requirements relating to the length of provision and time spent in schools at paragraphs 2.4 - 2.4.2 of Section B, paragraph 3.2 of Section C and the second clause of paragraph 4.1.3 (paragraph 4.1.13 of the revised Circular) of Section D of Annex I. Neither will providers need to meet the Requirements to teach the ITT National Curriculum at paragraphs 2.1.1 and 2.2 of Section B, Annex I, to trainees on such provision. Providers must, however, ensure that trainees on such provision can demonstrate that they meet the Standards for the award of Qualified Teacher Status, in order to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status. This will include ensuring that trainees demonstrate that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills set out in any relevant ITT National Curricula that may be in force. And in doing so, providers must use their professional judgement to decide how much, if any, training individuals will need.

ITT Skills Tests in Numeracy, Literacy and ICT

The new Circular includes a new Requirement in the QTS Standards at Annex A that trainee teachers who complete their training from 1 May 2001 will need to take and pass computerised skills tests in numeracy and literacy before they can gain QTS and take up a post in a maintained school or non-maintained special school.

Transitional arrangements will be in operation for trainee teachers expecting to gain QTS between 1 May 2000 and 30 April 2001. They will only need to pass the numeracy test, as well as meeting the requirements for the induction year, before continuing to teach in a maintained or non-maintained special school.

A computerised skills test in Information and Communications Technology (lCT) will be introduced from September 2001, for trainees expecting to be awarded QTS from 1 May 2002.

All trainee teachers who expect to be awarded QTS from 1 May 2002 onwards will need to pass the three skills tests in numeracy, literacy and ICT.

The Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and the new Pupils' National Curriculum

In order to meet the ITT National Curricula Requirements in relation to primary English and mathematics, providers will need to prepare trainees to deliver the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. The new pupils' National Curriculum comes into force from September 2000 and trainees will need to be prepared to deliver the relevant new curricula, including, where applicable, the Early Learning Goals, in order to meet the QTS Standards at Annex A.

Legal Status of the Circular

The statutory requirements which underpin the Circular are regulations under section 218 of the Education Reform Act 1988, currently paragraph 2 of Schedule 3 to the Education (Teachers' Qualifications and Health Standards) (England) Regulations 1999.

DfEE
June 2001


[unnumbered page]

Circular number 4/98

Requirements for Courses of
Initial Teacher Training


Summary of contents

This Circular sets out the Secretary of State's criteria which all courses of initial teacher training must meet. It specifies national curricula for initial teacher training in English, mathematics, science and for the use of Information Communications Technology in subject teaching.

The national curricula for primary English, mathematics, and science must be taught to all trainees on all courses of primary initial teacher training.

The national curricula for secondary English, mathematics and science must be taught to all trainees on courses of secondary initial teacher training specialising in those subjects.

The national curriculum for the use of Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching must be taught to all trainees on all courses of primary and secondary initial teacher training.

The criteria set out the standard of knowledge, understanding and skills all trainees must demonstrate in order successfully to complete a course of initial teacher training and be eligible for Qualified Teacher Status.

This Circular replaces DfEE Circular 10/97, DFE Circular 9/93, DFE Circular 9/92 and Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/96. The nine annexes to this Circular take effect from specified dates (see 'Implementation and the redesign of courses' on pages 2 and 3).

All enquires about this Circular should be sent to:

Colin McGuffie
Teacher Supply & Training Division
Sanctuary Buildings
Great Smith Street
London SW1 P 3BT

Tel: 0207 925 6046
Fax: 0207 925 6819

Further copies of this Circular are available by telephoning 0845 60 222 60

This Circular is available on the internet. The address is
http:/www.open.gov.uk/dfee/dfeehome.htm

From July 1998, the annexes to this Circular will be available as separate documents from the Teacher Training Agency Publications Line, telephone number 0845 6060323.

Audience:
All schools (maintained and independent)
LEAs and Local Authority Associations, Teacher Associations, Providers of initial teacher training in England, Teacher Education Organisations, OFSTED, SCAA, Higher Education Funding Council - England, TTA, CVCP and SCOP, Religious Bodies, Business Organisations, Parliament and Political Parties

Subject Area:
Initial Teacher Training (ITT)

This Circular is guidance. It should not be treated as a complete and authoritative statement of the law.

Date of issue:
May 1998

Expiry date:
-

Related documents:
-

Superseded documents:
DFE Circular 9/92,
DFE Circular 14/93,
Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/96 and Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/97

DfEE
Department for Education and Employment


[page 2]

Contents

Pages

Introduction
1-6

Summary of Requirements

Implementation and the redesign of courses
Assessment of the QTS standards
The Initial Teacher Training National Curricula
Primary Courses
Secondary Courses
Key Stage 2/3 Courses
Course requirements
3-8 courses
11-18 courses in the core subjects
Specialist Secondary Drama Courses
Accreditation of ITT providers


ANNEX A:
Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status
7-16

ANNEX B:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for the use of Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching
17-31

ANNEX C:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary English
32-46

ANNEX D:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Mathematics
47-64

ANNEX E:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Science
65-86

ANNEX F:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary English
87-101

ANNEX G:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary Mathematics
102-115

ANNEX H:
Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary Science
116-133

ANNEX I:
Requirement for all courses of Initial Teacher Training
134-138


[page 3]

Introduction

Circular 10/97 introduced the first ever national curriculum for initial teacher training (ITT). It represented a major step change in the expectations and requirements of new teachers. This Circular incorporates and replaces Circular 10/97, it builds on the standards for the award of qualified teacher status (QTS) the ITT national curricula for primary English and mathematics and the new course requirements as set out in that Circular. The requirements in this Circular will equip all new teachers with the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to play their part in raising pupil performance across the education system.

Summary of Requirements

Circular 10/97 contained standards for the award of Qualified Teacher Status; initial teacher training curricula for primary English and mathematics; and requirements for all courses of initial teacher training. This Circular contains these requirements and additional initial teacher training curricula for primary science, secondary English, secondary mathematics, secondary science and the use of information and communications technology in subject teaching for all courses of initial teacher training. Providers should be aware that some minor changes have been made to the standards for QTS, as set out in Circular 10/97, to take account of the new national training curricula. Providers should take note of the statement on the assessment of the QTS standards as set out in the introduction to Annex A. Providers should also note that for courses covering the 3-8 age range trainees may now take an additional advanced study of ear1y years as an alternative to a specialist subject across KS1 and KS2.

The requirements are set out in nine parts:

  • Standards for the award of Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) (Annex A);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for the use of Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching (Annex B);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary English (Annex C);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Mathematics (Annex D);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Science (Annex E);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary English (Annex F);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary Mathematics (Annex G);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary Science (Annex H); and
  • Requirements for all courses of Initial Teacher Training (Annex I).
Implementation and the redesign of courses

Effective implementation of the initial teacher training curricula may require considerable changes to courses for some providers. Providers implementing the primary training curricula in English and mathematics since September 1997, have found it easier to redesign their courses around the required core, replacing some components, than trying to fit the new training curricula around existing provision.


[page 4]

In order to allow providers sufficient time to restructure their course programmes properly, involving partnership schools, the following training curricula will not be a requirement until September 1999:

  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Science (Annex E);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary English (Annex F);
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary Mathematics (Annex G); and
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Secondary Science (Annex H).
Providers will be required to implement the following training curricula from September 1998:
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for the use of Information and Communications Technology (Annex B). The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998199 only;
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary English (Annex C); and
  • Initial Teacher Training Curriculum for Primary Mathematics (Annex D);

May 1998September 1998May 1999September 1999May 2000
QTS Standards (Annex A)All trainees must meet all the standards*-All trainees must meet all the standards*All trainees must meet all the standards fully
ICT curriculum (Annex B)-All courses must comply*All courses must comply fully-
ITT Curricula (Annexes C and D)-All courses must comply fully---
ITT Curricula (Annexes E - H)---All courses must comply fully-
Course requirements (Annex I)All courses must comply fully---

*Subject to the exemption of the final year of undergraduate courses

For all primary courses providers must from September 1998, designate at least one specialist subject for each trainee. Trainees on 3-8 courses may, as an alternative to designating a specialist subject, take additional advanced study of early years. For each designated specialist subject, each trainee, in order to successfully complete the course, must from May 1999 demonstrate a secure knowledge to at least a standard approximating to GCE Advanced level in those aspects of the subject taught at Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2, as specified in Annex A, standard 2f and to achieve all the other standards specified in Annex A.

With the exception of the final year of undergraduate courses (for 1998/99 only), all primary training courses, whether recruiting for the first time from September 1998 or already underway, must cover the initial teacher training curriculum for the use of information and communications technology in subject teaching (Annex B). All primary courses, without exception, must cover the initial teacher training curricula for primary English and mathematics (Annexes C and D) from September 1998. All primary courses without exception, must cover the initial teacher training curriculum for primary science (Annex E) from September 1999.


[page 5]

All secondary training courses with the exception of final year undergraduate courses (for 1998/99 only), regardless of subject(s), whether recruiting for the first time from September 1998 or already underway must cover the initial teacher training curriculum for the use of information and communications technology in subject teaching (Annex B) from September 1998. All secondary subject training courses which have English, mathematics and science as a specialist subject, whether recruiting for the first time from September 1999 or already underway, must from September 1999 cover the initial teacher training curricula for secondary English, mathematics and science (Annexes F, G and H).

The Initial Teacher Training National Curricula

The new Initial teacher training national curricula represent a key element in the Government's plans for raising attainment in literacy and numeracy and making progress towards the national targets. They are also key to improving the use of information and communications technology in teaching subjects. The curricula specify the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which trainees mist be taught and be able to use in relation to English, mathematics, science and information and communications technology. They do not cover everything that a trainee teacher will be taught, nor do they repeat the content of the pupils' National Curricula. Rather, they set out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' curriculum effectively. The curricula do not specify a course model or scheme of work and it is for providers to decide how training is best delivered. Providers should use the curricula as the basis for designing courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. Once courses have been designed to include the curricula, then providers can work confidently from their own documentation.

Primary Courses

The initial teacher training curricula for primary courses specify the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all primary trainees, on all courses of initial teacher training, must be taught and be able to use in relation to English, mathematics and science. The training curriculum for the use of information communications technology in subject teaching specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all primary trainees on all courses of initial teacher training must be taught and be able to use in order to ensure that they use information and communications technology effectively to support the teaching of the core subjects (English, mathematics and science) and their specialist subject(s).

Secondary Courses

The initial teacher training curricula for secondary courses specify the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which secondary trainees must be taught and be able to use if they are specialising in English, mathematics or science. The initial teacher training curriculum for the use of information and communications technology in subject teaching specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on all courses of initial teacher training must be taught and be able to use in order to ensure that they use information and communications technology effectively to support the teaching of their specialist subject(s).

Key Stage 2/3 Courses

Key Stage 2/3 courses must cover the initial teacher training curricula for English, mathematics and science and, for those specialising in English, mathematics or science at Key Stage 3, the appropriate sections of the relevant initial teacher training curricula.

Course requirements

The new course requirements incorporate and replace those set out in Circular 10/97. They lay down minimum requirements for all courses in relation to selection, course type, partnership arrangements and quality assurance.


[page 6]

Changes in Course Requirements since Circular 10/97

3-8 courses

As a minimum, these courses must include specialist training for early years (nursery and reception), the core subjects across Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 as specified in the relevant initial teacher training curricula and either at least one specialist subject across Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 or additional advanced study of early years.

11-18 courses in the core subjects

For trainees on 11-18 courses specialising in English, mathematics or science the subject knowledge specified in section C of the ITT curricula for post-16 teaching is advisory and not a requirement for the award of QTS, although most trainees with a directly relevant first degree will have covered much of the content. Providers are required to have regard to it to have provision in relation to it, to audit against it and by the end of the course, assess how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the post-16 content. Capability in relation to the post-16 content should be recorded clearly on each newly qualified teacher's Career Entry Profile. All trainees on 11-18 courses will have to meet the QTS standards across the age range.

Specialist Secondary Drama Courses

There is no requirement for specialist initial teacher training courses where drama is designated as a specialist subject to cover the initial teacher training curriculum for secondary English, unless English is also designated a specialist subject.

All courses of secondary initial teacher training with English as the nominated specialist subject, will be required to cover the initial teacher training curriculum for secondary English and will receive numbers from the TTA's allocation category 'English'. Specialist drama courses, which do not also have English as a specialist subject, will not be required to cover the initial teacher training curriculum for secondary English. and will receive numbers from TTA's allocation category 'other'.

Accreditation of ITT providers

All courses of initial teacher training. whether managed by higher education institutions in partnership with schools or by schools themselves through school-centred initial teacher training schemes (SCITTs), must meet the Secretary of State's requirements.* Providers will therefore need to ensure that their courses are revised as necessary to bring them into line with the new requirements set out in this Circular, as a basis for their continued accreditation as a provider of initial teacher training. There is no requirement for providers to seek re-accreditation as a result of this Circular.


MICHAEL BICHARD

*The statutory requirements which underpin these arrangements are Section 218 of the Education Reform Act 1988 and the Education (Teachers) Regulations 1993 (as amended by the Education (Teachers) Regulations 1997). The Education (Teachers) Regulations 1997 amend the 1993 Regulations with effect from 1 September 1997 and define an accredited institution as "an institution accredited by the Teacher Training Agency (TTA) or, in Wales, by the Higher Education Funding Council (HEFC) for Wales as a provider of courses satisfying such provisions as to curricula and other criteria as may from time to time be specified by the Secretary of State."


[page 7]

Annex A

Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status


Introduction

The standards set out in this document replace the more general "competences" set out in DFE Circulars 9/92 and 14/93 and DfEE Teacher Training Circular Letter 1/96. They reflect the Secretary of State's requirements for Qualified Teacher Status as set out in DfEE Circular 10/97. The standards apply to all trainees seeking Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and, except where otherwise specified, should be met by those to be assessed for QTS from May 1998. Successful completion of a course or programme of initial teacher training (ITT), including employment-based provision, must require the trainee to achieve all these standards. All courses must involve the assessment of all trainees to ensure that they meet all the standards specified.

Qualified Teacher Status is a requirement for all those who teach in a maintained school. Qualified Teacher Status is awarded by successfully completing a course of ITT at an accredited institution in England or Wales, either concurrently with, or after, the award of a first degree of a UK university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or after the award of a degree of the CNAA, or after the award of a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree.

The standards are set out under the following headings:

A. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

1. Standards for secondary specialist subjects

2. Standards for primary subjects

3. Additional standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses.

B. PLANNING, TEACHING AND CLASS MANAGEMENT

1. Standards for primary English, mathematics and science

2. Standards for primary and secondary specialist subjects

3. Standards for secondary English, mathematics and science

4. Standards for primary and secondary for all subjects:

a. planning

b. teaching and class management.

5. Additional standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses.

C. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, RECORDING, REPORTING AND ACCOUNTABILITY

The standards in this section apply to all trainees seeking Qualified Teacher Status.


[page 8]

D. OTHER PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS

The standards in this section apply to all trainees seeking Qualified Teacher Status.

The standards have been written to be specific, explicit and assessable, and are designed to provide a clear basis for the reliable and consistent award of Qualified Teacher Status, regardless of the training route or type of training leading to QTS. To achieve this purpose, each standard has been set out discretely. Professionalism, however, implies more than meeting a series of discrete standards. It is necessary to consider the standards as a whole to appreciate the creativity, commitment, energy and enthusiasm which teaching demands, and the intellectual and managerial skills required of the effective professional.

Each standard will not require a separate assessment occasion. Groups of standards are closely linked and are designed so that they can be assessed together. While providers must be confident that all the standards have been met before they make a final decision to recommend the award of QTS, this should not require a mechanistic, tick-list approach or entail each standard being supported by its own evidence base. To reflect the complexity of the teaching process being assessed, providers are likely to make over-arching judgements, taking account of evidence from the wide range of sources available to them across partnerships. This should enable providers, if necessary, to explain and justify their overall decision, including to trainees and other colleagues. The standards might also be used near the end of training to identify any particular areas where they may be unclear about a trainee's knowledge, understanding and skills, to help focus the provider's observations of, discussions with, and requirements of trainees, so that a confident decision can be made.




[page 9]

Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status

A. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

1. Secondary

Those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

i. have a secure knowledge and understanding of the concepts and skills in their specialist subject(s) at a standard equivalent to degree level to enable them to teach it (them) confidently and accurately at:
  • KS3 for trainees on 7-14 courses;
  • KS3 and KS4 and, where relevant, post-16 for trainees on 11-16 or 18 courses; and
  • KS4 and post-16 for trainees on 14-19 courses;
ii. for English, mathematics or science specialists, have a secure knowledge and understanding of the subject content specified in the relevant Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum (1);

iii. have, for their specialist subject(s), where applicable, a detailed knowledge and understanding of the National Curriculum programmes of study, level descriptions or end of key stage descriptions for KS3 and, where applicable, National Curriculum programmes of study for KS4;

iv. for Religious Education (RE) specialists, have a detailed knowledge of the Model Syllabuses for RE;

v. are familiar, for their specialist subject(s), with the relevant KS4 and post-16 examination syllabuses and courses, including vocational courses (2):

vi. understand, for their specialist subject(s), the framework of 14-19 qualifications and the routes of progression through it (2);

vii. understand, for their specialist subject(s), progression from the KS2 programmes of study (3);

viii. know and can teach the key skills required for current qualifications relevant to their specialist subject, for pupils aged 14-19, and understand the contribution that their specialist subject(s) make(s) to the development of the key skills (2);

ix. cope securely with subject-related questions which pupils raise;

x. are aware of, and know how to access, recent inspection evidence and classroom-relevant research evidence on teaching secondary pupils in their specialist subject(s), and know how to use this to inform and improve their teaching;

xi. know, for their specialist subject(s), pupils' most common misconceptions and mistakes;

1. This does not apply until September 1999.

2. This does not apply to trainees on 7-14 courses.

3. This does not apply to trainees on 14-19 courses.


[page 10]

xii. understand how pupils' learning in the subject is affected by their phYSical, intellectual, emotional and social development;

xiii. have, for their specialist subject(s), a secure knowledge and understanding of the content specified in the ITT National Curriculum for Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching;

xiv. are familiar with subject-specific health and safety requirements, where relevant, and plan lessons to avoid potential hazards.

2. Primary

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. understand the purposes, scope, structure and balance of the National Curriculum Orders as a whole and, within them, the place and scope of the primary phase, the key stages, the primary core and foundation subjects and RE;

b. are aware of the breadth of content covered by the pupils' National Curriculum across the primary core and foundation subjects and RE;

c. understand how pupils' learning is affected by their physical, intellectual, emotional and social development;

d. for each core and specialist subject (4) covered in their training:

i. have, where applicable, a detailed knowledge and understanding of the relevant National Curriculum programmes of study and level descriptions or end of key stage descriptions across the primary age range;

ii. for RE specialists, have a detailed knowledge of the Model Syllabuses for RE;

iii. cope securely with subject-related questions which pupils raise;

iv. understand the progression from SCAA's "Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education" to KS1, the progression from KS1 to KS2, and from KS2 to KS3;

v. are aware of, and know how to access, recent inspection evidence and classroom relevant research evidence on teaching primary pupils in the subject, and know how to use this to inform and improve their teaching;

vi. know pupils' most common misconceptions and mistakes in the subject;

vii. have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content specified in the ITT National Curriculum for Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching;

viii. are familiar with subject-specific health and safety requirements, where relevant, and plan lessons to avoid potential hazards;

4. A specialist subject may be one of the core subjects.


[page 11]

e. for English, mathematics and science, have a secure knowledge and understanding of the subject content specified in the ITT National Curricula for primary English, mathematics and science (5);

f. for any specialist subject(s), have a secure knowledge of the subject to at least a standard approximating to GCE Advanced level in those aspects of the subject taught at KS1 and KS2;

g. for any non-core, non-specialist subject covered in their training, have a secure knowledge to a standard equivalent to at least level 7 of the pupils' National Curriculum. For RE, the required standard for non-specialist training is broadly equivalent to the end of Key Stage statements for Key Stage 4 in QCA's Model Syllabuses for RE (6).

3. Additional standards relating to early years

Those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. have a detailed knowledge of SCM's "Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education";

b. have a knowledge of effective ways of working with parents and other carers;

c. have an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of other agencies with responsibility for the care of young children.

B. PLANNING, TEACHING AND CLASS MANAGEMENT

This section details the standards which all those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must demonstrate, when assessed, in each subject that they have been trained to teach. For primary non-core, non-specialist subjects, trainees being assessed for Qualified Teacher Status must meet the required standards but with the support, if necessary, of a teacher experienced in the subject concerned.

1. Primary English, mathematics and science

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. have a secure knowledge and understanding of, and know how and when to apply, the teaching and assessment methods specified in the ITT National Curricula for primary English, mathematics and science (5):

b. have a secure knowledge and understanding of, and know when to apply in relation to each subject, the teaching and assessment methods specified in the ITT National Curriculum for Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching.

5. For primary science this does not apply until September 1999.

6. Where providers offer more limited coverage of subjects than the required non-core, non-specialist subjects, e.g. a few hours of teacher training in a foundation subject, safety training in PE and/or design and technology, the nature and extent of such training can be recorded on the newly qualified teacher's TTA Career Entry Profile.


[page 12]

2. Primary and secondary specialist subjects

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they have a secure knowledge and understanding of, and know how and when to apply, in relation to their specialist subject(s), the teaching and assessment methods specified in the in National Curriculum for Information and Communications Technology in subject teaching.

3. Secondary English, mathematics and science

To be awarded Qualified Teacher Status specialists in secondary English, mathematics or science must, when assessed, demonstrate that they have a secure knowledge and understanding of, and know how and when to apply, the teaching and assessment methods specified in the relevant ITT National Curriculum (1).

4. Primary and secondary for all subjects

Planning

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. plan their teaching to achieve progression in pupils' learning through:

i. identifying clear teaching objectives and content, appropriate to the subject matter and the pupils being taught, and specifying how these will be taught and assessed;

ii. setting tasks for whole class, individual and group work, including homework, which challenge pupils and ensure high levels of pupil interest;

iii. setting appropriate and demanding expectations for pupils' learning, motivation and presentation of work;

iv. setting clear targets for pupils' learning, building on prior attainment, and ensuring that pupils are aware of the substance and purpose of what they are asked to do;

v. identifying pupils who:

  • have special educational needs, including specific learning difficulties;
  • are very able;
  • are not yet fluent in English;
and knowing where to get help in order to give positive and targeted support;
b. provide clear structures for lessons, and for sequences of lessons, in the short, medium and longer term, which maintain pace, motivation and challenge for pupils:

c. make effective use of assessment information on pupils' attainment and progress in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons;

d. plan opportunities to contribute to pupils' personal, spiritual, moral, social and cultural development;

e. where applicable, ensure coverage of the relevant examination syllabuses and National Curriculum programmes of study.


[page 13]

Teaching and class management

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

f. ensure effective teaching of whole classes, and of groups and individuals within the whole class setting, so that teaching objectives are met, and best use is made of available teaching time;

g. monitor and intervene when teaching to ensure sound learning and discipline;

h. establish and maintain a purposeful working atmosphere;

i. set high expectations for pupils' behaviour, establishing and maintaining a good standard of discipline through well focused teaching and through positive and productive relationships;

j. establish a safe environment which supports learning and in which pupils feel secure and confident;

k. use teaching methods which sustain the momentum of pupils' work and keep all pupils engaged through:

i. stimulating intellectual curiosity, communicating enthusiasm for the subject being taught, fostering pupils' enthusiasm and maintaining pupils' motivation;

ii. matching the approaches used to the subject matter and the pupils being taught;

iii. structuring information well, including outlining content and aims, signalling transitions and summarising key points as the lesson progresses;

iv. clear presentation of content around a set of key ideas, using appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and well chosen illustrations and examples;

v. clear instruction and demonstration, and accurate well-paced explanation;

vi. effective questioning which matches the pace and direction of the lesson and ensures that pupils take part;

vii. careful attention to pupils' errors and misconceptions, and helping to remedy them;

viii. listening carefully to pupils, analysing their responses and responding constructively in order to take pupils' learning forward;

ix. selecting and making good use of textbooks, ICT and other learning resources which enable teaching objectives to be met;

x. providing opportunities for pupils to consolidate their knowledge and maximising opportunities, both in the classroom and through setting well-focused homework, to reinforce and develop what has been learnt;

xi. exploiting opportunities to improve pupils' basic skills in literacy, numeracy and ICT, and the individual and collaborative study skills needed for effective learning, including information retrieval from libraries, texts and other sources;

xii. exploiting opportunities to contribute to the quality of pupils' wider educational development, including their personal, spiritual, moral, social and cultural development;


[page 14]

xiii. setting high expectations for all pupils notwithstanding individual differences, including gender, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds;

xiv. providing opportunities to develop pupils' wider understanding by relating their learning to real and work-related examples;

l. are familiar with the Code of Practice on the identification and assessment of special educational needs and, as part of their responsibilities under the Code, implement and keep records on individual education plans (IEPs) for pupils at stage 2 of the Code and above;

m. ensure that pupils acquire and consolidate knowledge, skills and understanding in the subject;

n. evaluate their own teaching critically and use this to improve their effectiveness.

5. Additional standards relating to early years

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. plan activities which take account of pupils' needs and their developing physical, intellectual, emotional and social abilities, and which engage their interest;

b. provide structured learning opportunities which advance pupils':

i. personal and social development;

ii. communication skills;

iii. knowledge and understanding of the world;

iv. physical development;

v. creative development;

c. use teaching approaches and activities which develop pupils' language and provide the foundations for literacy;

d. use teaching approaches and activities which develop pupils' mathematical understanding and provide the foundations for numeracy;

e. encourage pupils to think and talk about their learning and to develop self-control and independence;

f. encourage pupils to concentrate and persevere in their learning for sustained periods, to listen attentively and to talk about their experiences in small and large groups;

g. use teaching approaches and activities which involve planned adult intervention, which offer opportunities for first-hand experience and co-operation, and which use play and talk as a vehicle for learning;

h. manage, with support from an experienced specialist teacher if necessary, the work of parents and other adults in the classroom to enhance learning opportunities for pupils.


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C. MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, RECORDING, REPORTING AND ACCOUNTABILITY

This section details the standards which all those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must demonstrate, when assessed, in each subject that they have been trained to teach. For primary non-core. non-specialist subjects, trainees being assessed for Qualified Teacher Status must meet the required standards but with the support, if necessary, of a teacher experienced in the subject concerned.

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status must, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. assess how well learning objectives have been achieved and use this assessment to improve specific aspects of teaching;

b. mark and monitor pupils' assigned classwork and homework, providing constructive oral and written feedback, and setting targets for pupils' progress;

c. assess and record each pupil's progress systematically, including through focused observation, questioning, testing and marking, and use these records to:

i. check that pupils have understood and completed the work set;

ii. monitor strengths and weaknesses and use the information gained as a basis for purposeful intervention in pupils' learning;

iii. inform planning;

iv. check that pupils continue to make demonstrable progress in their acquisition of the knowledge, skills and understanding of the subject;

d. are familiar with the statutory assessment and reporting requirements and know how to prepare and present informative reports to parents;

e. where applicable, understand the expected demands of pupils in relation to each relevant level description or end of key stage description, and, in addition, for those on 11-16 or 18 and 14-19 courses, the demands of the syllabuses and course requirements for GCSE, other KS4 courses, and, where applicable, post-16 courses;

f. where applicable, understand and know how to implement the assessment requirements of current qualifications for pupils aged 14-19;

g. recognise the level at which a pupil is achieving, and assess pupils consistently against attainment targets, where applicable, if necessary with guidance from an experienced teacher;

h. understand and know how national, local, comparative and school data, including National Curriculum test data, where applicable, can be used to set clear targets for pupils' achievement;

i. use different kinds of assessment appropriately for different purposes, including National Curriculum and other standardised tests, and baseline assessment where relevant.


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D. OTHER PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Primary and secondary

For all courses, those to be awarded Qualified Teacher Status should, when assessed, demonstrate that they:

a. have a working knowledge and understanding of:

i. teachers' professional duties as set out in the current School Teachers' Pay and Conditions document, issued under the School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Act 1991 ;

ii. teachers' legal liabilities and responsibilities relating to:

  • the Race Relations Act 1976;
  • the Sex Discrimination Act 1975;
  • Section 7 and Section 8 of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974;
  • teachers' common law duty to ensure that pupils are healthy and safe on school premises and when leading activities off the school site, such as educational visits, school outings or field trips;
  • what is reasonable for the purposes of safeguarding or promoting children's weHare (Section 3(5) of the Children Act 1989);
  • the role of the education service in protecting children from abuse (currently set out in DfEE Circular 10195 and the Home Office, Department of Health, DfEE and Welsh Office Guidance "Working Together: A guide to arrangements for inter-agency co-operation for the protection of children from abuse 1991");
  • appropriate physical contact with pupils (currently set out in DfEE Circular 10/95);
  • appropriate physical restraint of pupils (Section 4 of the Education Act 1997 and DfEE Circular 9/94);
  • detention of pupils on disciplinary grounds (Section 5 of the Education Act 1997).
b. have established, during work in schools, effective working relationships with professional colleagues including, where applicable, associate staff;

c. set a good example to the pupils they teach, through their presentation and their personal and professional conduct;

d. are committed to ensuring that every pupil is given the opportunity to achieve their potential and meet the high expectations set for them;

e. understand the need to take responsibility for their own professional development and to keep up to date with research and developments in pedagogy and in the subjects they teach;

f. understand their professional responsibilities in relation to school policies and practices. including those concerned with pastoral and personal safety matters, including bullying;

g. recognise that learning takes place inside and outside the school context, and understand the need to liaise effectively with parents and other carers and with agencies with responsibility for pupils' education and welfare;

h. are aware of the role and purpose of school governing bodies.


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Annex B

Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for the use of information and Communications Technology in subject teaching


Introduction

This curriculum is different from those for primary and secondary English, mathematics and science because it does not relate to a particular subject. It is concerned with the ways in which information and Communications Technology (ICT) can be used effectively in the teaching of other subjects in the pupils' National Curriculum.

ICT is more than just another teaching tool. Its potential for improving the quality and standards of pupils' education is significant. Equally, its potential is considerable for supporting teachers, both in their everyday classroom role, for example by reducing the time occupied by the administration associated with it, and in their continuing training and development. It covers the wide range of ICT now available, e.g. computers, the internet, CD-ROM and other software, television and radio, video, cameras and other equipment. While it is recognised that many teachers will also be responsible for developing pupils' iT capability using ICT, that is not the focus of this document.

The requirements will come into effect from September 1998. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.

For primary trainees, this curriculum applies to training in the core subjects (English, mathematics and science) and their specialist subject(s). For secondary trainees, this curriculum applies to training in their specialist subject(s).

The curriculum aims, in particular, to equip every newly qualified teacher with the knowledge, skills and understanding to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching particular subjects. Although this curriculum applies to all trainees, the knowledge, understanding and skills required will often differ between subjects or phases. Some examples are given in the document to illustrate particular points, but it is the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the ways trainees are taught to use ICT are firmly rooted within the relevant subject and phase, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically or as an end in itself. In order to support providers in this, the TTA proposes to produce separate exemplification, by subject and phase, which can be used in conjunction with this document.

With the introduction of the National Grid for Learning, it becomes even more important for newly qualified teachers (NQTs) to be confident and competent in using ICT effectively in their teaching. The ITT curriculum will also form the basis of the Lottery-funded training for serving teachers in the use of ICT.

Providers of ITT must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to use ICT effectively in teaching subject(s) are judged to have successfully completed an ITT course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

The National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching should therefore be read alongside the relevant ITT National Curriculum, where applicable, and the standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).


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Every attempt has been made to "future-proof" the content of this document, but ICT is changing rapidly and it will be necessary to keep the curriculum under close review. In order to make the requirements of the ICT curriculum clear to a wide readership, the use of jargon and technical language has been avoided, but the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

The curriculum is in two sections.

Section A Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 19

This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use. This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to the use of ICT in subject teaching. Trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described in this section.
Section B Trainees' knowledge and understanding of, and competence with, information and Communications Technology Page 23
This section sets out the knowledge and understanding of, and competence with, ICT which trainees need to support effective teaching. Providers of ITT must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the ICT specified in paragraphs 12-19.

Where gaps in trainees' knowledge are identified, providers must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of ICT in their teaching. ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of Section B. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could be taught alongside aspects of section A.

The ITT National Curriculum for ICT does not attempt to cover everything that needs to be taught to trainee teachers if they are to use ICT effectively in their teaching. It is expected that providers of ITT will include in their courses other aspects of ICT, which are not specified in this curriculum, in relation to particular subjects.

This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All ITT courses must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the sections when designing courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of ITT the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging.


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Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every NQT to use ICT effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They should, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable, e.g. in Section B, the content listed in paragraph 12 should be interpreted at a level appropriate for a general ICT user and not at a level which would be required by a network or system manager. The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching by a newly qualified teacher in their first post.

The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each NQT's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, NQTs will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers win continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with ICT and its application to subject pedagogy, so that they can teach rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.

Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for the use of information and Communications Technology in subject teaching

A. EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

1. Trainees must be taught how to decide when the use of ICT is beneficial to achieve teaching objectives in the subject and phase, and when the use of ICT would be less effective or inappropriate. In making these decisions, trainees must be taught how to take account of the functions of ICT and the ways that these can be used by teachers in achieving subject teaching and learning objectives. This includes:

a. how the speed and automatic functions of ICT can enable teachers to demonstrate, explore or explain aspects of their teaching, and pupils' learning, more effectively;

b. how the capacity and range of ICT can enable teachers and pupils to gain access to historical, recent or immediate information;

c. how the provisional nature of information stored, processed and presented using ICT allows work to be changed easily;

d. how the interactive way in which information is stored, processed and presented can enable teachers and pupils to:

i. explore prepared or constructed models and simulations, where relevant to the subject and phase;

ii. communicate with other people, locally and over distances, easily and effectively;

iii. search for and compare information from different sources;

iv. present information in ways which are accessible in different forms for different audiences.


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Trainees should be taught what the implications of these functions are for achieving teaching objectives in the relevant subject(s), e.g. in mathematics and science, the use of a calculator or a spreadsheet may remove the tedium of repetitive calculations and enable pupils to focus their attention on an emerging numerical pattern or the relationship between successive readings. However, trainees must be made aware when pupils' skills in mental or written calculation are not being developed and therefore the activity may not suit the particular teaching objectives in hand.

2. Trainees must be taught how to use ICT most effectively in relation to subject-related objectives, including:

a. using ICT because it is the most effective way to achieve teaching and learning objectives, not simply to motivate pupils or as a reward or sanction for good or poor work or behaviour;

b. avoiding the use of ICT for simple or routine tasks which would be better accomplished by other means;

c. knowing that, where ICT is to be used, appropriate preparation of equipment, content and methodology is required;

d. avoiding giving the impression that the quality of presentation is of overriding importance and supersedes the importance of content;

e. structuring pupils' work to focus on relevant aspects and to maximise use of time and resource, e.g. teaching pupils to refine searches rather than allowing pupils to search freely on the internet or on CD-ROM;

f. having high expectations of the outcomes of pupils' work with ICT, including:

  • expecting pupils to use ICT to answer valid questions appropriate to the subject matter being taught;
  • when appropriate, requiring pupils to save work, and evaluate and improve it;
g. making explicit the links between:
i. the ICT application and the subject matter it is being used to teach;

ii. ICT and its impact on everyday applications.

3. For those aspects of lessons where ICT is to be used, trainees must be taught to identify in their planning:

a. the way(s) in which ICT will be used to meet teaching and learning objectives in the subject;

b. key questions to ask and opportunities for teacher intervention in order to stimulate and direct pupils' learning;

c. the way(s) in which pupils' progress will be assessed and recorded;

d. criteria to ensure that judgements about pupils' attainment and progress in the subject are not masked because ICT has been used;

e. any impact of the use of ICT on the organisation and conduct of the subject lesson and how this is to be managed;

f. how the ICT used is appropriate to the particular subject-related objectives in hand and to pupils' capabilities, taking account of the fact that some pupils may already be very competent, e.g. because of home access or through participation in extracurricular ICT activities, and some may need additional support.


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4. Trainees must be taught the most effective organisation of classroom ICT resources to meet learning objectives in the subject, including how to:

a. use ICT with the whole class or a group for introducing or reviewing a topic and ensuring that all pupils cover the key conceptual features of the topic, e.g. through the use of a single screen or display;

b. organise individuals, pairs or groups of children working with ICT to ensure that each participant is engaged, that collaborative effort is balanced, and that teacher intervention and reporting back by pupils takes place where appropriate;

c. make ICT resources available to pupils for research or other purposes which may arise either spontaneously during lessons or as part of a planned activity, ensuring that the resource is used profitably to achieve subject-related objectives;

d. position resources for ease of use, to minimise distraction, and with due regard to health and safety;

e. ensure that work done using ICT is linked to work away from the screen, allowing ICT to support teaching rather than dominate activities, e.g. providing sufficient desk/floor space around the hardware to enable the ICT to be used with other materials; providing space to write as well as input from the keyboard; positioning ICT so that pupils are able to sit facing the teacher when required.

5. Trainees must be taught to recognise the specific contribution that ICT can make to teaching pupils with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms based upon the need to:

a. provide access to the curriculum in a manner appropriate to pupils' needs;

b. provide subject-specific support.

6. Trainees must be taught how to choose and use the most suitable ICT to meet teaching objectives, by reviewing a range of generic and subject-specific software critically, including how to:

a. assess its potential for helping to meet teaching objectives;

b. judge its suitability for the age of pupils, their stage of development, and their prior experiences, taking account of language, social and cultural background;

c. evaluate the success of its use in relation to teaching objectives.

7. Trainees must be taught how to contribute to the development and consolidation of pupils' ICT capability within the context of the subject being taught through:

a. explicit discussion and, where necessary, teaching of the ICT skills and applications which are used in the subject;

b. using ICT terminology accurately and appropriately, and explaining to pupils any ICT terminology which arises from the application of ICT to the subject;

c. using ICT in ways which provide models of good practice for pupils, and insisting that pupils employ correct procedures when using applications.

8. In order to understand how to monitor, evaluate and assess their teaching and pupils' learning in the subject when using ICT, and to evaluate the contribution that ICT has made to the teaching of their subject, trainees must be taught:

a. how to monitor pupils' progress by:


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i. being clear about teaching objectives and the use of ICT in achieving them;

ii. observing and intervening in pupils' ICT-based activities to monitor and support their progression towards the identified objectives;

iii. asking key questions which require pupils to reflect on the appropriateness of their use of ICT;

b. how to recognise standards of attainment in the subject when ICT resources are used, including:
i. recognising how access to computer functions might change teacher expectation of pupil achievements, e.g. automatic spell-checking, image-making, graphical representation;

ii. Identifying criteria by which pupils can show what they have learnt as a result of using ICT-based resources from the internet or CD-ROM, and insisting that pupils acknowledge the reference sources used in their work e.g. requiring pupils to interpret and present the information gained from a CD-ROM for a specific purpose rather than simply printing off information;

iii. how to determine the achievement of individuals when the "product" is the result of a collaborative effort, through observation, record keeping, teacher intervention and pupi/teacher dialogue;

iv. how to ensure that assessment of ICT-based work reflects pupils' learning and the quality of their work within the subject(s) rather than just the quality of presentation or the complexity of the technology used;

c. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing pupils' progress in the subject where ICT has been used, including how to set up ICT activities with targeted objectives for assessment and make provision in those activities for all pupils to demonstrate achievement, conceptual understanding and learning through the use of ICT.

9. In addition, trainees on courses providing for pupils aged 3-8 and 3-11 must be taught the importance of introducing pupils in nursery and reception classes to the use of ICT and to recognise the contribution that ICT can make to this age group, including how to:

a. encourage pupils to become familiar with ICT and positive users of it;

b. ensure that all pupils have opportunities to use ICT, and that their experience takes account of any home use or other previous experience of ICT;

c. Identify and teach the skills necessary for handling input devices effectively, e.g. switches, mouse, keyboard;

d. use ICT to support the development of language and literacy, through the use of programs which develop reading and writing, e.g. to reinforce letter/sound correspondence, and encourage pupils to engage with stories, songs and rhymes presented on the screen, as well as through the use of high quality educational broadcasts;

e. use ICT to support the development of numeracy through the use of computer programs and robots which develop and reinforce the use of mathematical language, and the recognition and exploration of numbers, simple mental operations and patterns;

f. use ICT to support pupils' creative development through the use of computer programs which encourage them to explore and experiment with pattern, shape, pictures, sound and colour;


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g. encourage pupils working collaboratively with ICT to share responsibilities for making decisions and reaching conclusions, e.g. as they progress through a simple computer adventure game.

10. Opportunities to practise

Trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.

B. TRAINEES' KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF, AND COMPETENCE WITH, iNFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

Knowledge, understanding and skills in using ICT in subject teaching

Trainees enter initial teacher training with a variety of experiences in ICT. For many, their own knowledge and understanding of ICT may not be sufficient to ensure that they understand how to use ICT in ways which support good teaching, as set out in the QTS standards, including, for example, good pace, challenge, questioning and high expectations of pupils. It may also not be sufficient to ensure that they feel confident about, and are competent in using, ICT to secure progress in pupils' learning within the phase and in the subject(s) they are training to teach. It is likely that most trainees will be familiar with more traditional forms of ICT, e.g. television, video, tape-recorders, and will have experienced their use in education. The content of Section 8, therefore, gives greater emphasis to computer-related ICT because it is new, and because trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in this area may vary considerably from what is required.

Audit

Providers should audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in ICT against the relevant ICT content set out in paragraphs 12 to 19 below. Where gaps in trainees' ICT knowledge, understanding and skills are identified, providers must make arrangements, for example through supported self-study, to ensure that trainees gain the relevant knowledge and understanding during the course and that, by the end of the course, trainees are competent in using the ICT specified within the relevant phase and subject(s).

11. In relation to the ICT content set out in paragraphs 12 to 19, trainees must be given opportunities to:

a. evaluate a range of information and communication technologies, and the content associated with them, e.g. television and radio, video, computers, the internet, cameras and other equipment, justifying the selection and use of ICT in relation to aspects of their planning, teaching, assessment and class management, including for personal professional use, e.g. in downloading on-line materials for teaching or writing reports;

b. understand and use correctly the specialist terms associated with the ICT used in the subject which are necessary to enable them to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss ICT in relation to the subject at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding.

Several of the following sections have been divided into two columns. The left-hand column specifies the knowledge and understanding of ICT which all trainees are required to demonstrate by the end of their course. The relevance of different aspects of the specified content will depend on the subjects and ages of the pupils being taught, and providers should pay particular attention to those aspects which are most relevant in each case. The right-hand column has been included to indicate the level of knowledge and understanding required and to give it relevance to teaching in different subjects. The TTA will provide, separately, more detailed subject-specific exemplification which can be used in conjunction with this document.


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12. Trainees must demonstrate that they are competent in those areas of ICT which support pedagogy in every subject, including that they:
a. can employ common ICT tools for their own and pupils' benefit, e.g. word processing, e-mail, presentation software, data handling and can use a range of ICT resources, at the level of general users (rather than as network or system managers), including:
i. the common user interfaces, using menus, selecting and swapping between applications, cutting, pasting and copying files, and cutting copying and pasting data within and between applications;
ii. successfully connecting and setting up ICT equipment, including input devices, e.g. a mouse, touch screen, overlay keyboard, microphone and output devices e.g. printers, screens and loudspeakers;e.g. connecting a printer to a computer with the correct driver; connecting an overlay keyboard and ensuring that it works;
iii. loading and running software;e.g. CD-ROM;
iv. file management;e.g. copying, deleting, naming and renaming files;
v. seeking and using operating information, including from on-line help facilities and user guides;
vi. coping with everyday problems and undertaking simple, routine maintenance, with due consideration to health and safety;e.g. including checking the power is on; checking for loose connections; managing and replacing consumables; good practice in avoiding viruses;
vii. understanding the importance of passwords and the general security of equipment and access to it.




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b. know and understand the characteristics of information, including:
i. that information must be evaluated in terms of its accuracy, validity, reliability, plausibility, bias;e.g. drawing information from a CD-ROM (encyclopaedia or newspaper collection);
ii. that information takes up memory and that there are implications when saving and compressing files;e.g. a colour image contains more information than its black and white equivalent and can be saved in different ways to increase the amount of available memory;
iii. that information has to be stored somewhere;e.g. in memory, on disc, on a local server, on the internet;
iv. that ICT systems can present static information or changing information;e.g. a picture on the screen or a page of text; changing information, e.g. simulations, control programmes;
v. that information can be directly and dynamically linked between applications;e.g. changes to numbers in a spreadsheet can link directly to changes in a word processed report; a video clip can be linked to a button on a multimedia application; a picture or text may be linked to on-line information on a network or the internet;
vi. that applications and information can be shared with other people at remote locations.e.g. for a collaborative project between pupils or teachers in the same or different locations.





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13. Trainees must demonstrate in relation to the subject and age(s) of pupils to be taught that they:
a. know how to use ICT to find things out, including, as appropriate for the subjects and the age of pupils to be taught:
i. Identifying sources of information and discriminating between them;e.g. disk, CD-ROM, Internet; up-to-date information from a weather station; low status sources on the internet with no editorial scrutiny; CD-ROM information which has been through some editorial scrutiny but may be out of date;
ii. planning and putting together a search strategy, including framing useful questions, widening and narrowing down searches;e.g. translating enquiries expressed in ordinary language into forms required by the system;
iii. how to search for information, including using key words and strings and logical operators such as AND, OR and NOT, indexes and directories;e.g. in searching a database or employing an internet search engine;
iv. collecting and structuring data and storing it for later retrieval, interpretation and correction;
v. interpreting what is retrieved;
vi. considering validity, reliability and reasonableness of outcomes;e.g. knowing the probable outcome of a calculation rather than just relying on the calculator;





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b. know how to use ICT to try things out, make things happen and understand how they happen as appropriate for the subject(s) and the age of pupils to be taught:
i. exploring alternatives;e.g. changing the variables in a spreadsheet or a simulation;
ii. modelling relationships;e.g. exploring how changes in variables. such as weather and market forces might influence the crop rotation cycle planned by a farmer;
iii. considering cause and effect;e.g. in text editing and presentation; determining the effect of increases in the cost of raw materials when costing production on a spreadsheet; designing a weekly diet to meet nutritional requirements; programming a simple model using LOGO;
iv. predicting patterns and rules, recognising patterns, and hypothesising;e.g. hypothesising about a rule that underpins a pattern; predicting and simulating; evaluating outcomes e.g. graphical outcomes, exploration of colour shape and form, exploration of sound;
v. knowing how to give instructions;e.g. knowing the importance of the grammar and syntax of instructions in ICT;
vi. sequencing actions;e.g. moving floor turtles or robots; following a sequence of actions to produce a result;
vii. defining conditions e.g. "if this happens, do that ...";e.g. programming feedback into a control device or putting conditions into a spreadsheet formula;
viii. understanding how feedback works and the difference between things that do and do not rely on feedback;e.g. an automatic window opener on a greenhouse; an appliance that will not work until the lid is closed, such as a dishwasher;


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c. know how to use ICT to communicate and exchange ideas as appropriate to the subject(s) and the age of pupils to be taught:
i. presenting ideas, including: identification of audience and purpose; deciding the best means with which to communicate;e.g. text, numbers, images, sounds or a combination; selecting the appropriate technology to produce the material; adapting the material to ensure that it achieves what it set out to do;
ii. exchanging ideas, including identifying the most appropriate medium, and information.e.g. fax, e-mail or a conferencing system, taking into account the number of people involved, urgency and cost-effectiveness.

14. Trainees must demonstrate that they know those features of ICT which can be used, separately or together, to support teaching and learning in subjects, including:
a. speed and automatic functions - the function of ICT which enables routine tasks to be completed and repeated quickly, allowing the user to concentrate on thinking and on tasks such as analysing and looking for patterns within data, asking questions and looking for answers, and explaining and presenting results, as appropriate to the subject(s) and age of pupils being taught, including how ICT can be used to:
i. measure events at long or short time intervals in order to compress or expand events which would normally take very short or long periods of time, and illustrate them to pupils at speeds appropriate to their pace of learning;e.g. measuring and recording the reducing height of a bouncing ball using freeze-frame video; or measuring and recording the changes in temperature and pressure throughout a weather front; performing rapidly repeating calculations in a spreadsheet to illustrate patterns of numbers; illustrating changes in the distribution of working populations;
ii. measure and record events which might otherwise be impossible to gather within a classroom environment;e.g. collecting data on the movement of people around a school over the period of a week; recording weather data from the passage of a weather front;
iii. explore sequences of actions and link the sensing of events with the control of actions;e.g. building and controlling a working lift or programming the movement of a buggy;


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b. capacity and range - the function of ICT, as appropriate to the subject(s) and age of pupils to be taught, to access and to handle large amounts of information; change time scales, or remove barriers of distance; give teachers and pupils access to and control over situations which would normally be outside their everyday experience, including:
i. the range of forms in which ICT can present information;e.g. voice, text, images, sounds or video;
ii. the range of possible appropriate ICT sources, including local sources such as CD-ROM, and remote databases such as the internet and the National Grid for Learning;
iii. how to judge the accuracy of the information and the credibility of its source;e.g. discussing the fact that anyone can set up a website and there is no quality control over its content;
iv. how ICT can be used to gain access to expertise outside the classroom, the school and the local community through communications with experts;
c. provisionality - the function of ICT which allows changes to be made easily and enables alternatives to be explored readily, and as appropriate to the subject(s) and age of pupils to be taught:
i. how to make best use of the ability to make rapid changes, including how to create text, designs and models which may be explored and improved in the light of evaluation;e.g. word-processing, computer aided design and manufacture, spreadsheet models, animations, sound or video presentations;
ii. how to judge when and when not to encourage exploration and change using ICT;e.g. whether the clarity and accuracy of pupils' writing might be improved through drafting and redrafting;
iii. how saving work at different stages enables a record to be kept of the development of ideas;
d. interactivity - the function of ICT which enables rapid and dynamic feedback and response, as appropriate to the subject(s) and age of pupils to be taught, including how to determine the most appropriate media to use.e.g. the changing values in a spreadsheet or the feedback provided from a simulation or measurements of factors in an experiment; the responses to queries of an internet search engine.


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15. Trainees must demonstrate that they are aware of the potential of ICT to enable them to prepare and present their teaching more effectively, taking account of:

a. the intended audience, including matching and adapting work to subject matter and objectives, pupils' prior attainment, reading ability or special educational needs; recognising the efficiency with which such adaptations can be made using ICT;

b. the most appropriate forms of presentation to meet teaching objectives, e.g. illustrating or explaining using: text; sound; still or moving pictures; live video links; illustrations, graphics or animations; numbers, graphs or charts, separately or in combination.

16. Trainees must demonstrate that they:

a. know and understand the ICT requirements of the pupils' National Curriculum in relation to the phase(s) and subject(s) to be taught;

b. are familiar with the standards as set out in the pupils' National Curriculum for IT, relevant to the phase for which they are training to teach, and know the level of IT capability they should expect of pupils when applying ICT in the subject(s).

17. Trainees must demonstrate that they know how each of the following is relevant to the specialist subject and phase for which they are training:
a. generic procedures and tools, including:
i. understanding the key features and functions used within the subject;e.g. word-processors, graphics and desk-top publishing packages, spreadsheets, databases, multimedia and web page authoring tools;
ii. using ICT to prepare material for pupil use;e.g. the use of a word-processing package to create templates to help pupils to write in a modern foreign language; setting up a spreadsheet to help pupils explore relationships and patterns; preparing a video or music sequence;
b. reference resources, including:
i. how to search reference resources;e.g. reference CD-ROMs and World Wide Web sites on the internet;
ii. how to incorporate the use of reference resources into teaching;


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c. the ICT specific to the subject;e.g. graphics packages and scanners in art; computer-aided design (CAD) software and computer-controlled equipment in Design and Technology; sequencing software and midi keyboards in music; dynamic geometry software in mathematics;
d. the major teaching programs or "courseware" to ensure that material is matched to the pupils' competences:
i. where content and activities are presented in sequence to teach specific topics;e.g. multimedia distance learning activities; a series of educational television programmes;
ii. where teaching activities are combined with assessment tasks and tests.e.g. integrated learning systems (ILS); distance learning packages.

18. Trainees must demonstrate that they are aware of:

a. the current health and safety legislation relating to the use of computers, and can identify potential hazards and minimise risks;

b. legal considerations including those related to:

i. keeping personal information on computers, as set out in the Data Protection Act;

ii. copyright legislation relating to text, images and sounds and that relating to copying software;

iii. material which is illegal in this country;

c. ethical issues including:

i. access to illegal and/or unsuitable material through the internet;

ii. acknowledging sources;

iii. data confidentiality;

iv. the ways in which users of information sources can be (and are) monitored;

v. material which may be socially or morally unacceptable.

19. Trainees must demonstrate that they know how to use ICT to improve their own professional efficiency and to reduce administrative and bureaucratic burdens, including

a. using ICT to aid administration, record-keeping, reporting and transfer of information;

b. knowing about current classroom-focused research and inspection evidence about the application of ICT to teaching their specialist subject(s), and where it can be found;

c. knowing how to use ICT to join in professional discussions and to locate and access teaching plans, material and other sources of help and support, including through the National Grid for Learning;

d. knowing how ICT can support them in their continuing professional development.


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Annex C

Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for primary English


The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for primary English specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on primary and KS2/3 courses of initial teacher training must be taught and be able to use in their teaching. Trainees on KS2/3 English courses must also cover the relevant parts of the ITT National Curriculum for secondary English (Annex F), as preparation for teaching the pupils' National Curriculum for English at KS3. The requirements will come into effect from September 1998.

Providers of ITT must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach primary English effectively are judged to have successfully completed a primary ITT course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to primary English. Standards which apply to generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded QTS must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A). As part of all courses, providers of ITT are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for primary English does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' National Curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively.

The ITT National Curriculum for primary English includes some references to information and Communications Technology (ICT) in relation to primary English. However, from September 1998 (7), all trainees will be required to have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content of the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The ICT curriculum aims to equip every newly qualified primary teacher with the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching primary English. It is therefore the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the way trainees are taught to use ICT is firmly rooted within primary English teaching, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically or as an end in itself.

In order to support providers in this, the TTA intends to produce separate, subject-specific guidance which can be used in conjunction with this document.

The ITT National Curriculum for primary English should therefore be read alongside the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) and the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B).

The ITT National Curriculum for secondary English which builds upon this curriculum is at Annex F. Providers of primary ITT and trainees on primary ITT courses will find that document an important resource. In particular, it should be referred to when teaching about KS2/KS3 transfer issues and in order to identify effective strategies for teaching English to pupils whose attainment in English is above that expected for their age.

This curriculum has been written for providers of primary English ITT courses in schools (partnership schools, SCITT groups and those having teachers on employment-based training), higher education institutions and elsewhere, and others who have a background in English. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

7. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.


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The curriculum is in three sections.

Section A Pedagogical knowledge and understanding required by trainees to secure pupils' progress in English Page 34

This section sets out the pedagogical knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in English. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching English at KS1, KS2 and, where appropriate, to pupils in nursery and reception classes.
Section B Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 37
This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use.
Section C Trainees' knowledge and understanding of English Page 43
This section sets out the subject knowledge and understanding of English which trainees need to support effective teaching of English at primary level. Providers must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the English content in the National Curriculum Programmes of Study for English at KS1 and KS2, and that specified in paragraph 12 of this document.

Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of ITT must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of English in their teaching.

ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported seH-study or through guided reading before the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of sections A and B of the curriculum.

NB. All entrants to ITT are required, in the Requirements for all Courses of initial Teacher Training (Annex I), to be able to communicate clearly and grammatically in spoken and written standard English.


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The ITT National Curriculum for primary English does not attempt to cover everything that trainee teachers will be taught. It is expected that providers of ITT will include in their courses other aspects of English, not specified in this curriculum.

This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All primary ITT courses must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the three sections when designing primary English courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of ITT the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising primary English courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. It is intended that once courses have been devised to include this curriculum, then providers can work confidently from their own course documentation.

To ensure that the delivery of the curriculum can be managed within the available time, it is likely that primary English courses whose content currently varies significantly from that specified in this document will need considerable revision. The ITT primary English curriculum is intended to form the core of primary English ITT courses, not to fit round existing provision. HEls and their partnership schools may also wish to review their respective roles and responsibilities in delivering the different aspects of this curriculum.

Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of primary teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every newly qualified primary teacher to teach English effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They must, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable.

The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching of English by a newly qualified primary teacher in their first post.

The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each newly qualified teacher's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, newly qualified teachers will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers will continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with the subject and its pedagogy, so that they can teach English rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.

Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for Primary English

A. Knowledge and Understanding Required by Trainees to Secure Pupils' Progress in English

1. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning, and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in English, as part of all courses trainees must be taught the essential stages of development and progression in pupils' reading, writing, speaking and listening.


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As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of ensuring that pupils progress from:

a. their implicit knowledge of how language works, to understanding it explicitly so they can evaluate how they and others write and speak;

b. using predominantly informal and personal forms of language in both writing and talking, to being able to select and use formal and impersonal forms;

c. a limited awareness of audience, to writing and speech which shows adaptation to different audiences;

d. their use of non-conventional writing, to the use of conventional letter formation, spelling and grammar;

e. reading, writing and speaking where fluency is dependent on adult intervention, to independent control of a variety of forms of language.

2. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. the importance, in order to secure pupils' progress in English, of ensuring that pupils of all ages develop their skills in English at:

  • word level, through being taught phonics, spelling and vocabulary;
  • sentence level, through being taught grammar and punctuation; and
  • text level, through being taught comprehension and composition;
b. the importance of securing a close relationship between work at each of these levels;

c. about the emphasis that should be given to teaching at each level depending on pupils' ages and the stage of their development in English ego giving greatest attention to teaching word level skills to beginning readers.

3. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. that pupils' progress in speaking, listening, reading and writing depends on their early and continuing experience of:

i. spoken language in a wide variety of contexts for different purposes;

ii. language sounds, structures and patterns that come from extensive exposure to oral language, and the relationship between these and written text;

iii. hearing, discussing, re-telling and inventing stories and recounting and describing events;

and on their understanding of:

iv. how spoken language is related to written language;

v. the conventions of writing in English e.g. that writing progresses from left to right, from top to bottom and from the front to the back of a book.

b. that in order to enable pupils to read, write and spell individual words, they must teach pupils:
i. to recognise and be able to write the letters (graphemes) that represent the initial dominant sounds;

ii. to hear, identify and blend phonemes into words;


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iii. to identify the phonemes in words and segment words into their constituent sounds;

iv. that phonemes may be represented by different graphemes e.g. play, place, rain, weigh, and know the range of spellings that can represent a single vowel sound;

v. to recognise patterns of spelling related to word families, letter strings and derivations;

vi. to distinguish syllabic boundaries and use this skill to build up multi-syllabic words in their reading and segment words for spelling;

c. that, in order to enable pupils to understand the meaning of individual words, groups of words, sentences and groups of sentences they must teach pupils to:
i. recognise individual words and groups of words rapidly and automatically;

ii. use graphic, syntactic and contextual cues to monitor the accuracy of their reading and to detect and correct any errors;

iii. recognise the syntactic boundaries in text, including the use of punctuation to separate clauses and phrases, in order to gain meaning from groups of words;

iv. combine the meanings of phrases and clauses to gain an understanding of sentences and whole texts;

d. that in order to extend pupils' reading and their ability to understand the meaning of whole texts, they must teach pupils to:
i. recognise and recall simple and more complex material which is explicitly stated in the text;

ii. make simple and more complex inferences and deductions, drawing out implications, reasons and conclusions which are not stated explicitly in the text;

iii. analyse aspects of the text including:

  • character, plot and setting;
  • organisation and structure;
  • argument and viewpoint;
  • the effects of the language used;
  • relationship to other texts;
e. that in order to extend pupils' understanding of the structure of written and spoken language and how language works they must teach pupils:
i. how word order influences meaning e.g. that putting the object first in a sentence gives it greater emphasis;

ii. how different kinds of words function in sentences (parts of speech) e.g. that adverbs usually qualify verbs;

iii. how language can be described in terms of various functions e.g. questions, statements, commands;

iv. how sentences can be analysed into their constituent parts and how they can be connected in different ways e.g. dependent clauses and phrases;

v. that some words are more essential to meaning than others e.g. that the modal verb has little meaning unless used in conjunction with the main verb, and to use this knowledge in their reading and writing.


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4. In order to understand how to develop and extend pupils' reading and writing skills, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught the range, structures and features of literary and non-fiction texts suitable for use with pupils, either in print or IT-based, and how to evaluate their quality and their suitability to meet different teaching objectives.

B. Effective Teaching and Assessment Methods

5. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. that teaching programmes must include time dedicated to the explicit and systematic teaching of reading, writing (including grammar, spelling, punctuation and handwriting), speaking and listening e.g. a dedicated literacy hour,

b. the importance of building pupils' skills in English from word level, to sentence level, to text level, as well as from the text "down" i.e. starting with text and analysing its component parts at sentence level and word level;

c. how to develop pupils' enthusiasm for reading so that they read independently for pleasure and information;

d. how to teach the essential core of phonic and graphic knowledge explicitly and systematically, first teaching:

i. the alphabet and how the letters of the alphabet are used singly and in different combinations to make graphic representations of the sounds of English, e.g. digraphs - sh, ch, th, and trigraphs;
then
ii. how to identify initial and dominant sounds in words and how to identify and write the graphemes that represent them;
then
iii. how to identify and blend sounds into words, starting with consonant-vowel-consonant words e.g. c-a-t, and moving on to words requiring more complex blending; how to read such words automatically; and how to split them into their constituent sounds, identifying each sound in order to spell the word;
then
iv. how sounds can be represented by different graphemes, including common ways to read and spell each of the long vowel sounds, e.g. ay, a-e, ea; y, igh, i-e; ow, oa, o-e; oo, ew, u-e, and ways to represent other common vowel sounds, e.g. ur, er, ir, au, ow, or, a, aw.
In teaching this essential core, all courses must ensure that trainees are taught to use:
v. direct instruction and well-paced, interactive oral work;

vi. multi-sensory approaches, including seeing print and hearing it read simultaneously, hearing words or parts of words and writing the corresponding word or part-word accurately;

vii. activities and teaching materials which focus directly on the letter pattern being taught, e.g. common letter clusters, onset and rime, including those which involve alliteration, sound patterns and rhymes, and the skilful use of songs, stories, poems and language games.


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e. how to teach reading at word, sentence and text levels so that pupils are able to understand and respond to increasingly challenging and demanding texts through:

i. shared reading of texts, including enlarged texts of high quality with the whole class and with small groups, in order to teach reading strategies in the context of a text, and demonstrate effective reading with larger groups of pupils, using appropriately differentiated questioning to match individual ability;

ii. reading aloud expressively to the whole class and engaging pupils in discussion about key features of the text at text, sentence and word level;

iii. guided reading of multiple copies of the same text with groups of pupils, including how to:

  • select and present texts which are appropriately challenging and which allow teaching objectives to be met effectively;
  • discuss key features of a text, e.g. vocabulary, sentence structure, themes, both in advance of and during pupils' reading of the text;
  • structure and support independent reading and re-reading of the text;
iv. guided individual reading, including how to:
  • select texts which present pupils with adequate challenge and support;
  • identify teaching objectives for the task;
v. focused reading sessions with individual pupils, including how to:
  • assess the knowledge and skills which pupils use when reading and their fluency, accuracy and understanding;
  • use instructional dialogue which directs pupils' attention to reading errors and helps them to use phonic, graphic, syntactic or contextual cues appropriately to correct errors for themselves;
  • develop critical responses and help pupils to make connections between books;
vi. oral and written activities which require pupils to make critical and imaginative responses to aspects of literature and to evaluate the texts they read, referring to relevant passages or episodes to support their opinions;

vii. teaching methods which show pupils how to locate and use information efficiently from non-fiction texts and to compare, evaluate and synthesise information from different texts;

viii. the use of information technology to develop pupils' reading skills.

f. how to teach writing so that pupils write confidently, accurately, fluently and with understanding, including how to:
i. teach compositional skills through:
  • setting clear objectives in terms of features to be included in pupils' writing, including content, structure and organisation, and setting clear criteria for assessment;
  • providing examples drawn from different types of text, drawing attention to their characteristic features ego the use of imperatives in instructions and the use of connectives in explanations;
  • ensuring pupils are taught how to write in a range of genres, including extended non-fiction writing;

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  • teaching and exemplifying each element of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, proof-reading and presenting), and knowing:
    • when it is appropriate for pupils to undertake only aspects of the process rather than the process as a whole;
    • how and when pupils should use word-processors for writing, and when their use is not appropriate;
    • when and how to intervene to improve pupils' writing;
  • drawing on pupils' knowledge of spoken language and reading as a model or stimulus for writing and for increasing their awareness of differences between spoken and written language;
ii. teach grammar systematically, through:
  • direct instruction on grammatical rules and conventions;
  • investigating word order in sentences, the ways words function in sentences, the effects of deleting words and the ways words and sentences can be transformed e.g. made into plurals, negated, turned into questions;
  • requiring pupils to use relevant subject specific terminology when discussing their own and other people's writing e.g. past/present tense, pronoun, singular/plural, direct speech;
iii. teach punctuation, including through:
  • direct instruction on the rules and conventions of punctuation in order to emphasise the role of punctuation in making meaning clear to a reader;
  • ensuring that punctuation is taught as part of the process of writing, and particularly through proof-reading and requiring accurate presentation of texts;
  • activities which include reading aloud, through which pupils recognise the role of punctuation in marking grammatical boundaries and in symbolising and replacing the intonation of speech;
  • marking pupils' written work for punctuation in ways which ensure that pupils proof-read and correct their own work independently, ego using editorial conventions;
iv. teach spelling, building on pupils' reading in ways which promote independent spelling and improve pupils' accuracy, including teaching:
  • strategies for learning to spell, which draw on sound-symbol relationships, including:
      segmenting words into phonemes;
    • splitting words into syllabic boundaries and sub-lexical units of meaning e.g. re-mem-ber.
    • sounding words as they are spelt e.g. Wed-nes-day, rasp-berry;
  • strategies for learning to spell which draw on visual skills, including:
    • use of analogy e.g. relating night to fright, plight;
    • look, copy, cover, write, check, particularly for words which do not follow clear phonic patterns e.g. said, their, one, once;
    • visual reinforcement e.g. highlighting the difficult part of a word, for example, conscious (relate to science) or believe (relate to lie);

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  • strategies for learning to spell which draw on pupils' knowledge of word meanings and derivations, including:

      using word families, roots and derivations e.g. using classical roots, for example, highlighting "tract", from the Latin meaning draw or pull, in "protracted", "intractable", "traction", "retract" etc;

      knowledge of prefixes and suffixes and their meanings, so that the relationship between prefix, suffix and stem is clear e.g. dis-satisfied, hence two Ss; love-Iy;

      knowledge of comparative and superlative forms of words and how they are built e.g. shin-y, shin-ier, shin-iest;

    • knowledge of how word endings relate to verb tenses e.g. -ing, -ed;
    • knowledge that many interrogatives begin ''wh'' (why, what, where, who, which);
    • reference to family words which articulate letters which are silent or less obvious in the word to be spelt e.g. bomb/bombard; muscle/muscular.
  • other strategies, including:
    • using spelling rules and knowing any exceptions;
    • using dictionaries/spell checkers/word user lists;
    • inventing mnemonics which suit the individual;
    • regular spelling tests;
v. teach handwriting so that pupils acquire a fluent, joined and legible style which can be adapted for different purposes, through activities which develop:
  • motor control, posture and pen grip;
  • letter formation, including knowledge of:
    • where letters start and finish;
    • orientation;
    • height, size, spacing and the relative size of one letter to another, including capital letters;
    • "families" of letters and the relationship of one "family" of letters to another;
  • pupils' ability to join letters, using serifs and ligatures where appropriate;
  • a familiarity with the links between writing common letter strings and spelling;
g. how to teach speaking and listening through planned activities which require pupils to be articulate, coherent and effective in standard English, including how to teach pupils to:
i. adapt their speech for different purposes and situations using different registers as appropriate;

ii. listen attentively for different purposes ego in readiness to respond, take notes on specific points;

iii. participate effectively in discussion ego taking turns, taking different roles;


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h. how to develop and extend pupils' vocabulary through work on:

i. subject-specific terminology;

ii. imagery, idiom, figurative language and other imaginative ways of conveying meaning;

iii. new and unfamiliar words, including synonyms;

i. how to make effective provision for those pupils not yet fluent In English, including through:
i. ensuring pupils have ample opportunities to listen to well-spoken, standard English and to engage in activities before being asked to make spoken or written responses;

ii. extending pupils' spoken standard English through activities in which they are required to initiate talk, ask questions and engage in extended talk, in settings where their efforts can be supported and developed e.g. through teacher-led activities in small groups;

iii. making clear links between pupils' learning of spoken and written English;

iv. carefully planned involvement of bilingual and other support staff and use of additional resources such as visual aids, talking books and dual-language materials;

j. how to identify and teach pupils whose difficulties In acquiring literacy skills arise out of a particular learning difficulty, including:
i. how to diagnose each pupil's specific difficulties and to teach using an approach which is most helpful to that pupil ego using visual or multi-sensory approaches for children who have difficulty in discriminating sounds;

ii. how to use Information technology to foster the development of literacy skills.

6. Common errors in English

As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. to recognise common pupils' errors in English, to understand how these arise, how they can be prevented and how to remedy them, including, among others:

i. errors arising from failure to select the correct grapheme/phoneme correspondence e.g.
  • spellings containing incorrect representation of long central vowel sounds because pupils' knowledge of letter/sound correspondence has not encompassed the range of spellings available to represent a single sound - "smiyl/smiul" for "smile";
  • spellings which omit the weaker elements of consonant blends, e.g. omitting "b" from 'thing";
ii. errors arising from over-reliance on one reading strategy, e.g.
  • inability to decode words using phonic strategies in unfamiliar or complex texts, because of over-dependence on contextual cues;
  • sounding out an unknown word using phonic strategies but being unable to self-correct if this approach leads to an incorrect word;
iii. inaccurate use of commas, speech marks and apostrophes;

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iv. inconsistent use of verb tenses and the past participle;

v. repetition of "and"/"then"/"next" in chronological writing due to poor knowledge of the range of connectives available;

vi. inappropriately organised written work e.g. poor paragraphing; unshaped, rambling text containing under developed ideas following one another in rapid succession; lack of conclusion etc;

vii. difficulties with pronunciation for those not yet fluent in English e.g. "asked" pronounced "askid";

b. how to avoid teaching English in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupil errors, for example through:
i. asking pupils to "guess" unknown words when they are reading, rather than teaching them how to use phonic strategies to decode, and other reading strategies to check meaning;

ii. over-generalising e.g. teaching that adding "-ed" to verbs is always the way to form the past tense;

iii. teaching pupils that commas and full stops used in writing correspond exactly to pauses in spoken language, rather than denoting units of meaning.

7. In order to understand how to evaluate and assess their teaching and their pupils' learning in English, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing progress In English, including how to:

i. make effective use of assessment information on pupils' attainment and progress in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons;

ii. set up assessment activities so that specific assessment in English can be undertaken for all pupils, including the very able, those who are not yet fluent in English and those with special educational needs, through:

  • assessment, at an early stage. of pupils' strengths and weaknesses in using language, including through listening to pupils talking and reading, observing them writing and analysing the strengths and weaknesses shown;
  • the analysis of pupil errors through the use of miscue analysis and running records;
iii. make summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in English, and present the outcomes for reporting purposes through the use of National Curriculum tests, baseline assessment where relevant, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment, including the appropriate use of standardised reading tests and spelling tests;
b. how to recognise the standards of attainment In English they should expect of their pupils, including:
i. the expected demands in relation to each relevant level description for KS1 and KS2 in English and how to judge levels of attainment against these;

ii. how to identify under-achieving and very able pupils in English;

iii. how national, local, comparative and school data about achievement in English can be used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets;


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c. how inspection and research evidence and international comparisons on the teaching of English can inform their teaching.

8. Opportunities to practise

As part of all courses, trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.

C. Trainees' Knowledge and Understanding of English

9. All trainees enter a course of primary initial teacher training with a minimum qualification of GCSE Grade C (or its equivalent) in English. However, the equivalence of such qualifications does not necessarily reflect a common range and depth of study. The English qualifications held by trainees may not be sufficient to provide them with a systematic understanding of language and how it works, or to enable them to feel confident in those aspects of English which they have studied and which they are required to teach.

10. Providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of spoken and written English against both the English content specified in the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study and that set out in paragraph 12 below. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge and understanding are identified, providers must make arrangements, for example, through supported self-study, to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge and understanding during the course and that, by the end of the course, trainees are competent in using the specified knowledge and understanding of English.

11. In relation to the English content set out in paragraph 12, therefore, the course must ensure that trainees are given opportunities to:

a. understand, and use correctly, the terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum English Order, are necessary to enable trainees to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss spoken and written English at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding;

b. consider how the different elements of the system of spoken English and the system of written English relate to each other and the implications of this for teaching;

c. make explicit reference to their subject knowledge when analysing, describing and explaining pupils' developing competence and their errors in reading, writing, speaking and listening;

d. use information technology when appropriate and to become aware of its strengths and limitations.

12. Subject knowledge and understanding

This section has been divided into two columns. The left-hand column specifies the knowledge and understanding of English which all trainees are required to demonstrate by the end of their course, in order to underpin effective teaching.

The right-hand column has been included to indicate the relevance of the required subject knowledge to the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study, which trainees are required to teach.

As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand:

a. the nature and role of standard English as the medium through which all subjects are taught and as the general, public English used to communicate within the United Kingdom and throughout the English-speaking world;

b. the spoken and written language systems of English.


[page 44]

Lexical

As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
i. phonology - the sound system of language
ii. graphology - the writing system, i.e. the English alphabetic system
iii. how the writing system represents the sound system
for example:
  • to teach pupils to read and spell using phonological strategies
  • iv. morphology - word structure and derivations
  • to enable pupils to break down words into their constituents, e.g. compound words - head/ache, prefixes and suffixes;
  • to make links between words in order to derive meaning and spelling
  • v. word meanings and how words relate to each other
  • meanings, use and interpretation of words in contexts;
  • vocabulary characteristics of standard English;
  • choosing vocabulary for different contexts, purposes and audiences.





  • [page 45]

    Grammatical

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    vi. the grammar of spoken and written English, including:
  • the grammatical function of words/phrases in clauses and sentences e.g. subject, conjunctions, verbs, nouns, adverbs, predicates etc;
  • word order and cohesion within sentences;
  • types of sentences - statements, questions, commands, exclamations;
  • simple, compound and complex sentences in writing;
  • for example:
  • to show pupils different ways in which ideas can be ordered and organised into sentences;
  • to help pupils read and re-read texts to establish, confirm or check meaning;
  • to improve pupils' understanding of the grammatical; strictures appropriate for different purposes, and their ability to write in a variety of forms and styles;
  • to contribute to pupils' acquisition of standard English in speech and writing;
  • to stimulate pupils' interest in the ways in which language works;
  • to analyse pupils' writing in order to determine what has been achieved and what needs to be taught for pupils to progress.
  • vii. punctuation - its main functions and conventions;to help pupils understand the role and importance of punctuation in marking grammatical boundaries, and the relationship between grammar and punctuation in establishing and clarifying meaning, e.g. where different punctuation can change the meaning of or alter the emphasis of a sentence even if the word order remains unchanged.


    [page 46]

    Textual

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    viii. cohesion - the way that individual words, sentences and paragraphs work together to convey meaning, including the logic and sequence of ideas;for example:
  • to enable pupils to understand the importance of vocabulary and grammar in creating coherent and cohesive texts, such as by helping them to understand that words and phrases such as "first", "second", "third", suggest sequence, "thus" or 'Therefore" suggest logic, and "as a result" suggests causation; and to help pupils understand the purpose and effect of the use of pronouns or topic sentences.
  • ix. layout including paragraphs and conventions associated with particular forms of writing;
  • to help pupils understand how meaning can be conveyed by the layout of text;
  • conventions, e.g. the layout of a formal letter.
  • x. organisation including the structure of written text, the order of paragraphs, and the chronology of plot;
  • to help pupils understand the choices available to them in the way they organise their writing, e.g. the order of the key points for and against an argument; the way ideas can be grouped for emphasis or effect.
  • c. how to evaluate texts and language critically, including:

    i. an ability to analyse different types of fiction, poetry and non-fiction texts, evaluating their quality and making judgements about them;

    ii. an awareness of how information and ideas are presented and can be interpreted in different ways, depending on point of view, context, purpose and audience;

    d. technical terms including:
    • sub-lexical features, including: grapheme, digraph, trigraph, phoneme, blend, onset, rime, syllable, morpheme, roots of words/word stems, diphthong, prefix, suffix;
    • syntactic and grammatical features, including: word classes, ego adverb, pronoun, preposition, word function, ego subject, object, predicate; simple, compound and complex sentences, clauses and phrases, finite and non-finite verbs;
    • textual features, including: figurative language, ego simile and metaphor, cohesion, voice, style, genre.

    [page 47]

    Annex D

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for primary mathematics


    The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for primary mathematics specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on primary and KS2/3 courses of initial teacher training must be taught and be able to use in their teaching. Trainees on KS2/3 mathematics courses must also cover the relevant parts of the ITT National Curriculum for secondary mathematics (Annex G), as preparation for teaching the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics at Key Stage 3. The requirements will come into effect from September 1998.

    Providers of ITT must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach primary mathematics effectively are judged to have successfully completed a primary ITT course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to primary mathematics. Standards which apply to generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded QTS must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A). As part of all courses, providers of ITT are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' National Curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively.

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics includes some references to information and Communications Technology (ICT) in relation to primary mathematics. However, from September 1998 (8), all trainees will be required to have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content of the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The ICT curriculum aims to equip every newly qualified primary teacher with the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching primary mathematics. It is therefore the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the way trainees are taught to use ICT is firmly rooted within primary mathematics teaching, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically, or as an end in itself. In order to support providers in this, the TTA intends to produce separate, subject-specific guidance which can be used in conjunction with this document.

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics should therefore be read alongside the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) and the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B).

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary mathematics which builds upon this curriculum is at Annex G. Providers of primary ITT and trainees on primary ITT courses will find that document an important resource. In particular, it should be referred to when teaching about KS2/KS3 transfer issues and in order to identify effective strategies for teaching mathematics to pupils whose attainment in mathematics is above that expected for their age.

    This curriculum has been written for providers of primary mathematics ITT courses in schools (partnership schools, SCITT groups and those having teachers on employment-based training), higher education institutions and elsewhere, and others who have a background in mathematics. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

    8. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.


    [page 48]

    The curriculum is in three sections.

    Section A Pedagogical knowledge and understanding required by trainees to secure pupils' progress in mathematics Page 49

    This section sets out the pedagogical knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in mathematics. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching mathematics at KS1, KS2 and, where appropriate, to pupils in nursery and reception classes.
    Section B Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 53
    This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use.
    Section C Trainees' knowledge and understanding of mathematics Page 59
    This section sets out the subject knowledge and understanding of mathematics which trainees need to support effective teaching of mathematics at primary level. Providers must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the mathematics content in the National Curriculum Programmes of Study for mathematics at KS1 and KS2, and that specified in paragraph 13 of this document.

    Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of ITT must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of mathematics in their teaching.

    ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported self-study or through guided reading before the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of sections A and B of the curriculum.


    [page 49]

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics does not attempt to cover everything that trainee teachers will be taught. It is expected that providers of in will include in their courses other aspects of mathematics, not specified in this curriculum.

    This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All primary ITT courses must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the three sections when designing primary mathematics courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of ITT the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising primary mathematics courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. It is intended that once courses have been devised to include this curriculum, then providers can work confidently from their own course documentation.

    To ensure that the delivery of the curriculum can be managed within the available time, it is likely that primary mathematics courses whose content currently varies significantly from that specified in this document will need considerable revision. The ITT primary mathematics curriculum is intended to form the core of primary mathematics ITT courses, not to fit round existing provision. HEls and their partnership schools may also wish to review their respective roles and responsibilities in delivering the different aspects of this curriculum.

    Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of primary teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every newly qualified primary teacher to teach mathematics effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They must, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable. The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching of mathematics by a newly qualified primary teacher in their first post.

    The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each newly qualified teacher's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, newly qualified teachers will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers will continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with the subject and its pedagogy, so that they can teach mathematics rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

    Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for primary mathematics

    A. Knowledge and Understanding Required by Trainees to Secure Pupils' Progress in Mathematics

    1. Early mathematics (nursery and reception)

    As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the Importance of pupils in nursery and reception classes acquiring the basic mathematical concepts necessary for later progression in mathematics, including the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to:


    [page 50]

    a. recognise and use numbers, including:

    i. counting;

    ii. appropriate recording of numerals and counting;

    iii. understanding the value of small numbers, and combining them;

    iv. becoming familiar with larger numbers;

    b. compare, as a basis for recognising relationships, e.g. in measures and shapes;

    c. order and sequence, as a basis for understanding number, spatial relationships and measures;

    d. identify the properties of, and sort, sets of objects, numbers and shapes as a basis for classification;

    e. establish invariant properties as a basis for work in number, measures and shape;

    f. use mathematical language to describe shape, position, size and quantity, e.g. circle, in front of, bigger than, more than, and become familiar with the language associated with carrying out simple number operations;

    g. use their developing understanding to carry out simple number operations and to solve practical problems.

    2. Progression in pupils' mathematics

    a. In order to ensure that pupils develop a progressively more powerful, abstract and precise understanding of mathematics, all courses must ensure that trainees are taught that pupils' progress depends upon teaching which enables them to go beyond their concrete experiences in order to establish general concepts and develop the use of flexible and efficient mental and written procedures.

    b. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in mathematics, all courses must ensure that trainees are taught the essential stages of development and progression in pupils' mathematics.

    As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the Importance of ensuring that pupils progress from:

    i. using informal mathematical vocabulary, to using precise and correct mathematical vocabulary, notation and symbols;

    ii. counting, ordering and sorting small whole numbers, to using and approximating numbers within the extended number system and using the number operations to calculate accurately and efficiently;

    iii. guessing unknown numbers as a basis for trial and improvement and forming simple statements with unknowns, to solving simple equations using inverse operations, manipulating algebraic symbols, and constructing general expressions;

    iv. sorting and classifying shapes and identifying properties, to transforming shapes, recognising invariant properties and using precise geometric language;

    v. using simple drawings and diagrams to represent mathematical ideas, to using conventional diagrams, graphs and notation;

    vi. measuring with non-standard units, to understanding the systems of measurement in common use and using them to measure and calculate angle, length, mass, area, volume, capacity, speed and time, give approximate answers and estimate;


    [page 51]

    vii. collecting discrete data by counting and recording these with simple diagrams and graphs, to handling both discrete and continuous data, classifying, representing and interpreting the data, employing more sophisticated graphical forms and summary statistics.
    3. Key aspects of mathematics underpinning progression

    In order to understand how to develop pupils' mathematics, all courses must ensure that trainees know and understand the following key aspects of mathematics. They must be taught how and why the different elements work, how they are connected and how they underpin pupils' progress in developing understanding of, and skills in, mathematics.

    a. Structures and operations, including:

    i. the structure of number e.g. order and size;

    ii. the conceptual links between different aspects of number e.g. place value, zero, fractions, powers of ten, and how the relationship between these provides a conceptual framework for decimals;

    iii. the nature of the four operations and the relationships between them e.g. subtraction as the inverse operation of addition; multiplication as repeated addition; if ab = c (and a ≠ 0) then c ÷ a = b;

    iv. the precedence of number operations e.g. in the absence of brackets, multiplication and division take priority over addition and subtraction;

    v. the manipulation of numbers and part numbers e.g. multiplying and dividing by 3, 30 and then 300 etc.; using the sequence 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 to find 7/16;

    vi. the basic rules of arithmetic

    • a + b = b + a; a x b = b x a (the commutative laws) e.g. that 4 x 3 = 3 x 4 [but 4 ÷ 3 ≠ 3 ÷ 4];
    • (a + b) + c = a + (b + c); (a x b) x c = a x (b x c) (the associative laws) e.g. that (2 + 4) + 1 = 2 + (4 + 1) [but (2 - 4) - 1 ≠ 2 - (4 - 1)];
    • a x (b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c); a x (b - c) = (a x b) - (a x c) (the distributive laws) e.g. that 2 x (5 + 3) = (2 x 5) + (2 x 3) [but 2 ÷ (5 + 3) ≠ (2 ÷ 5) + (2 ÷ 3)];
    vii. the effect of operations e.g. knowing when and why multiplying by a number results in a larger value and when it does not, (1/2 of 1/2 is 1/4); repeated transformations in geometry;

    viii. how and why algorithms work, including standard and non-standard written methods for the four rules of arithmetic, including subtraction by decomposition and subtraction by equal addition, long multiplication, long and short division;

    b. Equivalence, including:
    i. numbers represented in equivalent forms e.g. fractions/decimals/percentages (1/2 of 6 = 0.5 of 6 = 50% of 6); 362 = 300 + 60 + 2; 78 = 7 x 10 + 8; 36 = 2² x 3²; and how and why to move between different representations e.g. converting fractions to decimals and explaining the reasons for the equivalence;

    ii. that forms of notation can be equivalent e.g. divide "÷", "/"; multiply "x". ".", 5(4), ab; 2³ = 2 x 2 x 2; and that the same form of notation can represent different concepts e.g. that 1/4 can mean: 1/4 of a whole; 1/4 of a number; 1 ÷ 4; 1/4 on a number line; ratio; a scale factor etc;


    [page 52]

    iii. that algebraic expressions can be equivalent e.g. that 2n + 2 is equivalent to 2(n + 1);

    iv. that certain mathematical terms relate to equivalent operations e.g. the use of a scale factor, enlargement or reduction, involves multiplication;

    v. that a mathematical term can define a class of items that meet specified properties e.g. "pentagon" represents all 5-sided polygons;

    vi. that, in some cases, ordinary words used in a mathematical sense can mean different things e.g. and does not mean add in the sentence "find the difference between 6 and 4" but it does in "total 3 and 4"; and that use of the same language may require different operations e.g. if 20 is shared equally between 4 children, how much will each child get (division); and if 4 children shared equally a sum of money and each gets 6, how much did they share? (multiplication);

    vii. that combinations of operations may or may not lead to equivalent outcomes e.g. the final position of a shape when reflected then rotated may be different if rotated then reflected;

    viii. conservation of properties under operations e.g. angles in a triangle remain unchanged after scaling; some transformations lead to congruence;

    c. Classification, including:
    i. properties of numbers e.g. odd, prime, squares, factors, triangular numbers;

    ii. properties of shapes e.g. categorising shapes according to properties, such as regular polygons with equal sides and equal angles; the relationships between the interior/exterior angles and sides of 2-D shapes; the faces, edges and vertices of 3-D shapes;

    iii. summary statistics of sets of data e.g. range, median, mode, mean;

    iv. comparison and ordering e.g. ordering containers by capacity, finding numbers greater than a hundred or less than -2, using relationships, such as "in proportion to", "similar to", "congruent to";

    d. Diagrammatic, graphical and algebraic representation, including:
    i. construction of 2-D and 3-D shapes;

    ii. representation of algebraic relationships using co-ordinate systems e.g. transformation of shapes, scale factor; mappings such as x → + x + 2; functions; converting Fahrenheit to Celsius using C = 5/9 (F-32);

    iii. representation of discrete and continuous data e.g. using tally charts, frequency diagrams, line graphs, pie charts, scattergrams, tables and charts;

    iv. interpretation and prediction e.g. recognising trends, effects of sample choice, extrapolation from data to predict;

    v. representing a numerical problem as an equation, which can then be solved;

    e. Methods and applications, including:
    i. use of correct mathematical terminology e.g. product, sum, mean, zero, perpendicular;

    ii. the difference between mathematical conventions and inherent mathematical properties e.g. the order of mathematical operations is a convention, but the fact that multiplying two negative numbers gives a positive answer (-3x - 4 = + 12), is inherent in the mathematical structure;

    iii. selecting and using the most appropriate and efficient mathematical methods to solve problems;


    [page 53]

    iv. testing, conjecturing and justifying e.g. stating and showing that the sum of any two odd numbers is even; testing whether, and understanding why, the sum of 3 consecutive numbers is always divisible by 3; explaining why multiplication does not always make numbers bigger;

    v. the application of number to shape and space, data handling and measures e.g. the use of percentage to compare properties in samples of different sizes; the relationship between measurement and the concept of ratio;

    vi. the use of mathematics across the curriculum e.g. collecting, presenting and interpreting data in science, history and geography; measuring in science, and measuring and using properties of shape in design, technology and art;

    vii. reasoning and proof e.g. reasoning that the exterior angles of a polygon sum to 360° and proving it through the use of geometrical properties.

    4. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of engaging pupils' interest in, and developing their enthusiasm for, mathematics.

    B. Effective Teaching and Assessment Methods

    5. As part of all 3-8 courses and 3-11 courses, trainees must be taught:

    a. how to teach the early stages of mathematics to pupils in nursery and reception classes through:

    • high quality, interactive oral work;
    • demonstration; and
    • structured practical activities
    e.g. using construction activities, physical activities, stories, rhymes, songs and everyday experiences

    in order to develop pupils' understanding of number, measures and shape and space, their awareness of simple number operations, and their use of mathematical language.

    6. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

    a. how to teach accurate and rapid mental calculation, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. identify and use the properties of number and the relationships between them: size (including estimation and approximation). order and equivalence;

    ii. understand the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division;

    iii. have instant recall of number facts, including multiplication tables;

    iv. use known number facts to derive others;

    v. build effective strategies for dealing with mental calculations and use and adapt these for more complex cases;

    vi. use a variety of mental strategies including:

    • rearranging numbers e.g. putting the larger number first for addition - recognising that 7 + 23 is the same as 23 + 7;
    • using repeated operations e.g. finding 1/9 by finding 1/3 of 1/3;
    • halving and doubling e.g. 14 x 3 = 7 x 6 = 42; 15% of 60 is 10% of 60 (=6), plus 50% of 6 (= 3) to give 9;

    [page 54]

    • recognising and using near doubles or halves e.g. 16 + 17 = (16 x 2) + 1 or (17 x 2) - 1; realising that 24 - 13 is the same as 24 - 12 - 1 = 11;
    • using patterns of similar calculations e.g. since 25 x 4 = 100 then 26 x 4 is 4 more, working out the 6x table by doubling the 3x table;
    • partitioning e.g. 27 + 34 = 20 + 30 + 7 + 4 = 50 + 11 = 61;
    • bridging e.g. through the nearest 10, or a multiple of 10, working out mentally that 158 + 17= 175 and explaining that 158 + 2 + 15 = 160 + 15 = 175;

    b. how to teach efficient standard and non-standard written and part-written methods of computation for calculations too complex to be undertaken by mental methods, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. understand and know how to use at least one standard method of calculation for each operation;

    ii. practise and refine written methods derived from mental methods;

    iii. contrast the efficiency of standard and non-standard methods of calculation and assess the extent to which they apply to particular problems;

    iv. are presented with calculations in a format which allows them to select and use the most efficient method for any calculation e.g. presenting calculations in horizontal format which encourages a choice of method, rather than presenting calculations set out vertically, which implies that a standard written method must be used;

    v. select and use the most efficient standard or non-standard written method for the calculation in hand, recognising where a mental method is more efficient e.g. that 2001-1999 is best done mentally;

    vi. determine a correct sequence of operations to use for calculations;

    vii. use mental and written methods to approximate expected answers to computations and check for reasonableness and accuracy;

    c. how to teach the solving of numerical problems involving more than one operation, through ensuring that pupils:
    i. read, interpret and simplify problems;

    ii. determine which operations are needed to solve problems;

    iii. select the most appropriate mental, partial written, written or calculator strategy;

    iv. carry out accurately the mathematical operations required to solve the problem;

    v. check their answers for reasonableness and accuracy;

    vi. present solutions logically, whether orally or in writing, as appropriate;

    d. how to teach the appropriate and efficient use of calculators, especially when working with large numbers and realistic data, ensuring that they are not used to replace mental calculation;

    e. how to teach the foundations of algebra, through ensuring that pupils:

    i. are taught how to make general statements using words, pictures and symbols that they can record and interpret;

    [page 55]

    ii. move from using words and pictures to represent values, to using letters to represent unknowns and variables;

    iii. make succinct general statements arising from examples and observations, and begin to recognise the power of algebra to do so;

    iv. use the equals sign accurately in different mathematical statements or sentences, so that they understand where and why the sign must be used, and that the quantities or expressions on either side must be equivalent;

    f. how to teach shape and space and measures, through ensuring that pupils:
    i. handle and construct shapes in order to begin to classify them, identify their properties in order to form generalised concepts of 2-D and 3-D shapes, and use the associated vocabulary accurately;

    ii. understand that angular measure describes the amount of turn, before identifying, constructing and measuring angles;

    iii. appreciate the effect of enlargement and reduction of 2-D and 3-D shapes, recognising which properties are conserved and which change, including the relationship between length, area and volume;

    g. how to teach data handling, through ensuring that pupils are given the kinds of examples and tasks which lead them to appreciate the advantages and limitations, according to context, of different forms for representing discrete and continuous data;

    h. the ways in which information technology can be used to support mathematics teaching, including its potential for use by pupils in:

    i. the rapid exploration and manipulation of data e.g. through using a spreadsheet to find a mean and draw a bar chart;

    ii. working with dynamic images;

    iii. learning from immediate feedback e.g. entering an instruction and changing it in the light of an observed response, for example, when building a shape on the screen using Logo;

    iv. developing logical thinking e.g. writing short programs or using a spreadsheet;

    v. practice and reinforcement e.g. using software designed to "teach" a particular skill and receiving rapid assessment feedback;

    i. how to plan and pace individual mathematics lessons and sequences of lessons in the short, medium and longer term which:
    i. ensure that the introduction of any new topic incorporates the essential features of the mathematical concepts which pupils must ultimately acquire;

    ii. include sufficient time dedicated to the systematic and regular teaching of number, including mental work e.g. a dedicated numeracy hour;

    iii. secure deeper understanding of the connections within and between different areas of mathematics, including through purposeful enquiry within mathematics;

    iv. allow rigorous application of mathematical knowledge and understanding to new and real contexts and problems;


    [page 56]

    j. how to select and use materials, including:

    i. how to evaluate, choose and use mathematical resources effectively to support and enhance teaching, including textbooks, mathematics schemes, teachers' resource books, materials, apparatus, calculators, software, educational broadcasts, visits and real life materials and situations;

    ii. how to identify when it is appropriate to use apparatus to support progression in mathematics and when it is not;

    k. how to lead oral work while teaching whole classes or groups which:
    i. has pace and variety, and flows well from one section of the mathematics lesson to the next;

    ii. includes sufficient teacher exposition, direct instruction and effective questioning to secure the involvement of the whole class and to enable pupils to contribute actively to discussion, and allows time for pupils to think through answers before a response is demanded;

    iii. includes teachers' questions which are adjusted and targeted to ensure that pupils of all abilities are engaged;

    iv. encourages and enables pupils to show their understanding of mathematical operations, and elicits any misconceptions they may have;

    v. requires pupils to provide clear explanations to the teacher and to other pupils, as well as giving answers, and encourages them to ask questions;

    vi. provides clear feedback, indicating how pupils' work can be improved and remedying misconceptions;

    l. how to structure their teaching and use interactive methods with whole classes, groups and individuals, including:
    i. introducing the lesson to command attention, to set out what mathematics is to be taught and, where appropriate, to review and draw upon previous work;

    ii. using skilfully framed open and closed, oral and written questions which elicit answers from which pupils' mathematical understanding can be judged and giving clear feedback to take pupils' learning forward;

    iii. using oral and mental work, in particular to develop and extend pupils' use of mathematical vocabulary and accurate and rapid recall of number facts;

    iv. giving clear instructions e.g. how to measure angles using a protractor; how to present a mathematical argument;

    v. providing clear explanations when introducing an area of mathematics work and when resolving pupils' misconceptions and errors;

    vi. demonstrating and illustrating mathematics using appropriate resources and visual displays e.g. effective use of an OHP or board; showing the structure of place value using appropriate apparatus; using spreadsheets for data handling;


    [page 57]

    vii. providing opportunities for follow-up, guided practice and consolidation in mathematics, including how to:
    • use diverse activities on a mathematical topic in order to consolidate and extend understanding;
    • provide pupils with opportunities to solve problems through applying mathematical knowledge, understanding and skills to new situations;
    • intervene constructively, e.g. to monitor progress or inject pace and challenge, and not just when pupils request help;
    • provide corrective instruction for pupils who have not grasped the material being taught;
    viii. summarising and reviewing during and towards the end of lessons the mathematics that has been taught and what pupils have learnt, and using this to engage pupils in the presentation of their work, to identify and rectify misunderstandings, and to give pupils insight into the next stage of their learning.
    7. Common errors and misconceptions in mathematics

    As part of all courses, trainees must be taught:

    a. to recognise common pupil errors and misconceptions in mathematics, and to understand how these arise, how they can be prevented, and how to remedy them, including, among others:

    i. counting on 3 from 7 to get 9 as result of starting with the 7;

    ii. reading 206 as 26 as a result of misunderstanding about the number system and place value;

    iii. misunderstanding the order of the subtraction operation e.g. 3 - 7 = 4;

    iv. an expectation that the outcome of division always gives a smaller value e.g. 4 ÷ 1/2 = 2;

    v. lining up columns of' numbers for operations against a left or right hand margin, irrespective of the position of the decimal point;

    vi. thinking that numbers are larger if there are more decimal digits e.g. 3.16 is larger than 3.2;

    vii. stating that two identical angles are unequal because the length of the arms are different in each, as a result of thinking that an angle is the distance between the ends of the lines;

    viii. misreading the scale on a ruler, starting at 1, rather than 0, as a result of not understanding that the measure starts from 0;

    ix. not using the scale when interpreting a graph, treating the graph as a picture rather than a scaled representation;

    x. thinking that, when throwing a die, a 6 is harder to get than other numbers, through not understanding the nature of equally likely and independent events;

    b. to avoid teaching mathematics in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupils' misconceptions by, for example:
    i. recognising that if pupils are taught to add a zero when multiplying by 10, they may also assume the rule works with decimals and numbers less than 1 e.g. avoiding errors such as 2.3 x 10 = 2.30 or 2.3 x 10 = 20.3;

    [page 58]

    ii. making it clear that it is the relative position of the digits which is altered, and not the decimal point which moves, when multiplying and dividing by powers of 10;

    iii. ensuring that algebraic symbols are used to represent values and not as shorthand for words e.g. 2a + 3b is not shorthand for 2 apples plus 3 bananas;

    iv. recognising that if examples of geometric shapes are always presented in the same orientation this may limit pupils' concept of these shapes;

    v. recognising the need to use precise mathematical vocabulary or notation e.g. avoiding the use of "take away" as the general word for subtraction, or avoiding misuse of the "=" sign to carry on part of the same calculation (e.g. 3 x 10-2 written as 3 x 10 = 30 - 2 = 28, rather than 3 x 10 - 2 = 30 - 2 = 28).

    8. In order to understand how to evaluate and assess their teaching and pupils' learning in mathematics, all courses must ensure trainees are taught:

    a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing pupils' progress in mathematics, including how to:

    i. make effective use of assessment information on pupils' attainment and progress in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons;

    ii. set up assessment activities so that specific mathematical assessment can be undertaken for all pupils, including the very able, those who are not yet fluent in English and those with special educational needs, through preparing oral and written questions and setting up activities and tests which check for:

    • misconceptions and errors in mental arithmetic and in written methods of calculation;
    • understanding of mathematical concepts and the connections between different mathematical ideas;
    iii. make summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in mathematics and present the outcomes for reporting purposes through the use of National Curriculum tests, baseline assessment where relevant, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment, including the appropriate use of standardised tests;
    b. how to recognise the standards of attainment in mathematics they should expect of their pupils, including:
    i. the expected demands in relation to each relevant level description for KS1 and KS2 in mathematics and how to judge levels of attainment against these;

    ii. how to identify under-achieving and very able pupils in mathematics;

    iii. how national, local, comparative and school data about achievement in mathematics can be used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets;

    c. how inspection and research evidence, and international comparisons on the teaching of mathematics, can inform their teaching.

    9. Opportunities to practise

    As part of all courses, trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.


    [page 59]

    C. Trainees' Knowledge and Understanding of Mathematics

    10. All trainees enter a course of primary initial teacher training with a minimum qualification of GCSE Grade C (or its equivalent) in mathematics. However, the equivalence of such qualifications does not necessarily reflect a common range and depth of study. The mathematics qualifications held by trainees may not be sufficient to ensure they feel confident about, and are competent in, the mathematics they have studied and which they are required to teach.

    11. Providers should audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in mathematics against both the mathematics content specified in the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study and that set out in paragraph 13 below. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge and understanding are identified, providers must make arrangements, for example, through supported self-study, to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge and understanding during the course and that, by the end of the course, trainees are competent in using the mathematics specified.

    12. In relation to the mathematics set out in paragraph 13, as part of all courses trainees must be given opportunities to:

    a. understand, and use correctly, mathematical terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum Mathematics Order, are necessary to enable trainees to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss primary mathematics at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding;

    b. identify how the different areas of mathematics relate to each other in order to provide coherence and progression in mathematics, and to make conceptual links across the subject and consider the implications of this for their teaching;

    c. solve problems that require the use and application of mathematics;

    d. use technology such as calculators and computers when appropriate, recognise when they might be inappropriate and become aware of their strengths and limitations;

    e. enjoy mathematics so that they can teach it with enthusiasm.

    13. Subject knowledge and understanding

    This section has been divided into two columns. The left-hand column specifies the mathematical knowledge and understanding which all trainees are required to demonstrate by the end of their course, in order to underpin effective teaching. Trainees should be able to make conceptual links between the aspects of mathematics listed in the left-hand column.

    The right-hand column has been included to indicate the relevance of the required subject knowledge to the KS1 and KS2 programmes of study, which trainees are required to teach.



    [page 60]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    a. number and algebra
    i. the real number system:
  • the arithmetic of integers, fractions and decimals;
  • forming equalities and inequalities and recognising when equality is preserved;
  • the distinction between a rational number and an irrational number; making sense of simple recurring decimals.
  • for example:
    the order and size of numbers;
    place value;
    the relationship between different representations, e.g. fractions, decimals, percentages, and determining which representation is most appropriate;
    extending the number system to negative numbers, fractions and decimals;
    effects of multiplying positive numbers less than one;
    methods of computation, including the interpretation of remainders: 1/3 = 0.3'; 1/9 = 0.1'; 1/3 + 1/9 = 0.4'.
    ii. Indices:
  • representing numbers in index form including positive and negative integer exponents;
  • standard form.
  • for example:
    finding and recognising squares and cubes of numbers;
    ways of representing very large and very small numbers;
    developing understanding of lace value based on powers of ten (integers and decimal fractions).





    [page 61]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    iii. number operations and algebra:
  • using the associative, commutative and distributive laws;
  • use of cancellation to simplify calculations;
  • using the multiplicative structure of ratio and percentage to solve problems;
  • finding factors and multiples of numbers and of simple algebraic expressions;
  • constructing general statements;
  • manipulating simple algebraic expressions and using formulae;
  • knowing when numerical expressions and algebraic expressions are equivalent;
  • number sequences, their nth terms and their sums.
  • for example:
    using efficient written methods of computation e.g. 8 x 5 x 2 = 8 x (5 + 2) = 8 x 10 = 80;
    using algebraic structure to develop flexible, efficient methods of mental calculation e.g. 17 x 9 = (10 + 7) x 9 = 10 x 9 + 7 x 9;
    sharing 12 in the ration 1:2;
    moving from boxes and words to letters and symbols, e.g. from 13 + [] = 17 to 13 + n = 17;
    exploring number sequences, recognising and explaining patterns;
    expressing a general term of a number sequence as an algebraic expression.
    iv. equations, functions and graphs:
  • forming equations and solving linear and simultaneous linear equations, finding exact solutions;
  • interpreting functions and finding inverses of simple functions;
  • representing functions graphically and algebraically;
  • understanding the significance of gradients and intercepts;
  • interpreting graphs, and using them to solve equations.
  • for example:
    representing general statements about numbers in algebraic form e.g.
    - recognising that a number is a multiple of 5 and that 5 therefore is a factor of that number, and representing it as 5n;
    - recognising that an even number can be represented by 2n and an odd number by 2n+1;
    finding numbers that satisfy different conditions e.g.
    - a number plus three equals eighteen. What is the number?
    - the sum of two numbers is 27 and their difference is four, what are the numbers?
    - the sum of a number and its square is 2 less than 14, what is the number?
    linear relationships and simple mappings;
    recognising the relationship between co-ordinates of points on a straight line;
    drawing graphs to find approximate solutions of equations;
    using graphical representation of data to make predictions;
    understanding the different kinds of graphical representation in mathematics, across the curriculum, and in real situations.


    [page 62]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    b. mathematical reasoning and proof
  • the correct use of =, ≡, →, ∴ ;
  • the difference between mathematical reasoning and explanation, as well as the proper use of evidence;
  • following rigorous mathematical argument;
  • familiarity with methods of proof, including simple deductive proof, proof by exhaustion and disproof by counter-example.
  • for example: demonstrating and checking a particular case;
    the dangers of drawing conclusions after an event has occurred a few times;
    recognising the difference between something that happens occasionally and something that will always happen;
    using experimental evidence to determine likelihood and to predict;
    proving, for example, that numbers divisible by 6 are also divisible by 3 (deduction);
    proving, for example, that there are only 11 unique nets of cubes (exhaustion);
    disproving, for example, that any quadrilateral with sides of equal length is a square (counter-example).
    c. measures
  • understanding that the basis of measures is exact and that practical measurement is approximate;
  • standard measures and compound measures, including rates of change;
  • the relationship between measures, including length, area, volume and capacity;
  • understanding the importance of choice of unit and use of proportion.
  • for example:
    the relationships between imperial and metric measures in daily use;
    compound measures;
    work in shape and space including calculation and measuring length, area, volume, capacity;
    measuring time;
    measuring angles in degrees, half turn, quarter turn (right angles);
    measuring on scale diagrams;
    using given measurements to produce accurate diagrams.


    [page 63]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    d. shape and space
  • Cartesian co-ordinates in 2-D;
  • 2-D transformations;
  • angles, congruence and similarity in triangles and other shapes;
  • geometrical constructions;
  • identifying and measuring properties and characteristics of 2-D shapes;
  • using Pythagoras' theorem;
  • recognising the relationships between and using the formulae for the area of 2-D shapes; including rectangle and triangle, trapezium, and parallelogram;
  • the calculation of the area of circles and sectors, the length of circumferences and arcs;
  • recognise, understand and use formulae for the surface area and volume of prisms;
  • identifying 3-D solids and shapes and recognising their properties and characteristics.
  • for example:
    using co-ordinates to study locations;
    relationships between co-ordinates of related points on a line or in a shape;
    making and moving shapes;
    recognising the names and characteristics of transformations e.g. translation, rotation, reflection, enlargement;
    visualising transformations;
    visualising and drawing nets of solids;
    understanding the properties of position, direction and movement;
    identifying conservation following certain transformations;
    understanding and using the properties of shapes, including symmetry;
    calculating perimeters and ares of simple shapes;
    measuring perimeters and areas of more complicated shapes;
    introducing the relationship between circumference and diameter and finding the area of a circle;
    identifying the numbers of faces, edges and vertices of solid shapes and the relationship between these;
    sorting solid objects according to specified characteristics;
    comparing the volumes of different objects;
    finding volumes of cuboids;
    finding, by practical methods, volumes of more complicated shapes;
    recognising reflective symmetries of 3-D shapes.




    [page 64]

    As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understandTo underpin the teaching of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 programmes of study, including:
    e. probability and statistics
  • using discrete and continuous data and understanding the difference between them;
  • tabulating and representing data diagrammatically and graphically;
  • interpreting data and predicting from data;
  • finding and using the mean and other central measures;
  • finding and using measures of spread to compare distributions;
  • using systematic methods for identifying, counting and organising events and outcomes;
  • understanding the difference between probability and observed relative frequencies;
  • recognise independent and mutually exclusive events.
  • for example:
    counting (discrete data), measuring (continuous data);
    tabulating results from a survey;
    selecting tables and graphs to display different types of data and justifying choice;
    using a spreadsheet or data handling package;
    interpreting data in other subjects;
    understanding and using measures of average, the mode, the median and the mean in relevant contexts, and the range as a measure of spread;
    using tree diagrams to sort and list outcomes; listing the total scores possible when using two dice or two spinners;
    recognising where probabilities must be estimated and where they can be based on assumed equally likely outcomes;
    recognising that if a head results from the toss of a coin this does not influence the outcome of the next toss;
    recognising that when selecting a card from a pack, drawing a spade and drawing a heart are mutually exclusive events.


    [page 65]

    Annex E

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for primary science


    The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for primary science specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on primary and KS2/3 courses of initial teacher training must be taught and be able to use in their teaching. Trainees on KS2/3 science courses mist also cover the relevant parts of the ITT National Curriculum for secondary science (Annex H), as preparation for teaching the pupils' National Curriculum for science at Key Stage 3. The requirements will come into effect from September 1999.

    Providers of ITT must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach primary science effectively are judged to have successfully completed a primary ITT course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to primary science. Standards which apply to generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded QTS must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A). As part of all courses, providers of ITT are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for primary science does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' National Curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively.

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary science includes some references to information and Communications Technology (ICT) in relation to primary science. However, from September 1998 (9), all trainees will be required to have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content of the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The ICT curriculum aims to equip every newly qualified primary teacher with the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching primary science. It is therefore the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the way trainees are taught to use ICT is firmly rooted within primary science teaching, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically or as an end in itself.

    In order to support providers in this, the TTA intends to produce separate, subject-specific guidance which can be used in conjunction with this document.

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary science should therefore be read alongside the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) and the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B).

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary science which builds upon this curriculum is at Annex H. Providers of primary in and trainees on primary ITT courses will find that document an important resource. In particular, it should be referred to when teaching about KS2/KS3 transfer issues and in order to identify effective strategies for teaching science to pupils whose attainment is above that expected for their age.

    This curriculum has been written for providers of primary science in in schools (partnership schools, SCITT groups and those having teachers on employment-based training), higher education institutions and elsewhere, and others who have a background in science. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

    9. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.


    [page 66]

    The curriculum is in three sections.

    Section A Pedagogical knowledge and understanding required by trainees to secure pupils' progress in science Page 68

    This section sets out the pedagogical knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in science. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching science at KS1, KS2 and, where appropriate, to pupils in nursery and reception classes.
    Section B Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 71
    This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use.
    Section C Trainees' knowledge and understanding of science Page 77
    This section sets out the subject knowledge and understanding of science which trainees need to support effective teaching of science at primary level. Providers must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the science content in the National Curriculum Programmes of Study for science at KS1 and KS2, and that specified in paragraph 13 of this document.

    Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of in must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of science in their teaching.

    ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported seH-study and through guided reading before the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of sections A and B of the curriculum.

    The ITT National Curriculum for primary science does not attempt to cover everything that trainee teachers will be taught. It is expected that providers of in will include in their courses other aspects of science, not specified in this curriculum.


    [page 67]

    This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All primary ITT courses must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the three sections when designing primary science courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of in the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising primary science courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. It is intended that once courses have been devised to include this curriculum, then providers can work confidently from their own course documentation.

    To ensure that the delivery of the curriculum can be managed within the available time, it is likely that primary science courses whose content currently varies significantly from that specified in this document will need considerable revision. The ITT primary science curriculum is intended to form the core of primary science ITT courses, not to fit round existing provision. HEls and their partnership schools may also wish to review their respective roles and responsibilities in delivering the different aspects of this curriculum.

    Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of primary teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every newly qualified primary teacher to teach science effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They must, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable, e.g. at paragraph B.6.d {trainees must be taught ... how to (evaluate experimental evidence with pupils) ... by discussing precision, error and discrepant results. To achieve this, trainees need to be able to explain and interpret these terms at a level appropriate to the experiment being undertaken, rather than acquiring a detailed understanding of the statistical theory underlying such terms. The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching of science by a newly qualified primary teacher in their first post.

    The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each newly qualified teacher's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, newly qualified teachers will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers will continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with the subject and its pedagogy, so that they can teach science rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

    Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.



    [page 68]

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for primary science

    A. PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING REQUIRED BY TRAINEES TO SECURE PUPILS' PROGRESS iN SCIENCE

    1. All courses must ensure that trainees are taught some of the reasons why it is important for all pupils to learn science, including that:

    a. knowledge and understanding of science helps pupils make sense of natural phenomena;

    b. knowledge and understanding of science and of the ways scientists work can help pupils understand the basis for decisions in an increasingly technological world;

    c. through science pupils can develop investigative and practical skills which can help them to solve problems;

    d. science is interesting and intellectually stimulating;

    e. science is an important part of contemporary culture and is relevant to, and has implications for, people of all nations.

    2. Early science (nursery and reception)

    Trainees on 3-8 and 3-11 courses must be taught with reference to SCAA's "Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Entering Compulsory Education" the importance of providing pupils in nursery and reception classes with opportunities to:

    a. recognise the features of living things, objects, materials and events in the natural and made world, including looking closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change, e.g. by teachers' structured intervention in exploratory and investigative play;

    b. gain information about why things happen and how things work;

    c. talk and think critically and creatively about their observations and begin to record them with adult support;

    d. select and use materials and equipment, and take turns and co-operate when using equipment;

    e. use technology to support their learning in science, e.g. use construction kits to make moving toys; use computer programs which encourage experimentation with sound or colour.

    3. Pupils' progress in science

    a. Trainees must be taught that pupils' progress in science depends upon teaching which:

    i. establishes a framework of basic scientific knowledge and principles;

    ii. requires pupils to look for scientific explanations in interpreting phenomena;

    iii. develops pupils' scientific skills explicitly.


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    b. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in science, trainees must be taught the importance of ensuring that pupils progress:

    i. from using everyday language to an increasingly precise use of technical and scientific vocabulary, notation and symbols;

    ii. from personal scientific knowledge in a few areas to understanding in a wider range of areas and of links between areas;

    iii. from describing events and phenomena to explaining events and phenomena;

    iv. from explaining phenomena in terms of their own ideas to explaining phenomena in terms of accepted scientific ideas or models;

    v. from participating in practical science activities to building increasingly abstract models of real situations;

    vi. from unstructured exploration to more systematic investigation of a question;

    vii. from using simple drawings, diagrams and charts to represent and communicate scientific information to using more conventional diagrams and graphs.

    4. Key aspects of science underpinning pupils' progress in acquiring scientific knowledge, understanding and skills

    a. In order to secure progress in pupils' knowledge and understanding of key scientific ideas and the relationships between them, trainees must be taught that:

    i. pupils bring to science lessons their own ideas about science which will often differ from accepted scientific ideas, e.g. pupils often think that plant material comes from the soil rather than mainly from carbon dioxide and water;

    ii. some scientific ideas are counter-intuitive in that they seem contrary to everyday experience, e.g. heavy objects fall through the air at the same rate as lighter objects unless the light objects are slowed by air resistance;

    iii. pupils' incomplete understanding of scientific ideas sometimes prevents them from making distinctions between separate scientific ideas, e.g. melting and dissolving;

    iv. there are sometimes links between apparently different scientific ideas or areas of science, and that they must teach their pupils that ideas which apply in one context may also apply to different subject matter, e.g. that the same principle lies behind the evaporation of water from puddles, sweating, drying paint and in the water cycle;

    v. models, analogies and illustrations can help make complex scientific principles more comprehensible, but that:

    • all analogies have limitations and pupils may take them too far, e.g. unlike the water circuit model of electricity, current does not leak out in a puddle if the circuit is broken;
    • pupils may devise their own ways of modelling scientific ideas which will sometimes be useful, e.g. dissolving to form a saturated solution is like a theatre with the audience filling seats until no more can get ill, but they may need to adjust their representation in the light of additional evidence, e.g. more sugar will dissolve in solutions at higher temperatures but you cannot get more people into a theatre when it is hotter;

    [page 70]

    • different kinds of physical model are essential to teaching science, to represent phenomena which are too large, e.g. models of the Solar System; too small, difficult or impossible to see, e.g. internal organs of the human body; or where they present a hazard;
    vi. some illustrations assume a "general knowledge" which pupils may not possess, e.g. referring to aeroplane propellers when discussing seed dispersal.
    b. In order to secure progress in pupils' knowledge, understanding and skills in science through using practical science activities, trainees must be taught that:
    i. activities must be designed to lay the foundations for understanding of major scientific ideas at a later stage, e.g. early exploration of musical instruments should form the basis for later work on pitch, loudness and the transmission of sound;

    ii. scientific skills and processes need to be taught explicitly, e.g. pupils need to be taught observation skills explicitly or they may "look without seeing" and fail to recognise or identify the significant features necessary to move their learning forward;

    iii. practical science activities can make a major contribution to securing pupils' interest and progress in science, but pupils' scientific knowledge and understanding cannot be developed solely through practical activities.

    Trainees must recognise those aspects of the Programmes of Study for science at KS1 and KS2 which:

    • cannot be taught through practical work, e.g. much work on the Earth and beyond; the role of micro-organisms in causing disease;
    • can be taught partly through practical work but require other teaching methods to be used in addition, e.g. investigating the effect of exercise on pulse rate teaches about heart rate but not about the structure of the heart;
    iv. they must make explicit the scientific knowledge and understanding implicit in science activities and their outcomes, e.g. when carrying out activities in which light is blocked and shadows are formed, teachers should make it explicit that light does not travel through the blocking material.
    c. Trainees must be taught the importance of language in securing progress in pupils' knowledge and understanding of science, and that:
    i. the language which teachers use, e.g. to describe and explain phenomena and to question pupils, will affect the quality of pupils' knowledge and understanding, and that teachers should avoid teaching in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupils' misunderstandings, e.g. suggesting that substances disappear when they evaporate or that plants take in food for energy;

    ii. scientific descriptions and explanations require a precise use of terms and linguistic structures which will often need to be taught explicitly, e.g. asking pupils to compare, draw conclusions, suggest what leads to, or give reasons for, and that pupils' understanding of the everyday meaning of some words, e.g. animal, solution, force, energy, may be a barrier to their understanding of the same words used in a scientific context;

    iii. the correct use of scientific terms can help them to organise their knowledge, e.g. "predator" means any animals that preys on others;

    iv. the use of scientific terms does not necessarily indicate scientific understanding;


    [page 71]

    v. pupils may have an understanding of the scientific idea being taught but may not have the words to express that understanding. Teachers should recognise alternative ways in which understanding may be demonstrated, e.g. through observing the ways pupils tackle practical work; through looking at pupils' drawing.
    5. Trainees must be taught the value of engaging all pupils' interest in science, including:

    i. developing pupils' enthusiasm for science;

    ii. helping pupils to realise the contribution of different civilisations to our knowledge in science and to value the work of scientists from different cultures.

    B. EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

    6. Methods of developing pupils' understanding of science

    Trainees must be taught how to build on pupils' existing understanding and ideas about scientific processes and concepts in order to take their puplls' learning forward, including:

    a. how to recognise and address common pupil errors and misconceptions in science, including:

    i. understanding how these arise, and how to challenge them in order to ensure that pupils develop a more scientific understanding of the idea in question;

    ii. avoiding teaching science in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupils' misconceptions, e.g. by suggesting that "cold" moves, by explaining thermal insulation in terms of "keeping the cold out", rather than in terms of preventing an object from cooling down;

    b. how and when to use, for different purposes, skilfully framed open and closed, and oral and written, questions which:
    i. elicit pupils' existing knowledge or ideas including identifying misunderstandings about scientific ideas;

    ii. help pupils make connections between new and existing knowledge, e.g. relating work on the water cycle to previous experimental work on evaporation;

    iii. require pupils to make explicit the implicit intermediate steps in a causal sequence, e.g. in pupils' explanations of how to build a circuit that works;

    iv. stimulate discussion and require pupils to articulate and consolidate their understanding through prediction and explanation, and require them to use evidence to justify a conclusion or opinion, e.g. asking pupils to predict how plants would grow if they were removed from the light; asking pupils to use evidence to refute a conclusion;

    v. focus pupils' attention on specific features or quantitative aspects of an activity or investigation so that they understand the accepted scientific explanation, which might otherwise be missed;

    vi. require pupils to broaden their understanding by making links between scientific ideas, or by applying their knowledge and understanding in new contexts, e.g. after completing work on the properties of different surfaces pupils can be asked to explain why cars skid when it is icy;


    [page 72]

    c. how to provide effective exposition to promote pupils' scientific understanding and to address misconceptions, including:

    i. emphasising those aspects of science which are most important to the scientific idea(s) being taught, e.g. recognising that when the effects of exercise on breathing rate are considered, if pupils instead focus on how hot they feel, re-directing their attention appropriately;

    ii. how to simplify scientific ideas while retaining integrity of meaning;

    iii. how to break complex ideas into smaller steps and how to sequence those steps;

    iv. how and when to use physical models, analogies, illustrations and examples to make complex scientific phenomena more comprehensible to pupils, taking account of their usefulness and limitations;

    v. how and when to use teacher or pupil demonstrations, e.g. to demonstrate a phenomenon; to illustrate a technique;

    vi. how and when to use secondary source materials including video and other ICT-based simulations, e.g. in order to demonstrate phenomena and processes that it may be impracticable to undertake in the classroom, and when and why to expect pupils to use simple secondary source materials and how to help them to be effective in doing so;

    d. how to use practical science activities, including how to:
    i. Identify the teaching and learning objective(s) for any practical science activity, and decide whether the use of investigative, exploratory or other practical work is the most effective way of meeting that objective and of supporting progress in pupils' scientific understanding;

    ii. teach, and ensure pupils make progress in scientific skills and procedures, through:

    • planning practical science activities in which:
      • pupils think through what they will do before they begin;
      • there are opportunities for pupils to formulate questions in forms which can be investigated, and to make predictions;
      • the work is likely to yield valid outcomes, e.g. through identifying the question to be investigated, controlling independent variables, identifying dependent variables, determining sample size;
      • plans are reviewed with pupils in the light of the outcomes in order to improve future planning;
    • teaching practical skills explicitly, including the correct and appropriate use of simple scientific apparatus and instruments to increase pupils' precision in observation and measurement, ensuring that pupils know how to apply the skills safely, correctly and appropriately in their science work;
    • ensuring pupils gather evidence, by:
      • encouraging attention to detail through skilled use of attention-focusing questions when intervening and leading discussion:
      • encouraging the use of all the senses, as appropriate;

    [page 73]

      • guiding pupils in the appropriate selection and use of apparatus;
      • guiding pupils on the choice of measurements and observations to be made;
      • providing sufficient time for observations or measurements to be made and repeated if necessary;
    • ensuring pupils record and present evidence, by:
      • teaching pupils how to make notes and keep records during science activities, by making explicit the main points of the activity and those observations which are essential to the successful completion of the work;
      • ensuring that pupils make use of their notes and records during group or class discussions;
      • teaching pupils how information and data can be collected and may be recorded and presented in different forms, and how to decide the best way to record and present their findings;
    • ensuring pupils interpret their findings, by:
      • teaching pupils how to distinguish between describing and explaining their findings;
      • helping pupils to identify patterns and relationships in their findings and discussing the implications of these with pupils;
      • teaching pupils to refer to available evidence in order to determine the likelihood of different possible explanations;
      • evaluating evidence with pupils, including by discussing precision, error and discrepant results;
      • considering, where necessary, the reasons why the outcomes of a particular activity do not demonstrate what was intended, e.g. because of faulty equipment, poor experimental deSign or poor technique;
      • ensuring that the results of experimental work are always discussed and that what is found is compared with what was predicted or expected;
      • helping pupils to draw conclusions from their findings and to relate them to underlying scientific ideas;
    e. how to make effective links between science teaching and other areas of the primary curriculum, including:
    i. how to develop and support pupils' literacy as an integral part of science teaching, for example by:
    • teaching scientific vocabulary, including science-specific terms and the science-specific meaning of everyday terms;
    • teaching the linguistic structures required to communicate in science, e.g. phrases such as "compare', "draw conclusions', "leads to", "reasons for";

    [page 74]

    • using science to provide a purposeful context for teaching and consolidating different sorts of extended writing, including report writing, sequential writing, and constructing explanations and arguments;
    ii. how to ensure that progress in pupils' scientific understanding is supported effectively by sound mathematical understanding, including:
    • how particular mathematical knowledge and understanding is needed for pupils to make progress in science, e.g. counting and matching; using and ordering numbers to one decimal place; using and ordering negative numbers; calculating simple means; understanding when it is appropriate to use a line graph and when a bar chart;
    • when it is appropriate for pupils to use calculators for computation in science and when it is not;
    iii. how to relate science to relevant work in the foundation subjects and the key educational themes, e.g. environmental education, health education;
    f. how to teach pupils to communicate their scientific understanding:
    i. orally;

    ii. in writing, including:

    • how to present a written report, through:
      • discussion with pupils about the best ways of communicating information for particular purposes;
      • direct teaching of particular ways of presenting information and their associated conventions, e.g. use of standard units and their abbreviations (kg, m, s);
    • how to use other ways of communicating scientific understanding, e.g. making models, cognitive mapping (concept maps, flow charts, radiant maps etc.), multimedia presentations;
    g. how to give due attention to ethical and environmental issues, including:
    i. being aware of and knowing how to handle sensitive or controversial issues that may arise at KS1 and KS2, e.g. recognising that there are many ways of achieving a balanced diet; consideration of differences between pupils; when teaching inheritance, avoiding the assumption that pupils live with their biological parents;

    ii. how to decide on the appropriateness of particular topics for pupils of different ages, e.g. whether to introduce discussions of destruction of the ozone layer when young pupils are unable to grasp the complexities of the scientific arguments or affect the outcomes;

    iii. sensitivity to the needs of living things in the environment.

    7. Managing science in the classroom

    Trainees must be taught:

    a. how to plan and pace individual science lessons, and sequences of lessons in the short, medium and longer term, which identify clear learning objectives and which ensure that all teaching incorporates the essential features of the scientific ideas, processes or skills which pupils are intended to acquire, and which relate the science to be taught to real contexts and problems whenever possible, e.g. when teaching about plant growth and food chains, relating this to the fact that in droughts plants do not grow and animals die, and that this may cause famine;


    [page 75]

    b. how to organise whole class, group work and individual work in science effectively for different purposes, including how to:

    i. Introduce the lesson to command attention, to stimulate interest and to set out what pupils will learn from the science to be taught. and, where appropriate, to review and draw upon previous work;

    ii. decide whether whole class, group work or individual work is the most efficient and effective organisation through which the teaching objectives for that lesson can be met;

    iii. select appropriate scientific activities;

    iv. summarise and review during, and towards the end of the lesson, the science that has been taught, and what pupils have learnt, and use this to engage pupils in the presentation of their work, to identify and address misunderstandings, and to give pupils insight into the next stage of their learning;

    c. how to manage science activities, including:
    i. how to familiarise themselves with the activity so that their lesson plans include the equipment needed and pupils' access to it;

    ii. how to take account of safety and legal considerations, including:

    • the potential hazards associated with teaching the science content of Programmes of Study at KS1 and KS2 and how to avoid these hazards;
    • assessing the risks associated with particular science activities and how to select a safe way to proceed, e.g. melting substances using a hotplate, a candle in a sand tray or hot water as the heat source;
    • how to teach pupils to recognise risks and act safely;
    • current legislation relevant to teaching science at KS1 and KS2, e.g. care of living things, keeping animals in the classroom;
    iii. how to allow sufficient time for completion of the activity including effective briefing of pupils, review of the results obtained and clearing up;
    d. how to use science resources effectively, including:
    i. knowledge of the range of available science resources, e.g. scientific equipment and apparatus, textbooks, science schemes, teachers' resource books, worksheets, video, educational broadcasts, visits to museums and science centres and real life materials and situations, including the outdoor environment;

    ii. deciding whether the use of a particular resource will support the achievement of identified teaching objectives;

    e. how to use information and communications technology (ICT) effectively to support pupils' learning in science (10).

    10. From September 1998, all courses of initial teacher training must cover the ITT National Curriculum for the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in subject teaching. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only. For primary trainees the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching applies to the core subjects and their specialist subject(s). The TTA will issue separate subject-specific guidance to support the introduction of the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching.


    [page 76]

    8. Assessing and evaluating teaching and learning in science

    Trainees must be taught:

    a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing pupils' progress in science, including how to:

    i. devise differentiated learning objectives, assess how well they have been achieved and use this assessment to improve teaching;

    ii. mark and monitor pupils' assigned classwork and homework, providing constructive oral and written feedback and setting targets for pupils' progress;

    iii. Identify from pupils' oral and written work, and from observation, the basis for their understanding of scientific ideas;

    iv. undertake day-to-day and more formal science assessment activities which can be undertaken for all pupils including the very able, those who are not fluent in English and those with special education needs;

    v. prepare oral and written questions and set up activities and tests which check for:

    • misconceptions and errors in science;
    • understanding of scientific ideas and the connections between different scientific ideas;
    • understanding of and competence in the processes and procedures associated with practical science activities and the ability to link experimental evidence with scientific understanding;
    • competence in the technical skills associated with experimental work;
    vi. keep records of pupils' progress and attainment across the science curriculum;

    vii. make summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in science for use in assessment and reporting, e.g. through the use of National Curriculum tests. baseline assessment where relevant, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment;

    viii. judge levels of attainment against the expected demands in relation to each relevant level description for KS1 and KS2 in science;

    ix. Identify pupils who are both under-achieving and very able in science;

    x. know how research evidence and national, local, comparative and school data about achievement in science can be used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets.

    9. Opportunities to practise

    As part of all courses, trainees roost be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.


    [page 77]

    C. TRAINEES' KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE

    10. From 1 September 1998, all those born on or after 1 September 1979 who enter primary and KS2/3 courses of ITT will have attained a minimum qualification of GCSE Grade C (or its equivalent) in a science subject (including combined science) (11). There is no requirement for those born before 1 September 1979 to have such a qualification, or its equivalent.

    Even for those holding the GCSE qualification, the wide range of approved science subjects (see footnote) means that an equivalent qualification will not necessarily reflect common scope and depth of study. The science qualifications held by trainees, or the previous experience of science education for those not holding such qualifications, may not be sufficient to ensure they feel confident about, and are competent with, the science they have studied and are required to teach.

    11. Providers should audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills against both the science content specified in the KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study and that set out in paragraph 12 below. Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers must make arrangements, for example through supported self-study, to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge and understanding during the course and that, by the end of the course, trainees are confident and competent in using the science specified.

    12. Trainees must be given opportunities within their courses to:

    a. enjoy science so that they can teach it with enthusiasm;

    b. use technology such as calculators and computers when appropriate, recognising when they might be inappropriate, and to become aware of their strengths and limitations;

    c. access sources of information which support teaching such as research and inspection evidence, and help maintain the currency of their knowledge and teaching materials, e.g. internet, international links;

    and in relation to the science set out in paragraph 13:

    d. understand, and use correctly, scientific and technical terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum Science Order, are necessary to enable trainees to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss primary science at a professional level, and to read classroom-focused research and inspection evidence with understanding;

    e. Identify how the different areas of science relate to each other (unifying principles and concepts), so that they can make conceptual links across the subject, present pupils with a coherent perspective on the subject matter taught and ensure progression in pupils' learning, e.g. understand that, although energy is not in the Programmes of Study for Key Stage 1 or Key Stage 2, it is a unifying concept across many different areas of science;

    f. articulate their understanding of scientific ideas, reflect upon them and revise them where necessary.

    13. The scientific knowledge and understanding which all trainees are required to demonstrate by the end of their course is set out below. Trainees should be able to make conceptual links between the aspects of science listed. Under each section, examples from the pupils' National Curriculum for science have been included to indicate the relevance of the required subject knowledge to the KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study which trainees are required to teach.

    11. The science qualifications with titles beginning "Science" e.g. Science: biology which were approved by the Secretary of State under Section 400 of the Education Act 1996 for the year in which the qualification was awarded are acceptable to meet this requirement. For trainees without standard qualifications, providers should set their own equivalence tests. The TTA will audit samples of tests to ensure that standards are appropriate.


    [page 78]

    a. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand the nature of science, including that:

    i. science is a way of making sense of natural phenomena and as such involves the interaction of an existing body of knowledge with the -discovery- of new evidence, leading to a re-interpretation or explanation of phenomena and processes;

    ii. scientific knowledge and explanations may change as new evidence is collected and thinking is challenged;

    iii. science is a co-operative activity which involves a world-wide community of scientists and others in developing more powerful ways of understanding the natural world;

    iv. science does not explain every phenomenon;

    v. scientific knowledge and understanding can be used in solving a range of problems but that the available scientific evidence is often limited, and its application to everyday problems often entails ethical or moral questions.

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • the way in which scientific evidence relates to familiar phenomena including personal health and the environment;
    • ways of treating living things and the environment with care and sensitivity;
    • the importance and value of science as a way of explaining many phenomena.

    b. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand the processes of planning, carrying out and evaluating scientific investigations, including:

    i. the fact that not all questions can be investigated practically;

    ii. how to construct questions that can be investigated, including considering the distinction between a guess, a prediction and a hypothesis;

    iii. how to plan investigations appropriate to the question asked, the resources available and the context in which they are carried out;

    iv. the nature of variables including: identification of categoric, independent and dependent variables, and recognition of discrete and continuous variables;

    v. the structure and use of controlled experiments, taking into account all the relevant variables to allow a valid comparison of different sets of data;

    vi. the ways in which samples can be selected, how this will influence the outcomes of investigation and how this can be recognised when findings are interpreted;

    vii. the need to plan investigations so as to use the most appropriate scientific methods for the collection, analysis and interpretation of evidence;

    viii. possible reasons for experimental findings not supporting accepted scientific evidence, including: extent of available evidence, natural variation in measurements, limitations of resources and experimental design;

    ix. the fact that outcomes of an investigation should be considered in the light of the original question and the wider body of available and relevant scientific evidence.

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • how to turn ideas into a form that can be investigated;
    • how to make decisions about the type of evidence that is needed and ways in which it can be collected;
    • how to construct a "fair test";
    • how to use first-hand experiences and secondary sources as ways of obtaining evidence; how to determine whether the evidence collected supported a prediction.


    [page 79]

    c. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand the methods employed in scientific investigation and how to use them in order to collect, record, analyse and interpret evidence, including:

    i. the variety of ways to collect evidence including techniques for observing, measuring, testing and controlling variables, carrying out surveys, sampling, using models and interrogating secondary sources;

    ii. the importance of selecting and using equipment correctly in order to gather evidence at the required level of detail;

    iii. the need for accuracy and precision in observations and measurements, in the replication of readings, in the control of variables and in the acknowledgement of sources of evidence in order to establish the reproducibility, reliability and validity of the evidence;

    iv. the appropriate units, including SI units, which should be used to quantify the different types of measurement required;

    v. the need to record the relevant evidence accurately, and where appropriate at suitable time intervals using appropriate techniques, including tables, histograms, graphs or electronic devices;

    vi. the different ways in which evidence can be analysed such as looking for patterns and trends and using simple mathematical devices, e.g. means, scatter grams, and that the form of analysis chosen should be matched to the type of evidence available;

    vii. the different ways in which objects and organisms can be identified and classified, including the construction and use of keys.

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • collect evidence in an appropriate manner;
    • select and use appropriate equipment for the task in hand;
    • choose the appropriate form of measurement to use;
    • accuracy in carrying out measurements, repeating them where necessary;
    • use appropriate forms of recording and presenting evidence;
    • interpret evidence and draw appropriate conclusions;
    • identify trends in results.

    d. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand the need for clear and precise forms of communication in science, including:

    i. correct scientific terminology for phenomena, events and processes;

    ii. the accepted scientific terminology, forms of representation, symbols and conventions.

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • the use of appropriate scientific vocabulary to describe and explain the behaviour of living things, materials and processes;
    • the use of a wide range of methods to present information in an appropriate systematic manner.


    [page 80]

    e. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand health and safety requirements and how to implement them, including:

    i. the major legal requirements for health and safety, including restrictions on keeping living things in the classroom;

    ii. the fact that every activity involves an element of risk which should be assessed and allowed for in planning and organising it;

    iii. the accepted actions and procedures in the event of an accident.

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • recognition of hazards when carrying out investigations, e.g. when heating substances, and actions to be taken to control these risks.

    f. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand life processes, including:

    i. functioning of organisms:

    • organisms have the potential to carry out the life processes of nutrition, movement, growth, reproduction, respiration, sensitivity and excretion;
    • the functions of nutrition, circulation, movement, growth and reproduction in humans;
    • tissues and organs of a multi-cellular organism carry out specialised functions;
    • most organisms are made up of cells and almost all cells have a nucleus which controls their activities;
    • the health of an organism can be affected by a range of factors, for example, in humans, drugs, exercise and other physical, mental and environmental factors;
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • both animals and plants grow and reproduce but only plants photosynthesise;
    • the functions of the root, stem and leaf in a green plant;
    • a simple model of how blood circulates through arteries and veins;
    • the role of the skeleton and the muscles in support and movement;
    • pollination and fertilisation in green plants;
    • the importance of an adequate and balanced diet and exercise;
    • the effects of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs.


    [page 81]

    ii. continuity and change:

    • a species is a group of organisms which can inter-breed to produce fertile offspring;
    • there is variation within any species;
    • the principal agent controlling the characteristics and working of cells and organisms is their genetic material, DNA;
    • reproduction results in DNA from the parent or parents being passed on to future generations;
    • before reproduction, the genetic material of an organism is replicated;
    • mutations may occur during the process of DNA replication and during sexual reproduction, and genetic material will inevitably be re-combined, both of which will cause variation in the offspring. In asexual reproduction (cloning) the amount of variation is characteristically very small and the offspring look exactly like the parent;
    • most biologists believe that variation is caused by genetic mutation and re-combination, coupled with interaction between organisms and their environment, leads to natural selection and evolutionary change;
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • the main stages of the human life cycle;
    • the life cycle of flowering plants;
    • organisms of the same species are similar in most respects.

    iii. ecosystems:

    • a diversity of organisms exists, and includes bacteria, fungi, plants and animals;
    • a diversity of organisms is found in most habitats;
    • the organisms, including humans, in an ecosystem interact with each other and with the physical aspects of the environment;
    • micro-organisms are widely distributed.
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • locally occurring animals and plants can be identified and assigned to groups using keys;
    • animals and plants show adaptations to their environments;
    • food chains describe feeding relationships and generally start with green plants;
    • some micro-organisms are beneficial to humans while others are harmful.


    [page 82]

    g. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand materials and their structure, including:

    i. materials:

    • the types of particles that make up all materials include atoms, protons, neutrons and electrons;
    • there are about 100 elements which join together in different combinations to make up all biological and other materials;
    • when atoms of different elements combine together the resulting material is a compound;
    • atoms can be held together in different ways;
    • the properties of a compound depend on the way in which the particles making it up are arranged and held together, such as in molecules and giant structures;
    • in chemical reactions new substances are formed;
    • physical changes involve changes in the arrangement and spacing of particles but no new substances are formed;
    • the properties of materials can often be predicted from a knowledge of their structures, and vice versa, but can also depend on their shape and size;
    • most materials can exist as solid, liquid and gas, depending on conditions;
    • changes of state can be brought about by transferring energy;

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • to consider the range and diversity of materials encountered;
    • to classify and group materials according to their properties;
    • to recognise that different objects can be made from the same material and that the properties of materials remain the same even though the objects are different;
    • to recognise that ice, water and steam are the same material, and to understand how they can be changed from one to another;
    • to apply understanding of changes of state to contexts such as the water cycle.

    ii. particle theory and the conservation of mass:

    • finely divided substances still contain many atoms and molecules;
    • the movement of particles explains the properties of solids, liquids and changes such as dissolving, melting and evaporating;
    • during chemical changes bonds joining atoms together are broken and new bonds are formed;
    • mass is conserved in physical and chemical changes.
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • to understand that gases are material even when they are invisible;
    • to understand that matter is not lost during physical changes;
    • to understand and explain the changes of the water cycle;
    • to recognise that during chemical changes new materials are formed and matter does not just disappear.


    [page 83]

    h. Trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand physical processes, including:

    i. electricity and magnetism:

    • all matter is made up of particles which include electrons: these carry a negative charge;
    • in good conductors, such as copper, a small proportion of electrons (so called "free electrons") can move easily; in poor conductors, like wood, movement is very difficult;
    • "resistance" (measured in ohms) is a measure of the difficulty of flow of electrons in the material;
    • when a cell (or battery) is attached in a circuit, it provides a "push" which causes electrons to move in one direction around the circuit; this movement (flow) of electrons is called current (measured in amps);
    • current is not consumed and is the same in all parts of a simple series circuit;
    • voltage (measured in volts) is a measure of the energy per unit charge and this might be considered as driving the current;
    • energy (measured in joules) stored in a battery is transferred to the circuit as the battery is used;
    • the power (measured in watts) of a device such as a bulb or motor is the rate at which energy is transferred to the device;
    • as moving electrons collide with fixed atoms in a circuit they make the atoms vibrate more; this vibration causes components such as bulb filaments to become hot and emit light;
    • a circuit including its components can be represented by standard symbols in circuit diagrams;
    • magnets have poles; like poles repel, unlike poles attract; the pole that points northwards is the North-seeking pole;
    • magnetism can act over a distance, so magnets can exert forces on objects with which they are not in contact;
    • a current flowing through a conductor produces a magnetic effect;
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • to understand why a complete circuit is needed to make electrical devices function and how switches can be used to control electrical devices;
    • to understand ways of varying the current in a circuit to make bulbs brighter or dimmer;
    • to overcome pupils' confusions about simple electrical circuits;
    • to represent correctly circuit components in circuit diagrams.


    [page 84]

    ii. energy:

    • there is a distinction between energy and force;
    • there is a distinction between energy and fuel;
    • particular fuels can be used in the generation of electricity;
    • transfer of energy is not confined to physics; it is important in chemical and biological processes too;
    • although energy is always conserved it may be dissipated, reducing its availability as a resource;

    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • to ensure clarity when pupils are taught about forces and motion;
    • to understand the role of batteries and other components in electrical circuits;
    • to understand the importance of plants in feeding relationships.

    iii. forces and motion:

    • when an object is stationary or moving at a steady speed in a straight line, the forces acting on it are balanced;
    • balanced forces produce no change in the movement or shape of an object, whereas unbalanced forces acting on an object can change its motion or its shape;
    • the change in movement and/or shape of an object depends on the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on it;
    • forces such as (solid) friction, air resistance and water resistance oppose the relative motion between an object and what it is touching;
    • in most situations .there are forces such as friction retarding the motion of objects and so a driving force is needed to keep them moving at a steady speed;
    • frictional force between surfaces can also enable motion, e.g. by opposing the relative movement between shoe and floor or tyre and road;
    • the SI unit in which forces are measured is the newton;
    • the mass of an object is the amount of matter in it; mass is measured in grams and kilograms;
    • gravitational attraction exists between all objects; this depends on the masses of the respective objects and how far apart they are;
    • the weight of an object is a force measured in newtons, caused by the gravitational attraction between the Earth and the object and directed towards the centre of the Earth;
    • a specific object will have the same mass on the Earth and on the Moon because it contains the same amount of matter;
    • an object will weigh more on the Earth than on the Moon because the Earth is more massive and exerts greater gravitational attraction than the Moon;
    • objects of different mass dropped at the same instant from the same point will land at the same time unless the air resistance is different;
    • the relationship between speed, distance and time and the distinction between speed, velocity and acceleration;
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • to understand pairs of forces acting on objects, e.g. an object floating or one suspended on a string;
    • to develop understanding of the forces acting when an object is dropped or slides across the floor;
    • to recognise that objects have weight because of the gravitational attraction between them and the earth;
    • to discuss the ways in which objects such as parachutes and seeds fall.


    [page 85]

    iv. light:

    • light travels in a straight line unless something prevents it from doing so, for example, reflection or scattering, and that this can be used to explain the formation of shadows;
    • light can differ in intensity and wavelength;
    • the distinction between reflection and scattering and how images are formed in a mirror;
    • the colour of an object depends on the wavelengths of light that it scatters, e.g. a black object scatters little light, and absorbs light of all visual wavelengths; a green object scatters more green light than other colours which it absorbs more;
    • objects are seen when light is emitted or reflected from them and enters the eye through the pupil, causing the retina to send messages, carried by nerves, to the brain;
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • that light travels from sources to our eyes;
    • how the blocking of light leads to shadow formation;
    • why light scattered from objects makes them visible to our eyes;
    • how images form in reflective surfaces and are visible to our eyes.

    v. sound:

    • sound travels through a medium from a vibrating source;
    • sound waves can differ in amplitude and frequency and this leads to differences in loudness and pitch respectively;
    • sounds are heard when vibrations from an object enter the ears, causing the eardrums to vibrate and impulses to be carried by nerves to the brain;
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • how instruments make sounds when a string, skin or air is made to vibrate;
    • identifying that sounds can travel through solids, liquids and gases;
    • why sounds are high or low, quiet or loud.


    [page 86]

    vi. the Earth and beyond:

    • the universe includes galaxies which include stars;
    • the sun is one star in our galaxy and is at the centre of the solar system;
    • the order of the planets in our solar system, their major features and relative distances from the sun which they orbit;
    • the explanations for the phases of the moon and eclipses;
    • the explanation for the seasons and length of year;
    • the explanation of day and night and the evidence for it.
    to support the teaching of KS1 and KS2 Programmes of Study, for example:
    • that the Earth orbits the Sun once each year;
    • that the Sun, Earth and Moon are approximately spherical;
    • that the Earth spins on its own axis, and how day and night are related to this spin;
    • that the position of the Sun appears to change during the day, and how shadows change as this happens;
    • that the Moon takes approximately 28 days to orbit the Earth.





    [page 87]

    Annex F

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for secondary English


    INTRODUCTION

    The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for secondary English specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on all courses of initial teacher training for secondary English must be taught and be able to use in their teaching.

    The requirements will come into effect for all secondary ITT courses where English is designated as a specialist subject from September 1999. Although this document does not apply where English is offered as a subsidiary subject in addition to the main specialism, providers of such courses will find this curriculum a useful resource in helping them to determine the essential elements which should be included. In courses where drama is designated as a specialist subject are not required to cover this curriculum.

    Providers of ITT must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach English effectively are judged to have successfully completed an in secondary English course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to secondary English. Standards which apply to generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded QTS must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A). As part of all courses, providers of ITT are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for secondary English does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' National Curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary English includes some references to information and Communications Technology (ICT) in relation to secondary English. However, from September 1998 (12), all trainees will be required to have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content of the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The ICT curriculum aims to equip every newly qualified teacher of secondary English with the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching English. It is therefore the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the way trainees are taught to use ICT is firmly rooted within secondary English teaching, rather than teaching trainees how to use ICT generically, or as an end in itself. In order to support providers in this, the TTA intends to produce separate, subject-specific guidance which can be used in conjunction with this document.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary English should therefore be read alongside the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) and the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B).

    The curriculum aims to prepare English teachers as follows:

    • for KS2/3 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the English specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for English at Key Stage 3 (trainees on KS2/3 courses must also cover the in National Curriculum for primary English (Annex C) as preparation for teaching the pupils' National Curriculum for English at Key Stage 2);
    12. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.


    [page 88]

    • for 11-16 and 11-18 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the English specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for English at Key Stages 3 and 4.
    • for 11-18 courses, the subject knowledge set out in paragraph 29 is advisory only. Providers should have regard to it, have provision available in relation to it, and audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in English against the content. By the end of the course, ITT providers should have assessed how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the content required to teach post-16, taking account of the opportunities that the trainee has had to practise teaching post-16. Capability in relation to post-16 English should be recorded clearly on each NQT's TTA Career Entry Profile;
    • for 14-19 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the English specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for secondary English at Key Stages 3 and 4, either A-level English language, A-level English literature or A-level English and the related vocational courses pre- and post-16.
    Trainees on KS2/3, 11-16 and 11-18 courses must be taught about progression in English from the KS2 Programmes of Study. Those on 11-16 and 11-18 courses, in addition, must be taught about progression in English from KS3 to KS4, and from KS4 to English post-16. Those on 14-19 courses must be taught about progression in English from KS4 to English post-16, as well as routes of progression through the related 14-19 vocational qualifications.

    This curriculum builds on the in National Curriculum for primary English (Annex C). Providers of secondary English ITT and trainees on secondary English ITT courses will find that document an important resource. In particular, it should be referred to when teaching about KS2/KS3 transfer issues and in order to identify effective strategies for teaching English to pupils whose attainment in English is below that expected for their age.

    The curriculum has been written for providers of secondary English ITT in schools (partnership schools, SCITT groups and those having teachers on employment-based training), higher education institutions and elsewhere, and others who have a background in English. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

    The curriculum is in three sections.

    Section A Pedagogical knowledge and understanding required by trainees to secure pupils' progress in English Page 90

    This section sets out the pedagogical knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in English. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching English at Key Stages 2, 3 or 4 and, where appropriate, post-16.
    Section B Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 93
    This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use.

    [page 89]

    Section C Trainees' knowledge and understanding of English Page 98

    This section sets out the subject knowledge and understanding of English which trainees need to support effective teaching of English for the 11-19 age-range. Providers must audit, as appropriate to the age-range they are being trained to teach, trainees' knowledge and understanding of the English specified in paragraphs 27-29.

    Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of in must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of English in their teaching.

    ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported self-study and through guided work and reading prior to the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of sections A and B of the curriculum.

    NB. All entrants to ITT are required, in the Requirements for all Courses of Initial Teacher Training (Annex I), to be able to communicate clearly and grammatically in spoken and written standard English.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary English does not attempt to cover everything that trainee teachers will be taught. It is expected that providers of ITT will include in their courses other aspects of English, not specified in this curriculum.

    This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All secondary courses of ITT where English is a specialist subject must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the three sections when designing English courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of in the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising secondary English courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. It is intended that once courses have been devised to include this curriculum, then providers can work confidently from their own course documentation.

    In order to ensure that the delivery of the curriculum can be managed within the available time, it is likely that secondary English courses whose content currently varies significantly from that specified in this document will need considerable revision. The ITT secondary English curriculum is intended to form the core of secondary English ITT courses, not to fit round existing provision. HEls and their partnership schools may also wish to review their respective roles and responsibilities in delivering the different aspects of this curriculum.


    [page 90]

    Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of secondary English teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every newly qualified secondary English teacher to teach English effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They must, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable. For example, at paragraph B.11.d. [trainees must be taught ... how and when to employ ... standardised diagnostic tests for detailed information about a particular aspect of reading which is giving cause for concern}. In order to do this, trainees will need to be aware of the purpose and usefulness of standardised tests. but will not need to know the particular features of every available standardised test, nor to undertake detailed comparison of one with another. The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching of English by a newly qualified teacher in their first post.

    The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each newly qualified teacher's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, newly qualified teachers will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers will continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with the subject and its pedagogy, so that they can teach English rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

    Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for secondary English

    A. PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING REQUIRED BY TRAINEES TO SECURE PUPILS' PROGRESS iN ENGLISH

    1. All courses must ensure that trainees are taught that pupils' progress in English depends upon teaching which emphasises:

    a. effective communication in speech and writing, and listening with understanding;

    b. developing pupils as enthusiastic, responsive and knowledgeable readers;

    c. the reading, writing, speaking and listening skills needed to participate confidently in public, cultural and working life;

    d. the use of language for pleasure, thinking, learning and personal development.

    2. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in English, trainees must be taught the ways in which pupils develop and progress in reading, writing, speaking and listening from age 11-16.

    a. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of ensuring that pupils progress in English:

    i. from reading and responding to straightforward and familiar texts to an appreciation of varied and challenging texts;

    ii. from inference and deduction of simple meanings to grasping other layers of meaning and an appreciation of writers' techniques in realising them;


    [page 91]

    iii. from use of specific evidence from texts to support views to marshalling reasons and evidence for a sustained critical analysis;

    iv. from finding and using accessible information to researching, extracting and synthesising information independently;

    v. from writing in Simple, familiar formats for different purposes to independent composition of texts tailored to their audience and purpose;

    vi. from accurate and consistent use of the conventions of grammar, spelling and punctuation in straightforward contexts to accurate use of them in more complex texts;

    vii. from being able to speak to different audiences with some adaptation to sustained adaptation of speech to the needs and interests of different audiences, including more formal speech when appropriate;

    viii. from identifying the key points of what is heard and how these are presented to a discriminating appreciation of what has been heard, attending to the main messages and their impact, and the detail and techniques used;

    ix. from contributing and responding in discussion, taking on a number of roles, to making a substantial contribution to the effectiveness of group discussion, including through taking a leading role;

    x. from exploring a range of dramatic forms and conventions to represent ideas and issues to adapting and using these to generate their own dramatic representations of character and action.

    b. Trainees on 11-18 and 14-19 courses must be taught how pupils' progression in English post-16 builds upon the progression identified above.

    3. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught that, if pupils are to make progress in English, teachers must:

    a. develop pupils as critical readers and extend the range of what they read, recognising:

    i. the responsibility of the teacher to intervene in pupils' reading, including their independent reading, to ensure that:
    • pupils' reading competence is developed by building on and extending their current experience and interests;
    • pupils experience reading which is varied and challenging, and which broadens their reading horizons, including pre-twentieth century prose, poetry and drama and texts from different cultures;
    • pupils are familiar with a range of information texts, their purposes and forms;
    ii. the need for pupils to develop a sense of literary tradition, recognising the influence of social, cultural and historical factors and making links between texts;

    iii. that their teaching should stimulate pupils to become active, alert, and enquiring readers, able to respond to texts critically and imaginatively;

    iv. that it is necessary to teach pupils explicitly the ways in which:

    • texts are written for a particular readership, purpose or medium;
    • writers represent authorial and other viewpoints;
    • texts can be construed and interpreted in different ways;

    [page 92]

    b. develop pupils' competence in writing, recognising:

    i. the importance of diagnosing pupils' specific strengths and weaknesses in writing;

    ii. the need to identify the specific knowledge of linguistic structures and genres to be covered and to be taken into account when setting up writing tasks and when diagnosing and remedying pupils' difficulties;

    iii. the importance of planned opportunities for writing which make explicit the conventions of different genres and the usefulness of each for different purposes;

    iv. the importance of writing as a tool for learning, e.g. note making; analysis and evaluation;

    c. develop pupils' abilities in speaking and listening, recognising that:
    i. there must be planned opportunities to develop pupils' abilities to speak and listen and that listening skills need to be taught explicitly;

    ii. task setting, pupil groupings and the purposes for talk are significant factors in determining the nature and quality of speaking and listening;

    iii. pupils must be taught explicitly about the oral conventions that are appropriate in different situations and for different audiences, including the use of standard English;

    iv. pupils need to experience a number of roles in speaking and listening, e.g. chair, scribe, spokesperson, advocate, antagonist, supporter, so that they learn to speak in different contexts, and move between roles as the need arises;

    v. purposeful, focused talking and listening assist learning;

    vi. strategies need to be devised to provide the structure and support that some pupils need, e.g. those who are shy, inexperienced or suffer speech and hearing difficulties, to be able to contribute to, and to make progress in, speaking and listening;

    d. develop pupils' understanding of language variety, ensuring pupils know:
    i. how and when to use standard English, and the differing degrees of formality in standard English, e.g. how vocabulary choices and grammatical constructions vary between a formal oral presentation and group discussion;

    ii. how to recognise the features of standard English and common non-standard forms, and how standard English differs from other dialects;

    iii. that standard English can be spoken with different accents;

    iv. the main ways in which language changes, e.g. through imports from other languages, because of new technology, and how words change meaning over time;

    v. about attitudes to language use, e.g. attitudes to gender in language;

    vi. the differences between speech and writing;

    e. recognise that pupils are often competent in languages other than English and that teaching should include strategies to build upon pupils' knowledge and skills in other languages in order to improve their skills in English;

    f. provide good models for pupils' reading, writing, speaking and listening;


    [page 93]

    g. structure learning for pupils who are below the level of attainment expected for their age, so that they have access to the full English curriculum, as well as making progress in basic skills (13) in English, recognising the factors which may contribute to low levels of literacy, including:

    i. poor phonic knowledge, poor use of contextual cues and deficiencies in visual or auditory processing;

    ii. lack of support beyond the classroom;

    iii. disaffection, poor motivation, low self-esteem or lack of confidence because of previous failure in reading;

    iv. the fact that English is an additional language for the pupil.

    B. EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

    4. Trainees must be taught how to place medium and short term planning in the context of longer term planning which indicates how the range of texts and the skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening will be covered and how teaching will be structured to enable pupils to develop and consolidate key skills and understanding.

    5. Trainees must be taught how to encourage individuals to read, through:

    a. encouraging pupils' regular, individual, private reading;

    b. providing a range of resources which are likely to appeal to and develop pupils' different interests, e.g. through use of libraries and School Library Services; through use of book boxes;

    c. choosing texts which will motivate all pupils to read and extend their reading interests, e.g. texts which are likely to appeal to boys;

    d. stimulating individuals to read and supporting pupils' reading, e.g. teachers' recommendations; book weeks; visiting authors; setting aside specific times to discuss pupils' reading and set targets.

    6. Trainees must be taught how to teach literary and non-literary texts to whole classes and groups, including how to:

    a. select texts, identifying the chief learning aims and how they will be met through use of a text, e.g. deciding which aspects of a text will be taught; selecting a particular text because it uses specific structures or techniques;

    b. Introduce a text, e.g. giving excerpts from the text to whet the appetite;

    c. select those passages or aspects of the text which should receive close attention, and how to phase and pace the way the text will be taught, e.g. completing a first reading fairly rapidly so that pupils understand the nature of the text, followed by revisiting different sections in more detail;

    d. decide how and by whom the text will be read, e.g. reading aloud by the teacher to bring out the qualities of the text, followed by group reading of the same text for close study of the language; allowing individual pupils a few moments to read privately, before discussion, to form their own impressions; sharing reading in a group by taking turns and pausing for discussion;

    13. Providers should refer to the ITT National Curriculum for primary English (Annex C) for more detail on strategies for teaching English to pupils whose attainment in English is below that expected for their age.


    [page 94]

    e. set up activities which will enhance pupils' engagement with the text and improve their skills in reading, ensuring that the selection of activities is closely matched to the teaching objectives for the section of text being studied;

    f. enable pupils to appreciate and respond in writing and discussion to the text as a whole.

    7. Trainees must be taught how to teach poetry, including how to:

    a. Involve pupils in appreciating, understanding, responding to and writing poetry, including through teachers and pupils reading poetry aloud;

    b. teach the range of poetic forms and equip pupils with the technical terms they need to discuss poems, their meanings and effects, e.g. metre. metaphor, simile, onomatopoeia. assonance, alliteration, hyperbole, oxymoron, sonnet, ballad;

    c. group poems to enable appreciation of theme, form, period and author's voice.

    8. Trainees must be taught how to teach Shakespeare's plays, including how to:

    a. explore Shakespeare's plays as scripts for performance, e.g. by presenting scenes; improvising around the play's theme; directing particular passages attending to action. music and set; devising and performing modernised versions of the scenes;

    b. ensure that pupils gain access to texts and appreciate the force of the ideas, language and dramatic qualities by u'sing a variety of approaches;

    c. enable pupils to gain an appreciation of Shakespeare's language including its poetic qualities, how character and action are conveyed through language, and how it differs from contemporary English;

    d. set Shakespeare's plays in their social and historical context, e.g. performance in the Globe Theatre; the nature of monarchy; conventions of love and courtship.

    9. Trainees must be taught how to teach non-fiction, through:

    a. providing for systematic, structured reading of non-fiction texts using a range of techniques, e.g. skimming and scanning;

    b. teaching pupils how to analyse the organisational and linguistic features of different types of text in non-fiction and use these features in their own writing, e.g. patterns of cohesion in information texts; emotive language in newspaper reports; perorations in speeches; use of analogy in persuasive writing.

    10. Trainees must be taught how to introduce pupils to the analysis and composition of the media within the pupils' National Curriculum for English, including newspapers, television and film through activities which:

    a. demonstrate some of the ways in which meaning is presented by the media and consider how form, layout and presentation contribute to impact and persuasion;

    b. teach about the institutions that produce media and require pupils to evaluate the messages and values communicated by the media;

    c. require pupils to consider the ways in which audiences and readers choose and respond to media.

    11. Trainees must be taught how to assess pupils' reading, through:

    a. determining at the planning stage what pupils should know, understand and be able to do better by the end of the sequence of work, e.g. skills of relating one part of the text to another; drawing comparisons; recognising how authors build up to a climax;


    [page 95]

    b. Identifying the assessment opportunities and the assessment evidence that will be collected, including what, and which pupils, to focus on for particular purposes;

    c. building up a picture of pupils' reading ability through a range of tasks which enable assessment of different types of skill;

    d. knowing how and when to employ particular assessment tools for particular purposes, including:

    i. open and closed comprehension questions - questioning for implicit and explicit understanding of meaning;

    ii. running record or miscue analysis - to assess reading in detail, especially for pupils with low standards of literacy;

    iii. standardised diagnostic tests for detailed information about a particular aspect of reading which is giving cause for concern.

    12. Trainees must be taught how to teach writing, including how to:

    a. provide models of writing for pupils to analyse and emulate and use pupils' reading to provide inspiration for their writing;

    b. manage the writing process effectively, including:

    i. how to help pupils to generate ideas for their written work;

    ii. how to teach pupils to draft, revise and then proof-read their work, e.g. through using a word-processor; by encouraging pupils to read their work to someone else;

    iii. how and when it is appropriate to focus on parts of the writing process only, e.g. knowing when bullet points are sufficient; knowing when more than one stage of drafting is unnecessary;

    c. teach pupils to write in different forms, e.g. the discursive essay, the ballad and the informative article, through:
    i. providing examples and teaching pupils how to analyse them for their linguistic and other conventions;

    ii. using structured approaches to support pupils' first attempts, e.g. writing frames;

    iii. teaching pupils to consider audience, purpose and context when choosing form and language.

    13. Trainees must be taught how to teach spelling, including how to:

    a. teach pupils strategies which help them to learn and retain spellings, e.g. use of analogy; developing visual memory; phonic segmentation; reference to root words; looking for words within words;

    b. teach spelling families and rules systematically, e.g. by working out spelling conventions from lists of regular words; by grouping words containing the same letter strings together; repeated practice in spelling mis-spelt words correctly;

    c. introduce pupils to new words with unusual or irregular spellings;

    d. use marking strategies which draw attention to patterns of error and enable pupils to learn from their mistakes, e.g. by highlighting the incorrect elements; by reminding pupils of spelling rules which have been broken.


    [page 96]

    14. Trainees must be taught how to teach punctuation, including how to:

    a. use well-written texts to demonstrate the function of different punctuation marks and how they should be used, e.g. looking at the use of the semi-colon and the colon;

    b. use activities, including reading aloud, through which pupils recognise the role of punctuation in marking grammatical boundaries and in symbolising and replacing the intonation of speech;

    C. review and mark pupils' work constructively, drawing pupils' attention to the omission and misuse of punctuation marks so that pupils can correct them;

    d. teach more complex uses of punctuation marks systematically, e.g. the relationship between commas and clauses; the use of the dash;

    e. teach seH-help strategies, e.g. requiring pupils to read back their own work to themselves, looking for sentence breaks.

    15. Trainees must be taught how to teach grammar, including how to:

    a. teach the grammatical terms and conventions listed in the pupils' National Curriculum explicitly;

    b. teach pupils the ways in which sentences can be extended, elaborated, abbreviated and manipulated by re-organising their sequence and the way they are worded, and by adding or removing phrases and clauses;

    c. give pupils feedback on their written work, including the identification of grammatical errors, e.g. non-agreement of subject and verb, and provide guidance for development;

    d. teach pupils to analyse reading materials for their grammatical features and conventions, e.g. the use of long noun phrases and the passive voice in information writing;

    e. set pupils activities which demonstrate the way that grammar works and the factors which influence grammatical choices, e.g. changing a first person account into the third person changes the focus of attention and the level of formality.

    16. Trainees must be taught how to assess pupils' writing, including how to:

    a. mark pupils' work to respond to content as well as accuracy, highlighting both strengths and weaknesses, and intervening to extend pupils' writing competence;

    b. encourage independence and the ability to be self-critical, including self-correction among pupils;

    c. weigh the different facets of pupils' writing when coming to a judgement about its overall quality in relation to its purpose, e.g. weighing narrative coherence against spelling and presentation.

    17. Trainees must be taught how to teach speaking and listening, including how to teach pupils:

    a. to fulfil the formal and informal roles taken in groups, through explicit teaching of the language appropriate to different stages of the discussion, e.g. tentative hypothesis; brief summary; probing questions; summing up; handling disagreement constructively;

    b. to adapt their speech for different purposes, including how to sustain a talk or a monologue, how to use visual aids and organise persuasive points, e.g. by anticipating and preparing for the opposing point of view;


    [page 97]

    c. the conventions of different types of speech;

    d. to listen attentively and with discrimination, e.g. using techniques such as making notes; focused listening; directing attention;

    e. to discern rhetorical devices, irony, persuasive techniques and bias in what is heard.

    18. Trainees must be taught how to introduce pupils to drama, in the pupils' National Curriculum for English, through:

    a. utilising drama techniques, e.g. small group playmaking; teaching in-role; tableaux, to involve pupils in examining themes, issues and meanings;

    b. using performance of texts to develop pupils' understanding and appreciation of language, dramatic form, character and performance;

    c. using role play, script writing, writing in-role and a range of stimuli to develop pupils' reading, writing, speaking and listening;

    d. requiring pupils to reflect upon and evaluate features of their own and others' performance in order to develop their understanding of techniques for conveying meaning.

    19. Trainees must be taught how to assess speaking and listening, including how to:

    a. establish a clear focus for the assessment, e.g. how well a group member uses questions and suggestions to organise and sustain ideas in discussion;

    b. make opportunities for the assessment of individual pupils, ensuring that pupils understand the nature and purpose of the assessment;

    c. build up over time a profile of pupils' achievements in speaking and listening which recognises progress in pupils' speaking and listening skills, e.g. moving from talking which is largely scripted and read aloud to speaking from notes of the main points to be made;

    d. distinguish between aspects of pupils' personality and the way pupils talk, e.g. not mistaking confidence for a significant contribution.

    20. Trainees must be taught how to teach about language variety explicitly through:

    a. the planned teaching of different aspects of language variation, linking teaching to both the books pupils read and the texts they write;

    b. using contrasting texts to teach points of comparison and contrast in content, language and style;

    c. direct comparison between spoken and written forms of language, e.g. a transcript together with a piece of reported speech to illustrate similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence formation;

    d. the study of language variation and change.

    21. Trainees must be taught how to develop effective strategies for improving skills in reading and writing of pupils who achieve below the standard of literacy expected for their age including how:

    a. to assess pupils' reading and writing using techniques such as standardised tests, miscue analysis. observation and discussion;

    b. to evaluate the quality, readability, content and appeal of texts and to assess their appropriateness to pupils' chronological age, so that those texts and other resources match pupils' needs well;


    [page 98]

    c. to differentiate classroom tasks and support poor readers on tasks which are being undertaken by all the pupils in a class;

    d. with the help of an experienced English teacher and/or SEN teacher if necessary, to provide positive and targeted support for such pupils, e.g. teaching pupils who are not yet independent readers the phonic, syntactic and contextual skills they need; helping pupils to apply their knowledge of grammar, spelling and punctuation in independent writing (14).

    22. Trainees must be taught how to use information and communications technology (ICT) (15) to support the teaching of English.

    23. In order to understand how to evaluate and assess their teaching and their pupils' learning in English, trainees must be taught:

    a. how to monitor and assess pupils' progress and attainment in English, including how to:

    i. make effective use, in their teaching and in planning future lessons and sequences of lessons, of assessment information on the attainment and progress of pupils;

    ii. set up activities so that specific assessment in English can be undertaken for all pupils, including the very able, those who are not yet fluent in English and those with SEN, through assessment, at an early stage, of pupils' strengths and weaknesses in using language;

    iii. keep records of pupils' progress and attainment across the English curriculum, including recording progress in the development of pupils' skills in English;

    iv. make summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in English, through the use of National Curriculum tests, teacher assessment and other ways of assessing individual pupils including the appropriate use of standardised reading tests and spelling tests;

    v. present the outcomes of assessment in reports which make reference to pupils' specific strengths and weaknesses and which identify targets for improvement;

    vi. judge levels of attainment against the expected demands of each relevant level description for KS3 and KS4 in English;

    vii. Identify both under-achieving and very able pupils in English and how to set targets and make provision for their development.

    24. Opportunities to practise

    Trainees must be given opportunities to practise, in taught sessions and in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.

    C. TRAINEES' KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF ENGLISH

    25. All trainees enter a course of initial teacher training for secondary English with:

    • (for undergraduate courses) the academic requirements for admission to first degree studies;
    14. Providers should refer to the ITT National Curriculum for primary English (Annex C) for more detail on strategies for teaching English to pupils whose attainment in English is below that expected for their age.

    15. From September 1998, all courses of initial teacher training must cover the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only. For secondary trainees the ITT National Curriculum applies to their specialist subject.


    [page 99]

    • (for postgraduate courses) a UK degree or equivalent and an educational background which provide the necessary foundation for work as a teacher of English in the secondary phase.
    Although all trainees will have a substantial amount of English in their previous education, and those on postgraduate routes as part of their degree, different trainees will have covered different areas to different extents. For example, some trainees may have pursued studies which emphasised English literature, while others may have followed courses with an emphasis on linguistics. For some, the narrowness of their background subject knowledge may mean that they do not feel confident about, or competent in, all the English which they are required to teach. All trainees need to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses in their own subject knowledge, to analyse it against the pupils' National Curriculum and examination syllabuses, and to be aware of the gaps they will need to fill during their training. Trainees need to be alert to the differences between having a secure knowledge of the subject and knowing how to teach it effectively.

    26. Audit

    a. For trainees on KS2/3 courses, ITT providers should audit trainees' knowledge, and understanding of English against the English content specified in the KS2, KS3 and KS4 Programmes of Study.

    b. For trainees on 11-16 courses, 11-18 courses and 14-19 courses, ITT providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of English against the English content specified in the KS3 and KS4 Programmes of Study, and the content required to teach English at GCSE specified in paragraph 28 below.

    c. In addition, for trainees on 14-19 courses, providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of English against that required to teach English post-16, specified in paragraph 29 below.

    In each case, where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of in must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of English in their teaching.

    In addition, for 11-18 courses, the subject knowledge set out in paragraph 29 is advisory only. Providers should have regard to it, have provision available in relation to it, and audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in English against it. By the end of the course, ITT providers should assess how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the post-16 content, taking account of the opportunities the trainee has had to practise teaching English post-16. Capability in relation to the post-16 content should be recorded clearly on each NQT's Career Entry Profile.

    27. In order to teach English effectively all trainees must know and understand:

    a. and use correctly, technical terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum English Order, are necessary to enable trainees to be precise in their explanations to pupils, to discuss secondary English at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding;

    b. the nature and role of standard English as the medium through which all subjects are taught, as well as the general, public English used to communicate within the United Kingdom and throughout the English-speaking world.


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    28. In order to give trainees a more explicit, critical insight into their own writing; to equip them with tools to help them analyse and evaluate others' writing, including pupils' writing; to give trainees the terminology and concepts to understand processes such as language acquisition and development, and to study research evidence on language; and to teach English effectively to GCSE, trainees on 11-16, 11-18 and 14-19 courses must:

    a. know and understand the principles of spoken and written language as a system, including:

    i. Lexis
    • morphology and semantics - word structure, meanings, and derivations;
    • phonology - the sound system of spoken words;
    • graphology - the alphabetic spelling system;
    ii. Grammatical
    • the grammar of spoken and written English, including:
      • word classes and their functions in sentences;
      • word order and cohesion within sentences;
      • construction of complex sentences to include a variety of clauses and phrases;
      • co-ordination and subordination in sentences;
    • punctuation
      • its relationship to the phrase and clause structure of sentences;
      • its use to denote emphasis;
      • conventions in writing;
    iii. Textual
    • cohesion - the way that individual words, sentences and paragraphs work together to convey meaning, including the logic and sequence of ideas;
    • organisation, structure and presentation including the structure of written text;
    b. a broad understanding of language as a social, cultural and historical phenomenon, including:
    i. historical changes in English, and its significance as a world language;

    ii. standard English and other dialects;

    iii. multilingualism and the learning of English as an additional language;

    iv. differences between spoken and written English;

    c. knowledge about texts and critical approaches to them, including:
    i. analysis of different types of literary and non-literary texts, evaluating their quality and making judgements about them;

    ii. Identification of the conventions associated with different types of text including non-fiction and media, and how they are used and changed for effect;

    iii. how information and ideas are presented, depending on point of view, context, purpose and audience;


    [page 101]

    iv. how to analyse texts for implication, undertone, bias, assertion and ambiguity;

    v. familiarity with:

    • the historical spread of prose, fiction, poetry and plays, including key authors from the English literary heritage;
    • a range of texts written specifically for pupils of secondary school age;
    • a range of texts from different cultures;
    • a range of non-fiction and media texts intended to inform, explain, argue, persuade and entertain;
    vi. different critical approaches which emphasise different ways of reading texts depending on whether the focus is on the reader, the writer, the context or the text alone.
    29. In addition, in order to teach:

    a. A-level English literature effectively trainees must demonstrate that that they:

    i. have the breadth and depth of knowledge, understanding and skills required for a post-16 course in literary study;

    ii. can reflect on their own response to texts and consider other readers' interpretations;

    iii. can use their detailed knowledge and understanding of individual texts to explore comparisons and connections between them, and to appreciate the significance of cultural and historical influences on readers and writers;

    b. A-level English language effectively trainees must demonstrate that that they:
    i. have the breadth and depth of knowledge, understanding and skills needed to apply a range of linguistic frameworks to a wide variety of texts from both the past and present;

    ii. are able to investigate their own and others' speech and writing and respond critically and perceptively to the different varieties of English they hear and read;

    iii. are able to select and use the linguistic framework most appropriate for investigation and research into language uses and issues.





    [page 102]

    Annex G

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for secondary mathematics


    INTRODUCTION

    The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for secondary mathematics specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on all courses of initial teacher training for secondary mathematics must be taught and be able to use in their teaching.

    The requirements will come into effect for all secondary ITT courses where mathematics is designated as a specialist subject from September 1999. Although this document does not apply where mathematics is offered as a subsidiary subject in addition to the main specialism, providers of such courses will find this curriculum a useful resource in helping them to determine the essential elements which should be included.

    Providers of in must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach mathematics effectively are judged to have successfully completed an ITT secondary mathematics course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to secondary mathematics. Standards which apply to generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded QTS must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A). As part of all courses, providers of ITT are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for secondary mathematics does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' National Curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively.

    The ITT National Curriculum for Secondary Mathematics includes some references to information and Communications Technology (ICT) in relation to secondary mathematics. However, from September 1998 (16) all trainees will be required to have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content of the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The ICT curriculum aims to equip every newly qualified teacher of secondary mathematics with the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching mathematics. It is therefore the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the way trainees are taught to use ICT is firmly rooted within secondary mathematics teaching, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically or as an end in itself. In order to support providers in this, the TTA intends to produce separate, subject-specific guidance which can be used in conjunction with this document.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary mathematics should therefore be read alongside the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) and the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B).

    The curriculum aims to prepare mathematics teachers as follows:

    • for KS2/3 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the mathematics specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics at Key Stage 3 (trainees on KS2/3 courses must also cover the in National Curriculum for primary mathematics (Annex D) as preparation for teaching the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics at Key Stage 2);
    16. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.


    [page 103]

    • for 11-16 and 11-18 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the mathematics specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics at Key Stages 3 and 4, including the 'Further Material'.
    • For 11-18 courses, the subject knowledge set out in paragraph 13 is advisory only. Providers should have regard to it, have provision available in relation to it, and audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in mathematics against the content. By the end of the course, ITT providers should have assessed how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the content required to teach post-16, taking account of the opportunities that the trainee has had to practise teaching post-16. Capability in relation to post-16 mathematics should be recorded clearly on each NQT's TTA Career Entry Profile;
    • for 14-19 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the mathematics specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics at Key Stages 3 and 4, including the 'Further Material', the A-level core and one of the applications, and the mathematics for the Key Skill of Application of Number in Part 1 GNVQ.
    Trainees on KS2/3, 11-16 and 11-18 courses must be taught about progression in mathematics from the KS2 Programmes of Study. Those on 11-16 and 11-18 courses, in addition, must be taught about progression in mathematics from KS3 to KS4, and from KS4 to mathematics post-16. Those on 14-19 courses must be taught about progression in mathematics from KS4 to mathematics post-16, as well as routes of progression through the related 14-19 vocational qualifications.

    This curriculum builds on the ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics (Annex D). Providers of secondary mathematics ITT and trainees on secondary mathematics ITT courses will find that document an important resource. In particular, it should be referred to when teaching about KS2/KS3 transfer issues and in order to identify effective strategies for teaching mathematics to pupils whose attainment in mathematics is below that expected for their age.

    This curriculum has been written for providers of secondary mathematics ITT in schools (partnership schools, SCITT groups and those having teachers on employment-based training), higher education institutions and elsewhere, and others who have a background in mathematics. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

    The curriculum is in three sections.

    Section A Pedagogical knowledge and understanding required by trainees to secure pupils' progress in mathematics Page 105

    This section sets out the pedagogical knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in mathematics. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching mathematics at Key Stages 2, 3 or 4 and, where appropriate, post-16.
    Section B Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 109
    This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use.

    [page 104]

    Section C Trainees' knowledge and understanding of mathematics Page 113

    This section sets out the subject knowledge and understanding of mathematics which trainees need to support effective teaching of mathematics for the 11-19 age-range. Providers must audit, as appropriate to the age-range the trainees are being trained to teach, trainees' knowledge and understanding of the mathematics specified in paragraph 13.

    Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of in must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of mathematics in their teaching.

    ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported self-study and through guided work and reading prior to the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of sections A and B of the curriculum.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary mathematics does not attempt to cover everything that trainee teachers will be taught. It is expected that providers of in will include in their courses other aspects of mathematics, not specified in this curriculum.

    This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All secondary courses of ITT where mathematics is a specialist subject must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the three sections when designing mathematics courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of in the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising secondary mathematics courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. It is intended that once courses have been devised to include this curriculum, then providers can work confidently from their own course documentation.

    In order to ensure that the delivery of the curriculum can be managed within the available time, it is likely that secondary mathematics courses whose content currently varies significantly from that specified in this document will need considerable revision. The ITT secondary mathematics curriculum is intended to form the core of secondary mathematics ITT courses, not to fit round existing provision. HEls and their partnership schools may also wish to review their respective roles and responsibilities in delivering the different aspects of this curriculum.


    [page 105]

    Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of secondary mathematics teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every newly qualified secondary mathematics teacher to teach mathematics effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They must, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable, e.g. at paragraph 4.a. [trainees must be taught to recognise the factors which may contribute to low levels of numeracy]. This requires trainees to identify the most significant factors and their possible effects, rather than undertaking detailed analysis of how and why these might arise. The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching of mathematics by a newly qualified teacher in their first post.

    The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each newly qualified teacher's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, newly qualified teachers will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers will continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with the subject and its pedagogy, so that they can teach mathematics rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

    Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for secondary mathematics

    A. PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING REQUIRED BY TRAINEES TO SECURE PUPILS' PROGRESS iN MATHEMATICS

    1. Progression in pupils' mathematical understanding

    a. All courses must ensure that trainees are taught that pupils' progression in mathematics depends upon teaching which emphasises that mathematics:

    i. Is a powerful tool in other subjects, adult life and employment;

    ii. Is intriguing and intellectually exciting and can be appreciated by pupils of a wide range of ability as an activity in itself;

    iii. requires the use of logical reasoning and a developing ability to understand and use concepts;

    iv. provides a concise means of communication;

    v. Involves the study of relationships and inter-related ideas within the subject.

    b. Trainees must be taught how to analyse the underlying progression in pupils' understanding of mathematics and the implications of this for their teaching. Such analysis should take account of progression within each section of the Programme of Study of the pupils' National Curriculum and of connections between the different aspects of mathematics.

    Trainees should be taught to analyse:

    i. progression within a single area of mathematics, e.g. one aspect of progression in number might involve proceeding from positive numbers to fractions, negative numbers, irrational numbers and general powers;

    [page 106]

    ii. the ways pupils progress in developing an integrated understanding of mathematics by relating different aspects, e.g. the notion of "square" as it appears in geometry, in number, in mensuration and in algebraic expressions such as (2a+b)²;

    iii. the prerequisite knowledge, understanding and skills which pupils have already acquired and what they need to be taught before a new topic is introduced, e.g. specific knowledge of angle and ratio before introducing trigonometry.

    c. So that trainees develop high expectations of their pupils and to aid them in planning, trainees must be taught the importance of ensuring that pupils aged 11-16 progress:
    i. from knowledge and understanding of specific aspects of mathematics to understanding how seemingly different ideas relate, are often derived from each other and are linked by broad, underlying concepts;

    ii. from citing particular cases and presenting informal arguments to making and justifying general statements with reasoning which is formal, rigorous and consistent;

    iii. from using a limited range of mathematical language and notation to making routine use of precise terminology and symbolism;

    iv. from calculating and solving simple arithmetical problems to manipulating numbers and symbols and simplifying and solving more complex and general problems;

    v. from identifying and calculating using properties of shapes for particular cases to deriving and using properties common to classes of shapes that lead to exact solutions and general statements;

    vi. from constructing Simple tables, diagrams and charts to interpreting and analysing data and making critical and constructive use of different representations.

    d. Trainees on 11-18 and 14-19 courses must be taught how pupils' progression post-16 builds upon the progression identified above.

    2. Trainees must be taught that pupils' progress in mathematics depends upon them teaching their pupils:

    a. the correct use of mathematical language, including the importance of using:

    i. mathematical definitions and vocabulary precisely - especially where a word, e.g. similar, has an everyday meaning and a mathematical meaning which is more subject-specific;

    ii. mathematical sentences and connectives like "therefore" and "because" to indicate the logical connections between consecutive sentences;

    iii. qualifiers and quantifiers correctly, e.g. →, "and", "or", "not", "if" 'then", "for all", "there exists";

    b. the confident use of correct mathematical notation, ensuring that pupils understand:
    i. how and when to use and interpret symbols;

    ii. that notation enables precision and conciseness and facilitates manipulation to generate or confirm identities or to solve equations;

    iii. that use of appropriate notation can simplify a problem and enable a solution to be found;

    iv. equivalence, the importance of the equals sign and the implications for what is written on either side;


    [page 107]

    c. how mental and visual images can aid mathematical thinking and develop mathematical understanding, including:

    i. the functions and limitations of mathematical forms of representation e.g. tables, diagrams and graphs and how to understand, use and interpret them accurately;

    ii. the different ways in which mental and visual images can aid mathematical thinking and develop mathematical understanding, e.g. using a graphical calculator to present information, making a sketch as a way of beginning to understanding a complex problem;

    d. to use and apply mathematical reasoning and proof, including:
    i. how to distinguish between verification and proof and to know for which cases and when something is "true";

    ii. Introducing pupils to the elements of proof, including conjectures, counterexamples and generalised statements and providing opportunities for pupils to practise their use;

    iii. how to structure a coherent, deductive argument, checking assumptions and considering all possible cases;

    e. to be accurate and rigorous, including the importance of:
    i. using mental and written methods to give approximate answers to computations, e.g. to make a mental approximation prior to computations done on a calculator;

    ii. understanding the difference between an exact solution and value and an approximate solution and value, e.g. ll and 3142; solving a quadratic by factorisation and solving it iteratively;

    iii. checking answers for reasonableness and accuracy.

    3. In order to secure progress in pupils' knowledge, skills and understanding of mathematical ideas and the relationship between them, trainees should be taught:

    a. that they must build on pupils' previous knowledge, skills and understanding of mathematics from the previous key stage, class or year;

    b. that pupils' incomplete understanding of mathematical ideas can prevent them from making connections between different areas of mathematics, e.g. pupils will see parabolas as graphs but will not necessarily relate these to the equations they represent;

    c. that pupils need to be taught how different areas of mathematics are connected and how to use this knowledge when solving problems, e.g. using concepts of numerical ratio and geometrical similarity to solve problems in trigonometry;

    d. that misconceptions hinder pupils' progress and need to be addressed. Common misconceptions include:

    i. those carried over from the previous key stage including, where appropriate, those stated in the ITT National Curriculum for primary mathematics (17);

    ii. those common in secondary mathematics, such as:

    • those where pupils misapply or over-generalise a concept, e.g. assuming an equilateral pentagon must be regular;
    17. Annex D.


    [page 108]

    • those which involve the misinterpretation of notation, e.g. thinking 64½ = 32; confusing 3xy² with (3xy)²;
    • misunderstanding the nature of proof, e.g. asserting that a hypothesis has been proved for all cases after testing several examples;
    • misreading diagrams and tables, e.g. angles in a sketch diagram that appear equal are assumed to be equal;
    e. that pupils may fail to make distinctions between certain mathematical ideas and processes, e.g. thinking that the way addition applies to whole numbers can be extended to fractions and therefore that a/b + c/d = (a+c)/(b+d);

    f. that some mathematical ideas are counter-intuitive in that they seem contrary to expectations or everyday experience, e.g. that doubling the linear dimensions of a solid increases its surface area fourfold and its volume eightfold; comparing a few "lucky" outcomes and statistical likelihood;

    g. how mathematical procedures can be justified and how the subject supports logical thinking, e.g. explaining the mathematics behind a statement such as "to divide one fraction by another, invert the second and multiply"; negative x negative = positive; if x²>9 then x<-3 or x>3.

    4. Trainees must be taught:

    a. to recognise the factors which may contribute to low levels of numeracy including:

    i. weak recall of number facts, e.g. addition and multiplication facts;

    ii. insecure knowledge of place value, e.g. confusing 0.1 with 0.01; mis-writing one thousand and seven as 10007; thinking that 0.128 is greater than 12; thinking 60 x 60 = 360;

    iii. poor understanding of negative numbers, e.g. not understanding that -7 is less than -3;

    iv. poor understanding of the relationship between operations, particularly the inverses;

    v. not knowing what operations to use when solving problems;

    vi. failure to judge whether an answer is sensible in the context of the question;

    vii. insecure grasp of the vocabulary of number, e.g. square root, prime;

    viii. misinterpreting data from tables and graphs;

    ix. disaffection, poor motivation, low self-esteem or lack of confidence because of previous failure in mathematics;

    b. the importance of structuring learning in mathematics for pupils who are trailing in numeracy to ensure that they have the regular and frequent practice needed to sharpen their skills and develop the understanding needed to cope with more demanding work.

    5. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of engaging all pupils' interest in mathematics, including:

    a. developing pupils' enthusiasm for mathematics;

    b. being aware of gender differences in attitude, performance and take-up of mathematics subjects post-16, and looking for effective ways of motivating all pupils so that they make satisfactory progress in mathematics;

    c. helping pupils to recognise the contribution of different civilisations to our knowledge and to value the work of mathematicians from different cultures.


    [page 109]

    B. EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

    6. Trainees should be taught how to teach the mathematics contained in the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics and in particular:

    a. how to teach number, through:

    i. ensuring pupils undertake mental calculations to develop their powers of recall, estimation and approximation skills, and agility with number, using a variety of mental strategies, building on those set out in the in National Curriculum for primary mathematics, the Framework for Numeracy of the National Numeracy Project and any subsequent guidance arising from the National Numeracy Strategy;

    ii. ensuring pupils identify and use the properties of number and the relationships between them;

    iii. Introducing standard conventions, forms and algorithms in ways that establish links with previous methods and which increase pupils' confidence and improve their attainment;

    iv. ensuring pupils are taught effective written strategies for dealing with complex calculations, and use and adapt these to derive efficient procedures for the problem in hand;

    v. developing the fluency, flexibility and reliability with which pupils are able to apply numerical knowledge, understanding and skills;

    vi. establishing connections in number and other areas of mathematics;

    vii. ensuring that pupils use number effectively in all areas of mathematics;

    b. how to build on pupils' understanding of number in teaching algebra, through:
    i. understanding the nature of algebra in the pupils' National Curriculum and knowing how to give sufficient emphasis to each of its three main components in their teaching:
    • representing and generalising - generating algebraic expressions and equations, e.g. equations which represent quantitative problems; expressions of generality from geometric problems or numerical sequences; expressions of the rules governing situations;
    • manipulating and transforming - maintaining equivalence and equality, e.g. simplifying algebraic expressions, solving equations; transforming between graphical and algebraic representations;
    • modelling and proving using properties and structures, e.g. identifying constraints of a problem; anticipating and working backwards;
    ii. helping pupils to progress from arithmetical approaches to algebraic approaches in solving problems, e.g. expressing relationships graphically and as functions;

    iii. teaching, and building upon, the foundations for early algebra, including:

    • expressing relationships involving more than one operation, e.g. expressing rules in words then symbols; recognising symbols as a succinct way of expressing the rules;
    • working with arithmetical operations and their inverses, e.g. unravelling number chains to solve simple equations; manipulating formulae expressed in words;

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    • focusing on language as a means of expressing relationships precisely, e.g. provided the elastic limit is not exceeded, the deformation of material is proportional to the force applied to it (Hooke's Law); extension ∝ force;
    iv. teaching the rules of algebraic notation and the manipulation of symbols and ensuring that pupils receive feedback on the way they use algebraic language through extensive class discussion and written work over time, e.g. ensuring that key words such as 'expression', 'equation', 'identity', 'factor', 'product', 'root', 'proportional to' are fully understood and used appropriately;

    v. selecting contexts for solving algebraic problems which enable pupils to focus on the algebraic activity and not be distracted by the surrounding context;

    vi. giving high priority to work on algebraic equivalence, so that pupils recognise equivalent statements, e.g. knowing that inverses such as 3 x 4 = 12 and 12/3 = 4 can be expressed more generally as xy = n and n/x = y;

    vii. preparing pupils who have not covered the full KS4 programme of study post-14, e.g. those taking intermediate tier GCSE, for the algebra within A-level mathematics;

    c. how to develop effective strategies for improving skills in numeracy for those pupils who achieve below the standard of mathematics expected for their age, including how to:
    i. assess pupils' knowledge and skills using techniques such as standardised tests, questions and answers, and oral and mental work;

    ii. Introduce relevant contexts for number work which pupils can relate to and which enable them to develop their understanding of how numbers and operations can be used to solve problems in the real world;

    iii. evaluate the appropriateness of texts and other mathematics resources to identify the assumptions they make about pupils' knowledge so that materials match pupils' Deeds well;

    iv. Include teachers' questions which are adjusted and targeted to ensure that pupils of all abilities are engaged;

    v. with the help of an experienced mathematics and/or SEN teacher if necessary, provide positive and targeted support for such pupils.

    7. Trainees should be taught to plan mathematics teaching, identifying the knowledge, skills and understanding which pupils are to acquire, and build on and, where appropriate, relating them to other areas of mathematics, including:
    i. giving sufficient attention to oral and mental work;

    ii. making effective use of purposeful enquiry within mathematics;

    iii. consolidating and practising knowledge and skills on a regular basis;

    iv. using mathematics resources effectively including:

    • how to use text books and individualised schemes;
    • how to apply criteria in order to determine whether or not a particular resource will support the achievement of identified teaching objectives;
    • knowledge of the mathematical resources available and their potential usefulness in achieving specific teaching objectives, e.g. games, ICT;

    [page 111]

    v. ensuring pupils solve a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar problems;

    vi. ensuring pupils apply well-founded mathematical knowledge and understanding to new and real contexts and problems.

    8. Trainees should be taught methods of teaching which secure pupils' understanding and progress in mathematics, in particular how to:

    a. teach whole classes, groups and individuals, by:

    i. Introducing lessons to capture pupils' attention, outlining objectives and where appropriate, reviewing and drawing upon previous work:

    ii. providing pace and variety, and ensuring that the lesson flows well from one section to the next;

    iii. making appropriate decisions about when and how to intervene constructively, e.g. to monitor progress; to inject pace and challenge into a lesson; to focus or develop mathematical thinking, as well as when pupils ask for help;

    iv. working with pupils to draw together, organise and analyse their ideas and relate them to other mathematical ideas and methods;

    v. ensuring that pupils consolidate and extend their understanding, e.g. by providing opportunities to practise new skills or to apply mathematical concepts in different contexts;

    vi. summarising and reviewing with pupils, during and towards the end of lessons, the mathematics that has been taught and that pupils should have learnt;

    vii. using homework and revision constructively in mathematics for diagnosis, learning and consolidation, including giving study support, e.g. in after-school settings.

    b. using effective interactive methods involving:
    i. clear exposition, including:
    • giving clear instructions, e.g. how to construct a geometric figure; how to set out a formal proof;
    • providing clear explanations, e.g. when teaching to resolve pupils' errors and misconceptions; when explaining how to factorise an expression;
    • demonstrating and illustrating mathematics using appropriate resources and visual displays, e.g. demonstrating random behaviour using a computer or tossing a coin; illustrating the effects of m in y = mx + c using a graphical calculator;
    ii. oral work with whole classes or groups which:
    • secures the involvement of the whole class and enables pupils to contribute actively to mathematical discussion, allowing pupils to think an answer through before a response is demanded;
    • requires pupils to provide clear mathematical explanations to the teacher and to other pupils, as well as giving answers, and encourages them to pose new questions and make conjectures;
    • provides clear feedback, correcting mathematical mistakes and errors and enabling pupils' mathematical progress to be monitored;

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    • includes skilfully framed open and closed, oral and written questions to:
      • foster pupils' thinking and elicit answers from which pupils' mathematical understanding can be judged, giving clear feedback to take pupils' learning forward;
      • require pupils to clarify, justify and develop their mathematical ideas;
    c. teaching pupils to think mathematically when solving a problem, through:
    i. Interpreting the problem and formulating it in mathematical terms;

    ii. devising overall strategies for working towards a solution;

    iii. breaking the problem down into simpler stages and using suitable resources to make representations, e.g. graphs, diagrams, mental images, ICT statistical packages, geometrical models;

    iv. checking chains of reasoning and the reasonableness of solutions in the context of the original problem.

    d. using information and communications technology effectively to support the teaching of mathematics (18).

    9. Assessing learning and evaluating teaching in mathematics

    Trainees must be taught:

    a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing pupils' progress in mathematics, including:

    i. identifying from pupils' oral and written work and from observation of their practical mathematical skills, the basis of their understanding of mathematics;

    ii. undertaking day-to-day and more formal assessment activities so that specific assessment of mathematical understanding can be carried out for all pupils including the very able, those who are not fluent in English and those with SEN;

    iii. preparing oral and written questions and setting up activities and tests which check for:

    • misconceptions and errors in mathematical knowledge and understanding, to identify specific mathematical issues which need further attention;
    • understanding of mathematical ideas and the connections between different mathematical ideas;
    iv. making summative assessments of individual pupils' progress and achievement in mathematics for reporting, e.g. through the use of National Curriculum tests, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment;

    v. marking and monitoring pupils' assigned classwork and homework, providing constructive oral and written feedback and setting targets for pupils' progress;

    b. how to recognise the standards of attainment they should expect of their pupils in mathematics, including, as appropriate:
    i. identifying and judging the extent of pupils' progress against reasonable expectations and established benchmarks;
    18. From September 1998, all courses of initial teacher training must cover the ITT National Curriculum for the use of information and Communications Technology (lCT) in subject leaching. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only. For secondary trainees the ITT National Curriculum for ICT in subject leaching applies to their specialist subject.


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    ii. how to identify under-achieving and very able pupils in mathematics;

    iii. how research evidence, national, local, comparative and school data about attainment standards in mathematics is used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets;

    c. how to use assessment information to evaluate their teaching and guide their planning, including:
    i. how to collect and use in-class informal data, e.g. through observation and/or discussion of pupils' oral, mental and written work in mathematics;

    ii. how to record assessment data against mathematical learning objectives;

    iii. how to set clear and measurable mathematics targets, using evidence of pupils' attainment, aimed at improving the performance of all pupils including those above and below the expected level of achievement for their ages.

    10. Opportunities to practise

    Trainees must be given opportunities to practise, through taught sessions or in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.

    C. TRAINEES' KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICS

    11. All trainees enter a course of initial teacher training for secondary mathematics with:

    • (for undergraduate courses) the academic requirements for admission to first degree studies;
    • (for postgraduate courses) a UK degree or equivalent and an educational background which provide the necessary foundation for work as a teacher of mathematics in the secondary phase.
    Although all trainees will have had a substantial amount of mathematics in their previous education, and those on postgraduate routes as part of their degree, different trainees will have covered different areas to different extents. For example, some trainees may have pursued studies which emphasised pure mathematics, while others may have academic backgrounds where the mathematics content was largely applied, e.g. engineering. For some, the narrowness of their background knowledge means that they may not feel confident about, and competent in, the mathematics which they are required to teach, nor about the links which exist between different areas of mathematics. All trainees need to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses in their own subject knowledge, to analyse it against the pupils' National Curriculum and examination syllabuses, and to be aware of the gaps that they will need to fill during their training. Trainees need to be alert to the differences between having a secure knowledge of the subject and knowing how to teach it effectively.

    12. Audit

    a. For trainees on KS2/3 courses, ITT providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of mathematics against the mathematics content specified in the KS2 and KS3 Programmes of Study, including the 'Further Material'.

    b. For trainees on 11-16 courses, 11-18 courses and 14-19 courses, ITT providers should audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in mathematics against the KS3 and KS4 Programmes of Study, including the 'Further Material', and the mathematics A-level core.

    c. in addition, for trainees on 14-19 courses, providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding against that required to teach mathematics post-16, as specified in paragraph 13.


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    In each case, where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of in must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of mathematics in their teaching.

    d. In addition, for 11-18 courses, the subject knowledge set out in paragraph 13 is advisory only. Providers should have regard to it, have provision available in relation to it, and audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in mathematics against the content. By the end of the course, ITT providers should have assessed how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the post-16 content, taking account of the opportunities the trainee has had to practise teaching mathematics post-16. Capability in relation to the post-16 content should be recorded clearly on the trainee's TTA Career Entry Profile.

    13. Teaching mathematics post-16

    a. To teach mathematics post-16 effectively, trainees should be competent and confident in subject knowledge at a level which goes beyond the 'A' level core to provide sufficient depth of knowledge, including:

    • the nature and methods of proof - geometric and algebraic proofs; proofs for all cases; identifying exceptions;
    • techniques of algebra and calculus - the algebra of polynomials and rational functions; graph sketching; complex numbers in Cartesian and polar form; trigonometry; differential and integral calculus; the fundamental theorem of the calculus; simple differential equations;
    • co-ordinate and vector geometry - combining elementary algebra and Euclidean geometry to set up equations and to solve problems involving points, lines, planes and circles using co-ordinates and vectors; using calculus to solve problems involving tangents, normals, areas and volumes; scalar products;
    • the analysis of discrete and continuous limiting processes - precise definitions of convergence of infinite sequences and series, and of continuity and differentiability of functions; the completeness of the real numbers;
    • infinity and infinite processes, including using induction to prove statements true "for all n∈N"; infinite sequences (Un)n∈N; simple recurrence relations for Un+1; asymptotic behaviour of sequences, functions and graphs.
    Applications

    b. To teach mechanics effectively, trainees should be competent and confident in all of the following areas:

    • statics;
    • kinematics and particle dynamics, in more than one dimension;
    • Newton's laws of motion;
    • energy and work;
    • conservation laws, including momentum and angular momentum;
    • rotation of a rigid body about a symmetry axis.

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    c. To teach statistics effectively, trainees should be competent and confident in all of the following areas:

    • principles of sampling with and without replacement; random and stratified sampling;
    • discrete and continuous random variables; expected values and moments; covariance and correlation; common distributions;
    • estimation of means, variances and proportions - properties of estimators; confidence limits;
    • principles of hypothesis testing - the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis; critical regions - one- and two-tail tests.
    d. To teach discrete/decision mathematics effectively, trainees should be competent and confident in all of the following areas:
    • linear programming;
    • elementary graph theory;
    • algorithms - specific examples including critical path analysis; complexity; the distinction between polynomial and exponential algorithms.





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    Annex H

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for secondary science


    INTRODUCTION

    The initial teacher training (ITT) National Curriculum for secondary science specifies the essential core of knowledge, understanding and skills which all trainees on all courses of initial teacher training for secondary science must be taught and be able to use in their teaching.

    The requirements will come into effect for all secondary ITT courses where science is designated as a specialist subject from September 1999. Although this document does not apply where science is offered as a subsidiary subject in addition to the main specialism, providers of such courses will find this curriculum a useful resource in helping them to determine the essential elements which should be included.

    Providers of in must ensure that only those trainees who have shown that they have the knowledge, understanding and skills to teach science effectively are judged to have successfully completed an in secondary science course leading to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). Detailed requirements of what trainees must demonstrate they know, understand and can do before being awarded QTS are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    This curriculum focuses on teaching and assessment methods which have a particular relevance to secondary science. Standards which apply to generic areas of teaching and assessment, and which all those to be awarded QTS must meet, are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A). As part of all courses, providers of in are required to prepare trainees to teach the National Curriculum for pupils and to understand statutory requirements. The ITT National Curriculum for secondary science does not, therefore, repeat the content of the pupils' National Curriculum but rather sets out the core of what trainees need to be taught, know and be able to do if they are to teach the pupils' National Curriculum effectively. The ITT National Curriculum for secondary science includes some references to information and Communications Technology (ICT) in relation to secondary science. However, from September 1998 (19), all trainees will be required to have a secure knowledge and understanding of the content of the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B). The ICT curriculum aims to equip every newly qualified teacher of secondary science with the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to make sound decisions about when, when not, and how to use ICT effectively in teaching science. It is therefore the responsibility of the ITT provider to ensure that the way trainees are taught to use ICT is firmly rooted within secondary science teaching, rather than teaching how to use ICT generically or as an end in itself. In order to support providers in this, the TTA intends to produce separate, subject-specific guidance which can be used in conjunction with this document.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary science should therefore be read alongside the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) and the National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching (Annex B).

    The curriculum aims to prepare science teachers as follows:

    • for KS2/3 courses, as a minimumfor KS2/3 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the science specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for Key Stage 3 (trainees on KS2/3 courses must also cover the in National Curriculum for primary science (Annex E). as preparation for teaching the pupils' National Curriculum for science at Key Stage 2);
    19. The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only.


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    • for 11-16 and 11-18 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the science specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for science at Key Stage 3, and one science specialism (chosen from biology, chemistry or physics), within a broad and balanced science GCSE;
    • for 11-18 courses, the subject knowledge set out in paragraphs 13, 14 and 15 is advisory only. Providers should have regard to it, have provision available in relation to it, and audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in science against the content. By the end of the course, ITT providers should have assessed how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the content required to teach science post-16, taking account of the opportunities that the trainee has had to practise teaching post-16, Capability in relation to post-16 science should be recorded on each NOT's TTA career Entry Profile.
    • for post-16 science subjects other than biology, chemistry and physics (for example, geology or environmental science), ITT providers could set out a comparable list to those given in paragraphs 13, 14 and 15 to define those aspects of the subject, at degree level, that trainees should know, and be secure in their understanding of, in order to teach the subject effectively to pupils post-16. This could then be used as the basis for audit.
    • for 14-19 courses, as a minimum, trainees must be able to teach all the science specified in the pupils' National Curriculum for science at Key Stage 3, one science specialism (chosen from biology, chemistry or physics), within a broad and balanced science GCSE, one science subject at A-level, one of the specialist science units within intermediate science GNVQ and one of the science units within advanced science GNVQ.
    Trainees on KS2/3, 11-16 and 11-18 courses must be taught about progression in science from the KS2 Programmes of Study. Those on 11-16 and 11-18 courses, in addition, must be taught about progression in science from KS3 to KS4, and from KS4 to science post-16. Those on 14-19 courses must be taught about progression in science from KS3 to KS4 and from KS4 to science post-16, as well as routes of progression through the related 14-19 vocational qualifications.

    This curriculum builds on the in National Curriculum for primary science (Annex E). Providers of secondary science ITT and trainees on secondary science ITT courses will find that document an important resource. In particular, it should be referred to when teaching about KS2/KS3 transfer issues and in order to identify effective strategies for teaching science to pupils whose attainment in science is below that expected for their age.

    The curriculum has been written for providers of secondary science in in schools (partnership schools, SCITT groups and those having teachers on employment-based training), higher education institutions and elsewhere, and others who have a background in science. While every attempt has been made to avoid jargon, the correct terminology has been used where appropriate.

    The curriculum is in three sections.

    Section A Pedagogical knowledge and understanding required by trainees to secure pupils' progress in science Page 119

    This section sets out the pedagogical knowledge and understanding which, as part of all courses, trainees must be taught and be able to apply in order to secure pupils' progress in science. By the end of their course, trainees must demonstrate that they know, understand and can apply this knowledge when teaching science at Key Stages 2, 3 or 4 and, where appropriate, post-16.

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    Section B Effective teaching and assessment methods Page 123

    This section sets out the teaching and assessment methods which, as part of all courses, all trainees must be taught and be able to use.
    Section C Trainees' know/edge and understanding of science Page 128
    This section sets out the subject knowledge and understanding of science which trainees need to support effective teaching of science for the 11 -19 age-range. Providers must audit, as appropriate to the age-range they are being trained to teach, trainees' knowledge and understanding of the science specified in paragraphs 13-16.

    Where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of ITT must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of science in their teaching.

    ITT providers will decide how best to teach the content of section C, but, where appropriate, much might be covered through the use of supported self-study and through guided reading prior to the course. While some of the content may require direct teaching, some could also be taught alongside aspects of sections A and B of the curriculum.

    The ITT National Curriculum for secondary science does not attempt to cover everything that trainee teachers will be taught. It is expected that providers of in will include in their courses other aspects of science, not specified in this curriculum.

    This document specifies a curriculum. It is not a course model. All secondary courses of ITT where science is a specialist subject must include the content specified, but it is for providers to decide how and where the various aspects should be included. For example, although this curriculum is set out in separate sections, there is no expectation that providers will teach these discretely. Indeed, it is expected that many providers will integrate aspects of the three sections when designing science courses. Similarly, there is no intention to impose on providers of ITT the way in which the curriculum should be delivered and assessed, nor to specify the materials or activities which should be used to support the training. Providers should use this curriculum as the basis for devising secondary science courses which are coherent, intellectually stimulating and professionally challenging. It is intended that once courses have been devised to include this curriculum, then providers can work confidently from their own course documentation.

    In order to ensure that the delivery of the curriculum can be managed within the available time, it is likely that secondary science courses whose content currently varies significantly from that specified in this document will need considerable revision. The ITT secondary science curriculum is intended to form the core of secondary science ITT course, not to fit round existing provision. HEls and their partnership schools may also wish to review their respective roles and responsibilities in delivering the different aspects of this curriculum.


    [page 119]

    Initial teacher training is the first stage in the professional preparation of secondary science teachers and this curriculum provides the foundation of knowledge, understanding and skills which will enable every newly qualified secondary science teacher to teach science effectively in their first teaching post. Providers may, if they wish, go beyond the minimum standard specified in this document. They must, however, guard against over-interpretation of the content if the curriculum is to remain manageable, e.g. in paragraph 8.5.c. [trainees must be taught ... how to ... teach pupils to examine evidence for validity and reliability by considering questions of accuracy, error and discrepancy]. This should be interpreted simply in relation to the outcomes of pupils' practical work. It is not intended here that trainees should teach pupils formal definitions of reliability and validity and formal treatment of errors is not expected. The content specified should therefore be interpreted at a level which supports effective teaching of science by a newly qualified teacher in their first post.

    The TTA Career Entry Profile will enable a summary of each newly qualified teacher's strengths and priorities for development during the induction year to be conveyed from initial teacher training to his or her first teaching post. During their induction year, newly qualified teachers will have the opportunity to consolidate and build on what they have learned in initial training. It is expected that, throughout their careers, teachers will continue to improve their teaching skills, and keep up to date with the subject and its pedagogy, so that they can teach science rigorously and in a way which communicates their enthusiasm for the subject to pupils, in order to stimulate pupils' intellectual curiosity and to maintain and raise standards of attainment.

    Throughout the document, the examples printed in italics are non-statutory. The numbers and letters throughout the curriculum are for reference purposes only, and do not necessarily indicate a particular teaching sequence or hierarchy of knowledge, skills and understanding.

    Initial Teacher Training National Curriculum for secondary science

    A. PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING REQUIRED BY TRAINEES TO SECURE PUPILS' PROGRESS iN SCIENCE

    1. All courses must ensure that trainees are taught some of the reasons why it is important for all pupils to learn science, including that:

    a. knowledge and understanding of science helps pupils make sense of natural phenomena;

    b. knowledge and understanding of science and of the ways scientists work can help pupils understand the basis for decisions in an increasingly technological world;

    c. through science pupils can develop investigative and practical skills which can help them to solve problems;

    d. science is interesting and intellectually stimulating;

    e. science is an important part of contemporary culture and is relevant to, and has implications for, people of all nations.

    2. Progression in pupils' scientific understanding

    a. All courses must ensure that trainees are taught that pupils' progress in science depends upon teaching which:

    i. establishes a framework of basic scientific knowledge and principles;

    ii. enables pupils to go beyond their first-hand experiences and individual interpretation of phenomena;


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    iii. assists the development of scientific ideas and the understanding of accepted scientific explanations and models;

    iv. requires pupils to reason and think in a scientific context.

    b. In order to understand the high expectations that teachers should have of their pupils, to aid planning and to ensure that trainees know how pupils are progressing in science, trainees must be taught the importance of ensuring that pupils aged 11-19 progress:
    i. from understanding of accepted scientific knowledge in a few areas to understanding in a wide range of areas including, where relevant, the links between areas;

    ii. from describing events and simple phenomena to explaining events and more complex phenomena;

    iii. from explaining phenomena in terms of their own ideas to explaining phenomena in terms of accepted scientific ideas or models;

    iv. from a study of observable phenomena to increasing use of formal and generalised ideas;

    v. from an essentially qualitative view of phenomena to, where appropriate, a more quantitative and mathematical view;

    vi. from seeing science as a school activity to an understanding of the nature and impact of scientific and technological activity beyond the classroom;

    vii. from experiment and investigation involving simple scientific ideas to those in which:

    • more complex scientific ideas may be drawn upon;
    • more than one variable may be pertinent;
    • decisions have to be made about strategies and instruments for data collection;
    • data is interpreted and evaluated in terms of strengths and limitations;
    viii. from accepting models and theories uncritically to recognising how new evidence may require modifications to be made;

    ix. from simple drawings, diagrams and charts representing scientific information or data to diagrams and graphs which use scientific conventions;

    x. from using a limited range of scientific language, notation and symbols to using an extended technical vocabulary and standard notation and symbols routinely, appropriately and correctly.

    3. Key aspects of science underpinning progression in pupils' scientific knowledge and understanding

    a. In order to secure progress in pupils' knowledge and understanding of the key scientific ideas and the relationships between them, trainees must be taught:

    i. that pupils will bring to science lessons a knowledge and understanding of science from their work in KS2;

    ii. that pupils' own ideas about areas of science will often differ from accepted scientific ideas, and how to understand possible origins of pupils' misconceptions, and how they can be addressed, e.g. thinking that, in a simple circuit, the current in the return wire is less than the current in the wire to the device; thinking that plants breathe in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen;


    [page 121]

    iii. that some scientific ideas, e.g. an object moving at a steady speed in a straight line has no net force acting on it, are counter-intuitive in that they seem contrary to everyday experience; .

    iv. that pupils' incomplete understanding of scientific ideas sometimes prevents them from making distinctions between separate scientific ideas;

    v. how to ensure that pupils make distinctions between scientific ideas which are commonly confused and understand the relationships between them, e.g. that burning may result when some substances are heated but that burning and heating are distinct; that photosynthesis and respiration take place in plants, but the balance between them varies with conditions;

    vi. that there are sometimes links between apparently different scientific ideas or areas of science, e.g. burning and respiration; the relationship between energy levels in atoms and flame test colours, and that they must teach pupils that ideas which apply in one context may also be used in apparently unrelated contexts, e.g. the particle model can be used to explain a range of phenomena from the expansion of materials to chemical combination;

    vii. that using models, analogies and illustrations in science teaching is a powerful way to explain complex scientific principles to pupils, but that:

    • all analogies have limitations, e.g. unlike the water circuit model of electricity, current does not leak if the circuit is cut, and pupils may take them too far;
    • some pupils may confuse representations with the scientific ideas they aim to explain, e.g. thinking that atoms, like the models used to represent them, have hooks on them by which they join to others;
    • different kinds of physical models are essential to the teaching of science to represent phenomena which are too large, e.g. tectonic plates and plate movement, too small or difficult to see, e.g. the structure of DNA, or where they present a hazard, e.g. nuclear fission;
    • different aspects of phenomena may be illustrated most effectively by different types of model, e.g. when teaching crystal structure, space-filling models can be used to show packing but models with rigid connections are effective for looking at co-ordination numbers;
    viii. that some illustrations and examples may require a general knowledge which some pupils may not possess, e.g. pupils in urban schools may be less familiar with animal hibernation or seasonal variation.
    b. In order to secure progress in pupils' knowledge and understanding of science through science activities, trainees must be taught that:
    i. activities must be designed to build on pupils' previous knowledge and understanding as well as contribute to securing pupils' understanding of major scientific ideas, e.g. work on hormonal activity and genetics at KS4 will build on discussion of human reproduction at KS3;

    ii. scientific skills and processes need to be taught explicitly, e.g. how to use a range of standard scientific equipment such as microscopes, measuring cylinders, Bunsen burners; how to record, represent, analyse and evaluate data;

    iii. although practical work can make a major contribution to securing pupils' progress in science, pupils' scientific knowledge and understanding cannot be developed solely through practical activities;

    iv. they must identify and make explicit to pupils the key scientific ideas of any science activity.


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    c. Trainees must be taught that developing pupils' use of scientific language is essential in securing progress in pupils' knowledge and understanding of science, and that:

    i. the language which teachers use, e.g. to describe and explain phenomena and to question pupils, will affect the quality of pupils' knowledge and understanding, and therefore teachers should avoid teaching in ways which contribute to or exacerbate pupils' misunderstandings, e.g. using "weak" instead of "dilute" when talking about less concentrated solutions of acids; referring to energy being "used up" when describing energy transfers;

    ii. scientific descriptions and explanations require a precise understanding and use of terms and linguistic structures which will often need to be taught explicitly, e.g. the use of "compere", "draw conclusions", "leads to", "reasons for", "evaluate", and that pupils' understanding of the everyday meaning of some words, e.g. competition, element, cell, distil, energy, power, work, radiation may be a barrier to their understanding of the same words used in a scientific context;

    iii. the correct use of scientific terms can help pupils to organise their knowledge as their scientific understanding is developing, e.g. compounds are formed when atoms combine, but that use of scientific terms does not necessarily indicate scientific understanding.

    d. Trainees must be taught that many pupils hold misconceptions about the nature of science and scientists, including:
    i. thinking that scientific theories are incontestable and true for all time, whereas, although some pieces of knowledge are more secure than others, all scientific knowledge is open to challenge and revision, e.g. circulation of the blood as opposed to the mechanism of transmission of BSE;

    ii. thinking that all scientific knowledge is generated by experiment and data collection, whereas many ideas are new and creative explanations of phenomena, e.g. the theory of evolution; plate tectonics;

    iii. thinking that all scientific ideas are tangible and real representations of the natural world, whereas many scientific ideas are useful for describing the world but cannot themselves be observed directly, e.g. fields, forces and energy;

    iv. thinking scientists make judgements in isolation, whereas in practice many decisions involve ethical, social and economic factors, e.g. whether to use animals for experiments, whether to develop weapons technology;

    v. not realising that while the application of science may offer the solution to some problems it may be the cause of others.

    4. As part of all courses, trainees must be taught the importance of engaging all pupils' interest in science, including:

    a. developing pupils' enthusiasm for science;

    b. being aware of gender differences in attitude, performance and take-up of science subjects post-16. and looking for effective ways of motivating all pupils so that they make satisfactory progress in science;

    c. helping pupils to realise the contribution that different civilisations make to our knowledge in science and to value the work of scientists from different cultures.


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    B. EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT METHODS

    5. Methods of developing pupils' understanding of science

    Trainees must be taught how to select and implement appropriate teaching strategies in order to take pupils' learning forward, including:

    a. how to use skilfully framed open and closed, oral and written questions for different purposes, including how and when to use questions which:

    i. elicit and make explicit pupils' existing knowledge or ideas, including identifying misunderstandings about scientific ideas;

    ii. help pupils make connections between new and prior knowledge, e.g. making connections between existing knowledge of burning and the chemical reactions in respiration;

    iii. require intermediate steps in a causal sequence to be made explicit, e.g. explaining how beta radiation can be used to check the thickness of aluminium sheeting;

    iv. stimulate discussion and require pupils to articulate and consolidate their understandings through prediction, application and making justifications or repudiations based on scientific evidence;

    v. focus pupils' attention on different features or aspects of the activity, investigation or science being taught by asking for qualitative or quantitative information;

    vi. require pupils to broaden their understanding by applying their knowledge of scientific ideas and processes in new contexts;

    b. how to provide effective exposition to promote pupils' scientific understanding and to remedy misconceptions, including:
    i. how to simplify complex scientific ideas while retaining integrity of meaning;

    ii. how to sequence complex scientific ideas into smaller steps;

    iii. how and when to use analogies and metaphors to illustrate a complex scientific phenomenon, taking account of their strengths and limitations for scientific purposes;

    iv. how and when to use physical models for scientific phenomena;

    v. how and when to use teacher demonstrations and pupil demonstrations, e.g. to demonstrate a phenomenon and stimulate discussion about it; to illustrate a technique; where there is a potential hazard; to make effective use of time and resources;

    vi. the appropriate use of video and IT-based simulations, e.g. in order to demonstrate phenomena and processes that may be too slow, too fast, too dangerous or too expensive to undertake in the science classroom or laboratory;

    vii. how to use starting points which relate school science to everyday experiences and to the technological applications of science;


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    c. how to use experimental and practical work for effective learning, including how to:

    i. decide whether the use of experimental or other practical work is the most effective way of meeting identified objectives and supporting progression in pupils' scientific understanding, e.g. when teaching a new scientific idea, pupil-led investigation is unlikely to be the most effective way of doing so; new skills are best taught discretely, rather than as part of a wider investigation;

    ii. Identify the teaching objective(s) for any experiment, investigation or practical activity, e.g. to teach a scientific skill; to teach the whole process of investigation; to illustrate a scientific principle; to find something out, and select the most effective form of practical or field work to teach particular aspects of science;

    iii. teach scientific skills and methods explicitly and ensure that pupils make progress in their use, including how to:

    • ensure that pupils know how to use them safely, correctly and appropriately in their science work, including teaching the appropriate use of instruments to increase pupils' accuracy in observation and measurement;
    • design experiments and investigations so that they are likely to yield sufficient reliable evidence to enable pupils to explain these in terms of scientific knowledge and understanding;
    • teach pupils to identify relevant variables in different contexts;
    • teach pupils to judge the range of observations and measurements they need to make, when and why these need to be repeated, and how to deal with anomalous or discrepant results;
    • teach pupils to examine evidence for validity and reliability by considering questions of accuracy, error and discrepancy;
    • teach pupils to identify increasingly quantitative patterns and relationships when appropriate;
    • teach pupils to draw conclusions and to relate these to underlying scientific ideas;
    • teach pupils to use information technology for more effective collection, analysis and presentation of data, e.g. data logging; producing graphs from spreadsheets;
    • consider with pupils, where necessary, the reasons why the outcomes of a particular activity do not demonstrate what was intended, e.g. because of faulty equipment. poor experimental design or poor technique;
    d. ways in which pupils' literacy can be developed as an integral part of science teaching and how to teach those aspects of literacy necessary for pupils to make progress in science, including how to:
    i. use structured activities to teach pupils to read science texts effectively;

    ii. select, extract and collate the salient information from texts and images, e.g. from books, CD-ROM, and how to make useful notes when reading;

    iii. teach pupils to write effectively in science, including how to:


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    • teach and support the different styles of writing commonly used in science. e.g. description, explanation and discussion, including teaching pupils to use those particular features of language which are commonly used in scientific writing, e.g. correct use of scientific terms and those everyday terms, such as "energy", which have a particular meaning in science;
    • help pupils write and demonstrate their understanding of scientific ideas by varying the type of writing required, e.g. the use of posters; imaginative writing; writing for the school newspaper and other audiences; not always insisting on the use of the passive voice;
    • teach pupils to select images and examples to illustrate points clearly and imaginatively;
    e. ways in which pupils' numeracy and other mathematical abilities can be developed as an integral part of science teaching. Including:
    i. with reference to the pupils' National Curriculum for mathematics, knowing the standards in mathematics that should be expected of pupils of a particular age/phase and what might need to be taught;

    ii knowing how to reinforce and apply in science the particular mathematical knowledge and understanding needed for pupils to make progress in understanding scientific principles, including:

    • numerical awareness, e.g. size of numbers, estimation of likely magnitudes of numbers, appropriate degree of precision;
    • ratio and proportion, e.g. surface area to volume ratios;
    • re-arrangement of simple formulae, and their use to represent both properties and magnitudes of physical quantities, e.g. the relationship between speed, distance and time;
    • plotting and interpreting graphs, including visual determination of lines of best fit;
    • use of percentages;
    • understanding probability, e.g. how probability of one event occurring may be independent of preceding events;
    • determining uncertainty;
    • determining.averages, modes and medians;
    • when it is not appropriate to use a calculator, e.g. in making estimates of derived quantities, such as speed or in converting units;
    iii. how to recognise common difficulties which pupils have with the mathematics necessary to their progress in science, and to understand how they arise and how to address them, including among others:
    • using ideas of proportion, e.g. in calculating reacting quantities;
    • use of very large or very small quantities expressed in standard form including calculator manipulation of these;
    • estimating orders of magnitude of physical quantities;
    • the significance of, and the distinction between, numbers and physical quantities, e.g. the meaning of metres per second. or newton metres; why velocity is measured in ms-1 and acceleration is measured in ms-2;
    • converting units of volume, e.g. em³ to dm³;

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    f. how to teach pupils to communicate their scientific understanding, including through concise, scientifically accurate oral and written presentation and the accurate and appropriate use of tables, diagrams and line graphs;

    g. how to explore and handle sensitive and controversial issues, e.g. genetics and genetic engineering, evolution and creationism.

    6. Managing science in the classroom

    Trainees must be taught:

    a. how to plan well-structured individual science lessons and sequences of lessons in the short, medium and longer term which:

    i. Identify clear and realistic learning objectives and ensure that the introduction of any new topic incorporates the essential features of the scientific ideas which pupils must ultimately grasp and links to previous knowledge relevant to the scientific idea;

    ii. secure deeper understanding of the connections within and between different areas of science, including through purposeful scientific enquiry;

    iii. allow rigorous application of scientific knowledge and understanding to new and real contexts and problems;

    b. how to structure their teaching and use interactive methods with whole classes, groups and individuals effectively for different purposes, including how to:
    i. introduce the lesson to command attention, to set out what science is to be learnt and, where appropriate, to review and draw upon previous work;

    ii. provide opportunities for follow-up, guided practice and consolidation in science, including how to:

    • use diverse activities on a scientific topic in order to consolidate and extend understanding;
    • provide pupils with opportunities to solve problems by applying their scientific knowledge, understanding and skills to new situations;
    • intervene constructively, e.g. to monitor progress or inject pace and challenge, not just when pupils request help;
    • provide remedial instruction for pupils who have not grasped the material being taught;
    iii. summarise and review during and towards the end of lessons, the science that has been taught and what pupils should have learnt, and to use this to engage pupils in the presentation of their work, to identify and rectify misunderstandings, and to give pupils insight into the next stage of their learning;
    c. how to use science resources effectively, including:
    i. knowledge of the range of available science resources and their potential usefulness in teaching science, e.g. scientific equipment and apparatus, textbooks, science schemes, teachers' resource books, worksheets, ICT, video, educational broadcasts, visits to museums and science centres and real life materials and situations, including the outdoor environment;

    ii. criteria for selecting and evaluating such material to determine whether or not use of a particular resource will support the effective achievement of identified teaching objectives;


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    d. how to use information and communications technology (ICT) to support pupils' learning in science, and the ways in which ICT can be used to support science teaching (20);

    e. how to manage practical work effectively, including how to:

    i. assess the risks associated with experimental and practical work, how to avoid hazards and ensure pupils and others are not at risk;

    ii encourage pupils to use living materials responsibly in biological investigations;

    iii. familiarise themselves with the activity and/or location and to ensure that plans include the equipment needed by pupils and their access to it;

    iv. manage the time needed to complete the work, including effective briefing of pupils, review of the results obtained and clearing up.

    7. Assessing and evaluating teaching and learning in science

    Trainees must be taught:

    a. how to use formative, diagnostic and summative methods of assessing pupils' progress in science, including:

    i. identifying from pupils' oral and written work and from observation of their practical scientific skills, the basis for their understanding of scientific ideas;

    ii. undertaking day-to-day and more formal assessment activities so that specific assessment of scientific understanding can be carried out for all pupils including the very able, those who are not fluent in English and those with SEN;

    iii. preparing oral and written questions and setting up activities and tests which check for:

    • misconceptions and errors in scientific knowledge and understanding;
    • understanding of scientific ideas and the connections between different ideas in science;
    • understanding of the processes and scientific ideas associated with experiments and investigations and the ability to link experimental evidence with scientific understanding;
    • competence in the technical skills associated with experimental work;
    iv. making summative assessments for reporting of individual pupils' progress and achievement in science, e.g. through the use of National Curriculum tests, teacher assessment and other forms of individual pupil assessment;

    v. marking and monitoring pupils' assigned classwork and homework, providing constructive oral and written feedback and setting targets for pupils' progress;

    b. how to recognise the standards of attainment they should expect of their pupils in science, including, as appropriate:
    i. the expected demands in relation to each relevant level description for KS3 in science and how to judge levels of attainment;

    ii. the expected demands in relation to national qualifications at 16-plus and 18-plus;

    20. From September 1998, all courses of initial teacher training must cover the ITT National Curriculum for the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in subject teaching (Annex B). The final year of undergraduate courses will be exempt from this requirement for 1998/99 only. For secondary trainees, the ITT National Curriculum for the use of ICT in subject teaching applies to their specialist subject.


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    iii. how to identify pupils who are under-achieving or very able in science;

    iv. how research evidence, national, local, comparative and school data about attainment standards in science is used to identify under-achievement and to set clear expectations and targets.

    8. Opportunities to practise

    As part of all courses, trainees must be given opportunities to practise, through taught sessions or in the classroom, those methods and skills described above.

    C. TRAINEES' KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE

    9. All trainees enter a course of initial teacher training for secondary science with:

    • (for undergraduate courses) the academic requirements for admission to first degree studies;
    • (for postgraduate courses) a UK degree or equivalent and an educational background which provides the necessary foundation for work as a teacher of science in the secondary phase.
    Although all trainees will have learned a substantial amount of science in their previous education, and those on postgraduate routes as part of their degree, different trainees will have covered different areas to different extents. For example, some trainees may have academic backgrounds where the science content was largely applied, e.g. engineering. For some, the narrowness of their background knowledge may mean they do not feel confident about, or competent in, the science which they are required to teach. All trainees need to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses in their own subject knowledge, to analyse it against the pupils' National Curriculum and examination syllabuses. and to be aware of the gaps they will need to fill during their training. Trainees need to be alert to the differences between having a secure knowledge of the subject and knowing how to teach it effectively.

    10. Audit

    a. For trainees on KS2/3 courses, ITT providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of science against the science content specified in the KS2 and KS3 and KS4 Programmes of Study.

    b. For trainees on 11-16 courses, 11-18 courses and 14-19 courses, ITT providers should audit trainees' knowledge, understanding and skills in science against the KS3 and KS4 Programmes of Study and the relevant science "A" level core.

    c. In addition, for trainees on 14-19 courses, providers should audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the science required to teach science post-16 specified in paragraphs 13-16 below as appropriate.

    In each case, where gaps in trainees' subject knowledge are identified, providers of in must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using their knowledge of science in their teaching.

    In addition, for 11-18 courses, the subject knowledge set out in paragraphs 13,14 and 15 is advisory only. Providers should have regard to it, have provision available in relation to it, and audit trainees' knowledge. understanding and skills in science against the content. By the end of the course, ITT providers should assess how far each trainee's subject knowledge matches the post-16 content, taking account of the opportunities the trainee has had to practise teaching science post-16. Capability in relation to the post-16 content should be recorded clearly on the NQT's TTA Career Entry Profile.


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    11. As part of all courses, trainees must be given opportunities to:

    a. use correctly scientific and technical terms which, in addition to those in the National Curriculum Science Order, are necessary to enable them to be clear in their explanations to pupils, to discuss secondary science at a professional level, and to read inspection and classroom-focused research evidence with understanding;

    b. Identify how the different areas of science relate to each other (unifying principles and concepts), so that they can make conceptual links across the subject, present pupils with a coherent perspective on the subject matter taught, and ensure progression in pupils' learning;

    c. articulate their understanding of scientific ideas, reflect upon them, and revise them where necessary;

    d. use technology such as calculators and computers when appropriate, recognising when they might be inappropriate, and become aware of the strengths and limitations of such technology;

    e. enjoy science so that they can teach it with enthusiasm;

    f. access sources of information, e.g. internet, links with Europe and other institutions, which support teaching (research and inspection) and help maintain the currency of their knowledge of teaching materials.

    12. As part of all courses, trainees must demonstrate that they know and understand the nature of science, including that:

    a. science is based on an interaction between the collection of evidence and representations of the world which are human constructions. Some representations of the world are much better supported by evidence than others and offer more powerful explanations than others;

    b. some scientific knowledge is descriptive, e.g. Pluto, cells and particles are all descriptions of objects whose existence is taken for granted even though they may be too difficult to observe directly; some scientific knowledge is based on agreed definitions and relationships, e.g. force;

    c. scientific knowledge can never be considered to be absolutely certain. It is always potentially fallible and there are only degrees of certainty.

    13. In order to teach biology effectively post-16, trainees must know and be secure in their understanding of the following aspects at degree level:

    a. biochemistry:

    i. structure and synthesis of building blocks (proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids);

    ii. the role of ATP;

    iii. Inter-relationship between major metabolic pathways;

    b. cellular processes:
    i. functioning of cell membranes;

    ii. transport mechanisms within and between cells;

    iii. enzyme kinetics;

    iv. structure of mitochondria and chloroplasts;


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    c. biological control systems:

    i. feedback and control in homeostatic mechanisms;

    ii. operation of hormonal and nervous (voluntary and autonomic) control systems and their inter-relationship;

    iii. neurotransmission and hormonal action at a cellular level;

    d. genetics and evolution:
    i. genetic mapping and gene modification;

    ii. genome concept;

    iii. population genetics and polymorphism;

    iv. evolutionary selection and speciation mechanisms;

    e. taxonomy:
    i. morphological and molecular systematics;

    ii. phyllogenetic relationships;

    f. ecological principles:
    i. Inter-relationships and dependence;

    ii. cyclic processes in the biosphere and biotransformations;

    iii. ecological energetics;

    iv. population dynamics;

    v. global patterns of biodiversity;

    g. structure and function:
    i. evolutionary significance of levels of organisation;

    ii. mechanisms for gene expression;

    iii. significance of cellular differentiation;

    iv. developmental processes;

    v. significance of surface area: volume ratios in relation to processes at all levels of organisation from sub-cellular to the whole organism;

    h. In addition, all trainees should know (21):
    i. accepted systematic use of taxonomic levels;

    ii. key identifying characteristics of the major groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms;

    iii. basic statistical theory relating to distributions and sampling;

    iv. when and how to use statistical techniques, such as student's chi-squared and F tests, to analyse variance and examine correlation and regression in behavioural and ecological data.

    21. Knowledge of these aspects need not be at degree level.


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    14. In order to teach chemistry effectively post-16, trainees must know and be secure in their understanding of the following aspects of the subject at degree level:

    1. a. structure and bonding:

    i. models of atomic structure;

    ii. models of electron configuration;

    b. thermodynamics and equilibria:
    i. chemical thermodynamics;

    ii. thermodynamic and kinetic factors in the behaviour of reactions;

    iii. thermodynamic factors influencing the extent of reactions;

    c. kinetics:
    i. mathematical models of chemical kinetics;

    ii. the use of models of molecular behaviour to predict reaction kinetics;

    d. properties of elements and compounds in relation to the periodic table:
    i. the history of the periodic table;

    ii. properties of the elements and major compounds in relation to their position in the periodic table;

    e. organic synthesis, including reaction mechanisms:
    i. explanations of the chemistry of functional groups in terms of electron structure;

    ii. explanations of reaction mechanisms of functional groups in terms of electron structure;

    iii. routes by which organic compounds can be synthesised from simpler or more readily available compounds;

    iv. the range and nature of organic compounds;

    f. analytical chemistry, including spectroscopic methods:
    i. how, in principle, the major spectroscopic techniques work, and how they are used in elucidating structure;

    ii. quantitative analysis;

    g. biochemistry:
    i. the control of energy transfers in redox reactions in biochemical pathways;

    ii. the structure and function of major groups of biological macromolecules and their constituents;

    iii. in principle, the role of nucleic acids in protein synthesis, the structure of DNA and RNA and their relationship to the genetic code.


    [page 132]

    15. In order to teach physics effectively post-16, trainees must know and be secure in their understanding of the following aspects of the subject at degree level, through studies in either a pure or applied context:

    a. dynamics and statics:

    i. the use of vector notation to analyse problems in statics and linear and rotational dynamics;

    ii. the principles underlying special relativity;

    iii. mechanical waves and wave motion;

    b. quantum physics:
    i. simple relationships concerning the quantisation of energy and waves and the evidence for these relationships;

    ii. the use of quantum physics in explaining phenomena, e.g. interactions of matter and waves at atomic levels and properties of semiconductors;

    iii. possible interpretations of quantum phenomena and their possible physical significance;

    c. thermodynamics:
    i. the zeroth, first and second laws;

    ii. relationships between macroscopic variables and functions of state and their use in applications, e.g. understanding and analysing thermal properties of fluids and solids, heat engines, heat transfer;

    iii. microscopic, dynamical models of states of matter and their use in explaining macroscopic laws and relationships;

    d. forces and fields:
    i. properties and descriptions of gravitational and electromagnetic fields;

    ii. the four forces of nature and comparisons of their range, properties and strengths;

    e. matter:
    i) macroscopic extrinsic and intrinsic properties of materials and their use in designing and making things;

    ii) qualitative comparisons of microscopic models of materials and their use in explaining the difference in macroscopic properties;

    iii) transport phenomena through materials, e.g. thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity;

    f. electrical circuits:
    i) alternating currents in circuits containing capacitance and inductance;

    ii) analysing and syntheSising electrical and electronic circuits in terms of their components and their components' functions and characteristics;


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    g. In addition, all trainees should know or be able to acquire an understanding of (22):

    i. basic calculus or iterative methods for solving quantitative analytical problems;

    ii. basic statistical techniques for processing data and estimating errors;

    iii. models of physical phenomena which are still under debate, e.g. the standard model of the fundamental particles, including quarks; the big bang theory of the universe; high temperature super-conductivity etc.

    iv. the ways in which scientists and/or engineers have cOntributed to our present understanding of physical theories and/or technological processes and capability, ego Maxwell, Hertz and Marconi and electromagnetic waves; Carnot, Kelvin, Rankine and Sankey and heat engines; Curie, Rutherford and Bohr and the structure of the atom; Bell and Ryle and pulsars; Hawking and Penrose and cosmological models.





    22. This need not be at degree level.


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    Annex I

    Requirements for all Courses of initial Teacher Training


    Introduction

    This Annex sets out requirements for all courses of initial teacher training (ITT). These requirements come into force for all courses from 1 September 1998.

    The document is divided into four sections:

    A. Trainee Entry and Selection Requirements

    This section sets out the entry requirements for all courses of initial teacher training and details the selection criteria to be applied by all providers. These are minimum requirements and providers will wish to develop additional criteria.

    B. Course Length and Coverage

    This section lists the types of course which may be offered and the minimum requirements for each type of course. The minimum requirements for all courses of primary ITT are set out at paragraphs 2.3.1, 2.3.2 and 2.3.3. Where, in addition to the specified minimum, providers of primary In choose to offer one or mere non--core, non-specialist subjects, the standards trainees must meet before being awarded Qualified Teacher Status are set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A) at A.2.g. and in the introduction to Section B. Providers may also wish to offer more limited coverage of other subjects, than that required for non-core, non-specialist subjects, e.g. a few hours of taster training in a foundation subject, safety training in PE and/or design & technology. The nature and extent of any such training can be recorded on the newly qualified teacher's TTA Career Entry Profile. The specified types of course provide a basis for further continuing professional development. It is expected that teachers will continue to develop and broaden the range of their expertise throughout their careers.

    C. Partnership Requirements

    This section applies to training which takes place in partnership between schools (23) and higher education institutions or other providers, and sets out requirements relating to the involvement of schools, including the amount of time which trainees must spend in schools.

    D. Quality Assurance Requirements

    This section applies to all courses of initial teacher training. It sets out the arrangements which providers must put in place to ensure that training is of high quality, is regularly reviewed and that the award of Qualified Teacher Status is securely based.

    Similar requirements apply to employment-based routes into teaching, such as the planned Graduate Teacher Programme.

    23. Throughout this document, requirements relating to partnerships between HEIs and "schools" apply equally to partnerships between HEIs and Further Education colleges, VI form colleges and departments within schools and colleges.


    [page 135]

    A. Trainee Entry and Selection Requirements

    I. General

    1.1 In the case of all courses of initial teacher training (ITT), providers are required to ensure that:

    1.1.1 all entrants are able to communicate clearly and grammatically in spoken and written standard English;

    1.1.2 all entrants have attained the standard required to achieve at least a grade C in the GCSE examination in mathematics and English; (24)

    1.1.3 all those born on or after 1 September 1979 who enter primary and KS2/3 courses of ITT after 1 September 1998, have attained the standard required to achieve at least a grade C in a GCSE examination in a science subject (including combined science). The science qualifications which were approved by the Secretary of State under Section 400 of the Education Act 1996 for the year in which the qualification was awarded are acceptable to meet this requirement (24);

    1.1.4 all entrants meet the Secretary of State's requirements for physical and mental fitness to teach as detailed in the relevant Circular (currently DFE 13/93);

    1.1.5 entrants have not previously been excluded from teaching or working with children;

    1.1.6 systems are in place to seek information on entrants' criminal backgrounds which might prevent employment as a teacher or with children or young persons (currently set out in DfEE Circular 11/95). Guidance can be found in DFE Circular 9/93;

    1.1.7 selection procedures include representatives from those centrally involved in the training process, including school staff;

    1.1.8 all trainees possess the personal, intellectual and presentational qualities suitable for teaching; providers should seek evidence of relevant experience with children;

    1.1.9 as part of selection procedures, all candidates admitted to a course have been seen at an individual or group interview (25);

    1.1.10 in order to ensure a high rate of course completion and award of Qualified Teacher Status, selection procedures and data, including entry qualifications, completion rates, newly qualified teachers' destinations and employers' satisfaction with newly qualified teachers, are monitored and action is taken to ensure that high calibre entrants are recruited to courses of ITT.

    II. Postgraduate courses

    1.2 In the case of postgraduate courses of ITT, in addition to the requirements set out at 1.1, providers should satisfy themselves that:

    1.2.1 entrants hold a degree of a United Kingdom university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or a degree of the CNAA, or a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree;

    1.2.2 the content of entrants' previous education provides the necessary foundation for work as a teacher in the phase(s) and subject(s) they are to teach.

    III. Undergraduate courses

    1.3 In addition to the requirements set out at 1.1, providers should satisfy themselves that:

    1.3.1 entrants fulfil the academic requirement for admission to first degree studies; and

    24. For prospective trainees without standard qualifications, providers should set their own equivalence tests. The TTA will audit samples of tests to ensure that standards are appropriate.

    25. There is no need to interview all those who apply for courses and who are eligible.


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    1.3.2 in the case of two-year courses, entrants have satisfactorily completed the equivalent of at least one year of full-time higher education studies. The content of entrants' higher education studies must provide the necessary foundation for work as a teacher in the phase(s) and subject(s) they are to teach.

    B. COURSE LENGTH AND COVERAGE

    I. Types of course

    2.1 All providers must:

    2.1.1 ensure, where applicable, that courses comply with requirements set out in any relevant ITT National Curriculum which is in force;

    2.1.2 ensure that course content, structure and delivery, and the assessment of trainees, are designed to develop trainees' knowledge, skills and understanding to ensure that the standards for the award of Qualified Teacher Status are met; (26)

    2.1.3 ensure that courses involve the assessment of all trainees against all the standards specified for the award of Qualified Teacher Status;

    2.1.4 ensure that trainees meet all the standards specified for the award of Qualified Teacher Status before successfully completing a course of ITT;

    2.1.5 ensure that all those trainees who successfully complete a course of ITT leading to Qualified Teacher Status receive a TTA Career Entry Profile.

    2.2 All primary ITT courses must prepare trainees to teach at least one specialist subject and ensure that trainees are assessed against the relevant standards in relation to subject knowledge set out in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A), Section A.2. Specialist courses may also include advanced study of subject pedagogy and the foundations of preparation for subject co-ordination. The particular areas of strength which trainees acquire through specialist subject study can be recorded on the TTA Career Entry Profile.

    2.3 Courses must cover one of the age ranges below:

    2.3.1 3-8 - these courses must include specialist training for early years (nursery and reception) (27), the core subjects across KS1 and KS2 as specified in the ITT National Curriculum, and at least one specialist subject (28) across KS1 and KS2; in addition they must equip trainees to teach across the full primary curriculum in this age range;

    2.3.2 3 or 5-11 - as a minimum, these courses must cover the core subjects across KS1 and KS2 as specified in the primary ITT National Curriculum, must equip trainees to teach across the entire primary age range with an emphasis on 3- or 5-8 or 7-11, and must include at least one specialist subject across KS1 and KS2. 3-11 courses must include specialist training for early years (nursery and reception); (27 & 28)

    26. Qualified Teacher Status is awarded on successful completion of a course of ITT with a TTA accredited provider. This award is either concurrently with or after the award of a first degree of a UK university or a higher education institution with degree awarding powers, or a degree of the CNAA, or a qualification recognised to be equivalent to a UK or CNAA degree.

    27. Additional specialist standards relating to early years (nursery and reception) for trainees on 3-8 courses and 3-11 courses are included in the Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status (Annex A).

    28. A specialist subject could be one of the core subjects or an additional subject.


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    2.3.3 7-11 - as a minimum, these courses must cover the core subjects across KS1 and KS2 as specified in the primary ITT National Curriculum, and must include at least one specialist subject across KS1 and KS2; (28 & 29)

    2.3.4 7-14 - as a minimum, these courses must cover the core subjects as specified in the primary ITT National Curriculum, and a specialist subject at KS2 and KS3; (28)

    2.3.5 11-16 or 18 - these courses must cover at least one specialist subject;

    2.3.6 14-19 - these courses must cover at least one specialist subject, the 14-19 qualifications framework, including the relevant KS4 and post-16 examination syllabuses and vocational courses, and the relevant key skills required by 14-19 qualifications.

    II. Length of postgraduate courses

    2.4 The minimum amount of time which will be spent on courses of ITT is:

    2.4.1 38 weeks for all full-time primary postgraduate courses;

    2.4.2 36 weeks for all other full-time postgraduate courses.

    C. Partnership Requirements

    3.1 In the case of all courses of ITT, higher education institutions and other non-school trainers must work in partnership with schools (23) ensuring that:

    3.1.1 schools are fully and actively involved in the planning and delivery of ITT, as well as in the selection and final assessment of trainees. The full partnership should regularly review and evaluate the training provided;

    3.1.2 the division and deployment of available resources has been agreed in a way which reflects the training responsibilities undertaken by each partner;

    3.1.3 effective selection criteria for partnership schools have been developed which are clear and available to all partners and trainees,and which take account of indicators such as OFSTED reports, test and examination results, exclusion rates, commitment to and previous successful experience of involvement in ITT;

    3.1.4 where partnership schools fall short of the selection criteria set, providers must demonstrate that extra support will be provided to ensure that the training provided is of a high standard;

    3.1.5 where schools no longer meet selection criteria, and extra support to ensure the quality of the training process cannot be guaranteed, procedures are in place for the de-selection of schools;

    3.1.6 effective structures and procedures are in place to ensure efficient and effective communication across partnerships.

    Time spent in schools

    3.2 The amount of time spent by trainees in schools during their training, excluding school holidays, must be at least:

    3.2.1 32 weeks for all four-year undergraduate courses;

    3.2.2 24 weeks for all three-year undergraduate courses;

    3.2.3 24 weeks for all full-time two-year secondary and KS2/3 undergraduate courses;

    3.2.4 24 weeks for all full-time secondary and KS2/3 postgraduate courses;

    3.2.5 18 weeks for all full-time primary postgraduate and two-year primary undergraduate courses;

    3.2.6 18 weeks for all part-time postgraduate courses.

    29. Where providers choose to offer one or more non-core, non-specialist subjects in addition to the specified minimum, trainees being assessed for Qualified Teacher Status should be able to demonstrate a secure knowledge of the subject to a standard equivalent to at least level 7 of the pupils' National Curriculum, and meet all the other required standards, but, if necessary, with the support of a teacher experienced in the subject concerned. For RE, the required standard is broadly equivalent to the end of Key Stage statements for Key Stage 4 in SCAA's Model Syllabuses for RE. The newly qualified teacher's TTA Career Entry Profile can indicate priorities for induction in each of these subjects. Providers may also wish to offer more limited coverage of other subjects than that required for non-core, non-specialist subjects, e.g. a few hours of taster training in a foundation subject, safety training in PE and/or design and technology. The nature and extent of any such training can be recorded on the trainee's TTA Career Entry Profile.


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    D. Quality Assurance Requirements

    4.1 For all courses of ITT, providers must ensure that:

    4.1.1 the quality of provision across all aspects of the course is of a consistently high standard and complies with all the requirements set out in this Annex;

    4.1.2 the training process is kept under regular review to ensure that the division of training responsibilities continues to reflect the strengths of those involved, that the standards and quality of the training process are identified and that, where necessary, action is taken to secure improvements;

    4.1.3 trainees are given opportunities to observe good teachers at work and to work alongside them, to participate in teaching with expert practitioners in their chosen phase(s) and subject specialism(s), and to undertake substantial and sustained periods of class teaching in more than one school, observing, teaching and assessing pupils of differing abilities across the full age range for which they are being trained;

    4.1.4 the roles and responsibilities of all those involved in ITT are set out clearly and are available to all participants, including trainees;

    4.1.5 all those involved in training understand their roles and responsibilities and have the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to discharge these competently;

    4.1.6 only those schools (23) and teachers who can offer appropriate training and support for trainees are used to provide ITT;

    4.1.7 there are sufficient books, information technology resources and other specialist teaching resources, relevant to the age ranges and subjects offered, to enable all trainees to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills to at least the standard required for the award of Qualified Teacher Status;

    4.1.8 the competence of trainees is rigorously, accurately and regularly assessed in order to evaluate their progress towards achieving the standards required for Qualified Teacher Status and to enable training to be focused on trainees' achievement of those standards;

    4.1.9 internal and independent external moderation procedures are in place to ensure consistent, reliable and accurate assessment against the standards for Qualified Teacher Status;

    4.1.10 quality issues raised through internal and external moderation are investigated, and that the outcomes of these investigations are used to establish appropriate short term, medium term and long term priorities for improving courses;

    4.1.11 plans for course improvement are acted upon and monitored, evaluated and reviewed against criteria for success, and that targets are demonstrably met;

    4.1.12 information about the effectiveness of newly qualified teachers in their first year of teaching is collected and used to improve training courses.