Hadow (1928)

(page numbers in brackets)

Notes on the text

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

Preliminary pages (i-xxi)
Membership, Analysis, Preface, Introduction

Chapter I (1-17)
Books in schools 1810 to 1928
Chapter II (18-56)
Place and function of books
Chapter III (57-67)
Provision of books by LEAs
Chapter IV (68-84)
School and public libraries
Chapter V (85-99)
Guidance for teachers, production of books
Chapter VI (100-106)
Cost and use of books
Chapter VII (107-120)
Conclusions and recommendations

Appendix I (121-129)
List of witnesses
Appendix II (130-142)
Practice of sample LEAs
Appendix III (143-146)
Provision of books in London
Appendix IV (147-148)
Expenditure on books
Appendix V (149-150)
Provision of books in Scotland
Appendix VI (151)
Publication of new books

Index (152-162)


The Hadow Report (1928)
Books in Public Elementary Schools

London: HM Stationery Office


[title page]

BOARD OF EDUCATION

Report of the Consultative Committee

on

Books in Public Elementary
Schools

LONDON:
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE
To be purchased directly from HM STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses:
Adastral House, Kingsway, London, WC2; 120, George Street, Edinburgh;
York Street, Manchester; 1 St Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff;
15, Donegall Square West, Belfast;
or through any bookseller

1928

Price 1s. 3d. net


[page iii]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Names of the Members of the Consultative Committeeiv
Terms of referenceiv
Analysis of Reportv
Prefacexii
Introductionxiii
The Committee's Report1

Appendices:

Appendix I. List of witnesses and list of organisations and persons who sent memoranda, statistics, and other data for the use of the committee.121
Appendix II. Notes on the practice of a few typical local education authorities in the matter of the selection and provision of books for pupils and teachers in public elementary schools.130
Appendix III. Notes on the arrangements for the selection and provision of books for pupils and teachers in public elementary schools in the London area.143
Appendix IV. Statistical table bearing on the average expenditure incurred on the provision of books in public elementary schools.147
Appendix V. Memorandum by the Scottish education department on the selection and provision of books in schools conducted under the Code of Regulations for Day Schools in Scotland, 1923.149
Appendix VI. Statistics bearing on the publication of new books for elementary schools.151

Index152

NOTE

The estimated gross cost of the preparation of the appended Report (including the expenses of the witnesses and members of the Committee) is 1245 1s 4d, of which 199 0s 0d represents the gross cost of printing and publishing this Report.


[page iv]

NAMES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE

SIR WH HADOW CBE (Chairman)
SIR GRAHAM BALFOUR
PROFESSOR ERNEST BARKER
MR WA BROCKINGTON CBE
MISS ER CONWAY CBE JP
DR HW COUSINS
VERY REV DR DHS CRANAGE, Dean of NORWICH
MR EVAN T DAVIS
MISS LYNDA GRIER
MISS FREDA HAWTREY
SIR PERCY R JACKSON
MR FB MALIM
DR A MANSBRIDGE
MR AJ MUNDELLA
MISS EM TANNER
MR RH TAWNEY
MR S TAYLOR
MR H WARD CBE
MR WC WATKINS JP
MR JA WHITE MBE

MR RF YOUNG (Secretary)

Sir TM Taylor CBE was also a member of the Committee up to May 1928.

TERMS OF REFERENCE

To inquire as to the selection and provision of books for public elementary schools and to make recommendations for the improvement of their quality and supply.


[page v]

Analysis of the Consultative Committee's Report

CHAPTER I. BOOKS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FROM ABOUT 1810 TO 1928

PART I. Books in Elementary Schools up to 1847

SECTIONPAGE
1. The supply of infants' primers and readers, and books for young children, about the year 1810. Mrs Trimmer's school books1
2. Books for young children written by Mrs Barbauld and Miss Maria Edgeworth: Lindley Murray's readers2
3. The policy of the British and Foreign School Society and of the National Society in the matter of school books. The textbooks published by the Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Ireland3
4. The series of elementary readers compiled by Dr M'Culloch and Mr Crossley4

PART II. An experiment in state intervention: the Book Department of the Committee of Council on Education 1847-1861 and the criticisms of the Newcastle Commission (1861) upon it

5. The reasons which led the Committee of Council on Education to issue a Book List in 1847. The aim, scope and character of the list6
6. The views of the Newcastle Commission on the Book List. The Commissioners' reasons for suggesting its discontinuance. Matthew Arnold's opinion on the matter7

PART III. The period of indirect Official Control by means of Provisions in the Code, Syllabuses, Instructions to Inspectors, etc. 1862 to about 1895

7. The Revised Code of 1862 and its effect on the supply of school books8
8. Matthew Arnold's views on the problem of books for elementary schools9
9. The effects produced by the Elementary Education Act of 1870 on the supply of school books. Matthew Arnold's suggestion to the Education Department in 1871 that senior inspectors might advise the School Boards regarding books10
10. References to school books in the Code of 188210


[page vi]

11. The efforts of the Education Department to adjust the curriculum of public elementary schools to successive changes in the structure of society and in educational thought11
12. The effect of the Codes, and Instructions to Inspectors issued by the Education Department on the form, scope and general arrangement of school books11
13. The general characteristics of school books published between 1870 and 1882, and between 1882 and 189512
14. References to school books in the Final Report of the Cross Commission 188812

PART IV. The position occupied by books in the general scheme of instruction in Public Elementary Schools since the abandonment of the system of Annual Examinations

15. The period of oral instruction from about 1894 to about 190413
16. The reaction against purely oral methods of teaching. The provision of facilities for silent reading and private study14
17. Alterations in official requirements regarding books as set out in the Codes from 1906 to 1925. The revised Code of 192615
18. Schemes of individual work for older pupils. The 'courses of advanced instruction' mentioned in Section 2 (1) (a) of the Education Act 1918 (Section 20 (ii) of the Education Act 1921)16
19. Existing practice in respect of the use of books in Public Elementary Schools17

CHAPTER II. THE PLACE AND FUNCTION OF BOOKS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS: THE VOLUME, QUALITY AND CHARACTER OF THE PRESENT SUPPLY IN THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM: WELSH BOOKS

A. The place and function of books in elementary schools

20. The importance of providing books of good quality. The views of the Board regarding school books as set out in the Handbook of Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers (1927)18


[page vii]

21. The main functions of books in schools19
22. The term 'textbook'; books for use in class and books for the school library20

B. The volume, quality and character of the present supply of books in the various branches of the elementary school curriculum

23. The general appearance, type, etc. of school books; illustrations; name of author and date of publication21
24. Books for infants' departments:
    (a) Picture books24
    (b) The 'work' type of reading book24
    (c) Story books24
25. Books for pupils in junior schools and departments25
26. Books for pupils in senior schools and divisions27
27. Books for use in selective modern schools and advanced classes28
28. The Bible29
29. English:
    (a) Reading books for older children31
    (b) Anthologies32
    (c) Grammar33
30. History33
31. Geography36
32. Modern foreign languages41
33. Arithmetic and elementary mathematics
    (a) Arithmetic41
    (b) Elementary mathematics44
    (c) Book-keeping and commercial subjects44
34. Nature study and elementary science45
35. Music47
36. Drawing49
37. Practical Instruction:
    (a) Handwork50
    (b) Needlework51
    (c) Housecraft51
    (d) Gardening52
38. Physical training52
39. Hygiene53


[page viii]

C. The supply of Welsh books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools in the bi-lingual districts of Wales

40. The Report of the Departmental Committee on Welsh in Education and Life (1927); the existing supply of Welsh books; the quality of Welsh school books; the principal recommendations in the Report on Welsh in Education and Life which bear directly on the provision of Welsh school books53

CHAPTER III. THE PRACTICE AND METHODS OF LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES IN RESPECT OF THE PROVISION OF BOOKS FOR PUPILS AND TEACHERS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

(i) The problem of the provision of books for schools, from the point of view of the Local Education Authority

41. The importance of the problem57

(ii) Financial arrangements for the provision of books and other items of school supply

42. Scales of capitation allowances; estimates based on a fixed amount per head for all pupils on the registers; supplementary contributions from a special fund; the special needs of Modern Schools and of small schools57

(iii) The 'Book' item in education accounts; requisitioning of books; the question of a fixed grant for books

43. The 'book' item in education accounts60
44. Requisition forms for books61
45. The question of a fixed grant for books62

(iv) Other administrative arrangements; scrutiny of requisitions; Stock Books; transfer of school books

46. Scrutiny of requisitions63
47. Stock Books64
48. Transfer of school books64


[page ix]

(v) Expenditure on books for Public Elementary Schools

49. Summary of the data on this subject collected by the Committee; in many areas the amount allowed for books is seriously inadequate65

CHAPTER IV. SCHOOL LIBRARIES AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES

50. Scope of the chapter; definition of the terms 'School Library' and 'Education Library' or 'Teachers' Reference Library'68
51. Financial responsibility for books required to maintain the efficiency of the schools devolves on the Education Authority68
52. The Urban Library Service69
53. The County Library Service70
54. School and class libraries within urban and rural schools73
55. Arrangements adopted in different urban and county areas for defraying the cost of the provision and maintenance of school and class libraries76
56. The provision of complete school libraries for Public Elementary Schools from Urban and County Libraries77
57. The part played by the Public Library or the County Library in some urban and county areas in circulating to Elementary Schools sets of books for general class reading78
58. Facilities afforded by Urban Libraries to scholars in Elementary Schools for reading in the Library, and for borrowing books80
59. Arrangements for lending library books from local Centres of County Libraries to pupils in Public Elementary Schools82
60. Education Libraries and collections of reference books for teachers, and other arrangements for providing works of reference for teachers83
61. The importance of general co-operation between Urban and County Libraries and Public Elementary Schools84


[page x]

CHAPTER V. THE SOURCES OF GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR TEACHERS IN THE CHOICE OF SCHOOL BOOKS: GENERAL QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE PRODUCTION OF SCHOOL BOOKS

A. Sources of Guidance available for Teachers in the Choice of School Books

62. The importance of a wise selection; the final choice of books both for class use and for the school library should rest primarily with the head teacher, who should consult his assistant staff on points of detail85
63. Sources of guidance on the choice of books at present available for teachers apart from conversations with their colleagues, visits to educational bookshops, and the perusal of publishers' circulars and reviews of new books86
64. General instruction on the use of class books, and on the management of school libraries given to students in Training Colleges87
65. The general guidance given by the Board. Oral advice given to teachers by the Board's Inspectors, by inspectors and officials of Authorities, by librarians of Municipal and County Libraries, by publishers' agents88
66. Specimen copies of new books circulated to individual teachers (a) by Authorities, and (b) by publishers89
67. Temporary exhibitions of school books organised by educational publishers or by Authorities, or by both. Permanent book rooms maintained by Authorities90
68. Lists of books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools issued by Authorities: the Committee's recommendation on the subject92

B. General Questions relating to the Production of School Books

69. The views of witnesses on the question of a Central Advisory Committee, or Committees, to deal with general questions affecting school books94
70. The Consultative Committee's recommendation regarding a Central Advisory Conference97

CHAPTER VI. THE COST OF SCHOOL BOOKS AND VARIOUS QUESTIONS CONNECTED WITH THEIR USE BOTH IN THE SCHOOL AND IN THE HOME

71. The cost of school books100
72. The minimum number of books required by each pupil101


[page xi]

73. The use and acquisition of books by pupils101
74. Arrangements for keeping class books within the school103
75. The average life of school books104
76. The possible conveyance of infection by means of books105

CHAPTER VII. SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

77. The Committee's principal conclusions and recommendations107


[page xii]

PREFACE

The following question was referred to us by the Board of Education in August, 1926:

'To inquire as to the selection and provision of books for public elementary schools and to make recommendations for the improvement of their quality and supply.'
We began our consideration of this problem at the end of November, 1926, immediately after we had completed our Report on the Education of the Adolescent. The Full Committee has sat on 27 days between November 1926 and July 1928, and has examined 93 witnesses. (See Appendix I (a)). In February 1928, the Committee appointed a Drafting Sub-Committee, consisting of seven of its members, with Sir Graham Balfour as Chairman. The Sub-Committee met on 12 occasions between February and June, 1928.

We desire to offer our cordial thanks to the witnesses who assisted us with invaluable evidence; to those organisations and persons (named in Appendix I (b)) who furnished us with memoranda, statistics, and other data bearing on our inquiry; to the Local Education Authorities which sent us the detailed replies to our questionnaire, a number of which are summarised in Appendices II and III, and to the Publishers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland, which supplied us with the statistics summarised in Appendix VI. In particular, we would thank Mr C Birchenough, Chief Inspector under the Kent Education Committee, to whom we are much indebted for valuable help given in the preparation of Chapters I and II of the Report.

To Mr RF Young we repeat the thanks we have expressed before in our three previous reports. No Committee can have been better served by its Secretary. Mr Young has placed ungrudgingly at our disposal his wide knowledge, his sound judgement and his special gift for investigation: he has borne a full share of our work and has greatly contributed to its completion. In this he has been well seconded by Mr RJ Telling, Clerk to the Committee, who has been unfailing in the performance of his many and diverse official duties.


[page xiii]

INTRODUCTION

The subject referred to us was 'to inquire as to the selection and provision of books for public elementary schools and to make recommendations for the improvement of their quality and supply'. The problems which it raises are numerous, momentous, and sometimes difficult. Is the number of books supplied sufficient in quantity, or should the expenditure upon them be substantially increased? Is the quality of the books used by the children of different ages as high as can reasonably be expected, or does it stand in serious need of improvement, and, if it is unsatisfactory, is the explanation that good books are not available, or that the books in use are not wisely selected, or that inferior books are selected on grounds of economy? Are the methods commonly employed in choosing books likely to produce the best results, or do they require to be supplemented? Can arrangements be devised which may help children to feel more generally, towards some, at least, of the books which they use, something of the interest which is inspired by a personal possession - something even, perhaps, of the affection which goes out towards a familiar and trusted companion? What should be the relations between the elementary schools and urban and county libraries? Is it possible to establish machinery which may ensure that questions of the supply and quality of the books available for use in Elementary Schools are submitted to a more continuous and searching review than is the case at present, and if so, what form should such machinery assume? Such are some of the questions to which our attention has been directed. Conditions in this matter, as in other departments of education, vary widely from district to district, and we are conscious of the danger of generalisation, But we have endeavoured, while paying due regard to the differing circumstances of different areas, to view the problem as a whole, and to suggest conclusions which may not be too inadequate to the importance of the subject.

We need not use many words in order to emphasise how great that importance is. Books, it is true, are not the only instrument of education, or the sole avenue to the world of culture: the work of a good school, as we pointed out in our


[page xiv]

Report on The Education of the Adolescent (1) should contain large elements, not only of literary and scientific study, but also of practical craftsmanship. But a capacity to use and appreciate books is at least one element, and an indispensable element, in the liberal education whose foundations the Elementary School exists to lay, and the success of such a school must be judged partly by the measure in which that capacity is cultivated and strengthened.

No good purpose is served by pitching too high the demands which may be made upon children in the opening years of their education. They are novices entering a world which, however fascinating it may and should one day become, is strange in its conventions and exacting in its demands. They must master its intricacies by degrees, and it is not our intention to suggest that, even with the wisest guidance and most skilful teaching, they can learn to handle books with the confidence and ease which, if acquired at all, are acquired only by long experience and patient application. But three things it is not unreasonable to expect before their education in school has ended - that children should obtain such a familiarity with their mother tongue as will enable them to interpret correctly ideas within their mental range, and simply and clearly to express their own; that they should in some degree, if only a small degree, form the habit of using books as sources of information, so that, later in life, they may be the masters of the printed word, not its slaves or its dupes; and that they should acquire some feeling for what is noble in literature, and find in it a food for their imaginations and a tonic for their characters.

These things may reasonably be expected, for in some elementary schools they are already achieved. They are no mean possession. In the house of education there are many mansions, and we do not forget that a school has other, and not less important, functions than those which are suggested by our present reference. We neither suppose that the majority of children can become what are sometimes described with doubtful charity as 'omnivorous readers', nor do we desire that they should. But the secret of personal happiness and national well-being is to be sought partly, at least, through

(1) Report on the Education of the Adolescent sections 93, 116, 126, and Recommendations Nos. 5 (ii) and 11.


[page xv]

contact with the spiritual heritage of mankind, and of that heritage books are an important, though not the only, vehicle. A child who, before his school days are over, has become accustomed to an atmosphere of natural and dignified speech, who has learned to believe that books may be helpful assistants to whom he can turn for guidance and enlightenment, and who has read some books, not as a necessary drudgery, but with zest and gusto, has been prepared, in a not unimportant sphere of human interests, to receive of the best which the present generation can offer to its successors. He holds one of the keys of civilisation, and has begun, in his small way, to be a citizen of the world.

Such a programme is not, we hope, extravagant or visionary. But it is obvious that, if it is to be realised, the books available for the use of children must be adequate in number and satisfactory in quality. There is ample evidence to show that both in number and in quality they often leave much to be desired. Some improvement in both respects has, indeed, been taking place in recent years, and we gladly recognise that there is an increasing number of schools in which the provision of books approaches the standard which can reasonably be expected. But the conclusion forced upon us by our evidence is that such schools are still the exception, and that, in the country as a whole, the situation is often serious and sometimes deplorable.

While the expenditure upon books in some administrative areas is comparatively liberal, there are others, and, unfortunately, a large number, in which it is so insufficient as seriously to hamper the children's education. While some of the books in use in elementary schools are excellent, it is still often the fact that, even when good and suitable books are available, inferior and less suitable books are offered to the children. The books at the disposal of the elementary schools have been too few, and some of those supplied to them have not been of a kind either to cultivate the children's taste for reading or to teach them how books should be rightly used.

The explanation of such conditions is largely historical. They are a belated survival from an educational past which has almost disappeared. As we show in our opening chapter, there was a long period during which, so far as the Elementary


[page xvi]

Schools were concerned, the words 'books' and 'reading' were almost terms of art. Their meaning in the world of Elementary Education was often very different from that which they bore both in common speech and in the schools of the well to do. The child who attended a private preparatory school, and later a secondary school, received comparatively few formal reading lessons in school. He was supposed to acquire the art of reading at home, and later, when his school life began, he was not so much taught to read as set to grapple with a subject. The child who attended an Elementary School stood from the start in a different relation to books and their contents. Not only was he taught to read in school - which, since his school life began at five or six, was not unreasonable - but for several years his reading books were used to teach him little else. Thus reading in his case often had a peculiar connotation. It meant, to speak broadly of a large number of Elementary Schools, not the individual use of books for instruction or enjoyment, but reading aloud in class. The lamentations of Matthew Arnold that, despite their assiduous instruction in reading, children in Public Elementary Schools too often obtained no real insight into the wealth or even the meaning of their own tongue are familiar to all; and, though Arnold's interpretation of the term 'literature' may occasionally have been beyond the range of the children whose mis-education he deplored, there was considerable substance in his criticisms. It is true, indeed, that intelligent reading aloud has great educational value, and that practice in the art of oral reading did open to many intelligent children a door into reading as the world understands it and taught them something of the use of books for information and delight. But it is probable that too often a book meant to many children a school reader, of which all parts without discrimination were rehearsed by different members of the class in turn, with observations interpolated by the teacher to explain 'hard words'. In many schools indeed, books were regarded as existing primarily, not to be read, but to be read aloud. The process of reading aloud was naturally slow, and it was necessary that children should be prepared for the annual reading test conducted by the inspector. So the books provided were few in number, and an intelligent class with a skilful teacher might read through the same book several times in the course of one year. If


[page xvii]

some of the children in the end could recite whole pages, they had too often neither enriched their own powers of expression, nor caught the spirit of the books which they read, nor even mastered the information which the authors sought to convey.

This stage of educational history has long since ended, but it has left its mark upon existing practice and habits of thought. For it created a tradition which coloured opinion as to the number and character of the books required in elementary schools, and which even today, perhaps, is not wholly without influence. Though to teach children to read aloud with just emphasis and expression is no longer the sole or principal aim of the reading lesson, there are still schools in which the number of books is no larger, or but little larger, than it was when the ability of children to read the two or three books which they had studied was tested by the annual examination held by an inspector. The quality of books available for use in schools has greatly improved, and, for some, at least, of the subjects of the curriculum, books can now be obtained which are not only accurate in substance and clear in expression, but full of charm and inspiration. But there is still here and there, perhaps, a disposition to suppose that what the schools require is not books, but lesson-books - as though the books most suitable for the education of children in school were necessarily the books which no child could read with pleasure outside it.

It is true, of course, that children today have an access to libraries, which formerly did not exist, and we make in Chapter IV certain suggestions for establishing closer co-operation between the libraries and the elementary schools. It would be a misfortune, however, we think, if reading, as it is understood by those who read for pleasure, or instruction, or inspiration, were regarded as different in kind from the reading that takes place in school. It will always be necessary, indeed, to employ a certain number of books which have been specially written to help children of different ages to study particular subjects: text-books, primers, and even summaries have uses which are legitimate as well as uses which are not. But such books, however elementary, should be good of their kind - should be clear in arrangement, should be simply and vigorously written, and should be designed to awaken interest, as well as to convey information. We need


[page xviii]

to bridge the gap between the schools and life, not to widen it. Books of the right kind, wisely chosen and supplied in sufficient abundance, are one of the piers on which the bridge may be built.

So our first and fundamental recommendation is simple. It is that more books and better books shall be made available for children in the elementary schools. We plead both for a more generous provision and for the provision of books that are worth reading - that appeal to the children's curiosity and imagination and love of narrative; that, when information is their object, convey it in a lucid and interesting form; and that, if written for children, are not written down to them. A more abundant supply of books will involve some additional outlay; (1) but it is an outlay, it seems to us, from which those responsible for Public Education ought not to shrink. Education Authorities should look afresh, we think, into the whole question of the supply of books for elementary schools in their areas, with the object of considering whether the time has not come for a substantial increase of expenditure upon them. And, since expenditure on books is most likely to be adequate if the figure at which it stands can be seen at a glance, we suggest that, instead of being merged, as is often now the case, in the cost of other kinds of equipment, it should in future be shown as a separate item in the Authorities' accounts.

The improvement of the supply of books is not only, however, a matter of expenditure. It is also a matter of wise selection. The selection of books for the elementary schools rests, and properly rests, in the hands of the teachers. But, as everyone who has had the duty of selecting books knows, the task is rarely an easy one. Its successful performance depends upon the existence of opportunities for comparing different works, which superficially may bear a close resemblance to each other, though in quality and value they may differ

(1) The data supplied to us by 23 Authorities, which are summarised in Appendix IV, shows that the average annual expenditure on books alone per pupil in the areas of these Authorities during the three financial years 1924-25 to 1926-27 was about 1s 8d [about 8p]. Though it is not possible to ascertain the precise amount spent on books alone in Public Elementary Schools in England and Wales, it seems almost certain that the amount would represent less than one per cent of the total expenditure per child incurred in maintaining Public Elementary Schools. (See Appendix IV and Chapter 3, Section 49.)


[page xix]

profoundly; and the steady and welcome growth in the number of books available for schools, if it widens the range of choice, increases also the difficulty of choosing. It is important that, without in any way interfering with the freedom of the teachers, all possible assistance should be given them. We suggest therefore, that, wherever possible, Local Education Authorities should establish, as some already have established, permanent book-rooms, containing a collection of books which teachers can examine at their leisure, and that local Book List Committees should be set up which would, through the local education authority, bring to the notice of teachers books which seem specially suitable for use in the Elementary Schools. It is also important not only that the right books should be chosen, but that books of the right type should be produced, and attention should be called to those departments of school work in respect of which further books are most urgently needed. To this end it is desirable that representatives of the different Book List Committees should periodically meet together to compare the information collected by each Committee and to discuss matters of common interest. We have accordingly recommended that the Board of Education should from time to time convene a Central Advisory Conference, which should include representatives of the local Book List Committees in the different divisional areas, (1) to deal with general questions relating to the supply, quality and content of books for Public Elementary Schools. At such Conferences the local Book List Committees could submit their observations on the available supply of books, on the principal deficiencies existing at the moment, and on those departments of school work in respect of which further books were most urgently needed. In suggesting that a Central Advisory Conference of this type might from time to time be convened, we need hardly say that we have no intention of interfering in any way with the freedom of teachers and Local Education Authorities. Such a Conference would probably be able to pool the available knowledge, and, if need be, might circulate information on various aspects of the

(3) For purposes of inspection by the Board of Education, England and Wales are divided into the following divisional areas: Northern; North-Eastern; North-Western; West-Central; East-Central; Eastern; Metropolitan; South-Eastern; South-Western; Wales and Monmouthshire. (See Chapter 5, Section 70, and Chapter VIII, Recommendation No. 43).


[page xx]

book supply. And knowledge and information do not diminish freedom: they increase it.

When books are adequate in number and satisfactory in quality, it still remains to use them aright. To show children how to use different books rightly - how to extract their information and appreciate their beauty, how to study, digest and select is the business of their teachers. But the work of a teacher is lightened, and the pleasure and profit of the pupils are enhanced, if, as early as possible, the latter form a habit of intelligent and friendly interest in some, at least, of the books which they use. There should be some books which a child does not regard merely as a necessary part of the furniture of his school, but towards which he stands in a more intimate and personal relation. A book takes on a new glamour when a child feels that it is his own, and the ideal arrangement would be, no doubt, that some of the books should be owned by the children themselves. If that, at present, is too much to hope, thought must be given to finding an alternative road to the same result. Though it may not be possible for a child to own his school books, he can, at least, be allowed to retain for his individual use some of those which at the moment he is studying, so that he may regard them, for the time being, as peculiarly and distinctively his own possession. He can be encouraged - we are thinking of the older children - to write his name in them, to have them in his keeping during the day, and to take some of them home to read by himself when school is over. We agree with those of our witnesses who urged that such details, trivial though perhaps they may seem, are not unimportant, and that it is worth much trouble to help children to think of some books, at least, not as the material of lessons, but as companions and friends.

We agree also with the emphasis which some witnesses laid upon the importance of improving school libraries, and of establishing the closest possible co-operation between the public libraries and the schools. If one need is that children should come to look upon books as individuals, with a personality of their own, another and perhaps but little less important need is that the older children should be accustomed to see a number of books together and acquire some practice in discovering for themselves the particular book which will best serve their purpose. School libraries, and, for the higher


[page xxi]

classes, class libraries, are indispensable instruments of education, and too much care cannot be given to ensuring that the books contained in them are chosen and arranged with taste and judgement. Nor is it less important to encourage the older children to make use of the Public Libraries. It is to his local library that the student of mature years ought, in the first place, to turn for books which he does not himself possess, and the habit of using it is one which the school should help to form. It is a ground for satisfaction that many Public Libraries reserve special reading rooms for children and have established juvenile lending departments.

Our detailed recommendations will be found in the body of this Report, and it is not our purpose to anticipate them here. It is for those responsible for educational administration to determine in what degree they deserve to be applied and are capable of application. The task of putting the provision of books for elementary schools upon a footing which can be regarded as satisfactory must, in any case, demand the expenditure, not merely of money, but of time and thought. But the time, we are convinced, will be well spent, and the thought will yield a rich return.

During the present generation two facts have emerged which are of profound significance, and to which educational methods have hardly, as yet, adjusted themselves. They are the almost universal ability to read, and the prodigious and continuous increase in the matter that can be read. Men's minds are not formed today so commonly as in the past by the spoken word and oral tradition, or by regular converse with the few great books, such as the Bible and Pilgrim's Progress, which supplied food to the imagination and colour to the idiom of generations of Englishmen. They are played upon by an unceasing torrent of printed words, and sometimes it seems that they are in danger of being swamped by it. If the rising generation is to keep its head clear and its taste unspoiled - if it is to recognise a fact when it sees it and distinguish fact from fiction, or to acquire a just and sensitive feeling for what is admirable in thought and expression, it must form the habit of intelligent reading while it is still at school. The substance of our plea can be stated in a sentence. It is that the schools should be supplied with more books, and better books, for the children to read.


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CHAPTER I

BOOKS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FROM ABOUT 1810 TO 1928

The supply of school books has raised special problems at each consecutive stage in the movement for popular education. Indeed, the question is so closely bound up with educational progress that a good account of the progress of primary education during the XIXth century might be built up from a detailed study of the various types of school book in use at successive periods. It is impossible, however, in the present Chapter to do more than give a brief sketch of the more important stages in the development.

PART I. BOOKS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS UP TO 1847

1. In the early years of the XIXth century there were very few school books available for the mass of the population. Children's books and school books were of two types. On the one hand, there were the penny spelling and reading books, together with Catechisms and Abridgements of the Scriptures, published by bodies such as the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, for use in Charity Day Schools and in Sunday Schools. On the other hand, there was a considerable number of books designed primarily for children of the middle and upper classes, which had appeared as the result of a growing interest in home education. Among these publications were various Infants' Primers and Readers, selections of prose and verse for recitation, and works on English History, Geography, Natural History, Travel, and so forth. The early primers, which usually cost from 3d to 6d [1 - 2½p] each, were small volumes attractively bound in coloured boards and illustrated with wood cuts. In all essentials, they were a development of the ABC books (1) of the XVIth century, containing the alphabet in different characters, lists of consonants and vowels, lists of syllables, and easy lessons consisting of fables, moral

(1) It would not be relevant to our present inquiry to attempt to explore the sources of the various types of school books in general in this country, several of which have a long and interesting history.


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injunctions, natural history, Bible stories and the Catechism. Such books were designed to be spelt through and learnt rather than read. Spelling books, such as Dilworth's New Guide to the English Tongue (1740) and Mavor's English Spelling Book (1801), which were used in private schools, parish schools and dame schools during the early part of the last century, were merely expanded works of this type which aimed at a more thorough and systematic grouping of words 'for the easier and more speedy way of teaching children to read'. Fox's Introduction to Spelling and Reading and the spelling books for charity schools written about 1792 by Mrs Trimmer (1741-1810) were of the same character, except that the latter contained no illustrations. Mrs Trimmer also published various other books for use in Charity schools and Sunday schools, including a Scripture Catechism and two Abridgements of Scripture History. These compilations, which remained on the list of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge for 77 years, had a very wide circulation in National Day Schools. (1)

2. The text-books for young children published by Mrs Barbauld (1743-1825) marked a great advance on primers and manuals of the traditional type described above. Her Lessons for Children (1778), which appeared in four parts, set a standard that for long remained unchallenged, and definitely influenced the size and quality of type used in printing books for very young children. The lists of syllables and spellings were discarded and the printed text contained matter of real interest. In order to assist the children, the lessons were attractively printed in clear type and dealt in simple, well chosen language with the

(1) Mrs Trimmer's books provide an instructive example of the great gulf which at this time separated the school books of the poor from those of the middle and upper classes. Her early writings, inspired by the success of Mrs Barbauld's Lessons for Children, were designed for middle class homes. Her growing interest in charity schools and Sunday schools led her later to concentrate her energies on meeting the great need which was felt there for better books. The Two Farmers was intended to do for poor children what the Fabulous Histories (1785), better known as The Story of the Robins, was doing for those in more affluent circumstances. Similarly the Charity Spelling Books had their parallel in the Little Spelling Book and Easy Lessons for Young Children. These books were noticeably different, however, both in motive and treatment from the charity readers. The abridgements of scripture history are of special interest because they were used indiscriminately for all kinds of children.


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incidents of everyday life. A more didactic type of book is represented by The Parent's Assistant or Stories for Children and its sequel Harry and Lucy, written by Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849) with the object of conveying in an interesting story the first principles of morality and the elements of science and literature. In their wide and enlightened outlook both these writers show traces of the influence of Rousseau and Basedow. Their works inspired many imitators and definitely influenced the type of children's book produced during the first half of the XIXth century.

A further stage in the evolution of school reading books was marked by the publication by Lindley Murray (1745-1826) of his series of five readers, the first of which appeared in 1804. It was a series composed largely of literary extracts in prose and verse, and was intended not only to afford practice in oral reading and elocution, but also to develop style and taste in English composition. These books were all intended primarily for middle class children. A typical arithmetic text-book of this period is F Walkingame's The Tutor's Assistant (1751), designed according to the preface 'to lighten the labours of the teacher and to enable the pupil to instruct himself.' It is in fact a clumsy and pedantic compilation.

Such was the general position of school books when the British and Foreign School Society, (1) founded in 1808, and the National Society, founded in 1811, began their work on behalf of popular education.

3. As one of the chief aims of these two organisations was to supply education at a cheap rate, the question of school books became of great importance. Mrs Trimmer's Spelling Books for Charity Schools, costing 8s [40p] a hundred, were indeed available, but were flimsy and somewhat unattractive. Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838), the Superintendent of the British and Foreign School Society, attempted to reduce the cost of reading material by the introduction of reading cards. His cards were the forerunners of the reading sheets which in the later decades

(1) This organisation, which had existed in a rudimentary form from 1808, was called the Royal Lancasterian Association (Institution) from 1810. In 1814 it became the British and Foreign School Society, and Joseph Lancaster was paid a fixed salary as Superintendent. See HB Binns A Century of Education, being the Centenary History of the British and Foreign School Society 1808-1908 p. 32 and passim.


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of the XIXth century were so extensively used in infants' schools and departments. Lancaster also put forward in 1810 a scheme for a school circulating library. (1) In the early years of the two Societies the problem was less urgent, as the reading in British Schools was limited by regulation to the Scriptures, and for National Schools in villages Mrs Trimmer's Spelling Books and Abridgements were considered sufficient.

The problem of school books was more effectively treated by the Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Ireland, founded in 1811. This organisation appointed a literary editor and began in 1813 to publish a series of school books which included a spelling book, a reading book, and works on Arithmetic, Needlework, Geography, etc. Later, the Society issued a series of cheap books for the purpose of supplying schools with libraries. The series consisted of 79 small duodecimo volumes, costing 3d or 8d [1p or 4p] each, according to size; 60,000 copies of these publications were sold annually, and by 1833, when this branch of the Society's work was transferred to the Commissioners of National Education, over 1½ million copies had been sold. The work thus begun was further developed by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, with the result that the Irish official readers were very extensively used in primary schools in England and Wales before the great developments in the production of school books which began after 1870. (2)

A statement made by the Secretary to the National Society in 1816 throws an interesting sidelight on contemporary ideas about expenditure on books for Primary Schools. He stated that the total expense of books for 50 boys was 1 3s 11d [1.20], amounting to less than sixpence [2½p] for each child, but, as under good management each of the tracts in question would serve six children in succession, the real expense of books for instruction in reading and the rudiments of religion was about 1d [½p] for each child. (3)

(1) See The British System of Education by Joseph Lancaster, London, 1810, pp. 49-52.

(2) Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the State of Popular Education in England (1861) p. 351:
'The Irish reading books are the most popular of all, and their cheapness and completeness as a series have rendered their introduction into the schools of this country almost an era in popular education.'

(3) Report of Select Committee of the House of Commons on the education of the lower orders in the metropolis (1816) Minutes of Evidence, p. 56.


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4. The action of the House of Commons in voting 20,000 'for purposes of education' in August 1833, and the frequent references to Primary Schools in Parliament, reflected the growth of public interest in the subject, and caused attention to be directed more and more to the lack of suitable text-books.

To meet the growing demand Dr JM M'Culloch of Edinburgh published a series of elementary readers in five volumes about 1837. Unfortunately however, M'Culloch, instead of following the lines laid down by Mrs Barbauld, adhered to the traditional method of directing the pupil's attention to the construction of words and to technical exercises. His third reader, nevertheless, showed a real advance, as it consisted of selections from Mrs Barbauld's works and from the popular scientific text-books compiled by Mrs Marcet (1769-1858). His fifth book consisted of selected passages referring for the most part to physical science, geography, natural history, and the like. M'Culloch's books are of interest not only as being one of the first series of readers, but because they were avowedly general, being intended to convey a good deal of miscellaneous information. Most general readers were compiled on similar lines up to the close of the XIXth century.

Another series of readers characteristic of the period were the four Daily Lesson Books, published in 1839 by Mr Crossley, Head Teacher of the Practising School attached to the Borough Road Training College of the British and Foreign School Society, immediately after the Society had rescinded its rule confining reading to the Scriptures.

His first book was a primer; the second a spelling and reading book; the third a prose and poetry reader; the fourth a class book consisting of lessons in geography, history and natural philosophy. The amount of actual reading material was comparatively small, but each lesson was to be made an avenue to a great store of miscellaneous information, a reading lesson on books, for example, providing the occasion for an object lesson on books.


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PART II. AN EXPERIMENT IN STATE INTERVENTION

THE BOOK DEPARTMENT OF THE COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, 1847-1861, AND THE CRITICISMS OF THE NEWCASTLE COMMISSION (1861) UPON IT

5. The urgent need for improving the quality and provision of books for primary schools led the Committee of Council on Education in 1847 to publish a List bringing elementary books of different kinds before the notice of managers of schools, and to assist in the purchase of books by grants of money. In a printed circular on this subject the Committee of Council explained that, while by the aid of religious associations the managers of elementary schools had generally been able to procure a sufficient supply of Bibles and books of religious instruction, other lesson books had often been either entirely lacking or very scantily supplied; and this evil had been increasingly felt since the standard of instruction had been raised by the operation of the Minutes of Council of August and December 1846. 'The Committee of Council on Education have, therefore, acceded to an almost universal sense of the importance of introducing a better supply of such lesson books in addition to the books of religious instruction, and have determined to make grants for this purpose.' It was explained that, in preparing the List, the works submitted by educational publishers and societies had been taken as a basis. The Committee reserved the liberty of rejection, which was exercised on two grounds - '(1) the unsuitableness of the work for elementary education; (2) the fact that it belonged to a class too numerous to be comprised within the limits of the List.' The Committee in the circular accompanying the List guarded itself, so far as any words could guard it, against the assumption of anything like censorship, or the recommendation of any particular works. The publishers of books, maps and diagrams included in the List allowed a discount averaging about 40 per cent to schools which purchased such publications through the Committee of Council. Towards these purchases at the reduced prices the Committee made grants at the rate of 1Od [4p] per scholar according to the average number in attendance during the year preceding the application, 'provided that


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no less than 20d [8p] per scholar be subscribed, on the part of the school, to meet such grants.' Books etc. might be applied for once a year at the reduced prices; but grants in aid were made only once in three years. Books might be purchased directly by teachers and pupils at the reduced rates.

6. The Royal Commission on the state of popular education in England discussed in its Report issued in 1861 the arrangements for the supply of books adopted by the Committee of Council on Education. The Report drew attention to the effects resulting from any authoritative selection of books, in the way both of sanction and of condemnation. The Commissioners, after stating that they had little doubt that since 1847 the Committee's List of books had tended to enlarge the repertory of school books by introducing to managers works of intrinsic merit, expressed the view that a point had now probably been reached by which, this good object having been effected, the List, from the necessary exclusion of large classes of works, would begin to restrict rather than to enlarge the supply of the best books. Moreover, the arrangement had proved expensive to administer. The Commissioners accordingly recommended that the List should be discontinued, and this suggestion was duly carried out in the Code of 1862. In discussing the probable effect of the discontinuance of the List on the price of books, the Commissioners stated that booksellers would doubtless give the same discount to managers of schools which they had allowed to the Government, and that it would be to their interest to circulate good lists of school books and make all desirable arrangements for the expenses of agency which had hitherto been borne by the Government. The hopes of the Commissioners in this matter were not, however, fulfilled, as the supply of school books passed into the hands of various educational trading associations which made their own terms. The Report calls attention to the great service which might be rendered to popular education by providing good books for children. 'Those books which have come under our observation, though many of them possess considerable merit, leave much to be desired. This remark is true with regard to reading books especially.' (1) The abandonment of the official book list was viewed with peculiar regret by Matthew Arnold, who expressed his views on the matter in his general report for 1867 as follows: 'In this country where little importance is

(1) Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of popular education in England (1861) Vol. I, pp. 348-351.


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attached to the science of public administration, a public department is apt first to attempt to exercise a critical function with insufficient means, and then, when the result appears unsatisfactory, hastily to retreat altogether from exercising it. The better way, perhaps, would be to exercise it properly.' (1)

PART III. THE PERIOD OF INDIRECT OFFICIAL CONTROL BY MEANS OF PROVISIONS IN THE CODE, SYLLABUSES, INSTRUCTIONS TO INSPECTORS ETC, 1862 TO ABOUT 1895

7. In the revised Code of 1862 the Education Department issued a syllabus in reading, writing and arithmetic arranged in six standards. (2) As this syllabus was compulsory, it meant in fact that a certain uniformity had to be adopted in producing books for Primary Schools. For instance, reading books for Standard I had to be based on monosyllabic words, and those for Standard II on words of more than one syllable. Children in Standard III, when they were examined by HM Inspector, were not only expected to be able to read 'a short paragraph from an elementary reading book used in school', but also to write from dictation 'a sentence from the same paragraph slowly read once and then dictated in single words'. It was accordingly in the interest of teachers and publishers alike to pay attention to simplicity of wording and phrasing. The system embodied in the Code of 1862 of an annual examination by the Inspector of each individual pupil, and of payment by results, gave a check to any further broadening of the basis of education and fostered intensive study of such reading books as were available. (3) At this time at least 10 hours a week were devoted to reading (apart from the Bible), and to spelling and dictation, and it was a common practice to read the same passage again and again until it was learnt by heart. The introduction of a new reading book was an event in many schools.

(1) Reports on Elementary Schools 1852-1882 by Matthew Arnold. HM Stationery Office, 1910, p. 121.

(2) For a description of the standards of former Codes of the Education Department see Section 34 of the Consultative Committee's Report on Psychological Tests (1924).

(3) The footnote to Article 28 of the new Code of 1875 states that 'Reading will be tested in the ordinary class books, if approved by an inspector; but these books must be of reasonable length and difficulty and unmarked. If they are not so, books brought by the inspector will be used. Every class ought to have two or three sets of reading books'.


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Reading books published at this period were often arranged with lists of words for spelling at the head of each new lesson and with exercises in manuscript type to be copied out and with dictation lessons at the end. In some instances the reading book contained arithmetical exercises and examples covering the arithmetic syllabus for the appropriate standard. Series of printed cards were extensively used for the teaching of arithmetic.

8. Matthew Arnold, who profoundly disapproved of the principle of annual examination and payment by results embodied in the revised Code of 1862, nevertheless pointed out in his general report for 1863 (1) that the effect of the new Code on school reading books had been to improve them noticeably by directing greater attention to simplicity of language and ease of style. In his report for 1867 (2) Arnold explained that with the increase of Primary Schools the supply of school books had become a lucrative and important business, but that such books were very often compiled by persons quite incompetent for the undertaking. He accordingly suggested that the Education Department should exercise some control over books in aided schools. His plea, however, for a partial reversion to the policy of the Book List adopted by the Department from 1847 to 1861 met with no support.

9. The passing of the Elementary Education Act of 1870 marks the beginning of a fresh phase in the history of school books. The establishment of School Boards and the new financial conditions introduced by the Act together with the great extension of Elementary Schools, opened up a wide field for publishers, and from this time school books appeared in greatly augmented numbers. When the Act of 1870 was being put into operation, Matthew Arnold in his general report for 1871 (3) again urged upon the Education Department the desirability of devoting greater attention to the question of books. He suggested that the Senior Inspectors might be requested to collaborate with the new School Boards and advise them in the matter of books. His suggestion however was not

(1) Reports on Elementary Schools 1852-1882 by Matthew Arnold, HM Stationery Office, 1910, pp. 97-98.

(2) Ibid, pp. 119-121.

(3) Ibid, pp. 143-144.


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adopted, and the Department adhered to its policy of refraining from any direct interference with the supply and selection of books, though indirectly, as we point out in Section 12 of this Chapter, the Syllabuses and Instructions to Inspectors exercised a profound influence on the form, character and content of many of the school books produced at the time.

10. It would be impossible to summarise within reasonable limits the numerous changes introduced in the Codes and other official documents bearing on the curriculum from 1870 onwards. We may, however, quote here as a typical example the alterations in the Code of 1882 in which new syllabuses were provided both in the standard (obligatory) subjects and in the 'class' subjects (i.e. Elementary Science, Grammar, History, Elementary Geography and Plain Needlework). Various modifications were made also in respect of the 'specific' (1) subjects. A Seventh Standard was officially recognised for the first time, and it was laid down that three sets of books had to be provided in every class, except Standards I and II where two sets of books might be regarded as sufficient. In Section 7 of the Instructions to Inspectors issued in 1882 the Education Department thus defined its policy respecting books:

'In Standards V, VI and VII books of extracts from standard authors may be taken, though such works as Robinson Crusoe, Voyages and Travels, or Biographies of eminent men (if of suitable length) are to be preferred. In Standards VI and VII a single play of Shakespeare, or a single book of one of Milton's longer poems, or a selection of extracts from either poet equal in length to the foregoing may be accepted. As a rule, ordinary text-books or manuals should not be accepted as readers'. (2)
(1) As a result of changes introduced in the Codes of 1867, 1870, 1871, 1875 and 1880, the curriculum of an Elementary School from 1875 to the later nineties consisted of three main parts:
I. The obligatory subjects, i.e. the three R's (called 'the elementary subjects') with needlework for girls,
II. The optional subjects:
    (a) The class subjects, which were optional for classes of scholars above Standard I.
    (b) The specific subjects which might be taught to individual scholars in Standards IV and upwards.

(2) Instructions issued to HM Inspectors under the Code of 1882 (c-3568) page 4, section 7.


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11. These and similar alterations in the Code and other official documents represent successive efforts of the Education Department to adjust the curricula of Public Elementary Schools to the changes which were then in progress in the structure of society and in educational theory. For example, it is possible to trace in some of these provisions the influence of the educational writings of Huxley and Herbert Spencer, particularly in the increased attention paid to Nature Study and Elementary Science and to Physical Exercises. In the same way the growing recognition of the importance of handwork of various kinds received later an impetus from the Report of the Royal Commission on Technical Education 1882-1884.

12. Though the Department in its Instructions to Inspectors and in other documents laid much emphasis on the policy of non-interference in the matter of books, the indirect influence on publishers of successive Codes and Instructions to Inspectors during the period from 1862 to about 1895 was very great. A typical example is afforded by the following paragraph of Circular No. 228 published by the Education Department in 1883 and repeated as a paragraph in the Official Instructions to Inspectors up to 1891:

'In reading books 40 lessons and not less than 80 pages of small octavo text should be required in Standards I and II, and not less than 60 lessons and 120 pages in higher standards ... Two pages may be considered as the minimum for an effective reading lesson; and engravings, lists of words and names, and supplementary questions or exercises are not to be taken into account in computing the contents of the books, except to a small extent in those for the First Standard. A book containing twice the amount of matter prescribed for a single year may remain in use during two years, e.g. for both the Fifth and Sixth Standards; but may not count as two books for use in a single class in one year. Longer lessons than those of two pages are clearly desirable for the elder children.' (1)
Thus the size of school books, their scope and general arrangement, together with the minimum number of books to be used in a class, were all described with greater or less precision in these documents, and sales depended upon the skill with which publishers were able to assist teachers in

(1) Circular 228, dated 6 August 1883, Section 7b, and Revised Instructions to HM Inspectors 1890. (C. 5990) Section 19.


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meeting official requirements. These facts are of primary importance in considering school books of the period. Publishers vied with one another in trying to meet each new phase in the Syllabuses and Instructions of the Education Department, advertising their different series as being in accordance with the new Code of 1875, the Instructions to Inspectors, 1878, the Revised Code of 1882 and so forth.

13. Elementary school books published between 1870 and the period 1890-1895 fall broadly into two groups according as they appeared before or after the Code of 1882. The characteristic books of the period before 1882 are the various series of General Class 'Readers', differing in size and content, but all alike designed to convey a considerable amount of useful information. A number of small books were also produced for study in the standards of schools where different 'specific' and 'class' subjects were taken. When the Code of 1882 provided new syllabuses both in the obligatory and in the optional subjects, the general 'readers' gradually became more literary in character, as separate reading books were now required in Geography or Science, and also for the upper standards, in History.

After 1890 the number and variety of the reading books rapidly increased in order to meet the alternative syllabuses set out in the Code, and there were published readers in History, Geography, Natural Science, Domestic Economy and Object Lessons.

14. The final Report of the Cross Commission issued in 1888 contains several references to the problem of books for Public Elementary Schools. The Commissioners, in discussing the various subjects of the curriculum, refer to a suggestion made by some of HM Inspectors that suitable text-books should be recommended in the Code, though their use in schools should not be obligatory; and that these books, if adopted, should define the knowledge required in the official examinations. The Commissioners commented on this suggestion as follows:

'But we are altogether opposed to the introduction of an officially recognised set of Government text-books. We think, however, that with the view of indicating to managers and teachers the range of study intended to

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be covered by the requirements of the Code, a more or less extended programme should be published for each subject.' (1)
In their final conclusions and recommendations the Commissioners expressed their views on school books as follows:
'(79) That there is room for much improvement in reading; that it would be of advantage to increase rather than to diminish the number of books to be read in each standard, but that the spelling requirements should be diminished, and that unless the scholars are taught to read with ease, and acquire a taste for reading, their school learning will not be followed up in after life, and that accordingly the establishment of school libraries is strongly to be recommended.'

(86) That we are opposed to the introduction of a set of official Government text-books.' (1)

PART IV. THE POSITION OCCUPIED BY BOOKS IN THE GENERAL SCHEME OF INSTRUCTION IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS SINCE THE ABANDONMENT OF THE SYSTEM OF ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS

15. The system of annual examinations was discarded in the early nineties, and consequent modifications were introduced in methods of inspection. The division of the curriculum into 'obligatory', 'class' and 'specific' subjects was abandoned in 1900, and the Code of 1902 contained for the first time in Article 15 a clear statement regarding courses of instruction in Infant Schools and Classes, and in Schools for older pupils. These and other changes did not, however, for some years produce any noticeable results in the supply of school books, or in the manner in which they were used in the schools.

Teachers were slow to take advantage of these changes and the freedom that they conferred. They continued to use books for the same purposes as heretofore, and in the same way, that is mainly as books to be read aloud. The reading books on geography, history and science were seldom consulted for the subject matter, and when a new set was to be procured, the

(1) Final Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Elementary Education Acts, England and Wales (1888). (C. 5485) pp. 138, 214, 215.


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suitability of the contents for the teacher's purpose was seldom carefully scrutinised. It was a traditional practice of long standing that 'class and specific subjects' should be taught to the class as a whole, a practice due in part to a belief in collective teaching, in part to the size of the classes, and chiefly, perhaps, to the paucity of suitable books available. A technique was evolved, which by its very skill and polish, and its wealth of illustration, appeared to dispense with the necessity of individual study from books. Moreover, the difficulties which the teacher encountered in teaching his pupils to read at all prevented him from realising that they could be trusted to read for themselves. Thus the demand for books which could be used by the pupils themselves developed slowly. (1)

16. By the time the re-organisation consequent on the Act of 1902 was under way, teachers and all concerned with elementary education were free to examine its methods and its possibilities. The cramping requirements of earlier days once removed, there was also room for the influence of opinion from outside the schools. One of the first results was a growing appreciation of the duty as well as the feasibility of teaching elementary school children to read for themselves. The choice of suitable books began to assume a new importance. Besides selecting those which might be used for enjoyment, the teacher was bound to reflect on the use of books for study and to consider how study could best be conducted under elementary school conditions. The lesson in its more spectacular form has tended to drop into the background, but this form of teaching cannot be entirely superseded by private study. Even today one of the problems of all schools, particularly those for pupils over the age of 11, is to relate in suitable proportions oral teaching and personal study, and this is a problem which has a close bearing on the supply of books, since the character of the right books cannot be determined in the abstract, but must depend upon the use to which they are to be put.

The introduction to the Code of 1904 expressed the newer conception of the aims of the elementary school. It states

(1) It should be mentioned that the practice of giving book prizes had become an established tradition in a considerable number of provided and non-provided schools towards the end of the XIXth century.


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that one of the aims of the school is 'to develop in the pupils such a taste for good reading and thoughtful study (1) as will enable them to increase that knowledge in after years by their own efforts'.

17. The increased importance attached by the Board of Education since about 1907 to books as forming an integral part of the equipment of Public Elementary Schools may be illustrated by comparing the relevant Article in the Code for 1906 and preceding years, (2) with the corresponding Article for 1907 and subsequent years up to 1925. Article 20 of the Code for 1906 runs:

'The School must be adequately and suitably equipped with the apparatus requisite for its curriculum, including desks, furniture, books and maps.'
Article 20 of the Code for 1907 contains the following addition:
'Provision should be made for securing an adequate supply of suitable books for the course of general reading in the higher classes of the school, and for bringing to the notice of the scholars such agencies as may assist them in the continuation of their studies in after life. Dictionaries and Atlases should be provided for the older scholars. In cases where the school does not possess a school library, arrangements should be made to supply the want of one, if possible, in other ways, such as by co-operation with organisations existing for the purpose.'
This Article continued to appear with slight modifications in subsequent Codes up to 1925.

Since 1905 the Board had adopted the practice of giving the greater part of their general advice on the subject of books in the publication entitled Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers, which was first published in that year and re-issued

(1) Cf. Article 2 (1) of the Code for 1905, which contains for the first time a reference to silent reading:
'The English language, including practice in speaking with clear enunciation, exercises in continuous oral narration, reading for information both silently and aloud, and written composition. Throughout the course the reading books used by the scholars should include pieces of literary merit, some of which should be learned for recitation.'

(2) Successive Codes from the [eighteen] seventies onwards had contained provisions emphasising the duty of managers to provide proper furniture and other apparatus of elementary education, including books and maps.


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subsequently with partial revisions in 1912, 1914, 1918 and 1922. In the revised Code for 1926 the explicit reference to books was wholly omitted, and Article 5 (a) of the Code states in general terms 'that the premises of a school and centre ... must be suitably arranged, furnished and equipped for instruction.' In Circular No. 1375, dated 29th April 1926, the Board explained the principles underlying the revised Code of 1926. One object of the revision was to confine the Regulations to 'a statement of the actual conditions upon compliance with which the grant to an Authority depends'. The Circular states that the 'Board's views on matters of educational policy can be expressed in more convenient ways than by inclusion in statutory Regulations governing the payment of grant'. The Board accordingly now give their general advice on books in the Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers, issued in an amplified form in 1927, and in other official publications.

18. During the present century the need for a more adequate supply, not only of ordinary school books but of works of reference for the school library and of works suitable for general reading out of school hours, began to be acutely felt, owing to the growing recognition of the desirability of making suitable provision for each pupil according to his capacities. The practice of encouraging the older children to use books of reference and to carry out schemes of individual work under the guidance and supervision of the teacher was gradually coming into vogue. These tendencies in educational development were confirmed by the section (1) in the Education Act of 1918 which provided that it should be the duty of the Local Authority to make adequate and suitable provision by means of Central Schools, Central or Special Classes or otherwise for courses of advanced instruction for the older or more intelligent children, including those who remained at school beyond the age of 14. It became more and more evident that a better supply of books would be required for this advanced instruction, and authorities were led to take more active measures to cope with the new situation, in many instances in close co-operation with the local Urban Libraries, or with the County Libraries. For, mean-

(1) Section 2 (1) (a) of the Education Act, 1918, re-enacted as Section 20 of the Education Act 1921.


[page 17]

while, a new and most important ally had come forward in the shape of Public Libraries, which, at first chiefly in the large cities, had become invaluable auxiliaries in rendering a larger supply of reading material available for school children, especially since the beginning of the present century. The whole movement was materially assisted by the necessity for a special replacement of books after the war, and it became the ideal of more than one education authority to build up gradually an adequate collection of books within each Elementary School. (1)

19. But even at the present time the general line of progress is uneven, and it is possible in many Public Elementary Schools to observe traces of the successive stages in the method of using class books. In some schools the tradition of the three 'readers' survives, and these compilations are still minutely studied for the sake of spelling and of the meanings of individual words. In many schools again the oral lesson continues to be regarded as the most important vehicle of instruction, and except in the reading lesson the book plays an ancillary part. Books however now occupy a prominent place in the scheme of instruction in a rapidly increasing number of schools. They are used extensively by the pupils not merely in the school, but frequently also in the juvenile reading departments of the public libraries. Moreover, children often borrow books for home reading from the juvenile lending departments of Public Libraries and from the local centres of County Libraries, and in some cases also from the school or class library.


(1) See Chapter IV, Sections 52-59.


[page 18]

CHAPTER II

THE PLACE AND FUNCTION OF BOOKS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS: THE VOLUME, QUALITY AND CHARACTER OF THE PRESENT SUPPLY IN THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM: WELSH BOOKS

A. The place and function of books in Elementary Schools

20. Our evidence (1) suggests not only that the supply of books used in schools requires to be increased, but also that their quality not infrequently stands in need of improvement. At the risk of labouring a truism, we would urge that too much care cannot be taken to ensure that, so far as possible, the best books, and only the best books, should be used in schools. Growing minds are influenced, and sometimes strongly influenced, by the stimulus afforded by their studies, and by the intellectual food which is offered them in school. If they are to learn to admire what is admirable in literature and in human life, their taste must not be corrupted by the reading of works which are false in sentiment and second-rate in expression. If they are to acquire a habit of clear and logical thought, if their imagination is to be aroused, and their capacity for analysis and reflection strengthened, the books which they use in studying the different subjects of the curriculum must as far as possible not merely be accurate in substance, but also be written in a lucid and vigorous style, so as to arouse interest and convey inspiration.

It will be seen from the historical sketch in Chapter I that the place and function of school books were formerly, in effect, prescribed and defined by the Education Department. The chief use of books was to teach reading, mainly by reading aloud. It was expected that by reading aloud a second purpose would be served, that of acquiring a knowledge of the subject matter read, particularly in history, geography and the elements of science. In good schools the teachers doubtless took care that their classes understood and enjoyed the books which they were reading, but contemporary

(1) See Chapter III passim and the present Chapter, Sections 24 to 40 passim.


[page 19]

reports of Inspectors and others give the impression that in the less efficient schools the reading was a mechanical process that made little demand on the intelligence.

Although the Board of Education no longer lay down any specific requirements regarding the character and object of reading, nevertheless directly and through the medium of its Handbook of Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers, the Board do in fact afford very considerable guidance. The new edition of the Handbook of Suggestions (1927), which is supplementary to the Code, is now treated as the main channel for the expression of the Board's views on curricula, and contains many passages bearing on books and reading. The volume begins with the introduction that for twenty-two years formed the Preface to the Code of Regulations for Public Elementary Schools, in which the following pertinent passage occurs:

'It will be the aim of the School ... to arouse in the children a living interest in the ideals and achievements of mankind, and to bring them to some familiarity with the literature and history of their own country; to give them some power over language as an instrument of thought and expression, and, while making them conscious of the limitations of their knowledge, to develop in them such a taste for good reading and thoughtful study as will enable them to increase that knowledge in after years by their own efforts.'
The chapters of the Handbook of Suggestions dealing with the different subjects of the curriculum comprise paragraphs on the need of books and the manner in which they should be used. School books and their use are discussed at some length in the chapters on Arithmetic, History, Geography and Music, while the chapter on English is mainly concerned with the use of books in general.

21. It will be generally agreed that two main uses of books are for enjoyment and for gaining knowledge. Schools require books also for the more specific purposes of teaching children to read, and, through reading and study, of increasing their power to understand and use their own language; in short of teaching English. That books should be enjoyed by children reading alone and that they should be regarded as sources of knowledge, to be searched by individuals, was hardly recognised


[page 20]

in Public Elementary Schools until comparatively recent times. A reading book was primarily one by which reading was taught. The threefold function of books is now generally understood in schools. This does not mean, however, that different kinds of books are required for each function. Indeed the skill of a teacher is nowhere shown so clearly as in his power to use a good book for all three objects as occasion arises. At the same time, when he considers his scheme of work and is selecting the appropriate books, the teacher will do well to discriminate between the various kinds of books which he desires, in accordance with the use which he proposes to make of them.

22. There are two types of book which must, for the most part, be specially written for the elementary school. They are primers and text-books. In the early stages of learning to read, children seem to require books that advance gradually in technical difficulty from stage to stage. Though English literature is singularly rich in easy prose and simple verse, it is nevertheless hardly possible for those teaching beginners wholly to dispense with the books written expressly for them. There is also the specific kind of book which is known as a text-book. The meaning of the term is a little vague. In one sense any book used in school is a text-book; for a fairy story or one of Scott's novels may properly be thought of as a text-book when it is read with a definite school purpose in view. In another sense a text-book is a book specially written for study or for reference, such as a compendium of English Grammar or a book of dates or a manual of Science. The Board's Handbook of Suggestions, employing the word in the second sense, rarely recommends text-books for Elementary Schools. It would seem to be the view of the writers that the framework of exact knowledge in the various subjects is to be built up by the teacher, who will himself supply it or see that his class derives it from the books which he places in their hands. In our Report, for the sake of clearness, we avoid the term text-book except where it is required in its second and narrower sense.

The books required for Elementary Schools fall into two broad categories: books for the class, copies of which should be provided for every member of the class for use in the appropriate lessons, and books for the school library. We are


[page 21]

anxious to preserve the books in the first category from becoming mere school books. They should be so well written and so skilfully chosen that a child will gladly read them again when they cease to be his daily companions. The suggestions contained in other sections of this chapter will develop in more detail the general principles to which we attach importance.

B. The volume, quality and character of the present supply of books in the various branches of the Elementary School curriculum

THE GENERAL APPEARANCE, TYPE ETC, OF SCHOOL BOOKS: ILLUSTRATIONS

23. It is evident that great pains are now taken by the majority of publishers to produce books for use in Elementary Schools that shall be attractive in appearance, easily legible and capable of hard wear. There is little doubt that the improvement in the general appearance of school books during the last decade has been largely due to the Report on the influence of school-books upon eye-sight issued in 1913 by the British Association. (1) The improvement may also be partly due to the standards laid down (largely on the basis of the same report), regarding the appearance, type, etc. of school books, by the London County Council and other Local Education Authorities which issue lists of approved books. Our witnesses, however, pointed out that there were a few types of book used in elementary schools the form of which was still unattractive. Special mention was made of the small inexpensive editions of the Bible (2) and small English Dictionaries. Glossy paper seems to be still used to some extent for school books. One of the defects of this kind of paper is that, when the book is opened, it presents pages with curved surfaces and that therefore a vertical strip of print appears grey instead of black.

We were told that some school books at present in use are too large to be comfortably handled, at any rate by younger children.

(1) Report on the influence of school books upon eyesight London, Offices of the British Association, Burlington House (1913). Cf. also RL Pyke The Legibility of Print (1926), Medical Research Council Special Report series. No. 110.

(2) See page 30.


[page 22]

We fully recognise that many books gain largely in interest by suitable illustrations. Illustrations are indeed essential in Books for Infants and young children. But we think that many of the illustrations in current use, particularly in books for older children, are unnecessarily elaborate, and, especially if they are coloured, increase the cost of production without proportionately adding to the usefulness of the book. Similar considerations apply to some of the small maps, plans, etc, which are often included in school books on geography, history and literature. We would draw attention to the inappropriateness of many illustrations, and still more to the fact that they are often unsuitably placed in relation to the part of the text which they are intended to elucidate.

While the question of school pictures is not included in the scope of our reference, there is a class of pictorial illustration which can scarcely be separated from the literary, geographical, historical or scientific matter related to it, and which accordingly falls within the province of any inquiry dealing with the supply of school books. We consider that all illustrations for teaching purposes should be accompanied by sufficient letterpress to enable the pupil to discover and

(1) Descriptive price lists of illustrated guides, catalogues, photogravures and picture postcards with letterpress, published by the national museums, art galleries, and other similar institutions may as a rule, be obtained by writing to the director, curator or secretary of the institution in question. The full postal addresses of some of the more important of these institutions are as follows:

The British Museum: The Director, British Museum, London WC1
The British Museum (Natural History): The Director, British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London SW7.
The National Museum of Wales: The Director, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.
The National Library of Wales: The Librarian, National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.
The Victoria and Albert Museum*: The Director, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, London SW7.
The Science Museum*: The Director, Science Museum, South Kensington, London SW7.
The Royal Botanic Gardens*: The Curator, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey.
The Public Record Office Museum: The Secretary, The Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, London WC2.
The Imperial Institute: The Secretary, Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London SW7.
The Museum of Practical Geology: The Curator, Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, London SW1.
[cont.]


[page 23]

understand the significant features conveyed by the illustration. Much excellent material of this kind has been and is being produced by the public Museums and Art Galleries, by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, by the Public Record Office, by such bodies as the Society of Antiquaries, and by various archaeological societies throughout the country. This material includes reproductions of historic masterpieces, of ancient maps and plans, and of scenes and characters depicted on illuminated manuscripts, together with photographs of ancient monuments and buildings and of objects of historic interest in Museums and Art Galleries.

We think that Local Education Authorities and teachers in Public Elementary Schools might with advantage make more use of the various publications issued by the Public Museums and Art Galleries (1 [refers to footnote which starts on previous page]) and by commercial and non-commercial associations throughout the country. Further, we would urge those concerned with the production of school books, and the Local Education Authorities, to give due regard to these sources.

[cont.]
The London Museum: The Secretary, The London Museum, Lancaster House, St James's, London SW1.
The National Gallery: The Director, National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London, WC2.
The National Portrait Gallery: The Secretary, National Portrait Gallery, St Martin's Place, Charing Cross, London WC2.
The Tate Gallery: The Director, National Gallery, Millbank, London SW1.
The Wallace Collection: The Secretary, Wallace Collection, Hertford House, Manchester Square, London W1.

A price list of the illustrated publications on the Antiquities of Britain (Inventories of the Royal Commissions on the Ancient Monuments of England, Scotland and Wales) may be obtained from HM Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, London WC2. These publications are comparatively expensive, but some of them might be suitable for inclusion in school libraries, particularly for modern schools.

It should also be mentioned that a number of municipal and other local museums, art galleries and similar institutions throughout England and Wales have published useful illustrated guides, catalogues and series of picture postcards with letterpress.

(*Price lists and descriptive literature respecting the illustrated publications of the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, may also be obtained direct from HM Stationery Office, at the following addresses:
Adastral House, Kingsway, London WC2.
York Street, Manchester.
1 St Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff.)


[page 24]

Some of our witnesses suggested that many school books might be replaced by a 'loose-leaf system', i.e. an arrangement by which each pupil is supplied with a binder or cover, into which loose sheets or portions of a text-book, sufficient for a term or a school year, can be slipped, according to the needs of the class or of the individual pupil. On the whole, we think that any advantages which such a scheme may offer in the classroom are decisively out-balanced by its drawbacks. We feel that the word 'book' should have the same connotation in school as in the larger world outside.

Our attention has been repeatedly called to the fact that a number of school books do not contain the name of the author and the date of publication. We would urge very strongly that all books intended for use in schools should contain the author's name and the date at which they were published.

BOOKS FOR INFANTS' DEPARTMENTS

24. There was general agreement among our witnesses that an Infants' Department should be adequately equipped with the following types of books:

(a) Picture books. Children must learn the names of things before they learn to read those names. A good supply of picture books is, therefore, essential. These should include pictures of things with which children are familiar and also pictures of what is outside their immediate experience. The pictures should be clear and simple in treatment and, as a rule, should be coloured, but the less realistic black and white illustration has an educational value of its own, though it does not perhaps appeal so directly to very young children.

(b) The 'work' type of reading book. Another important way in which children realise the practical value of reading is by interpreting written instructions. These instructions should be concerned with things to do or to make. Pictures to paint or to cut out (together with printed directions) are published in book form, but many teachers prefer to make their own sets. In this case the necessary material should be provided.

(c) Story books. A strong inducement in learning to read is the interest of a continuous narrative. Children are soon ready to enjoy a complete story book, and the best introduction to the use of a library in later life is a table in a corner of the


[page 25]

classroom from which each child can choose its reading book. The books should be of many kinds: nature stories, fairy tales, stories of how other children live, stories of heroes - all should be included. Each book should be complete in itself and should not be too long: the book should be well printed and illustrated, and the pictures should be so set as not to cut up the printed type. These primers for young children will, as a rule, have to be specially written, but they might also include nursery rhymes, simple verse not written for school purposes, and nonsense verse, as well as the ever popular stories. They need not be unreal or artificial, nor need they be scrupulously graded in difficulty. It is often desirable to have a wide range of difficulty presented by such books so as to suit the different capacities of the children in one class, inasmuch as beginners in reading vary greatly in their rate of progress. Such books should be so well written that the children will be attracted to read them again and again. Some of our witnesses complained that in spite of the vast number of small books written for infants, there was nevertheless a lack of first-rate books of the type which we suggest.

These three types of books all provide for individual reading, allowing the child to go at its own pace. A certain number of class books will also be needed in accordance with whatever method is adopted for teaching children to read; these should be graded, well written and printed in clear type. There is, as a rule, an adequate supply of class books, but the greater need is for books to meet the requirements of those schools where individual methods have been adopted. In this connection it must be remembered:

(i) A page of pictures is more quickly understood than a page of print, and picture books soon suffer from wear and tear. It is important that children's first associations with reading should not be with a dirty or torn book.

(ii) Teachers in Infants' Schools supplement books by a great deal of apparatus. The material for this should be provided, and can hardly be separated from the allowance of books.

BOOKS FOR PUPILS IN JUNIOR SCHOOLS AND DEPARTMENTS

25. It is one of the functions of schools to endeavour to foster a love of reading and to train children in the use of books. No boy or girl has acquired the art of reading who


[page 26]

finds difficulty with the 'mechanics' of reading, is poor in comprehension, slow in silent reading, who misses significant parts of the subject matter, or does not begin to find pleasure in the use of books. A pupil's attitude towards books is very much a matter of imitation and is profoundly affected by the general atmosphere of the home and of the classroom. Good and bad reading habits are of slow growth; they are, however, already well established by the time children leave the Junior School. If the foundations of reading as an art are to be properly laid, Junior Departments need to be adequately equipped with books for (i) oral reading, (ii) individual, group and class study, (iii) silent reading for information and enjoyment and (iv) reference.

Skill in oral reading is not identical with skill in the art of reading. Quite apart from its aesthetic value, oral reading is indispensable for the acquisition of mechanical proficiency and for the formation of sound technique. By common consent well graded literary or general reading books are best suited for this purpose. Excellent series of such books are available, differing in aim, in difficulty and in range of vocabulary; and it is important that classes should not be limited to a single set of these books. For the purpose of acquiring technique in reading, books of the type of the older 'Subject Readers' will rarely be found suitable. Some modern books for oral reading take the form of prose miscellanies of a higher standard of difficulty, which can be read and re-read by the pupils and the teacher. They will also contain passages suitable for learning by heart and for class study. Closely allied with them are anthologies of verse, which should be available for every class.

In addition to books suitable for oral reading, others are required for individual, group or class study. With the growth of individual work and of supervised private study, the older subject reading books have given place to an increasing number of class books intended for such work and study. These approximate, as children grow older, to simple text-books, the pupils' reading being directed by appropriate questions. Books of this kind require to be supplemented by books for silent reading, consisting of story books, accounts of life in other ages and in other lands, books of general information, books dealing with travel, hobbies and natural history, and children's magazines. These make up the class


[page 27]

and school libraries, the more advanced books being used chiefly as works of reference. In general, single copies, or, in certain instances, small sets of not more than half a dozen copies will prove sufficient. For the older pupils simple atlases and dictionaries are necessary.

BOOKS FOR PUPILS IN SENIOR SCHOOLS AND DIVISIONS

26. Children between the ages of 11+ and 14 in Senior Divisions and in ordinary Elementary Schools need also to be supplied with books for study, for supplementary reading, and for reference. With the new outlook on education for children over the age of 11 and the consequential reorganisation of schools, there has arisen a need for new types of curricula, greater variation in methods of instruction, and books which lend themselves adequately to the new conditions. The demand is for books suitable for individual and class study and for books of reference within the capacities of the pupils. Increasing use is being made of text-books such as are met with in the lower forms of Grammar Schools (1) and in Junior Technical Schools. The outlook, method of treatment and content of books which may be appropriate to boys and girls pursuing a Grammar School course of at least five years do not adequately meet the needs of the large body of pupils who will leave school at 14 or 15 years of age. It is one of the tasks of the future to work out suitable courses of instruction and

(1) Throughout this Report we have used the terms 'Grammar School' and 'Modern School' in the sense in which we recommended in our Report on the Education of the Adolescent that they should be used, namely:

(i) That schools of the 'secondary' type most commonly existing today (generally called 'secondary schools' which at present pursue in the main a predominantly literary or scientific curriculum, should be known as grammar schools.
(ii) That schools of the type of the existing selective central schools, which give at least a four years' course from the age of 11+, with a 'realistic' or practical trend in the last two years, should be known as modern schools.
(iii) That schools of the type of the present non-selective central schools, with a curriculum on the same general lines as in (ii), and with due provision for differentiation between pupils of different capacities, should also be known as modern schools.
Report on the Education of the Adolescent (1926), pp. 95 and 96, and pp. 99 and 100.


[page 28]

to provide books which meet the requirements of this type of pupil. Little difficulty is generally experienced in finding suitable English books, for oral reading and repetition as well as for silent reading. Somewhat greater difficulty is experienced in discovering the right book in arithmetic, elementary mathematics, geography, history and elementary science. A good deal can be done by employing more than one class book or by supplementing the book by the teacher's own notes. It is because of the difficulties encountered in getting exactly the books required that many teachers prefer to dispense with class books altogether in certain subjects, and rely on a well equipped class library to supplement the class lessons and to furnish material for carefully directed reading and study.

Though it may not be possible to impart to all pupils a love of literature and a taste for books, it is practicable to teach all of them to use books, if only such publications as simple reference books (e.g. encyclopedias for children and smaller year books), and to get them to consult books of general information connected with their interests and hobbies.

BOOKS FOR USE IN SELECTIVE MODERN SCHOOLS AND ADVANCED CLASSES

27. In view of the development of more advanced instruction with an industrial, agricultural, commercial or domestic bias in Selective Modern Schools (1) and Advanced Classes, where the pupils remain in increasing numbers up to the age of 15 or even 16, there is a growing demand for books specially adapted for these students. The tendency is for these books to bring school studies into closer touch with ordinary life. In all subjects they sacrifice something of the academic material which is necessary for a still further period of formal education and concentrate upon that which is more directly related to the education given through the work-a-day world. Moreover, the lengthened school life is in itself tending to raise the standard throughout the school course, and books of a kind more advanced than has normally been thought possible will be necessary. In English, the texts should be at least as advanced in character as those for pupils of corresponding ages in Grammar Schools. This particularly applies to

(1) See Footnote 1 on page 27.


[page 29]

Modern Schools in which a foreign language is not taught. (1) But the study of these texts is directed more to forms of expression than to linguistic and grammatical details. In mathematics and science the practical side is being more emphasised. Books on these subjects intended for selective Modern Schools and Advanced Classes will tend to include only such an amount of theory as is essential for a clear understanding of the basic principles involved. They will therefore frequently provide work and exercises which are in advance of the theoretical knowledge usually imparted at a similar stage. In history and geography, the demand for more advanced text-books will no doubt to some extent be met by those already provided for Grammar Schools, but even so, others will be needed with a content of a more specialised kind intimately connected with the interests and outlook of the pupils. In addition to these changes in the content of the books dealing with the usual school studies more books will be needed to meet developments in 'practical instruction'. The supply of books dealing, for example, with domestic subjects has scarcely begun.

THE BIBLE

28. We have thought it of great importance to consider the question of the supply of Bibles in Elementary Schools. Quite apart from the manifest value of Bible reading as a part of religious instruction, it is beyond dispute that for an English child the Bible provides the best possible introduction to the noblest traditions of the English tongue. (2) Much of our literature bears indelible witness to its powerful formative influence, and it is indeed not too much to say that a great deal of our speech in current and even colloquial use can hardly be fully understood without some acquaintance with Biblical language and content. We have been assured by several witnesses that recent generations of school children show less and less acquaintance with what may be called the traditional and

(1) We do not here express any opinion as to whether a modern foreign language should or should not be included in the curriculum of the types of school in question.

(2) See The Teaching of English in England being the Report of the Departmental Committee appointed by the President of the Board of Education to inquire into the position of English in the Educational System of England: 1921, page 341.


[page 30]

illustrative commonplaces of the English language. The Pilgrims Progress, we are told, is so little read that children nowadays cannot follow familiar references to Doubting Castle or Vanity Fair. Further, even such Biblical phrases as a mess of pottage, Job's comforters and a barren fig tree are said to have no significance to children. The disappearance of these rich commonplaces of traditional English speech must not only weaken the child's and subsequently the adult's power to understand the great classics of our language, but must also entail a progressive impoverishment of imagination and feeling which probably goes far beyond mere language. This makes it more important than ever that adequate facilities for Bible reading should exist in schools. Unfortunately, our evidence does not allow us to doubt that the supply of Bibles in many Elementary Schools is unsatisfactory. While many, perhaps most, Authorities are prepared to supply the Bible for the use of each child who can read it, there appear to be other Authorities that scarcely provide more than one Bible for each class. Even where individual Bibles are available, they are nearly always, and naturally enough in present circumstances, cheap copies of the complete Authorised Version, and are therefore meanly and unattractively bound and printed in too small type; from such copies the pages most required are often apt to disappear after they have been in use for a few months or even weeks. It is true that in some areas 'Children's Bibles' are to some extent used, but these are often comparatively expensive and the selections are not always well chosen.

We think that one or more well printed copies of the Bible in large and attractive type and form should be included in each school library. Moreover, every Elementary School child who can read sufficiently well, should be provided with a copy of one or more portions of the Bible, suitable for study, in a similar type and form. A number of well-printed editions of separate books of the Bible, and more especially the Gospels, have been published at very cheap rates, and are widely used in schools. In addition to such separate texts of portions of the Scriptures, there is room for a good anthology of the finest passages of the Bible suitable for school use and produced at a reasonable cost. Several good anthologies of this type have been published, but most of them are comparatively expensive. Such an anthology as we contemplate would consist of passages from the Bible which should be, so far as possible, complete in


[page 31]

themselves, and it would be very useful in connection with the Syllabuses of Religious Instruction. It is hardly necessary to say that we deprecate the publication of any books for school use which attempt to re-tell the Bible story in other words. Omission need do no harm: alteration is quite a different matter.

ENGLISH

(a) Reading Books for Older Children

29. It is customary to provide graded reading books for the use of junior pupils after they have left the Infant School. The double purpose which such reading books attempt to serve is to cultivate in ordered progress a knowledge of the native language, and to inspire the pupils from the first with the conviction that there is meaning in print and that enjoyment can be derived from reading.

With due regard to the primary purpose of such a book, it may not be possible always to ensure that only what can be regarded as a permanent contribution to English Literature shall find a place therein. Our witnesses were, however, insistent that even the most elementary books should not consist either of great literature recast by an inferior hand, or of narratives and descriptions without literary merit; but that they should, in the earliest possible stage, take the form of carefully graded miscellanies of verse and prose of acknowledged literary value. The awakening of literary appreciation is incidental to the process of learning to read. The use of real literature, therefore, should not be delayed on the ground that the mechanical difficulties of reading have not been entirely overcome. Thus only will it be found possible to approach the ideal which is presented in the Report of the Departmental Committee on the Teaching of English in England - that 'we should offer to the young nothing which is not in some degree a work of art, the sincere expression of the writer himself'.

Many witnesses severely criticised the character of the notes, questions and exercises, which are appended to the excerpts in literary reading books, as being often pedantic, artificial and futile. There is doubtless much substance in this criticism. Notes should be strictly confined to the elucidation of the text; and they should not be elaborate. It should be recog-


[page 32]

nised that a degree of literary appreciation is possible in the child without complete understanding. As to printed questions and exercises, the fewer there are, the better.

On the other hand the amount of time given in school to 'silent reading' has sometimes encroached unduly upon the time formerly available for the accurate study of the meaning and content of language on a properly graded scheme. Skilfully constructed teaching glosses [explanations inserted in a text](similar to those in many French elementary school books) will do much to assist the teacher to attain his chief objective, that of training the children to understand a text for themselves. No doubt there will always be excellent teachers who will prefer to use plain texts. But such teachers will realise that they take upon their shoulders the full and unassisted burden of seeing that the pupils secure a degree of accuracy appropriate to their age in their comprehension of the language and content of what they read.

Several witnesses were of opinion that the book of extracts may usefully be replaced at some stages by an abridged classical novel, which should be chosen as much for its form and structure as for the arresting character of the story. As to this, we feel that whenever possible (and it is often possible), standard literature should be presented to the pupils without abridgement. When abridgement is necessary, it should be limited to the judicious excision of certain passages, and nothing should be introduced in their place but the briefest and simplest statement to render the subsequent pages intelligible. In no case should the book be recast, or the story retold, by an inferior hand.

(b) Anthologies

A large variety of anthologies of poetry is now available; and there can be no doubt that the range of poetry read in Elementary Schools has been very usefully broadened during the last two decades. On the other hand there is much to show that in the reaction from the old custom of learning 'standard extracts' a good deal of verse has crept into the Elementary School that is unsuitable or undeserving of its place. While we welcome the widening of the field of poetical studies by the publication of new anthologies, we regret that many of the old favourites of English tradition, such as Byron's stanzas on The Eve of Waterloo, Cowper's


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John Gilpin, Campbell's Hohenlinden and Gray's Elegy, have been neglected of late. There seems to be a real danger lest the familiar tradition of English poetry should be forgotten.

We think that there is an insufficient supply of prose anthologies for school use. Such anthologies should, in our opinion, fulfil the following general conditions. Passages in the best literary form should be selected; but the field of choice is so wide that they need never be chosen for reasons of style alone. Each passage should be so far as possible a complete whole in itself. A few lines of explanation should be given to indicate, e.g. the authorship and the work from which the passage has been taken.

(c) Grammar

It is probably true to say that for some time past the study of formal grammar has been almost wholly omitted in many Elementary Schools. This is no doubt due to the fact that this study was confined to grammatical technicalities. Even in the past, however, many teachers, while recognising the defects of such a form of instruction, nevertheless realised the difficulty of teaching language as a means of expression without reference to grammatical terms. In their schools the teaching of formal grammar was not abandoned, but a different method of approach was adopted. There has thus grown up a demand for books on grammar which will be more concerned with the examination and study of current English. This is a sound development. By the use of such books, teachers will avoid the pedantry which often arises from a highly specialised study of formal grammar, but will none the less train their pupils to speak and write English with clarity and precision.

HISTORY

30. During the last ten or fifteen years there has been considerable improvement both in the technical production of history books for young people and in the suitability of the subject matter included in them. The objections to history books of the older type were that they were too much confined to political history; that the generalisations which they included, however just, presumed a background of knowledge and experience which children did not possess; that the


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arrangement of the subject matter under reigns destroyed the sense of historical continuity which is essential in the study of history; that illustrations were crude and inaccurate and, when used, were as likely to falsify as to illuminate the subject illustrated; and that the vocabulary and diction were often too difficult for children. But on each of these points considerable improvements have been made and continue to be made. The end of the last century and the beginning of the present saw a generation of historians whose labours not only aroused public opinion to the serious bearing of historical studies upon national life, but were also directly instrumental in bringing history into the schools in a more educative and attractive form, at any rate for older students. As a consequence of these developments, increased attention began to be paid to the production of books on history suitable for quite young people. In this connection the most striking changes have been - the greater prominence given to the social and economic aspects of history, the introduction of material derived from local history, a more adequate recognition of English history as a part of European and World history, the production of illustrations which were both at first-hand and of first-rate historical value, and in general, an emphasis on the cultural rather than the political aspects of history. In addition to changes in text-books great improvement has also been made in the production of historical atlases, one or two of which are excellent. This is all to the good, and all these developments are tending to make History one of the most popular subjects in the curriculum. At the same time the extension of the historical field has made necessary a revaluation, a readjustment, and a re-grouping of historical details, and many books now attempt to deal with fewer topics, but to illuminate the topics selected by a greater amount of instructive and accurate fact.

There is perhaps in these newer tendencies some danger that historical time-sequence may be somewhat blurred, and outstanding personalities neglected. But in the best books the first of these dangers is met by frequent and systematic insertion of dates, by the use of time-charts, or by the adoption of both these expedients; and the second is unlikely to become permanent because the strong appeal which striking biographical details and dramatic events make to children is well understood and generally recognised.


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All these developments, therefore, appear to be excellent, but much remains to be done. For younger children between the ages of six and eleven there is an insufficient supply of books giving stories drawn from classical history or, again, from the history of ancient civilisations, which might well be illustrated, e.g. from the historical portions of the Old Testament. Similarly, for pupils of the same age a greater variety of satisfactory large pictorial illustrations suitable for teaching purposes is needed.

In books for older children improvements may be effected in various directions. Some of the movements of history, e.g. the Renaissance, are occasionally treated without proper reference to their wider range, and attention is directed only to a few persons and incidents connected with a single aspect. Again Music, Architecture, Painting, and the Arts and Crafts generally are seldom treated with a fulness proportionate either to their importance or to their suitability for interesting the minds of children. The same criticism applies to the treatment of the history of Science, and again, if in a less degree, to the descriptions of the development of the Dominions. This is the more surprising as many of these matters interest young people profoundly, and collections of illustrations to supplement the text can easily be made. Another serious defect was brought to our notice, though it is one which it is more difficult to remedy than those we have already mentioned. In some books considerable revision and re-adjustment of the historical matter is necessary to bring it into accord not only with the results of recent historical research but even with results that have been established almost for a generation.

These remarks apply to books specially written for school purposes. There is however, another class of historical works to which we would draw special attention, since the study of history demands more than a text-book for its proper enjoyment and profit. A large number of publications of great use to schools are now being issued at very cheap rates by the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, various Art Galleries, the London Museum and the Public Record Office; (1) and many of these should find a place in school libraries, in addition to the usual biographies and historical novels. There is also much excellent material, but at a rather higher cost, which has been published in monographs dealing

(1) See pages 22-3.


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with monasteries, cathedrals, churches, castles, historic houses, furniture, dresses, armour and the like. Teachers and officials of Local Education Authorities might explore the possibilities of forming collections of such works for school libraries or teachers' libraries; and to such collections might be added books which deal in an adequate but popular manner with the antiquities and historical associations of different districts. It is probable that, from these various sources, useful and interesting history libraries could be built up in the course of a number of years at a comparatively small annual cost.

There is also the question of further provision of books for selective Modern Schools and Advanced Classes. Some of these will necessarily be similar to that already recommended for older children; but much new ground will have to be broken. We think that in addition to the general course followed in such schools and classes, it may be possible and desirable to provide for some specialised work of the kind suggested for experiment in our Report on the Education of the Adolescent. (1) Other alternatives may also be considered appropriate, e.g. the development of some historic industry or of some particular craft. In any case it will probably be found that the interest of pupils in Modern Schools and Advanced Classes, even in general history, is best sustained through some aspect of the subject which not only interests them but has also some immediate relation to their own experiences. The supply of books written on such lines and adapted to the interests and capacities of these pupils has largely to be created. Finally, we would recommend that at least some of the works of a few of the great historians, such as Gibbon and Macaulay, should be available in the school library.

GEOGRAPHY

31. The changes in the content of books on Geography are more general and more complete than those in books on History. The type of book which confines itself to lists of names and summaries of geographical information is ceasing to be produced. In all modern text-books the descriptive portions are concerned less with the provision of mere information and more with the supply of geographical material of a kind and in a form which will help the child to appreciate both the interaction

(1) The Consultative Committee's Report on the Education of the Adolescent (1926), pp. 195-203.


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between geographical and climatic conditions and the influence of such conditions and their interaction upon human effort. In this way imagination and reasoning are called into play more than memory. Even in books for younger children the matter is selected with the same end in view: e.g. the 'tales of other lands' which form such a common feature in these books almost always deal with regions where geographical conditions are in strong contrast with our own, and where, as a consequence, the connection between the habits of people and the geographical environment is striking and easily seen.

So far this is a great improvement, but this change of content has created new problems, and criticism is now directed towards the quantity of suitable illustrations, the adequacy and accuracy of the subject matter, and the extent to which the treatment is scientific.

There appears to be, for younger children, an insufficient supply of suitable pictures, both of the larger kind for class teaching, and of the smaller sort in books for individual use. In this connection we would draw attention to the admirable posters issued from time to time by railway and shipping companies, and by travel agencies generally, and to the many illustrated guide books which may often be obtained at a trifling cost. The agencies of the Dominion Governments, too, have some remarkable photographs of life and scenery in the Dominions, and these might be reproduced in a form suitable for school use. (1) Again, some of the posters published by the Empire Marketing Board (2) are well adapted for use in schools. Nevertheless there are parts of the World for which satisfactory pictures either do not exist or are only to be found in works not usually available for schools. Even such pictures as do exist, especially those included in geography text-books, are not always used in the best way. It was stated, for example, by our witnesses, that in some cases the illustrations had little bearing on the text, and that, in other cases the relation between the two was insufficiently indicated. We are of opinion that great care is needed in the selection of geographical pictures. The pictures should in every case illustrate

(1) cf. Report on the Education of the Adolescent (1926), p. 207.

(2) It is understood that the Empire Marketing Board has made arrangements for the free distribution to schools of reproductions of selected posters. A list of the posters available under this scheme can be obtained on application to the Secretary, Empire Marketing Board, 2 Queen Anne's Gate Buildings, SW1.


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some salient feature. When included in school books, they should amplify definite portions of the text; and each illustration should, if possible, adjoin the relevant text, and its purpose and relation thereto should be made clear.

The use of maps as illustrations was also criticised by many witnesses. It was pointed out that sometimes the maps included in the books are merely inferior reproductions of those which are normally included in school atlases, and that as atlases are now in general use among older children, such maps merely waste space and add to the cost of the book without any compensating advantage. On the other hand there are sketch maps and diagrams which when not too small do much to enliven the text - maps which serve to illustrate some exceptional feature, such as the controlling influence of local peculiarities of configuration, or some special distribution of temperature or rainfall or vegetation or population; and these maps undoubtedly enhance the value of the text and are very interesting to children.

There was much criticism of the inadequacy and inaccuracy of the subject matter in many text-books, and on a first view there appeared to be grounds for the dissatisfaction expressed. At the Imperial Education Conference of 1927, reference was made to this point: and early in the present year specific examples have been alleged of inadequate treatment and misleading statements in some of the text-books dealing with the Dominions. To meet this criticism it might be possible to make some readjustments in the books for the junior children without detriment to a well-balanced view of the world being secured at a later stage. The tales and descriptions of other lands might include a larger proportion of stories dealing with the Dominions since most of the great natural regions of the world are represented within them.

In considering the work of the older children, however, it must be borne in mind that the newer forms of geographical study demand a more extended literary treatment, and this, in itself, while making the books more readable and the subject more educative, reduces the amount of geographical detail which can be incorporated in the text. Moreover, one of the main aims in schools is to give to the pupils a well proportioned view of the World as a whole, however simple the view may be. In doing this it is natural and usual to give the greater


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amount of detail to the Home Country and the Dominions. But all this has to be done at a very small cost. If text-books for the older children treated the various parts of the World, proportionately to their importance, on the scale that seems to be desired, the annual expenditure on geography books alone - allowing for a book a life of six years - would amount to a larger sum per pupil than is allowed for all his books together. It may also be doubted whether, in dealing with such an amount of detail, a child could get his well proportioned view of the World. And it is in overcoming these two difficulties that an author practises elimination to such an extent as to give the appearance of inadequate treatment, with the ensuing possibility of misleading impressions, when the text is viewed in its application to separate areas. A partial solution would appear to be the provision of supplementary books containing first-hand description of other countries and of such areas as have a special significance for British children, in addition to the usual stories of exploration and discovery, of travel and adventure. It might be possible, for example, for the various Dominion Agencies to supply Local Education Authorities with leaflets of descriptive matter to be distributed to the schools, as is already done from time to time in some instances.

The problem of combining adequate detail with a broad view is perhaps best met by books which deal with geography on a regional basis. We were told that there were too few series of books in which this was fully attempted. Yet the whole trend is in that direction, and continents are, in almost all books, treated on a regional basis before the political divisions are taken, though it is important that pupils should know in the end what is the geographical content of the larger and more important political units.

Another criticism was that some books are too scientific in their treatment, the subject matter of such books consisting mainly of data drawn from physical and meteorological phenomena to the exclusion of descriptive detail, with the result that the pupils' work is too strictly confined to reasoning on the data supplied. But such criticism is losing much of its force, since there is a tendency even in this type of book for more explanation and more descriptive matter to be included. It is becoming generally recognised that for pupils over the age of 11 the content should neither be entirely descriptive as


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it is for younger children, nor severely scientific as it is for advanced students, but should be transitional in character, containing a blend of both elements.

In discussing books it is impossible to omit some reference to maps and atlases. It is unnecessary to urge that these should play a leading part in geographical study: the part which they play in many schools is so great that the atlas is probably subjected to greater wear and tear than any other book used by the older children.

So much progress has been made on both the technical and the educational side of map production that it is scarcely possible to exaggerate the importance of making constant use of the atlas. We would also draw the attention of teachers, especially those in rural districts, to the valuable maps issued by the Ordnance Survey. (1) These can be obtained by schools at very cheap rates.

Finally, we return to the question of books for supplementary reading and for reference. We have already referred to the necessity for first-hand material such as books of exploration and discovery, of adventure and travel, and for first-hand descriptions of various parts of the world. There is also another body of material which should be brought to the notice of young people. Since the teaching of geography has so definitely changed and the geographical detail of the World is so rapidly increasing and changing, it has become a matter of first importance that older children should know something of the more accessible sources from which trustworthy information about the various parts of the world can be obtained. We think it is essential that the senior pupils should be familiarised with such publications, as railway and steamship guides, Whitaker's Almanack or the Statesman's Year Book, the Statistical Abstract of Trade, and the material supplied by the various Dominion Agencies. We are not suggesting any ambitious study of these publications, but we regard the knowledge of certain standard sources of information, and the ability to make use of them, as a necessary complement to the general work in geography.

(1) Full particulars respecting these maps can be obtained from the Director General, Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton.


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MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES

32. Reference is necessary to the supply of school books on Modern Languages, though they are not ordinarily taught in Elementary Schools other than selective Modern Schools. It would seem that Modern Schools generally take advantage of the books on modern languages which have been published in large numbers for the use of Grammar Schools. So far as these books consist of easy literature, they are useful independently of the type of school and the length of the course in the language. But it is questionable whether the text-books (1) are always well adapted for the special needs of the modern school, as they usually contemplate a longer course than is possible in such a school, and sometimes presuppose an early age for beginning the language. In view of what we have written on this subject in our Report on The Education of the Adolescent (2) we need not do more here than suggest that there is room for books which envisage a three or a four years' course complete in itself but affording a sound foundation for further study after school, whether in the direction of commerce or of literary study.

ARITHMETIC, ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS, BOOKKEEPING AND COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS

(a) Arithmetic

33. None of our witnesses questioned the need for providing every child, in those classes where fair facility in reading had been acquired, with a book of arithmetical examples covering the work that was being taken. The use of such a book not only economises the time of the teacher, but also relieves him from the necessity of framing examples, sufficient in number, variety, and difficulty, to meet the needs of the children. Great improvements have already been effected in such books in order to meet the demand for a more intelligent treatment of the subject, and some of the most recent books are to a great extent free from the defects mentioned below.

It is still, however, often the case that the arithmetic books leave the teaching of principles and the elucidation of special

(1) That is, the books which contain grammar and exercises in translation and composition.

(2) Pages 210 to 214.


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difficulties wholly to the teacher. The introduction of individual methods of teaching has shown that the inclusion of some explanation of processes is desirable, in order that it may not be wholly impossible for the pupil to inform himself, if for any reason he must on occasion proceed unaided. The need for books containing such explanation is particularly pressing in small schools. Again, the development of sectional teaching in large classes has created a demand for books which contain several sets of graded examples upon each arithmetical principle. Each set would include the various types of example depending upon the principle, but the differing sets should be graded in order of difficulty. This will secure to each section of the class a reasonable amount of practice in computation. Connected with this is the problem of providing books, the contents of which traverse the same ground in arithmetic as the ordinary class book, but in which examples are framed to meet the needs of backward children. It would appear that up to the present little attention has been devoted to the provision of such books.

In addition to the comparative lack of arithmetic books adapted for individual methods of instruction and for sectional class teaching, other more general defects of character were brought to our notice by different witnesses. Attention was called, for example, to the modern tendency to omit from class books of arithmetic almost all exercises involving mere calculation. It would seem, however, that this defect is not so serious as might at first sight appear, since it is not difficult for the teacher to supply examples which involve mechanical work only. Nevertheless, when such exercises are not included in the text-book, there is a danger of this side of the work being overlooked. 'Mental' arithmetic, too, is liable to suffer in the same way, and there seems to be a need for books which include mental exercises designed to afford practice in the application of principles before the exercises involving written work are undertaken. A more serious weakness is the character of the exercises usually provided for revision. They are often inserted only at the end of the book, on the assumption that all the ground has been covered. We think it is essential that 'mixed' exercises for the revision of all previous work should be provided at the intermediate stages of progress in each year's course. No indication should be given of the particular


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operations involved. Moreover, in the framing of tests generally there is ample scope for freshness of expression and application.

Perhaps the most serious criticisms were those directed against the content of the problems and the form in which such problems were stated. We were told by several witnesses that examples were often highly artificial, remote from the experience of children, and expressed in a monotonous way. We understand, however, that much attention is being given to these defects, and that considerable improvements have already been effected in a number of text-books. It is essential that there should be a sense of reality in all the exercises, and that they should be expressed in as varied and as interesting a form as possible. Furthermore, it is perhaps insufficiently recognised that the real difficulties in arithmetical problems are often not difficulties of calculation but difficulties of ideas and language. It is, therefore, most important that every exercise should be stated in clear, simple and unequivocal language. This is perhaps asking much; but if exercises involve ideas which cannot be clearly expressed in a succinct form, they are plainly exercises which should not be included in books designed for school use.

We would also suggest that the writers of arithmetic text-books should bear in mind the definite stage in education which is nowadays expected to be reached by the age of 11+. Formerly each 'standard' in the school had a fixed quantum of work, and it was reasonably certain that a child who passed a particular standard was familiar with certain rules. The modern practice is not only to include in each year's work a certain number of rules for formal treatment in some kind of sequence, but also at each stage to prepare the ground for rules that will come later. The minimum amount that a child should know by the age of 11+ has been set out in more or less general terms in the Board's Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers (page 174, Section 2), and it seems desirable that arithmetic text-books for Junior Schools and Departments should aim chiefly at dealing, simply but thoroughly, with this amount of groundwork in a fairly logical sequence. Interest might be aroused by including a sufficient number of concrete illustrations; and even at this stage practical applications might be introduced, where appropriate, but the premature introduction


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of difficult notions and of involved phraseology in the problems should be avoided.

(b) Elementary Mathematics

There was a great difference of opinion among our witnesses on the question whether separate books should be used for each branch of Elementary Mathematics (i.e. Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry) or whether one book, or series of books, should be provided in which all these branches were combined in one general scheme of instruction. Those who preferred the former type of book found a sufficiently wide range of works available which were suitable in most respects, and in fact such books are generally in use in Grammar Schools. Those who preferred the latter type experienced much difficulty in meeting their requirements. Several of the existing books which professed to deal with elementary mathematics were, they stated, in fact only composite text-books treating the various branches as separate subjects. Whether separate or combined text-books form the most appropriate type seems to us a matter to be settled by individual teachers in accordance with their own preferences, the circumstances of their schools and considerations of expense. It may well be that in large and highly organised Modern Schools, containing pupils of widely varying ages and devoting much time to mathematics, separate text-books are advantageous, but we are disposed to think that in schools where the mathematical bias is less pronounced, or the age range less wide, e.g. in certain Senior Classes and the upper parts of ordinary Elementary Schools, the combined type of book may often possess advantages of its own. We also think that as the text-books will often be used by pupils working to a considerable extent by themselves, sufficient preliminary explanation of new rules and processes should be included to enable the scholar to master them without necessarily calling on the teacher.

(c) Bookkeeping and Commercial Subjects

It would appear that most of the existing text-books on the Elements of Commerce and Bookkeeping that are available for use in Modern Schools and Senior Classes have been written ostensibly for Evening Classes, and in many cases for students considerably above the age of 14 or 15.


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We were informed that the available books on the Elements of Commerce were often useful as offering suggestions to teachers, but that few of them could be described as good class books.

Such books, as a rule, dealt with each department of the commercial world, e.g. import trade, wholesale trade and retail trade, as separate subjects, whereas some teachers felt that with young people the best line of approach was to take a transaction with one specific article and trace it through the various stages. Moreover, the books were often deficient in practical illustrations and applications, and the arithmetical calculations were insufficiently stressed. On the other hand, such calculations as were given often involved the expenditure of too much time on mere computation. Again, much material was included that was easily learnt under office conditions and was unsuitable for pupils still at school. Many of the larger books on Commerce were written for older students, and the subject matter was not always presented in an attractive form. On the whole there would seem to be a paucity of good works of reference on this subject for teachers; though a large number of books have been published dealing with office procedure, correspondence, indexing and the like. On educational grounds, it is open to doubt whether such books are required in schools, as much of the knowledge of the technique of office procedure is more easily acquired in the office itself.

We were informed that many of the existing manuals on Bookkeeping suffer from the following defects:

(i) The principles of bookkeeping are obscured by the multiplicity of accounts and of subsidiary books, and by arithmetical detail.

(ii) The exercises are often too long and involved for young students and for formal lesson periods in day schools.

Our witnesses thought that there was room for a new book which would make the ledger the central point of early lessons, and which would begin with short series of very simple transactions.

NATURE STUDY AND ELEMENTARY SCIENCE

34. There was general agreement among our witnesses that, while there was room in Elementary Schools for good books


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on the rudiments of science, very few such works were at present available. The books for young children dealing with nature study were apt to be dull, uninteresting and overloaded with detail. The assumption often made in them, that children like to have everything in story form or in the shape of a dialogue between an inquiring nephew and an omniscient uncle, was not well founded.

The available evidence indicates that there are very few text-books on science in use in Elementary Schools, and that many of those published are unsuited to school conditions. The conditions obtaining within many of the schools demand unusual initiative on the part of teachers in improvising experiments which can be carried out with simple apparatus. It is understood that many text-books endeavour to impose in miniature the academic standard of Grammar Schools and Universities, or else go to the other extreme and tend to lose the scientific outlook by being too empirical. There should be a savour of discovery both about the demonstration lesson and the practical work carried out by the pupils. We agree with our witnesses in thinking that a good objective for such books on elementary science would be not the logical development of any one branch of science, but a selection from various sciences illustrating the outlook of the scientist, his methods of discovery, and the general effect of such investigations upon human affairs. Although laboratory cards have their use in saving the time of the teacher when he is engaged with a large class making use of miscellaneous apparatus, they cannot serve as an efficient substitute for a text-book. Explanations should not be left solely to the oral work of the teacher, but should also be studied in the printed text. Otherwise, the vocabulary of the pupil tends to become restricted, and the powers of both oral and written expression, which follow from the study of a well written book, remain undeveloped. Such a text-book might usefully contain short suggestive lists of experiments, which many children could carry out at home, and which might be related to common hobbies. We regard it as important that in books on Science intended for use in Public Elementary Schools the different scientific principles should be more freely illustrated from examples and applications that have come, or are likely to come, within the pupil's range of experience. It is also of primary concern that both teaching and text-books in general elementary science should be related as closely as


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possible to the fundamental processes of handicraft, housecraft and school gardening.

Furthermore, in addition to books dealing with the ordinary school course in science, there should be in the libraries, especially for the Senior Schools and Divisions, well written accounts of scientific discovery and invention, which might often be given in the form of biographies placed in proper historical perspective.

The science text-book intended for Modern Schools and Advanced Classes providing a general education, though more advanced in character, should be of the type already indicated as suitable for older pupils, except where a marked industrial or agricultural bias has been introduced in the latter part of the course. Books specifically designed to introduce the necessary technical vocabulary and lines of thought might then with advantage be brought into use.

MUSIC

35. There was general agreement that the supply of suitable books of songs and musical games for infants and for young children between the ages of 8 and 10 was rather scanty and frequently of poor quality. For instance, inferior modern songs taken from newspapers and periodicals, and very mediocre action songs, are still found in use in some Infants' Schools and Departments. On the other hand, we were informed that for older children there is an abundant supply of song books with words, books of exercises in sight reading, and copies of sheet music by good composers. The main difficulty is financial, as some musical material is rather expensive. Several witnesses pointed out that music publishers did not advertise their productions to any great extent among teachers. The consequence was that many teachers were very imperfectly informed regarding the available supply of good music suitable not only for the purpose of teaching singing, but also for marching and dancing, and for incidental use in connexion with school plays, pageants and entertainments. We think, therefore, that musical publishers would be well advised to take steps, in collaboration with Authorities, to make their publications better known among teachers.

It would seem that, whereas in the teaching of most other subjects, each pupil in the class is provided with a separate book, class books of exercises in sight reading are only provided


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in most schools, if at all, in the music lessons for the older children.

Separate books of exercises in sight reading are desirable for pupils of about 9 years of age and upwards, but pupils below that age should be taught from the blackboard. Our witnesses were of opinion that the lack of books largely accounted for the fact that the level of proficiency in sight reading was much lower in many schools than it ought to be, and that the failure to provide separate class books in music was chiefly due to the cost of such books. Yet for adequate musical teaching they are indispensable. We accordingly recommend that separate class books of exercises in sight reading should be provided for each pupil from about the age of 9 onwards.

Some of our witnesses attached importance to the provision of small cheap manuscript books with staves for taking notes on music, in which the children from quite an early age could learn to make notes, rests, clefs, etc., and, as soon as possible, to write simple tunes.

In regard to song books, several witnesses suggested that, if one set each of two good song books with words and music could be requisitioned for a school, one set might be shared between the children in the lower classes and the other set used by the older pupils. In this way a large number of songs might be learnt at a minimum of expense. It was pointed out that editions of songs with words only were not of much value, with the exception of editions of traditional songs, most of which were quickly learnt by ear.

There was general agreement that there was no lack of good reference books on Music for teachers, many of which were suitable for inclusion in the school library.

Several witnesses pointed out that in the book rooms maintained by some Authorities the music section is often a mere untidy repository for scores, good, bad and indifferent. Even in those book rooms where the scores and books on music have been carefully selected and systematically arranged, it often happens that no piano is provided, so that teachers visiting the sample room are unable to try over the various songs, etc.


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We suggest that Local Book List and Book Room Committees, (1) in preparing lists of books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools, should devote special attention to the arrangement and classification of musical scores and books on music, and that care should be taken to display the collection of works on music in the Book Room in an orderly and attractive manner. We think too that the Authority should, where possible, provide a piano in the book room or in some adjacent room, so that teachers might be able to try over songs before making a final selection. Failing this, teachers might be allowed to have the loan of a few books or separate copies of school songs so that they could try them over at home.

DRAWING

36. We agree with most of our witnesses in holding that, where the services of a specialist teacher of Drawing are available, no book is required, so long as the syllabus is confined to the simpler aspects of the subject. We think, however, that a suitably illustrated book on the principles and practice of Drawing, relating it to the curriculum as a whole, and showing in particular its close connections with handicraft, would be of considerable assistance to the non-specialist teacher. We understand from our witnesses that there is at present no book which adequately fulfils this purpose, though there are several works of reference available, which provide information on the technical difficulties that arise in the handling of different media.

There appears to be a place for books both for teachers and for the older pupils dealing with the teaching of Design and its application to artistic crafts. A simple and concise work illustrating the processes involved in the various artistic crafts would in our view be a valuable addition to the school library.

We would suggest that in addition to at least one good book on design in its application to artistic crafts, schools and departments for older pupils should be supplied with a few portfolios of carefully chosen reproductions of simple designs, sketches and pictures by accomplished artists. These can now be obtained at a small cost through various Associations. With the help of such reproductions the teacher would be able to

(1) See Chapter V, Section 68, and Chapter VII, Recommendation No. 42.


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interpret to the children the aims of their own drawings and designs done in association with craft work, and so to connect the necessary elementary exercises of the classroom with the world of art and of outside experience. We also consider it most important that good examples of applied design should be available in Elementary Schools where, as is often the case, drawing and handwork (including needlework and embroidery) are carefully correlated.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION

37. There seemed to be general agreement among our witnesses that there is still a wide field for good books bearing on the various branches of practical instruction. The allowance for school books in general has been so small (1) that teachers frequently have been able or willing to requisition works only for the principal subjects in the curriculum, and the specialist handbooks and books of reference in practical subjects have fared badly in the competition. A small collection of special books bearing on the branches of practical instruction given should form an integral part of the normal equipment of Centres for Handwork or Housecraft, and in any case provision should be made in the school libraries for books both for teachers and pupils bearing on the subjects of practical instruction taken in the school. The more expensive works might be provided in co-operation with the Urban and County Libraries. (2) It is hardly necessary to say that in Modern Schools, and pre-eminently in those with a practical bias, special provision should be made for the supply of books directly and indirectly connected with these subjects.

We are glad to note in the statistics furnished to us by the Publishers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland which are printed in Appendix VI, that increasing attention is being devoted to the production of books on Practical Subjects. Besides the provision of special books dealing with the practical processes of each craft, the books co-ordinating handwork and needlework with art, and gardening with nature study, are, if possible, of even greater educational importance.

(a) Handwork

For teachers and for pupils who have mastered the rudiments of Handwork books should be available containing good examples of design in craft work, e.g. the illustrated

(1) See Chapter III, Section 49.

(2) See Chapter IV passim.


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catalogues of the Victoria and Albert Museum (1) in woodwork and metalwork. Children who are well taught can often master the elements of the technique of a simple craft in less than a year. During the next year or more the time is devoted to the free making of objects, and for these designs are necessary. An intelligent child, if he were given one or more good books of reference should be able to take from them ideas for a piece of work. Taste in design should be cultivated by seeing good examples in art and craft. In this way a child might be trained to model his work on good traditional lines.

(b) Needlework

Only a few books designed for the use of the pupils themselves have been written, but we consider it desirable that the school library should contain at least a few volumes dealing with the various aspects of needlework. These books would be primarily for the use of the teacher, but the older girls should also become familiar with them before they leave school. Periodicals and magazines on needlecraft and embroidery afford a useful means of keeping the teachers in touch with modern developments.

We would suggest that at least one such periodical should be included in the school library. Most of the existing books on Art and Design are rather large and comparatively expensive. A few of these books might, however, be purchased for the school libraries of Modern Schools for Girls, and of other schools where special attention is devoted to needlecraft.

(c) Housecraft

When Housecraft was first included in the school curriculum, no suitable books were available for the use of pupils. Methods of teaching in the Centres were based on the assumption that no help from books would be forthcoming, and girls accordingly spent an undue proportion of time in making notes, e.g. of recipes in cooking and of methods used in carrying out the different processes of the subjects included under the term housecraft. This traditional method of teaching still persists in a large majority of cases, in spite of the fact that good text-books on cookery, laundry and housewifery can now be procured at a very reasonable cost, and would be a valuable

(1) See page 22.


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aid to the instruction. We are strongly of opinion that girls should be trained, before they leave school, to follow printed directions in all household subjects.

The necessity in every Housecraft Centre for a supply of reference books of a wider range, suitable both for teachers and pupils, is emphasised in the Board's Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers (page 384). It is most desirable that some of these books should contain an adequate treatment of hygiene in its bearing on housecraft.

(d) Gardening

Our witnesses were of opinion that the school library, especially in rural areas, should contain a number of works of reference on Gardening and allied topics for the use of teachers and children, and especially of books which indicate lines of observation and experiment, and aim at stimulating and arousing interest in the countryside and in living plants and animals. In such a library there ought to be included carefully selected books on plants, insects, birds and beasts of the countryside, familiar wild flowers, and simple plant experiments; books on soils; books on the culture of flowers, fruit, and vegetables; the sectional volumes of collected leaflets published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries; and illustrated catalogues issued by nurserymen, seedsmen, and makers of garden appliances. A gardening periodical is also a useful addition to the library of a country school, and in Modern Schools and Advanced Classes in rural areas a few books on modern methods of agriculture might find a place in the collection.

PHYSICAL TRAINING

38. The various publications of the Board of Education on the subject of Physical Exercises and Games for Elementary Schools, including the Memorandum on Physical Education, and the Supplement for older girls, containing descriptions of the exercises appropriate for pupils above the age of 14, appear to cover the ground adequately, at any rate for the present. There are many publications, periodical and other, which contain helpful articles on school games. For open-air activities other than games there is a useful pamphlet published by the Board entitled Notes on Camping.


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HYGIENE

39. We do not think that a separate book on Hygiene is required for pupils in Elementary Schools. The Board has recently issued a Handbook on Health Education intended for the use of teachers.

C: The supply of Welsh books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools in the bi-lingual districts of Wales

40. Sections 185 to 195 of the Report on Welsh in Education and Life, issued by the Departmental Committee on Welsh in September 1927, deal with the question of educational books in the Welsh Language.

The recommendations in the Report constitute a definite body of principles in organisation and method, and in the selection and provision of equipment for the teaching of the native language. Wales is divided in the Report into three types of district, and for each type a definite organisation of language teaching is suggested:

(a) Districts in which the population is predominantly Welsh speaking.
(b) Districts in which there is a fairly strong proportion of Welsh speakers, the rest of the population being of English descent or of Welsh descent but speaking English only.
(c) Districts where English greatly preponderates or where English is the sole language.

In districts (a) and (c) the Departmental Committee recommend that the mother tongue should be the sole medium of instruction in Infants' Schools and Departments, and that no second language should be introduced at this stage. As the pupil passes through the Senior Departments of the Elementary Schools in the predominantly Welsh speaking districts (a), the Welsh language, though always retaining a prominent place in the curriculum, should be replaced gradually by English, which should be used increasingly as a medium of instruction. Where the policy of the Local Education Authority for schools in the more anglicised areas in districts of type (b), and for schools in districts of type (c), is in favour of teaching Welsh, the time and attention given to English in upper classes should be progressively reduced in favour of Welsh.

In brief, it may be said that the general aim is to secure bi-lingualism in varying degrees in the Elementary Schools


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throughout Wales - with some qualification in respect of those in Radnorshire, South Pembrokeshire and Monmouthshire.

Many teachers complained of the lack of suitable Welsh books, not only for language teaching, but in other subjects - geography, history, nature study. Special attention was drawn to the serious deficiency of supplementary reading books for Elementary Schools.

The publishers drew attention to the economic difficulties of publishing Welsh books, due to restricted demand (1) and to the problem of supplying three types of book: (i) those with subject matter and vocabulary suitable for a child of the age of 7; (ii) those with subject matter suitable for a child of the age of 9 and upwards, but written in the vocabulary of a child of the age of 7 for use in bi-lingual areas; (iii) those with subject matter suitable for a child of the age of 11, but written in the vocabulary of a child of 7, for use in anglicised areas. At present, to quote the words of the Report, 'Where the matter is suitable, the language is often too difficult, and where the language is easy, the matter tends at times to be puerile and even babyish'. It was agreed that there had been a steady improvement in the number, character and printing of Welsh books since the [First World] War.

The Welsh Branches of the Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools considered that the form of Welsh books was, on the whole, unsatisfactory, and the range of subjects covered by them unduly limited, though there had been some improvement of late years. The Union of Welsh Teachers (Undeb Athrawon Cymreig) suggested that references to Wales in history and geography books written in English were often crude and inadequate, and in some cases incorrect. The Union urged that books should be published giving an adequate place to the geography, history, literature, mythology and folk tales of Wales.

Section 190 of the Report on Welsh in Education and Life states that some of the chief needs of Senior Departments of Elementary Schools and of Secondary Schools are:

(1) i.e. on account of (a) the general practice of circulating Welsh reading books from County Libraries for use as supplementary 'readers' in schools instead of buying such books directly for the schools, and (b) the tendency to purchase three or four copies of a book instead of a number sufficient for a whole class.


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'(a) Class Readers for all Standards of Elementary Schools;
(b) Literary readers for lower forms;
(c) Books on the 'Direct Method' for use in teaching Welsh to non-Welsh-speaking pupils;
(d) Books on Welsh Composition;
(e) Books for general reading, of interest to boys and girls, especially romances, novels, and books of adventure. Translations of the best English and foreign books for boys and girls;
(f) More anthologies of prose and poetry suitable for various grades, and edited for schools, on the lines of Telyn y Dydd, Caniadau Cymru and Cywyddau Cymru, but with notes and vocabularies;
(g) More school editions of Welsh Classics, with introductions and notes, particularly of those books which are at present out of print;
(h) Biographies of eminent Welshmen and Welshwomen, suitable for schools;
(i) Books on Hygiene, Physical Culture and Domestic Science.'
Section 191 of the Report draws attention to the importance of a uniform system of orthography and the need for a serviceable Welsh Dictionary in Welsh, and suggests that 'a Welsh dictionary in Welsh compiled on the lines of the Petit Larousse would be a great boon to Welsh classes'.

In a later Section, the Report draws attention to an excellent monthly publication called Cymru'r Plant (The Children's Welsh Magazine), with which is issued an illustrated supplement for very young children. The Report says, 'This is a step in the right direction, and we recommend that reading books of this type be provided for infant classes'.

The suggestions about Welsh school books made to us by our witnesses and by the various organisations of Elementary and Secondary Teachers in Wales were, on the whole, of the same tenor as those made in the Report on Welsh in Education and Life.

The principal recommendations in the Report, which bear directly on the subject of our present Reference, are as follows:


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(i) 'That the University Press Board act as an Advisory Publication Board to guide publishers and to encourage authors in the publication and production of Welsh books for children' (Section 195, and recommendation 15 of the Report).

(ii) 'That each Authority have a complete, up-to-date, and carefully graded Specimen Library of Welsh text-books, reading books, and apparatus, available for inspection by teachers or parents, and that teachers be kept constantly informed of recent additions' (Section 114, and recommendation 38 of the Report).

(iii) 'That Authorities pay very much greater attention to the question of School Libraries in general, and particularly to the provision of Welsh books in school libraries' (Sections 193 and 369, and recommendation 40 of the Report).

(iv) 'That a supplementary allowance be made by each Authority for the provision of books and equipment for the teaching of Welsh'. (Sections 114 and 193, and recommendation 39 of the Report).

We cordially support the general principles for the improvement of the supply and quality of Welsh school books put forward in the Report. The Report will doubtless stimulate the interest of Welsh schools in the study of the native language. This should produce an increased demand for Welsh books; and publishers will be encouraged to adopt more adequate, and extensive schemes. We desire, especially, to record our opinion that the existence of the bi-lingual problem in Public Elementary Schools in Wales warrants the provision by Welsh education authorities of more generous grants for books for Public Elementary Schools than have hitherto been customary.


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CHAPTER III

THE PRACTICE AND METHODS OF LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES IN RESPECT OF THE PROVISION OF BOOKS FOR PUPILS AND TEACHERS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

(i) THE PROBLEM OF THE PROVISION OF BOOKS FOR SCHOOLS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITY

41. Among the duties of Local Education Authorities incidental to maintaining Public Elementary Schools, few are more important than the provision of an adequate supply of suitable school books and works of reference for teachers and pupils. (1) The immediate problem which confronts each Education Authority is to supply the Public Elementary Schools in its area at a reasonable cost with a sufficient number of such books adapted to the special needs of each individual school or department. In most areas it is recognised that the final choice of books must rest with the head teacher, subject to any financial limitations which the Authority may find it necessary to impose. We discuss below in Chapter V the best method of securing to teachers the greatest possible freedom of choice, while at the same time affording them, without unnecessary interference, as much assistance as possible in making their choice. In the present chapter we consider the problem from the purely administrative point of view, especially in its financial bearings.

(ii) FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE PROVISION OF BOOKS AND OTHER ITEMS OF SCHOOL SUPPLY

42. We have collected from a number of representative Local Education Authorities data regarding the administrative arrangements for the provision of books in Public Elementary Schools. Apparently the commonest method of controlling expenditure on school supplies, including books, is the adoption

(1) See Chapter I, pp. 14-17, and Chapter IV, p. 69.


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of a scale of capitation allowances. In many cases this scale is highly differentiated to meet the special needs of different types of school and department. (1) Frequently, however, it consists only of two fixed allowances, a lower one for infant departments and a higher one for departments of older children. (2) Although it is generally recognised that a larger capitation allowance may be required for small schools, their particular needs are not reflected in such a scale. Nor does the scale always make special provision for Modern Schools and Advanced Classes, probably because in many areas their requirements have not yet been clearly defined. In Appendix II we give details based on information furnished by a number of typical Authorities regarding scales at present in use.

Authorities, however, do not always confine their expenditure strictly to scale allowances. Often, by some method or other, they provide supplementary grants to meet special circumstances. By this means the permanent needs of small schools, of schools in poor districts, and of Modern Schools and Advanced Classes are frequently met; as also are the temporary requirements of schools. (3) Thus, supplementary allowances may be made when a new school is stocked for the first time, or when a new method of teaching is adopted, or when a newly appointed head teacher wishes to make changes in organisation.

In some cases the capitation grant is assessed upon the number of children on the register, (4) but more often upon the average attendance. When the latter method is adopted, it becomes increasingly important to take into account the special circumstances of individual schools.

Another method chosen by a few Authorities is to base their estimates on a fixed amount per head for all pupils on the registers of schools within their area, and to apportion this estimate according to the varying circumstances of the schools. In a few instances, separate scales and limits are fixed for books, stationery and apparatus respectively.

On the other hand, the available information indicates that a considerable number of Authorities have no capitation allowances. In several of these areas, however, it would

(1) e.g. Appendix II, No. 2, p. 131, and Appendix III, p.143.

(2) e.g. Appendix II, No. 15, p.139.

(3) e.g. Appendix II, No. 1, p.130, and No. 9, p.135.

(4) e.g. Appendix II, No. 3, p.132.


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appear that scales of allowances which are not communicated to head teachers have, in fact, been drawn up for use in the office.

It was pointed out that the practice of fixing inclusive allowances for books, stationery and apparatus safeguarded an Authority against any possible accusation of according preferential treatment to any one school. Under this system also the head teacher knew that his resources were relatively equal to those of his colleagues who were doing similar work, and that it must be his object to utilise those resources to the same advantage. Furthermore, the total sum of money expended in the area as a whole under this system varied only slightly from year to year, might be accurately estimated, and was not so liable to drastic reduction at a time of financial pressure.

We agree with the majority of our witnesses that in practice the most satisfactory method for regulating expenditure on books is for the Authority to fix a scale of inclusive allowances for books, stationery and apparatus, with a special fund to meet particular circumstances. (1)

As regards the two types of school which we call 'small schools' and Modern Schools, we think that the satisfaction of their particular needs should not be entirely dependent upon supplementary contributions from a special fund. In using the term 'small school' as applying to all schools and departments which have an average attendance of less than 150 pupils, we are including under the term the great majority of schools and departments in England and Wales. Such schools are indeed eight times as numerous as those with an average attendance of over 350. (2) Our witnesses explained that, as a rule, the cost per head of equipping a small school or department adequately with the works of reference required for the school library was higher than for a large school. It was also pointed out that in small schools taking children of all ages, it was necessary to provide a wide range of class

(1) This corroborates the policy of those authorities which provide for such marginal expenditure as a contingency item in their estimates. Though the need for special grants will vary from year to year in individual schools, the amount of the special fund itself may remain reasonably constant for the area as a whole.

(2) On 31 March 1927 there were 30,773 departments in Public Elementary Schools in England and Wales. Of these, 16,518 had an average attendance of not over 150, and there were 2,041 with an average attendance of over 350.


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books for the various small groups of pupils of different ages. Since the available evidence thus points to the fact that the provision of books in small schools, and particularly those for children of all ages, costs more per head than in large schools, we are of opinion that they, in common with Modern Schools, should have their particular needs reflected in a special scale or scales.

(iii) THE BOOK ITEM IN EDUCATION ACCOUNTS; REQUISITIONING OF BOOKS; THE QUESTION OF A FIXED GRANT FOR BOOKS

43. Under the existing practice, expenditure on school books is included in the general expenditure on school supplies. We have been much impressed in the course of our inquiry with the difficulty which most Authorities have in separating the expenditure on books (1) from that incurred on stationery and other articles of educational equipment. (2) We fully recognise that the expenditure per head on books must often vary considerably from area to area according to the schemes of work in use in various types of elementary school and according to local conditions, but we nevertheless consider it most important that each Authority should know what it is spending per head on books in the various types of school. We are also of the opinion that the various items in the official form of Education Account which are at present included under the general

(1) For the purposes of this inquiry the expression 'books' has been regarded as including primers, leaflets, instruction cards, picture cards, text-books, atlases and the like, but as excluding stationery, wall maps, wall pictures and other educational equipment.

(2) In the official form of 'Education Account' prescribed by the Ministry of Health for the presentation of accounts to the Board of Education, 'books and stationery' are combined under one heading, 'furniture, apparatus and equipment' being another item. There is considerable diversity of practice as to what is included under 'books and stationery'.
Some Authorities regard the term as being almost synonymous with 'consumable stores'. They accordingly include in this item of account needlework material, maps, small apparatus for infant schools, materials for science, art, handicraft and domestic teaching, as well as registers, baskets, inkwells, map hooks, thermometers and even blackboards and easels. The item 'furniture, apparatus and equipment' in this case will comprise school supplies of a more permanent character, such as cupboards, desks, tables and chairs.
Other Authorities, however, consider some or all of the above small supplies as being 'apparatus', and include them in their accounts under 'furniture, apparatus and equipment'.


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headings of 'books and stationery' and 'furniture, apparatus and equipment' should be more finely discriminated.

We recognise that any change in the existing arrangements for keeping accounts might involve considerable trouble and possibly also some small additional expense. On the other hand it is evident that without knowledge of the amount spent per child on books in schools of different types, as distinct from the sums expended on other items of educational equipment, it is difficult for Authorities effectively to control the book supply. It will be specially difficult to identify schools which for several years in succession may have asked for supplies of books totally inadequate to meet a minimum standard of efficiency according to modern requirements.

We accordingly recommend (a) that Authorities should revise the methods of keeping their accounts so that expenditure on books for Public Elementary Schools should be shown as a distinct item of expenditure (1) and (b) that the Board of Education and the Ministry of Health should be asked to confer with authorities as to the possibility of modifying the existing official form of Education Account in such a way as to obtain uniformity of practice, and to secure greater precision, by presenting separately and in greater detail some of the items now included under the two general headings 'Books and Stationery' and 'Furniture, Apparatus and Equipment'.

44. A large number of Authorities issue a printed requisition form to their teachers on which they are asked to submit requests for supplies of books, stationery and educational apparatus of all kinds. Many of our witnesses have insisted that in requisition forms a distinction should be made (as is already done in those issued by several Authorities) between (a) articles that schools occasionally require, such as laboratory apparatus, large wall maps, special material for needlework, blackboards etc, and (b) articles of a type that all schools require every year, such as books and stationery. If the requisition form were not clearly divided under these two heads, any statistics based on it would be useless, inasmuch as the purchase of a large blackboard, for example, might cost a small school from 1s to 3s [5p to 15p] per head and dislocate very notably the distribution of expenditure on books and other

(1) This may not always be found practicable in the case of Departments for Infants only.


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articles. We consider it desirable that the requisition forms should be framed in this way; such an arrangement will enable an Authority to work out the average cost of different classes of articles for schools of the same size; and such figures might be used, if necessary, as a basis for checking proposed expenditure under different heads in individual schools of varying types, e.g. if a head teacher sent in a requisition form proposing 3d. per head for books, in an area where the average figure for similar schools was 2s 6d [12½p], there would clearly be a case for enquiry. Several witnesses gave instances in which schools had ordered no books for several years, and in which the authorities concerned had nevertheless made no inquiry as to the reason. (1)

We therefore recommend that Local Education Authorities should provide a separate requisition form for school books.

45. While, however, we recognise the desirability of isolating in the accounts of an Authority its expenditure on school books, and also of issuing a separate requisition form, we are not satisfied that it is equally desirable to establish a fixed grant for school books apart from the general grant for school supplies. Serious practical objections were urged by some witnesses against such a system of fixed grants for books only. An inelastic system, they said, would not afford opportunity for dealing with special cases, where, for instance, it was found desirable in a given year to spend more on educational apparatus and other items, and less on books. Moreover, methods of teaching affected the demand. Some teachers required more stationery; others, more books. Most of our witnesses, however, thought that teachers were seldom disposed to spend too much money on books. In fact, there was rather a risk, particularly in rural areas, that they might not spend enough. Some witnesses accordingly urged that in

(1) We have received from one large Authority a form which is really a small stock book covering four years. Under various headings of 'Literary Readers', 'Continuous Readers', 'Geography Readers', 'History Readers', 'Nature Readers', 'Poetry Books', 'Arithmetic Books', 'Music Books and Charts', and other 'Printed Books', it contains a record of the books in the school, their date of requisition, and their condition. The form is kept posted up by the head teacher, and is sent each year to the education office with the requisition for books, so that the needs of the school may be more clearly seen by the inspector who deals with the requisition. The use of such a form would bring to light such cases as we mention.


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areas where for years past the expenditure on books had been low, it might be advisable that the Authority, while not establishing a separate maximum for books, should specify a minimum sum per head to be spent on books only. With this proposal we agree.

(iv) OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS: SCRUTINY OF REQUISITIONS; STOCK BOOKS; TRANSFER OF SCHOOL BOOKS

(a) Scrutiny of Requisitions

46. The arrangements adopted by various Authorities for dealing with requisitions for books sent in by head teachers vary considerably. Requests for books from teachers in non-provided schools are frequently sent in the first instance to the Managers, who may, if they think fit, modify the list before forwarding it to the Local Education Authority. In some areas the requests for books and other educational material are dealt with by the Director or Secretary for Education. In other areas, especially those of Authorities for Elementary Education only, the Education Committee consider in full committee all requisitions for books submitted by teachers. Requests for books and other educational material are often scrutinised by the local organising inspectors or inquiry officers, and whenever a request for books is submitted which appears to be open to criticism, these officers of the Authority frequently suggest to the head teacher the names of books that would be more suitable for his purpose. Requisition forms sometimes have to be signed or countersigned by the local inspectors, who frequently confer with the head teachers regarding the choice of books and the completion of the forms. The consideration of the requisitions for school supplies, including books, is often delegated to minor officials. Our witnesses stated that some of these officials were apt to consider such requisitions from the financial aspect only, and were sometimes disposed to cut down requisitions for books that might well, on careful examination, prove to be the irreducible minimum required for efficient teaching. We were told, for instance, that in some areas it was the practice to return to head teachers all requisitions over the limit allowed by the Authority, but not those that were below the limit. It was stated that the effect of the last-mentioned practice was to discourage teachers


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from spending up to the limit. In this connection, several witnesses suggested that, if it were really necessary to cut down a requisition for books, it should always be returned to the head teacher to make an adjustment in the manner least harmful to the school. In the light of the available evidence, we recommend that, apart from considerations of cost (to which due regard must be paid), the scrutiny of requisition forms for books should be conducted solely from the educational point of view. The needs of each individual school, and any special local circumstances, should be taken into account. In cases where it seems necessary to cut down a requisition for books the list should be returned to the head teacher to make the adjustment needed in the manner least detrimental to the work of the school.

(b) Stock Books

47. It is usual to keep stock books in which all the books received at the school are entered. Several witnesses, however, stated that where such stock books are kept, they are often little more than chronological lists of books, stationery and other educational material delivered at the school. Our witnesses held that for discovering the facts about the supply of books in any individual school the most satisfactory plan was to sub-divide the stock book entries so as to enable articles of similar type to be entered consecutively, with the date of requisition or of supply. It was urged that a stock book kept on this system was particularly valuable in respect of school books, as it was thus possible to see at a glance a list of all the books in stock available at any date for each of the classes in the school, and to judge of their sufficiency, suitability and range. (1)

We agree with the views of our witnesses on this point, and we recommend that school stock books should be so arranged as to render it possible to enter consecutively under heads of subjects school books and works of reference as distinct from apparatus.

(c) Transfer of School Books

48. Many of our witnesses, especially teachers in rural schools, were of opinion that much good might result from an organised system of transferring to other schools text-books and general

(1) See also footnote on page 62, describing a form of small stock book for school books alone, which is posted up by the head teacher and sent by him to the office with his annual book requisition.


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reading books which for various reasons were no longer in use in any particular school. We obtained information from a number of Authorities regarding their practice in the matter. Many Authorities have not made any general arrangements for the transfer of books, but such transfers are sometimes arranged between two departments of one school or between neighbouring schools. Other Authorities told us that the transfer of books is now only occasionally attempted. In one county the books are returned to store at the head office and re-issued. In other cases again arrangements are made through the Education Committee's district secretaries for the transfer or exchange of books in particular districts. In a large county borough, though a systematic transfer of books from one school to another has not been arranged, books in a serviceable condition are collected from time to time from school departments in which they are no longer required, brought to the central stores department, and reissued to schools as opportunity occurs.

While we recognise that the transfer of surplus school books must sometimes take place, if waste of money is to be avoided, we do not think it a desirable practice as an ordinary means for the supply of books. We do not, however, intend that this observation should be understood as applying to the various arrangements for circulating sets of general reading books to schools in urban and county areas, which are described in Chapter IV.

(v) EXPENDITURE ON BOOKS FOR PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

49. We sent a questionnaire to fifty-seven representative Local Education Authorities asking them, inter alia, to furnish particulars regarding the actual expenditure on school books for Public Elementary Schools for the years ending 31 March 1925, 1926 and 1927 respectively. Most of these Authorities, owing to the system of accounts at present in use, (1) were not in a position to differentiate between expenditure on books and that on stationery and other consumable material. Twenty-three Authorities, however, were able to supply us with information about their expenditure on books in Modern (Central) Schools (including schools giving courses of advanced

(1) See Section 43.


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instruction). Senior Schools or Divisions, Junior Schools or Departments, Infants' Schools or Departments, and small schools taking in one department children of all ages up to that of 14. (1) Several of these Authorities have furnished information under the five heads on the basis of expenditure in a few typical schools or departments. Although the averages, which we give below, are not the result of a complete survey, they nevertheless throw some light on the approximate expenditure incurred on the provision of books for the main types of elementary school and department.

For the areas concerned we find that the average annual sum per pupil spent on books over the financial years 1924-25, 1925-26 and 1926-27, was 4s 11.6d [25p] in Modern (Central) Schools (including schools providing 'courses of advanced instruction'); 2s 0.9d [10p] in Senior Schools or Divisions; 1s. 9.1d [9p] in Junior Schools or Departments; 0s 6.8d [3p] in Infant Schools or Departments; and 1s 9.2d [9p] in small schools taking in one department pupils of all ages to that of 14+.

Further, it appears that the average annual expenditure on books alone in these main types of school and department taken as a whole, in the areas of the twenty-three Authorities in question, was approximately 1s 8d [8p] per pupil. (2) The statistics supplied to us by the Board of Education show that the gross expenditure on 'books and stationery' (3) in Public Elementary Schools in England and Wales during the financial year 1925-26 was 5s 7d [28p] per pupil.

Even though it is not possible to ascertain the precise amount spent on books alone in Public Elementary Schools in England and Wales, it seems almost certain that the amount would represent less than one per cent of the total expenditure per child incurred in maintaining Public Elementary Schools. (4)

(1) In Appendix IV a tabular statement is given showing the average amount spent on school books per child in the several types of school in the twenty-three areas. It will be seen from the table that the range of variation between the Authorities is considerable.

(2) See Appendix IV. Under the existing system whereby books remain the property of the Local Education Authority, the 'life' of a book must be taken into account. The average expenditure per pupil should be multiplied by four or five, or by whatever other figure may be taken as representing the average number of years during which a book is used in the school. (See Chapter VI, p. 104.)

(3) See footnote 2 on p. 60.

(4) The net expenditure per child on Elementary Education in England and Wales during 1924-25, was 11 13s 2d [11.66]; during 1925-26 11 15s 10d [11.79]; and during 1926-27, 11 16s 8d [11.83].


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Throughout our investigation, we have constantly borne in mind the need for economical administration, but we are deeply convinced of the necessity in many areas for a more liberal supply of books in general, and, in many specific instances, for the provision of school books of better educational quality. (1) It is our profound sense of the necessity of such an improvement in the book supply that has driven us to make suggestions which involve an increased expenditure on books. There can be no doubt that in many areas the amount allowed for books in different types of school is seriously inadequate. We accordingly recommend that Local Education Authorities should look afresh into the whole question of the supply of books in the Public Elementary Schools, and, where necessary, take appropriate steps to increase the total allowances granted for school supplies, and to ensure that any additional sums thus made available may be used for providing the schools adequately with books suited to their special needs.


(1) The 'quality' of school books is discussed in Chapter II, Sections 24-40 passim.


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CHAPTER IV

SCHOOL LIBRARIES AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES

50. So far we have been considering the supply of books as provided by the Local Education Authorities for pupils and teachers in their schools. We have now to deal with the Public Libraries, both in urban areas and in counties, which have now become a factor of enormous importance in the education of the childhood and youth of Great Britain.

We discuss in this chapter the various ways in which Urban Public Libraries and County Libraries can be used, and in many areas are used, to provide or to supplement the supply of books bearing on the curriculum of Public Elementary Schools. The libraries also afford special facilities, both in the way of reading and borrowing books, to pupils attending such schools. For reasons of convenience we have also included in this chapter sections dealing with school libraries within Elementary Schools and with collections of works of reference for teachers in Public Libraries and elsewhere. It is desirable, in order to avoid misunderstanding, to state that by 'School Library' we mean a collection of books housed within an Elementary School for the use of teachers and scholars. By 'Education Library' or 'Teachers' Reference Library' we mean a collection of works of reference on the teaching of the various subjects of the Elementary School curriculum, and books on the History of Education, Methods of Teaching, Child Psychology and the like, intended primarily for the use of teachers in Elementary Schools. Before describing in detail the ways in which Urban Public Libraries and County Libraries can co-operate with Local Education Authorities in supplying or augmenting stocks of books for the use of scholars in Elementary Schools, it is necessary to give a brief account of the Urban Library and the County Library services, which, owing to the varying conditions under which the two systems have developed, present important points of difference, partly as a result of the provisions of the Public Libraries Act of 1919, and partly in consequence of the peculiar conditions obtaining in rural areas.

51. In the following sections of this chapter we deal with the financial questions involved in co-operation between Local


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Education Authorities and Public Libraries in urban and county areas. It is convenient, however, to state here that under the Education Acts the responsibility for the provision of books required to maintain the efficiency of the school devolves on the Local Education Authority. We cordially approve close co-operation between the Local Education Authorities and Public Library Committees in urban areas, and between the education service and the library service in County areas, but we hope that in cases where the Public Library at the request of the Local Education Authority provides books connected with the school curriculum to Elementary Schools, or where the machinery of the Public Library is used for the distribution to Elementary Schools of books bearing on the curriculum, the cost of these services will be met by a contribution from the Education Fund to the Library Fund.

THE URBAN AND COUNTY LIBRARY SERVICES

52. The Urban Library Service. In County Boroughs, Boroughs and Urban Districts a large number of Public Libraries have been in existence for many years, and the Reading and Reference Departments usually form a prominent feature of their work. Most County Libraries, on the other hand, as they have to cater for scattered rural areas, consist almost wholly of small local Lending Departments, which are for the most part housed in Elementary Schools, but receive their supplies of books from the county central depot.

The relations of Urban Councils to their library business vary widely. In the present state of the law, a County Borough Council, if it was not a Library Authority when the Public Libraries Act of 1919 was passed, must, and if it was such an Authority on that date, may or may not, as it elects, refer its library business to the Education Committee. Borough Councils and Urban District Councils cannot refer their library business to their Education Committees, even though under Sections 31 (b) and (c) of the Education Act 1921, they may possess statutory Committees for the purposes of Elementary Education. In a large number of urban areas close co-operation between the Public Libraries Committee and the Education Committee has been secured by arranging that these committees have a certain number of members in common.


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There are four main functions which Urban Public Libraries can and in many areas do perform in respect of the provision of books bearing directly on the school curriculum, or of books suitable for general reading by scholars of Public Elementary Schools, and of works of reference for teachers.

(i) The Public Library, by arrangement with the Education Committee and the head teachers, supplies sets of books for specified periods to Elementary Schools for general class reading by the pupils. Such sets of books are intended to supplement the ordinary class books in use in the school. (See section 57 (a)).

(ii) The Public Libraries Committee by arrangement with the Education Committee supplies permanent or circulating school libraries to some or all of the Elementary Schools or Departments within the area. (See section 56 (a)).

(iii) Many Public Libraries provide within the building special facilities for children, e.g. a distinct Junior Library; a separate Juvenile Reading Room; or a portion of the ordinary Reading Room reserved for children. A considerable number of Urban Libraries have also separate Juvenile Lending Departments and publish separate catalogues of books suitable for children. (See section 58).

(iv) The Public Library maintains in many cases a special section of books bearing on Education, primarily intended for the use of teachers. (See section 60).

53. The County Library Service. The Public Libraries Act of 1919, which first rendered it legal for County Councils to become Public Library Authorities and to raise a rate for the purpose of library administration, provides that in Counties all matters relating to the exercise by the County Council of its powers under the Public Libraries Acts, except the power of raising a rate or borrowing money, shall stand referred to the Education Committee, and the County Council shall, except in case of urgency, receive and consider the Report of the Education Committee with respect to the matter in question. The County Education Committee may delegate all or any of the powers conferred on it under the Public Libraries Acts to a sub-committee consisting either in whole, or in part, of members of the Education Committee. (1)

(1) Public Libraries Act 1919 (9 and 10 Geo. 5. Ch. 93.) Section 3 (1) and (2).


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Between 1916 and the passing of the Public Libraries Act in 1919, ten Counties in England and Wales had accepted grants from the Carnegie United Kingdom Trustees, which enabled them to establish County Libraries, though at that time they had no legal authority for this purpose, and possessed no funds for maintenance, except the Carnegie grants and any other voluntary donations. In nearly all these cases, the local library centres were situated in Public Elementary Schools, and the local librarians were head teachers. This precedent has in great part been retained and followed; it is still largely through the local centres in schools that the County Library service operates, (1) and for our present purpose this close association between Local Education Authorities and County Libraries is of great advantage. The development of Women's Institutes and Village Halls in many county areas has to some extent offered alternative opportunities for older readers, and this holds much promise for the future of adult education.

County Libraries have now been established under the Public Libraries Act of 1919 in nearly all the County areas of England and Wales, though some Counties have adopted the system as yet for part of their areas only. (2) Most County

(1) The following statistics in respect of county libraries, printed in Table XIV on page 245 of the Report on Public Libraries in England and Wales (1927) (Cmd. 2868), show clearly that most of the local centres for the distribution of books in county areas are housed in schools.

County Libraries - Number of Centres for Distribution of books:

19241925
Schools3,7014,975
Other Centres7741,380
Total4,4756,355

(2) cf. Report of Public Libraries Committee (1927) (Cmd. 2868), page 99, Section 298.
'Under the Public Libraries Act of 1919, however, a county can adopt the Act for part of its area; and it does not necessarily follow that it serves the whole area for which it adopts the Acts. The majority have included within their resolutions the whole of their area, so far as it was not an 'existing library area' within the meaning of Section 10 of the Public Libraries Act 1919. Berkshire, Cheshire, Essex, Glamorgan, Gloucester, Middlesex, Northumberland, Nottingham, Oxford, Stafford, Warwick, Wiltshire, Worcester, Yorkshire (East Riding) and Yorkshire (North Riding) in adopting the Acts have excluded certain areas. We have proposed in Chapter I with a view to completing the library provision in England and Wales, that every county council should now be constituted a library authority for the whole of its area, so far as it is not already covered.'


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Libraries consist of a central collection of books, from which selections of books are periodically distributed to the different local centres throughout the area. With the help of the Central Library for Students the central depot also as a rule lends particular works required by individual readers; and in addition permanent collections of selected books are gradually being built up in the local centres. The system is primarily designed to serve areas that possess no libraries, or areas of which the libraries need to be supplemented by loans from a larger central collection. The provision of libraries in the ordinary sense, that is to say buildings to which persons can resort in order to read as well as to borrow books, forms no part of the primary idea of the County Library scheme, though here and there a village Reading Room may occasionally be established by local effort. Partly because the County Library system was originally organised by Education Committees, and partly because the village school remained the most convenient centre and the head teacher the most readily available librarian, most local centres for the distribution of books are Elementary Schools. The distribution of books from headquarters to the local centres is usually carried out by the despatch of boxes of books from headquarters several times a year by rail or motor. The boxes generally contain from 30 to 70 volumes, and in most instances include a number of books suitable for children of school age. In a few counties the circulation of books is effected by means of a travelling van containing about 2,000 volumes which visits the different centres from time to time.

There are four main functions which County Libraries can and in many cases do discharge in respect of the provision of books for the use of pupils in Public Elementary Schools.

(i) The use of the machinery of the County Library to distribute to Elementary Schools sets of books for general class reading. These sets of books are often passed from school to school according to an arranged plan. (See section 57 (b)).

(ii) The provision of complete permanent or circulating School Libraries, by arrangement with the Education Committee. This practice has as yet only been adopted to a limited extent in a few County areas. (See section 56 (b)).

(iii) The inclusion in the collections of library books supplied to each local centre of a number of works (including fiction) suitable for children of school age. It is thus easy for the


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local librarian, who is usually the head teacher of an Elementary School, to encourage his pupils to borrow such books. (See section 59).

(iv) The provision, with the help of the Central Library for Students, of a special section consisting of works bearing on various aspects of education and intended primarily for lending to teachers. (See section 60).

SCHOOL AND CLASS LIBRARIES WITHIN URBAN AND RURAL SCHOOLS

54. There was unanimous agreement among our witnesses that it was of great importance to provide in every Elementary School a collection of books adequate for its special requirements. It was pointed out that many schools at present possessed no library of their own, (1) and that in others the collection of books consisted chiefly of publishers' samples and odd volumes of various kinds and dates, and was seldom based on any definite plan.

We recognise the value of the arrangements, described in section 57 of this chapter, which have been adopted by some authorities in Urban and County Areas for supplying to Elementary Schools sets of books for general class reading. We also cordially appreciate the services rendered by County Libraries at most local centres in providing circulating collections of good library books, which can be borrowed by children of school age. We think, however, that in addition to any such arrangements every school should possess within the building a permanent nucleus or core of books related to the curriculum, and some works of reference for teachers and pupils. It seems improbable that any scheme, however well devised, for circulating sets of books on loan for general class reading can supply schools with a graded course of good examples of English prose literature which can be available at all times for illustrating the instruction in English throughout the various classes. We consider that the permanent collection of books forming the school library should consist primarily of works bearing on the various branches of the curriculum, chosen and arranged for their appeal to children of different ages. It should contain biographies of men of eminence in action and thought, and some books and periodicals

(1) In this connection it is of interest to refer to the figures relating to the provision of school and class libraries in Scotland as quoted in Appendix V, p. 150.


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bearing on the different branches of practical instruction taught in the school. The collection should also comprise a few works of reference for pupils and teachers, such as a standard English Dictionary (to supplement any small dictionaries used in class), a large atlas, an encyclopaedia, a Dictionary of History, a short Dictionary of Biography, and at least one standard Year Book or Gazetteer. Many Authorities allow head teachers to requisition a few such works of reference as part of the equipment of books needed for the school, and covered by the ordinary allowance for books and stationery; (1) and in this way it is possible to build up within the school library a small collection of reference books which, although primarily for the use of the teachers, will also be of use to the older scholars. Some Authorities make a special allowance for the purchase of a few works of reference for inclusion in the school library.

The disposition of the library within the school premises is a matter for the head teacher. We agree with many of our witnesses that in larger schools, and particularly in Modern Schools and Advanced Classes, it is desirable that small collections of books should be provided separately for some at any rate of the higher classes. It would rest with the head teacher in each case to decide whether it is more satisfactory to keep the whole collection of books together as one school library or to apportion some of them among the different classes.

In accordance with the evidence of our witnesses we emphasise the importance of providing adequate accommodation for the School Library. The books should be placed on suitable shelves designed for the purpose and should be systematically arranged and catalogued.

We think that the management of the school library might in many cases be entrusted to individual scholars appointed by the head teacher, partly perhaps on the recommendation of the pupils. This is done in many schools at the present time. We were informed that in areas where School Libraries are supplied from the Urban or County Library, the books are sometimes catalogued and arranged by the library officials. We recommend that the scholars should be encouraged to make regular use of the books in the school library, and that its arrangement and classification should be explained to them.

(1) e.g. Appendix II, No. 4, p. 133.


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It seems particularly desirable that the older pupils should be encouraged to make use of any available works of reference. If children in urban areas are taught from an early stage in their school life to use intelligently the books in their own School Library, they will more readily appreciate the value of the Public Library, when at a later period of their school career they are taken to it and shown how to use it. (1)

We consider it most important that the permanent School Libraries should be kept at as high a level of efficiency as possible; and that it should be a definite duty of the officials of the Local Education Authority, or of the Urban or County Librarian acting on behalf of the Authority, to co-operate regularly with teachers in the systematic overhauling of the books, with a view to returning any works to headquarters for binding or repairs, for the issue of fresh copies of worn out books, or for discarding works which have become obsolete.

In many urban areas there is close co-operation between the Education Committee and the Library Committee in the selection of books for Elementary Schools and in the maintenance of school libraries; in a number of such areas the Public Libraries Committee, by arrangement with the Education Committee, supplies complete school libraries to some or all of the Elementary Schools or Departments in the area. (2)

It is most desirable that in urban areas the Local Education Authority should seek the co-operation of the Public Libraries Committee and the expert advice of the Librarian in the matter of school libraries. So too in Counties the Education Committee might arrange that the Librarian of the County Library and his staff should take some cognisance of school libraries within the area, and give advice, if need be, to head teachers on matters connected with them. Where this is not done, there is reason to believe that the school libraries are often in an unsatisfactory condition.

We would suggest that the Authorities of Training Colleges might take steps to provide their students with some general instruction in the management of school libraries and the technique of librarianship. (3) We think that head teachers should consult their assistant staff, when they are preparing requisitions of books for reference and other works for inclusion in the school library.

(1) See Section 58.

(2) See note 1 on p. 77.

(3) See also Section 64.


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ARRANGEMENTS ADOPTED IN DIFFERENT URBAN AND COUNTY AREAS FOR DEFRAYING THE COST OF THE PROVISION AND MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOL AND CLASS LIBRARIES

55. We collected from a number of representative Local Education Authorities information respecting the financial arrangements adopted by them for the provision and maintenance of school and class Libraries. It would seem that in most areas these Libraries are gradually built up out of the general allowance given for books and stationery. (1) Several Directors of Education pointed out that the development of reading on individual lines rendered it easier for schools to form libraries out of their book allowances than was the case when complete sets of the same publications were ordinarily required for class use. In some areas the school libraries are built up and maintained almost wholly by voluntary effort on the part of teachers, pupils, parents and private donors. In certain areas several methods are simultaneously in use. (2) For example, in some Counties the cost of school and class libraries in Elementary Schools is met either by a special grant from the Authority, or out of the ordinary fixed allowance per pupil for books and stationery, or by special contributions from the teachers, pupils and friends of the school, or from the proceeds of special efforts by the teachers. In other cases the proceeds of school concerts, sports and the like, have been employed in aid of the provision of libraries. In a number of areas the Authority makes a special grant to school libraries that have been built up by the voluntary efforts of the teachers and pupils.

Several Authorities give grants towards the provision of school libraries at their inception only. Others make separate annual allowances for the maintenance of such libraries, either by a lump sum, or on a 'per capita' basis. (3) In a number of Urban Areas the Authority has delegated the function of providing school libraries to the Public Libraries Committee, and has allocated to it a lump sum for this purpose. (4) In a few County Areas the County library service is used to provide school libraries in certain instances. (5)

(1) e.g. Appendix II, No. 15, p. 139.

(2) e.g. Appendix II, No. 10, p. 136.

(3) e.g. Appendix II, No. 7, p. 134.

(4) e.g. Appendix II, No. 1, p.130.

(5) The financial adjustments made in cases where Urban or County Libraries provide complete School Libraries are described in Section 56.


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THE PROVISION OF COMPLETE SCHOOL LIBRARIES FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FROM URBAN AND COUNTY LIBRARIES

56. (a) Urban Areas. School libraries may be and often are supplemented by collections of books supplied by a Public Library, and in some urban areas complete school Libraries are provided in this way. (1) We quote a few examples of the ways in which the authorities of urban Public Libraries co-operate with the schools in this matter. At Cardiff every Department in the Boys', Girls' and Mixed Schools contains a school library maintained by the Public Libraries Committee, and a number of Infants' Schools are also provided with suitable books from the same source. A Joint Committee of the Education Committee, the Library Committee and head teachers controls the scheme, and the Public Library provides a staff for supervision. At Halifax a number of Departments in Public Elementary Schools are supplied with selected volumes from the Public Library, according to the number of pupils on the register. Each collection is permanent and not interchangeable between school and school. The scheme is managed by a small committee of head teachers with the Chief Librarian as technical adviser and organiser, and the Central Public Library is used as the headquarters and clearing house for administrative work. At Coventry the Education Committee and the Public Libraries Committee work in close co-operation, the expenses being defrayed by the Education Committee. Thirty-nine Elementary Schools have been provided with school libraries from the central depot. The system consists of fixed Libraries supplemented by a circulating library. Books are selected from the central store by the head teachers, assisted in many instances by the class teachers, who in some cases ask for suggestions from the scholars. The books composing the circulating library are distributed from the Public Library, but are registered there separately as the property of the Education Committee.

Under the existing law the responsibility for the supply and use of school books lies with the Local Education Authorities,

(1) The statistics published in the Report of the Public Libraries Committee (1927) p. 243, Table XII show that in 1924 113 urban public library committees were actively co-operating in the provision of school libraries, and that 1440 schools or departments were thus supplied with books.


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and we accordingly consider that the most satisfactory arrangement for the provision of school libraries within Elementary Schools is that the responsibility should rest with the Local Education Authority and that it should provide the funds.

We think, however, that the Education Committee would be well advised as a rule to seek the co-operation of the Library Committee and the expert assistance of the librarian. One method of securing effective co-operation in Urban areas is that the Education Committee should include members of the Library Committee and that the Library Committee should include members of the Education Committee. In a number of urban areas this arrangement has been adopted and appears to work well. In county areas such co-operation is already secured by the constitution of the Library Committee.

(b) County Areas. In a few Counties it is the practice to supply some Elementary Schools with libraries through the agency of the County Library. For instance, we were told that in Lancashire the supply of school libraries to Elementary Schools formed an important part of the County Library's work. The cost fell on the elementary education rate, but it was found very convenient to have the County Library machinery available for this service. We were informed that in Kent, though the County Library service did not, as a rule, provide school libraries, nevertheless in a few cases school libraries had been established as part of that service. In view of the use made by the schools of the County Library service in this way the Kent Education Committee make a grant from the Elementary Education Fund to the County Library Fund. We assume that, if the County Library service be utilised to provide books for school libraries in Elementary Schools, or books connected with the curriculum, the cost of the service will be borne by the Local Education Authority.

THE PART PLAYED BY THE PUBLIC LIBRARY IN SOME URBAN AND COUNTY AREAS IN CIRCULATING TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS SETS OF BOOKS FOR GENERAL CLASS READING

57 (a) Urban Areas. It has now come to be recognised more and more that the supply of books adapted for the use of Public Elementary Schools should not be restricted to the books used


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in class, or even to those in the school library, unless that library be exceptionally well stocked with books for general reading, but should include a supply of good books for silent reading at school and for home study, e.g. English classics, historical novels, and works of travel.

In a number of Urban areas the Education Committee has made arrangements with the Public Libraries Committee for the circulation among some or all of the Elementary Schools in the area of sets of books for general class reading, in addition to the ordinary school stock. At Accrington sets of books (40 per set) are in circulation for general class reading, and the number allows from two to five sets for each school at any one time, according to the size of the school. The sets are changed half yearly, and the Borough Librarian or his deputy visits the schools periodically to inspect the books and to arrange for re-binding and repairs. At Liverpool the teachers in many Departments of Elementary Schools prepare lists of books for the reading of scholars, and arrange with the local Branch of the City Library for the collective borrowing and return of such books.

(b) County Areas. In several County areas the Education Committee has made arrangements with the County Library for the circulation of sets of books suitable for general class reading to Elementary Schools in the area. In Wiltshire, for example, sets of 12 to 25 books of the same type, adequate for the needs of half or whole classes, are sent out from the County Library to certain schools, the sets being exchanged terminally.

We were told that under this arrangement each pupil could be given the use of 8 books a year, and inasmuch as the books were graded as Junior, Intermediate and Senior some pupils could even read as many as 24 books during the year.

These sets of reading books are purchased, distributed and repaired by the staff of the County Library, but the cost is met by the Education Committee, which also bears a proportion of the administrative expenses incurred by the County Library in connexion with the distribution of the books. We regard the practice of circulating sets of books for general reading either in the school or at home to schools both urban and rural as a useful arrangement. It should be possible to use the machinery of county libraries more extensively than at present for circulating such sets of books.


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FACILITIES AFFORDED BY URBAN LIBRARIES TO SCHOLARS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FOR READING IN THE LIBRARY AND FOR BORROWING BOOKS

58. The available evidence shows that in many urban areas the Public Libraries Committees, in co-operation with the Local Education Committee, have made arrangements to provide special facilities in the Public Libraries for children attending Elementary Schools. (1)

In many Urban Areas school classes periodically pay organised visits with their teachers to the Lending Departments of the local Public Libraries. (2) The arrangement and use of the catalogue is explained to them by the library officials, and they are shown how to find in it any books which they may desire to borrow. We were informed that as a result of such visits there had often been a noticeable increase in the number of books issued to children.

At Hampstead there is a separate Lending Library and Reading Room for children in the Central Library building, together with children's corners at each of the four Branch Libraries. In winter weekly lectures are given in the library for children during school hours, and at the end of each lecture displays of books on the subject of the lecture are made in the Juvenile Department, and from time to time special lists of books are duplicated and distributed among the Elementary Schools. Attendance at such lectures may be officially recognised for purposes of school attendance. Similar facilities for children have been provided in a number of Urban Libraries throughout England and Wales.

Many Urban Libraries, (e.g. Marylebone and Lancaster) have published separate Catalogues of books suitable for children, in some cases with brief notes describing the contents and scope of individual works.

(1) In 1924 151 urban public library committees provided juvenile lending departments; 87 provided reading rooms for children; and 316 stated that they reserved volumes for children. Report of Public Libraries Committee (1927) (Cmd. 2868), page 243 (Table XII) and page 252 (Table XXV).

(2) At Bradford 244 visits were made by classes to three of the branch libraries in 1925-26, the number of scholars attending being 6,686.


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Many places issue to Elementary Schools tickets for borrowing books direct from the Library; these tickets are given to children who in the opinion of the head teacher are likely to make good use of them.

It may be of interest to describe the arrangements in use in a few typical areas. At Birmingham the Authority has arranged with the Public Libraries Committee for the issue of borrowers' tickets to scholars attending Elementary Schools, and the Authority bears the cost of replacing or making good any books lost or damaged.

At Bristol separate Children's Departments have been established on the open access system, an arrangement that permits of more directly personal work on the part of the library staff in bringing children into intimate touch with the books which may be used upon the premises or borrowed for home reading.

Close co-operation between Education Committees and Public Library Committees is secured to a considerable extent in many urban areas by arranging that the Public Libraries Committee and the Education Committee have a certain number of members in common. We commend the practice now obtaining in many Public Libraries of reserving special rooms, or portions of rooms, as reading rooms for children, and consider that all Public Library Committees should, where possible, organise Juvenile Lending Departments. The children should, if possible, be allowed personal access to the bookshelves in the Juvenile Department. The staffs of Juvenile Reading and Lending Departments should be carefully selected on account of their knowledge and sympathy with children and tact in dealing with them. Teachers, on their part, should encourage their pupils to use the Juvenile Reading and Lending Departments of Public Libraries, in areas where they are available. To this end they should from time to time, in concert with the Librarians, organise visits of whole classes to the Public Library, at which the contents, system of classification, and method of obtaining books, whether for purposes of reference or on loan, might be explained to the scholars by a member of the Library staff or by a teacher who has made a special study of the subject. In districts where a suitable Juvenile Reading Room is available the scholars might be encouraged to use it for purposes preference and general study.


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We regard it as specially important that children in urban areas, during their time at school, should acquire the habit of using the Reading Rooms and the Reference and Lending Departments of Public Libraries, and that they should be informed on leaving school of the facilities afforded to adult readers

ARRANGEMENTS FOR LENDING LIBRARY BOOKS FROM LOCAL CENTRES OF COUNTY LIBRARIES TO PUPILS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

59. We have already explained that in many County areas most of the local centres are in schools, and that the head teachers generally act as local librarians. But it is of the essence of such local administration that methods should be varied according to the needs of readers and the character of the district. The number and quality of applications for books from adult readers outside the school, the reading done by members of the school staff, and the capacity and persistence of the local librarian, will clearly vary in different districts. In many villages there would normally be no chance of maintaining a 'live' library of any kind, if the teachers were not willing to give their time and labour, and if the school buildings were not available to house the books. In centres of this kind, while local conditions remain as they are at present, it is evident that, in spite of the influence and encouragement of the County Library Committee or Sub-Committee and the County Librarian, the local branch will continue to exist almost wholly for the benefit of the village school; though even here the influence of the children's example upon their parents' reading should not be ignored.

On the other hand, in a village where, as a result of long-established endowments or other special conditions, there is a widespread desire to read good books, the school may not be the most convenient centre, and the supplies of library books for children and for adults may have to be divided. In such instances, the interests of the children should not be allowed to suffer during their school life, and they should be encouraged to proceed to the senior library. We regard it as highly important that scholars in Public Elementary Schools in all parts of County areas should be enabled and encouraged to obtain on loan suitable books for general reading from the local centres of County Libraries, and we accordingly recommend that in districts where this is not at present easy, the County Library Committee should take steps to remodel the library organisation for this purpose.


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EDUCATION LIBRARIES AND COLLECTIONS OF REFERENCE BOOKS FOR TEACHERS AND OTHER ARRANGEMENTS FOR PROVIDING WORKS OF REFERENCE FOR TEACHERS

60. Some authorities maintain a Central Education Library of their own in which books may be consulted and from which they may be borrowed. (1) Others keep collections of reference books for teachers (often described as Teachers' Libraries or Teachers' Reference Libraries), which are usually housed at the local Education Office. (2) Special catalogues of these professional Libraries are often printed separately and distributed to the teachers in the area. Municipal and County Libraries are frequently used to house and distribute the contents of such libraries. Nearly all Authorities now avail themselves of the facilities offered by the Central Library for Students, from which they obtain individual volumes for applicants. We recommend that, where a special Teachers' Library is not provided by the Local Education Authority, the Urban or County Library should contain an educational section available for teachers. The libraries of the various provincial Universities and University Colleges, especially that at Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne, have been generous in affording special facilities to teachers for consulting and borrowing books. We consider it is highly desirable that such opportunities should be extended so far as is possible without impairing the value of such libraries for the students and the academic staff, for whom the books are primarily intended.

In addition to the Libraries and the other collections of school books and works of reference for teachers described above, there are several large libraries containing extensive collections of school books and works on education. One of the most important of these is the Education Library of the London County Council, which is intended primarily for the use of members of the Council and of the Education Committee, and of officials and teachers connected directly with the work of the Education Service of the Council. It contains a large number of works of reference for circulation, which are described in a separate catalogue with short notes on each book for the guidance of readers. By permission of the London County

(1) e.g. Appendix II, No. 16, p. 140 and Appendix III (London) p. 146.

(2) e.g. Appendix II, No. 8, p. 134 and No. 17, p. 140.


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Council, this Library, together with the collection of specimen school books at the County Hall, is available for consultation by teachers of schools outside the London area. Another comprehensive collection is the Education Library at the Central Offices of the National Union of Teachers, which is available for use by all members of the Union. There are also large collections of school books in the four great libraries in England and Wales, which are entitled to receive under the Copyright Act (1) copies of all works published in the United Kingdom, viz. the British Museum, the National Library of Wales, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the Cambridge University Library. We would suggest that the responsible authorities of these great libraries might consider whether it would not be possible to place the collections of school books in a separate part of the buildings, and to make arrangements to render them even more accessible than they are at present for the use of teachers and other persons interested in education. It might, for instance, be found possible at some future date to prepare separate catalogues of such publications.

61. On reviewing the available information regarding the part played by Urban Public Libraries and County Libraries in respect of the supply and distribution of books for the use of pupils in Public Elementary Schools, we think that general co-operation between urban and county libraries and Public Elementary Schools is the most economical and effective method of increasing within the near future the total supply of books available for scholars in such Schools. From this point of view we consider it of great importance that the different Library Authorities throughout England and Wales should co-operate with one another in order to increase the scope and efficiency of the Public Library service as a whole. We have read with deep interest the recommendations made to this end in the recent Report of the Public Libraries Committee, (2) and we find ourselves generally in agreement with the findings of that Committee. In particular, we regard it as especially desirable that those areas for which no statutory Library provision has yet been made or apparently contemplated should, without delay, either singly or in combination, be brought under the operation of the Public Libraries Acts.

(1) Copyright Act, 1911, Section 15.

(2) Report of Public Libraries Committee (1927) passim and paragraphs 68, 81, 82. 421, 542 and Recommendations Nos. 2, 5. 6. 25. 37 and 50 (i).


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CHAPTER V

SOURCES OF GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR TEACHERS IN THE CHOICE OF SCHOOL BOOKS: GENERAL QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE PRODUCTION OF SCHOOL BOOKS

A. Sources of Guidance Available for Teachers in the Choice of School Books

62. One of the most serious responsibilities confronting those concerned with education is the selection of books, and it is on the teachers, in the first place, that this responsibility rests. For, though machinery may aid the exercise of judgement and discrimination, no machinery, however elaborate, can take its place, and it is on the personal insight and care of those by whom the books are chosen that the quality of the literature read by the children must, in the last resort, depend. In this matter, in short, as in most other educational questions, the personal factor is the centre of the problem. If the taste of the teachers themselves is sound, if they have deepened by cultivation their feeling for literature, and have kept abreast of the work done in the various branches of the school curriculum, there will be little reason to fear that books of poor quality will be offered to the children. We regard it as among the most important of the functions of Training Colleges to develop in their students a capacity to form a just appreciation of the merits of different books. Nor must it be forgotten that, if that capacity is to be turned to good account, it is necessary for the teachers to devote considerable time apart from 'school hours' not merely to preparing for the lessons which they give in school, but to reading the new works which from time to time appear on the subjects with which they are concerned.

There was general agreement among our witnesses that the selection of class books and works of reference for the school library should rest primarily with the head teacher. It is clearly his business to carry out such administrative requirements as may be laid down by the Authority and the Managers


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in connection with the supply of books. Apart from specific instructions, the head teacher will naturally be influenced in his selection of books by the circumstances of the school, the capacities and the environment of the pupils, and his own views of the best ways in which the subject matter of the curriculum should be treated. He will be wise to consult his staff, especially those who may possess special knowledge and experience, and to recognise that different methods of teaching may sometimes call for different books.

At the same time, even if a head teacher has carefully weighed the considerations alluded to, he is likely to be embarrassed in his choice by the great number of books which have been and continue to be produced for the various branches of the curriculum. (1) The kind of books which he needs may be very clear to him, but the output of competing publications is so great that judicious selection is difficult. He can avail himself of certain opportunities of help to be described below, and we have every reason to believe that the help is generally welcome. Indeed we have been informed by many teachers, particularly those in rural schools, that they would be glad to have more effective guidance in this matter than they receive at present. But all teachers insist, and in our opinion rightly, that an essential principle of such guidance should be that their freedom of choice is not unduly restricted and that the field upon which it is exercised is not narrowly circumscribed.

63. Apart from the information which teachers derive from conversations with colleagues and visits to educational bookshops and from reading publishers' circulars and reviews of new works in educational journals and elsewhere, the chief available sources of general guidance in the selection of books, may be grouped under the following five headings:

(i) The general instruction on the choice and use of class books and on the arrangement and care of the school library, such as is now provided for the students in several Training Colleges as part of the regular course.
(1) The statistics quoted in Appendix VI throw some light on the present output of books for pupils and teachers.


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(ii) The general guidance given by the Board of Education in the Handbook of Suggestions and in special courses for teachers, and the advice, mostly oral, given by HM Inspectors, by Inspectors and other Officers of Local Education Authorities, by Librarians of Urban and County Libraries, and, in many instances, by agents of educational publishers.

(iii) The perusal of specimen copies of new books circulated to individual teachers (a) by Local Education Authorities and (b) by publishers.

(iv) Visits to sample book rooms and to exhibitions of school books organised by educational publishers or by Authorities or by both.

(v) Lists of recommended books issued by Authorities.

64. We were informed that several Training Colleges have taken steps to include in their courses for senior students some explicit instructions on the selection and right use of books in the several subjects of the curriculum. We consider that, if effective instruction and guidance in this matter could be generally provided in Training Colleges as an integral part of the courses, it would later be of real service to the young teachers. It would clearly not be necessary to organise a separate course on this subject, but attention might with advantage be called to the selection both of class books and of works of reference in courses on the various branches of the curriculum. We think that the authorities of Training Colleges should be encouraged to provide instruction of this type for older students. The Colleges could form their own collections of school books of different types which might be arranged as a separate section of the college library, as has already been done in several instances. Such collections should be carefully catalogued and arranged, and the students should be afforded ample facilities for examining the books at their leisure. We suggest that in any schools used as practising schools, the students should be encouraged to make themselves acquainted with the class books in use and with the available works of reference in the school libraries.

In general we recommend that the problem of selecting school books should be kept steadily in view throughout the course at the Training College, and that the students should be brought to


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realise the importance of a wise choice both of books for use in class, and of works of reference for the School Library. To this end instruction on the proper selection of class books and library books should be included in the courses on the various subjects of the curriculum, and a special section of the library should be reserved for school books of different types.

We further recommend that some general instruction should be provided in Training Colleges on the management of school libraries

65. Teachers frequently consult the Board's inspectors regarding the selection and use of school books of different types and receive constant advice on the subject. A discussion of suitable textbooks is also an important element in the different courses for teachers organised by the Board. In various official publications and particularly in the Handbook of Suggestions for Teachers (1927) the Board gives general advice regarding the types of book that are likely to be required. (1)

In many areas the local Inspectors and other Officers of the Authority, and the librarians of urban libraries and county libraries, give a certain amount of guidance to teachers in the selection of books. We have already described in Section 46 of Chapter III the different ways in which local officials frequently assist teachers in connection with the preparation of requisition lists for books. In some areas the local inspectors or educational organisers take sets of specimen books with them on their visits to the schools to discuss with the head teacher and the staff. (2) We have described in Chapter IV the help which might be given, and in some cases is already given, to teachers by the librarians of urban and county libraries in the choice and arrangement of works for the school library.

On the whole the available evidence indicates that teachers often derive much valuable guidance on the choice of school books from the different courses for teachers organised by the Board, from the Board's Inspectors, from Inspectors and officials of the Local Education Authority, and from the Librarians of Urban and County Libraries. We would accordingly suggest that teachers would be well advised to take the fullest possible advantage of these sources of guidance in the selection of books.

(1) See Chapter I, Section 17.

(2) e.g. Appendix II, No. 8, p. 134.


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In many areas teachers receive information regarding books from publishers' agents who visit the schools (in cases where permission has been accorded by the Authority) and who display specimen copies of new books. (1) We were informed by the representatives of the Publishers' Association that these agents called on the Authority's officials, and visited the schools, not only for the purpose of showing the books published by their respective firms, but also to obtain information about existing requirements and new tendencies in education, and to receive criticisms on class books already in use. The information thus collected was digested and used in the head office of the firm concerned. The representatives of the Publishers' Association explained that they regarded such personal touch with teachers and with local officials as being of great value.

It appears from the evidence given by various teachers and administrators that the visits paid to schools by publishers' agents are as a rule necessarily short, and that it is difficult for the teacher to appraise the new publications which the agent desires to bring to his notice. It was also pointed out that the sets of new books which the publishers' agents brought with them to the schools and to the Education Offices usually represented only a very small part of the best modern works available on any given subject. Moreover the agent was naturally anxious to bring certain books specially to the notice of teachers and of the officials of authorities, and it was probable that some of these works, whatever their merits, were not the most appropriate for the particular school or department.

The policy of different Authorities varies considerably in regard to visits of publishers' agents to schools.

66. In a number of areas the Authority has agreed to allow individual teachers to borrow a limited number of specimen copies of new books so that they may examine them at their leisure. Various arrangements have been adopted for this purpose. Several Authorities which maintain sample rooms provide duplicate copies of some of the more important books for loan to teachers. Many educational publishers send specimen copies of new books, either gratis or on loan, to individual teachers, even in areas where the Authority maintains a sample room.

(1) e.g. Appendix II. No. 1, p. 130.


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The representatives of the Publishers' Association informed us that they regarded this system of sending specimen copies as the best method of assisting teachers to make a final selection of books.

67. Exhibitions of school books are frequently organised by educational publishers and by Local Education Authorities at teachers' conferences and similar gatherings. Agents of the different publishers concerned are usually present on such occasions to show the books. At Manchester arrangements have been made during the last few years for an annual exhibition of school books, which is held in the library at the Education Offices. Certain firms of educational publishers are invited to send books to the Education Committee, and a careful selection of the works thus received is made for the exhibition. All teachers in the area are invited to attend the exhibition which remains open for a fortnight. The agents of educational publishers are not allowed to be in attendance during the whole time that the exhibition is open, but, if a representative of any of the publishers asks to be allowed to visit the exhibition for the purpose of seeing it, such permission is always accorded. It is clear that the information obtained at such meetings and temporary exhibitions must be of considerable use to teachers. Many Authorities maintain a permanent exhibition of school books, which is usually housed in or near the Education Offices. It would appear that most of the books in these exhibitions are specimen copies sent to the Authority by the publishers. In a number of areas all specimen copies received from publishers are in the first instance carefully examined by some of the Authority's officials, and, if approved by them, are duly placed in the sample room. (1) Authorities which publish lists of selected books generally refer all new books received from publishers to their Book List Committees. (2) In a few areas the firms which supply the Authority with books and other educational material have depots or bookshops where teachers, by arrangement with the Authority, are afforded opportunities for seeing school books.

Several Authorities offer special facilities for teachers to visit local sample rooms. For instance the Kent Education Committee in order to encourage head teachers to visit the Book Room at Maidstone undertakes to pay their travelling

(1) e.g. Appendix III (London), pp. 144-5.

(2) See Section 68.


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expenses once a year, and the expenses of the assistant teachers are also paid when this appears reasonable. We regard this as a useful practice, and commend it to the attention of County Authorities.

There was general agreement among our witnesses, particularly the teachers, that a well arranged book room was of great service. They pointed out that it was most important that the Book Room should be well lighted and attractive, and that the books should be properly arranged and catalogued. Particular emphasis was laid on the desirability of providing a full and complete catalogue in which each book should be described and attention drawn to the form, the number of pages, the presence or absence of an index and any special features. The initial expenses and running costs of a well equipped central book room for teachers are very small.

In some rural areas where it is difficult for teachers living in the more remote districts to pay frequent visits to the County Book Room the Authority sends boxes of specimen books to head teachers on application. In some county areas Book Vans are used to convey boxes of specimen school books to teachers in outlying districts. Other Authorities use the machinery of the County Library for this purpose. Our witnesses thought that the time allowed for the retention of such boxes should be not less than a week. We were informed that in one county with extensive rural districts the difficulty in question had been met by distributing collections of specimen books to fifteen administrative offices. Here the books may be seen at any time during ordinary office hours, and at least once a year an official of the Education Department attends at each room for consultation with the teachers.

While we recognise that the information obtained at temporary exhibitions of school books, whether held in connection with teachers' conferences, or organised specially by Authorities in concert with educational publishers, must be of considerable use to teachers, we nevertheless think that permanent book rooms are of even greater value for the purpose. We accordingly recommend that those Authorities which have not already done so should take steps to establish book rooms. Where possible each Authority should establish its own book room, but in many instances neighbouring Authorities might find it more convenient to combine for this purpose.


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68. A number of Authorities have adopted the practice of issuing lists of selected school books in order to assist teachers in preparing their requisitions. (1)

The London Education Committee has for some years past issued a very full list of books, maps, music and diagrams approved for use in schools maintained by the Council. The list was prepared and is periodically revised by the Books and Apparatus Sub-Committee of the Education Committee, with the help of experts on the local inspectorate. Books for general reading are referred to a committee of teachers known as the Advisory Committee on School Equipment, and consisting of 12 persons nominated by the Central Consultative Committees of Head Teachers and 12 by the Education Officer. One-sixth of the members must be assistant teachers. Special requisitions from teachers for books which are not on the list are considered on their merits. Teachers are encouraged to offer suggestions for the improvement of the book list either by letter or by means of the suggestion book at the County Hall.

The Kent Education Committee has for some years past provided a classified catalogue of books and publications for the use of schools. Lists of additional books, with brief explanatory notes, are published in the monthly issues of the Kent Education Gazette, and teachers are invited to suggest suitable books, and to give reasons in support of their proposals. The foreword explains that 'it is not at all the intention of the Committee to limit unduly the teachers' field of choice. A considerable variety of books, of different degrees of difficulty, is included on almost every important topic ... The purpose of this carefully selected catalogue is to offer to teachers, not only some guidance over the whole field of school books, but a reasonable assurance that any book ordered from the official list will possess definite educational value.'

Several Directors and Secretaries of Education emphasised the great practical difficulties of revising such lists. These might be surmounted if the recommendation which we make below regarding Book List Committees were adopted. Most Authorities which publish book lists also maintain sample rooms, though on the other hand there are a considerable

(1) Brief descriptions of the steps adopted to this end by various typical Authorities are printed in Appendices II and III.


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number of Authorities which maintain sample rooms without having lists. There can be no doubt that the publication by Authorities of such lists of books suggested for use in schools is of real help to those teachers who, for various reasons, have not adequate facilities for obtaining first-hand information about the best and most suitable books to meet the needs of their schools. At the same time it must be recognised that considerable dangers are involved in this procedure. The existence of such lists, if they are unduly restrictive, may result in harmful limitation of the teachers' freedom of choice, and an unjust discrimination between individual authors and publishers. The only ground (other than financial) on which an Authority should disallow a requisition for a book put forward and vindicated by a competent head teacher is educational unsuitability. (1)

We think that a well arranged book list with a sample room in which specimen copies of the publications mentioned in the list may be examined and, if need be, borrowed in duplicate copies by teachers, is on the whole the most useful of all the sources of guidance at present available for teachers in making their choice of school books. We accordingly recommend the establishment of Local Book List Committees to draw up short annotated lists of books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools. (2)

These might be set up by a single Authority in large areas, or by several neighbouring Authorities in combination. We regard it as highly desirable that the general management of Book Rooms should, if possible, be entrusted to the committees responsible for drawing up and revising the book lists. If for any reason this arrangement cannot be adopted, we would suggest that members of the Book List Committees should be included on the committees responsible for the management of the Book Rooms. Book List Committees should consist mainly of teachers, together with some members and officers of the Local Education Authority or Authorities. It is, however, in our view most important that

(1) See Chapter III, Section 46.

(2) In preparing such lists the local book list committees will doubtless make use of the bibliographies and lists of works bearing on various branches of the curriculum published by the 'subject' Associations and other similar organisations, e.g. the English Association, the Historical Association, the Geographical Association, the Economic History Society, the Educational Handwork Association.


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any lists of books prepared by these Committees should be regarded as merely conveying suggestions, and that in no case should they restrict the freedom of the teacher in drawing up his requisition for books.

B. General questions relating to the Production of School Books

69. But the selection of the best existing books is not the only point to be considered. There remains the further question of inducing and encouraging authors and publishers to produce books of the right kind where no books of the right kind exist, and to produce a better book where the book in existence is poor in quality or is becoming obsolete.

It is essential to preserve the freedom and independence of writers, which has always been one of the best features in our national system of education, and to avoid anything approximating to an official imprimatur or an index. On the other hand, it would seem that much useful information bearing on the existing supply of books in the different branches of the curriculum might be collected, and made available for general use by a conference of representatives of Local Book List Committees or some similar body. Before setting out our own views on this subject, it will be convenient to summarise briefly the opinions of a number of witnesses on the question of establishing a central advisory body of some description to deal with general questions relating to the supply, quality and content of books for Public Elementary Schools.

The County Councils Association held that it would be of great assistance, if a standing Central Committee of experts - Board of Education Inspectors, teachers and other persons of distinction in different branches of learning - should advise on broad lines regarding books to be recommended, and perhaps at a later stage draw up from time to time a list of books adapted for use in Public Elementary Schools.

The Association of Municipal Corporations recommended the establishment of (a) a permanent Central Advisory Council with a full-time secretary, and (b) Local Advisory Councils. It was suggested that the central council should contain representatives of Local Education Authorities, teachers, the 'subject' Associations, and the Board of Education. It was not thought desirable that publishers should be accorded representation on such a Council. It was suggested that the functions of the Central Council might be (i) to issue from time


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to time a comprehensive list of approved books, and a short list of books specially recommended, which would indicate the particular value of each book and also mention its shortcomings where necessary; (ii) to make recommendations to authors and publishers in respect of books written or published by them, and particularly regarding new books and new kinds of book deemed desirable for use in Elementary Schools; (iii) to make recommendations, for the assistance of teachers, as to the use of particular kinds of books in connexion with different methods of treating the various subjects of the curriculum; and (iv) to give advice regarding teachers' and children's libraries, both in and out of school.

It was explained that the function of the Local Advisory Councils would be to accommodate the needs of their particular areas to the list issued by the Central Advisory Council. It was not thought that there would be any difficulty in the way of Authorities for Elementary Education only combining with County Councils and County Borough Councils. The areas which any Local Advisory Council served should not, however, be larger than, for instance, Lancashire.

The Association of Directors and Secretaries for Education suggested that a fairly small Central Committee should be set up which should include representatives of Local Education Authorities selected through the major associations and possibly also representatives of the Board of Education.

This Association was of opinion that a single Central Committee would cause less friction and jealousy than if there were many local committees of the same character. Such a Committee would form a more effective link with publishers than was possible at present. Publishers frequently approached Directors of Education individually on the question of the suitability of manuscript works, but it would be more satisfactory if such matters could be dealt with by a Central Committee. It was suggested that the functions of such a Committee would be to consult with publishers regarding (i) the type of book required for Public Elementary Schools; (ii) the form of books, including the question of suitable type; (iii) the price of books; and (iv) any general questions.

The London Association of Head Teachers of Central Schools, the National Union of Woman Teachers, the Workers'


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Educational Association, the Mathematical Association, and a large number of individual witnesses approved generally of the idea of establishing a Central Advisory Committee of some kind. Several witnesses, however, urged that it was most important that the Central Committee should be wholly independent of any State Department, though the Board of Education might assist at its inception. Further, it was generally held that such a Committee should not be invested with censorial functions. The representatives of the National Union of Teachers, for example, stated that they would be prepared to agree to the establishment of a Central Committee for the purpose of stimulating the supply of books, provided that it in no way acted as a censor.

The Publishers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland expressed the view that a Central Advisory Committee would probably, like many centralised bodies, tend to lose touch with practical teaching. Nevertheless, the representatives of the Association stated that they would personally welcome any advice on the content of school books, the filling of gaps in the supply of books, etc, from a Central Advisory Committee, provided always that such advice were given to publishers as a whole. On the other hand, they were definitely opposed to any arrangement by which such a Central Committee drew up any list of books which excluded certain works. A list of that character would be disastrous to their enterprise, since they would naturally hesitate to publish any book 'on the off chance of its not being included in a list issued by the Central Advisory Committee'.

The Association of Education Committees was on the whole opposed to the establishment of a Central Committee, principally on the ground that such bodies were frequently dominated by a few outstanding personalities. The Association accordingly recommended that at least four Provincial Councils, each small in size, should be established for each of the following branches of the curriculum: English Literature, History, Geography, Mathematics and Science. It was suggested that these Provincial Councils might represent respectively the Northern, the Midland, the South-Eastern, and the South-Western and Welsh Authorities. It was suggested that each Provincial Council should appoint sub-committees to deal with each of the four or five main branches


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of the curriculum. The several Provincial Committees could keep each other informed of their proceedings, and meet together annually to settle outstanding differences of opinion and to issue reports making definite recommendations, on the one hand to head teachers regarding books which it was desirable to use, and on the other hand to publishers respecting the needs of the schools.

Several witnesses suggested the establishment of sectional Central Committees as distinct from one general Central Advisory Committee. They proposed that the Board might take steps to set up permanent Committees in London for the selection of suitable books in each several subject of the curriculum, or in groups of subjects. Each Committee might consist of members of the relevant 'subject' Association or Associations, of some teachers specially interested in the particular branch of the curriculum, of representatives of the local education authorities, and possibly of some representatives of other organisations interested in the subject or subjects in question. The witnesses who made this suggestion were of opinion that local provincial committees could not adequately cope with such a piece of work.

A more tentative suggestion regarding a central advisory body was put forward by the representatives of the Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools, who urged that, as there was some danger of a Central Committee becoming too conservative in outlook, it might be found more satisfactory to organise Central Conferences to be held either annually or every five years. Representatives of teachers, local administrators and publishers might be invited to take part in such Conferences, the principal function of which would be to discuss needs and advise publishers respecting the general requirements of text-books for Public Elementary Schools.

70. We have given detailed consideration to these different suggestions for the establishment of

(a) A Central Advisory Committee;
(b) A number of Provincial Committees; and
(c) Central Sectional Committees to deal with books for each main branch of the curriculum.

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We have examined these proposals from various points of view, and have in the end come to the conclusion that they would all, in varying degrees, involve the setting up of unnecessarily elaborate administrative machinery. It seems to us highly doubtful whether any advantage that might possibly accrue from the establishment of such bodies would outweigh the manifest disadvantages. Complicated administrative arrangements are apt to become rigid and stereotyped, and we are strongly opposed to any scheme that might eventually restrict the freedom of authors and publishers in producing books, and of teachers in selecting them. We are of opinion, however, that the Board of Education might usefully convene from time to time a Central Advisory Conference, which would include representatives of Local Book List Committees, to deal with general questions relating to the supply, quality and content of books for Public Elementary Schools. Local Book List Committees would have at their disposal a valuable store of information respecting the character and quality of educational publications, and would be in a position to submit to a Central Conference their observations on the existing provision of books, on the principal deficiencies which exist, and on those branches of the curriculum for which books are most urgently needed. In practice, it might be found desirable to hold regional conferences of representatives of Local Book List Committees for collating the information to be submitted by them. The divisional areas (1) into which England and Wales have been divided by the Board of Education for purposes of inspection should be convenient areas for such local conferences. A Central Advisory Conference, assisted by these local conferences, might in time result in the creation of such machinery, and only such machinery, as would prove to be essential to the solution of problems affecting the book supply of Public Elementary Schools. We accordingly recommend that the Board of Education should convene from time to time a Central Advisory Conference, which should include representatives of the Local Book List Committees in the different divisional areas, to deal with general questions relating to the supply, quality and content of books for Public

(1) For purposes of inspection England and Wales are divided into the following divisional areas: Northern; North-Eastern; North-Western; West-Central; East-Central; Eastern; Metropolitan; South-Eastern; South-Western; Wales and Monmouthshire.


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Elementary Schools. (1) Local Book List Committees would submit their observations on the existing provision of books, on the principal deficiencies which exist, and on the subjects for which books are most urgently needed. In practice, it may be found desirable that divisional conferences of representatives of the Local Book List Committees should be held from time to time for collating the information submitted by them.



(1) It is assumed that questions connected with the publication and production of Welsh books for use in Public Elementary Schools in the bilingual districts of Wales would not fall within the province of such a Central Advisory Conference, but would be dealt with by the Press Board of the University of Wales, as suggested in recommendation 15 of the Report on Welsh in Education and Life quoted on page 56 of this Report.


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CHAPTER VI

THE COST OF SCHOOL BOOKS AND VARIOUS QUESTIONS CONNECTED WITH THEIR USE BOTH IN THE SCHOOL AND IN THE HOME

The Cost of School Books

71. The price of books advanced very rapidly during the [first world] war, and immediately after its conclusion. The representatives of the County Councils' Association and of several other organisations, both of administrators and of teachers, informed us that any subsequent decrease in the cost of books had been slight. The Publishers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland said that in producing a book there was a limit beyond which the cost could not be reduced however many copies might subsequently be printed, and they stated that in many instances the number of school books printed was such that the limit had already been reached. This consideration applied especially to class books in the basic subjects of History, Geography, English and Arithmetic, which generally had a large circulation. On the other hand for books on the various branches of practical instruction, such as Handicraft and Needlework, there was not, as a rule, a sufficient demand to enable publishers to print up to the limit. The Publishers' Association also explained that there was a limit to the number of atlases which could be satisfactorily printed off from one set of plates. Coloured maps cost from four to five times as much to produce as ordinary black and white maps. The reason why American geographies often contained more coloured maps than those printed in Great Britain, was that Americans were prepared to pay a much higher price for their school books. Several teachers and inspectors pointed out that the expense of class books might be appreciably reduced by omitting unnecessary prints, illustrations, maps, etc, (1) and by restricting the space allocated in many modern textbooks to exercises and questions on each lesson. In discussing the price of school books many witnesses drew attention to the fact that the small amounts that were allowed in a number of areas compelled head teachers against their better judgement to select lower priced books or to dispense altogether with

(1) See also page 22.


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class books in certain subjects. The Publishers' Association were of opinion that many authorities had not increased their outlay on books in proportion to the unavoidable rise in cost of production since the war.

The minimum number of books required by each pupil

72. There was general agreement among our witnesses that Authorities should keep in view a certain minimum number of books which should be available for every scholar, according to the stage of school life which he had reached. But to prescribe in detail, or even in general terms, what the minimum number of such books should be, is difficult. So much depends not only on the methods of teaching, which may change from stage to stage, but also upon the variety of ways in which different teachers treat the same stage. It would dearly be unwise to revert to the precision of former Codes and to suggest that the children of one age require three reading books and children of another age only two. (1) Nor would it be desirable to give any advice respecting the number of books to be used without taking into account the size and content of the books and the use to which they are to be put - factors which are far from uniform.

In Chapter II, Sections 24 to 27, we have suggested the kinds of book which are required in different types of school, if they are to be properly equipped. Beyond these general suggestions it is impossible to go for the reasons explained above. But Authorities will not find it difficult to estimate for a type of school or a particular school how many books are indispensable for the efficient working of the course of instruction.

The Use and Acquisition of Books by Pupils

73. Many witnesses called attention to the fact that the vast majority of pupils of Public Elementary Schools, and even a considerable number of those in Grammar Schools, had never possessed a school book of their own. It was stated that in most Elementary Schools books were distributed to the pupils in class at the beginning of each lesson and then collected at the end. Such conditions are doubtless due chiefly to lack of means, but it is evident that from the educational point of

(1) See Chapter I, Sections 10 and 12.


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view they are highly unsatisfactory. (1) It is clearly desirable that every pupil should be allowed, at least in school, to retain possession of books which he is constantly using, and that they should remain in his keeping until the end of the term or year in which he requires them.

We think that the older scholars, from the age of 11 and upwards, should in addition be encouraged to take books home. The educational advantages of such an arrangement are obvious. The Incorporated Association of Headmasters stated that many headmasters of Secondary Schools had been much impressed by the rapid development in the interest, intelligence and industry of those pupils from public elementary schools who had received, presumably for the first time, a supply of text books and works of reference for their personal use in school and for homework. We understand that corresponding improvement has been observed in the work of pupils in selective Modern Schools and Advanced Classes when the same facilities in the possession and use of books have been provided. We desire to see this practice extended as widely as possible to older pupils of the age of 11 and upwards in all schools. In poor districts where many of the children have few opportunities for home study, and where there is frequently no suitable place for keeping books in their homes, special arrangements might be made for such pupils to read books in school out of school hours on the lines which we suggest in Section 74 of this chapter.

Several witnesses made the suggestion that books on certain subjects in which individual pupils have displayed special aptitude or interest, might towards the end of their school life be given to them as a privilege or reward. We cordially agree with this proposal. We also suggest that Authorities might allow head teachers to give their pupils suitable books which have been removed from the school Stock Book, but which are still in sufficiently good condition for further use.

Further we would recommend that Authorities should consider the possibility, when providing senior pupils with books likely to be of permanent interest and value, and required by them throughout their whole course, that such books should from the first be committed to the special charge of each scholar at the beginning of the course; and that under appropriate conditions

(1) cf. The description in Appendix V of the practice in Scotland of allowing pupils to have the custody of school books, page 149.


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the pupils might be allowed to keep them on leaving school. This would apply especially to Bibles, atlases, dictionaries and certain kinds of history books and anthologies of verse. This method would probably help to secure more careful use of books in school and would also provide old scholars with the nucleus of a home library.

Arrangements for Keeping Books within the School

74. We have already called attention in Section 54 of Chapter IV to the importance of providing adequate accommodation for school and class libraries, and of taking care to ensure that the collections of reference books are systematically arranged, classified and catalogued. We consider it equally important that suitable accommodation should be provided for the class books used by individual pupils. In the past the provision of such accommodation was a simple matter, since school books were few in kind and were distributed at the beginning and collected at the end of each lesson at which they were used. They were then replaced in the teacher's cupboard until required again. Thus they were used only under the direct supervision of the teacher, and, where such conditions still prevail, the maximum care and safety of the books are secured because their number and condition are checked at each lesson. But modern requirements demand a greater variety of books, and freer and more continuous access to them. As a consequence the method of ensuring their safety and careful use has become a matter of serious consideration from the point of view of economy.

In this connection it must be remembered that in a large number of schools the pupils are allowed to take home some of the class books, and that they frequently provide their own satchels and cases for carrying such books. It is evident that any arrangement by which the books used by the scholar are under his own control involves some such provision as locker desks, or nests of lockers, or small compartments either in cupboards or some kind of framework which can be closed by the teacher at the end of the day's work. The last named arrangement seems to be specially desirable wherever the school building is used for other purposes. But in all these circumstances steps must be taken to secure (a) that each child may recognise his own books, and (b) that the teacher shall be able to exercise a complete check upon all the books so lent to the pupil. Where equipment of the kind suggested cannot be provided, or where


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class books still have to be used indiscriminately by all the members of the class, the control of the books by the teacher under present day conditions is more difficult. It would be necessary for him to examine the books individually at intervals during the year, and also frequently to check the numbers against those entered on the classroom stock list, in order that damaged books may be withdrawn and excessive loss may be prevented. This inevitably tends to restrict the free use of class books, and we would accordingly urge that suitable accommodation should be provided, whenever and wherever possible.

In cases where the scholars are allowed to retain some or all of the class books in use, but where it is difficult or impossible for them to study at home, and where there are no special facilities for juvenile readers in the local Public Libraries, the Authority in consultation with the head teacher might consider the desirability of assigning a room at the school on certain days of the week for the use of older pupils, so that they may read for themselves out of school hours under proper supervision. It is highly desirable that the room assigned for this purpose should have some of the equipment of a library.

The Average Life of School Books

75. It was pointed out that the length of time for which a school book could be used depended not only on its binding and form and on its being continuously in use, but also on the character of the school and upon local conditions. For instance, the life of school books in poorer neighbourhoods and in industrial districts, where the atmosphere is charged with smoke and dirt, is necessarily short. (1) Much, too, depends on the conditions under which the books are kept. It was stated that the loan of books for home study often entailed a very rapid deterioration, especially in crowded urban areas. Many witnesses called attention to the fact that there had been of late a tendency to reduce the quality of the binding in school books, and there is no doubt that the character of the binding affects appreciably the life of the book. Several witnesses were of opinion that paper bound books lasted about two years, books bound in thin cotton three years, and stiff bound books

(1) In this connection several witnesses pointed out that, if hot water could be provided in the school lavatories, the class books would have a much longer life.


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about five years. Several teachers pointed out that if books for school use were very well bound they often became dirty and ragged inside long before they were completely worn out, or the contents became obsolete. (1) We understand that the quality and suitability of the paper used for school books has improved considerably since the issue in 1913 of the British Association's Report on the Influence of School Books upon Eyesight. It was recommended in that Report that the paper used should be opaque, hard, free from gloss and untinted, or slightly tinted towards cream colour.

Apart from the question of infection, which we discuss next, school books in general use may after a few years become so dirty and unsightly that it is advisable to destroy them. Many witnesses, including the Association of Directors and Secretaries for Education, were of opinion that in practice school books were not destroyed so frequently as was desirable. Several witnesses stated that books that were unfit for use were still being used in many schools, particularly in rural areas, because the allowance granted by the local authority was not sufficient to purchase new class books.

The Possible Conveyance of Infection through School Books

76. We collected a considerable body of evidence bearing on the possible conveyance of infection through books, from the Medical Department of the Board of Education, from the Pathological Laboratory of the Ministry of Health, from several School Medical Officers in County and Urban Areas, and from the Medical Officers of three great Public Schools.

Dr RH Crowley, Senior Medical Officer of the Board of Education, informed us that the experiments directed to the discovery of specific micro-organisms on books or other property of infected persons have been few, and for the most part the results have been negligible. Dr Crowley stated, and our other medical witnesses corroborated, that the risk of conveyance of infection by books was very small, and altogether disproportionate to the other risks which existed in Public Elementary Schools. Next to a child actually suffering from an infectious disease while at school, the greatest danger

(1) The older books became obsolete partly owing to new discoveries, but chiefly owing to the introduction of fresh methods of presenting and treating the subject in question.


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of infection arose from persons who were 'carriers' and the least from inanimate objects. So far as infected articles were concerned, attention should be concentrated on those that were liable to gross contamination, such as towels, handkerchiefs. brushes used for art work, etc, and pencils and pens which were sometimes sucked by pupils. A book could not become infected unless it was actually used by an infected child, and even then it probably remained infected for a short time only.

Dr JAH Brincker, the Principal Assistant Medical Officer in the Public Health Department of the London County Council, told us that all recent work had emphasised the preponderant influence of personal infection as compared with the influence of inanimate objects. Dr Brincker stated that in the London schools books and apparatus were not disinfected as a routine measure. The practice is to replace them whenever they are worn or soiled, whether infectious diseases are rife or not. Library books taken to infected homes by the children are usually fumigated by the Medical Officer of Health before they are returned to the school library. A similar procedure is carried out in regard to books borrowed from the Council Education Library by teachers who have been exposed to infection.

Several witnesses pointed out that there was no occasion to destroy old and dirty books on the ground that they were sources of infection, as there was no evidence that dirt on books was in itself a culture ground for infected germs. In regard to means for disinfecting books, several witnesses considered that disinfection by formalin vapour was only completely effective if the vapour had access to all the pages which might be actually infected, a condition which did not usually obtain in the ordinary process of disinfection by that method. Most of our witnesses thought that disinfection by dry heat was much more effective and did not, as a rule, injure the books beyond slightly warping their bindings.

The general tenor of the evidence may be summed up in a sentence taken from the memorandum of Dr JAH Brincker. 'Modern experience proves more and more that dosage. virulence, and susceptibility of the individual are of such great importance in the process of infecting the individual and spreading disease that the importance of spread from school books recedes almost into insignificance as compared with the more common and important sources of spread.'


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CHAPTER VII

SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

77. Our conclusions and recommendations are as follows:

Expenditure on School Books

1. The evidence indicates that in a number of administrative areas the expenditure on books (including works of reference for school libraries) is seriously insufficient and that in consequence many schools are inadequately supplied with suitable books. (Chapter III, Section 49).

2. We accordingly recommend that authorities should look afresh into the whole question of the supply of books in the Public Elementary Schools, and, where necessary, take appropriate steps to increase the total allowances granted for school supplies, and to ensure that any additional sums thus made available may be used for providing the schools adequately with books suited to their special needs. (Chapter III, Section 49).

Administrative Arrangements for Controlling Expenditure on School Books

Scales of Inclusive Allowances

3. (a) We agree with the majority of our witnesses that in practice the most satisfactory method for regulating expenditure on books is for the Authority to fix a scale of inclusive allowances for books, stationery and apparatus, with a special fund to meet particular circumstances. (Chapter III, Section 42).

(b) We are not satisfied that it is desirable to establish a fixed grant for school books apart from the general grant for school supplies, but we suggest that, in areas where for years past the expenditure on books has been low, it might be advisable that the Authority, while not establishing a separate maximum for books, should specify a minimum sum per head to be spent on books only. (Chapter III, Section 45).


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4. We recommend that Authorities should provide a separate requisition form for school books. (Chapter III, Section 44).

Scrutiny of Requisition Forms for Books

5. We recommend that, apart from considerations of cost (to which of course due regard must be paid), the scrutiny of requisition forms for books should be conducted solely from the educational point of view. The needs of each individual school, and any special local circumstances, should be taken into account. In cases where it seems necessary to cut down a requisition for books, the list should be returned to the head teacher to make the adjustment needed in the manner least detrimental to the work of the school. (Chapter III, Section 46).

School Stock Books

6. We recommend that school stock books should be so arranged as to render it possible to enter consecutively under heads of subjects school books and works of reference as distinct from apparatus. (Chapter III, Section 47).

The Book Item in Education Accounts

7. The evidence shows that owing to the existing method of keeping accounts Authorities are unable without great expenditure of time and trouble to separate their expenditure on books from that incurred on stationery and other items of educational supply. (Chapter III, Sections 43 and 49).

8. We accordingly recommend that Authorities should revise the methods of keeping their accounts so that expenditure on books for Public Elementary Schools should be shown as a distinct item of expenditure. (1) (Chapter III, Section 43).

9. We further recommend that the Board of Education and the Ministry of Health should be asked to confer with Local Education Authorities as to the possibility of modifying the existing official form of Education Account in such a way as to obtain uniformity of practice, and to secure greater precision, by presenting separately and in greater detail some of the items now included under the two general headings 'Books and Stationery' and 'Furniture, Apparatus and Equipment'. (Chapter III, Section 43).

(1) This may not always be found practicable in the case of Departments for Infants only.


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School Libraries

10. We consider that every school should be provided with a permanent collection, adequate for its special requirements, of works bearing on the various branches of the curriculum, chosen and arranged for their appeal to children of different ages. In larger schools and particularly in selective Modern Schools and Advanced Classes, it may be desirable that the allocation should be made with a view to the provision of separate class libraries for some at any rate of the higher classes. It should rest with the head teacher in each instance to decide after consultation with the staff whether it is more satisfactory to keep the whole collection together as one school library, or to apportion some of the books among the different classes. (Chapter IV, Section 54).

Accommodation and Arrangement of the School Library

11. In accordance with the evidence of our witnesses, we emphasise the importance of providing adequate accommodation for the school library. The books should be placed on suitable shelves designed for the purpose, and should be systematically arranged and catalogued. (Chapter IV, Section 54).

The Maintenance of School Libraries

12. We consider it most important that the permanent school libraries should be kept at as high a level of efficiency as possible; and that it should be a definite duty of the officials of the Local Education Authority, or of the Urban or County librarian acting on behalf of the Authority, to co-operate regularly with the teachers in the systematic overhauling of the books, with a view to returning any works to headquarters for binding or repairs, for the issue of fresh copies of worn out books, or for discarding works which have become obsolete. (Chapter IV, Section 54).

13. We regard it as most important that the older scholars should be encouraged to consult works of reference both in the school library and in any available public library; and we accordingly recommend that they should be taught to make regular use of the books in the school library, and that its method of classification should be explained to them. (Chapter IV, Sections 54 and 58).


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Financial responsibility for provision of School Libraries

14. We understand that in a number of urban areas and in a few counties complete school libraries are supplied to some or all of the Public Elementary Schools in the area from the urban or county library. While recognising that certain advantages may attach to this system, we consider that the responsibility for the provision of school libraries should rest with the Local Education Authority and that it should provide the funds. We think, however, that the Education Committee would be well advised as a rule to seek the co-operation of the Library Committee and the expert assistance of the librarian. We would point out that one method of securing effective co-operation in urban areas is that the Education Committee should include members of the Library Committee, and that the Library Committee should include members of the Education Committee. (1) (Chapter IV, Section 56 (a)).

Co-operation between Public Elementary Schools and Urban and County Libraries

Urban Areas

15. We commend the practice now obtaining in many Public Libraries of reserving special rooms, or portions of rooms, as reading rooms for children, and consider that all Public Library Committees should, where possible, organise juvenile lending departments. The children should, if possible, be allowed personal access to the book shelves in the juvenile department. The staffs of juvenile reading and lending departments should be carefully selected on account of their knowledge and sympathy with children and tact in dealing with them. Teachers, on their part, should encourage their pupils to use the juvenile reading and lending departments of public libraries in areas where they are available. To this end they should from time to time, in concert with the librarians, organise visits of whole classes to the public library, at which the contents, system of classification and method of obtaining books, whether for purposes of reference or on loan, might be explained to the scholars by a member of the library staff or by a teacher who has made a special study of the

(1) In county areas such co-operation is already secured by the constitution of the County Library Committee. (See Section 53, p. 70).


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subject. In districts where a suitable juvenile reading room is available the scholars might be encouraged to use it for purposes of reference and general study. We regard it as specially important that children in urban areas, during their time at school, should acquire the habit of using the reading rooms and reference and lending departments of public libraries, and that they should be informed on leaving school of the facilities afforded to adult readers. (Chapter IV, Sections 54 and 58).

County Areas

16. We regard it as highly important that scholars in Public Elementary Schools in all parts of county areas should be enabled and encouraged to obtain on loan suitable books for general reading from the local centres of county libraries, and we accordingly recommend that, in districts where this is not at present easy, the County Library Committee should take steps to remodel the library organisation for this purpose. (Chapter IV, Section 59).

The Circulation of Sets of Books for General Reading

17. We regard the practice of circulating sets of books for general reading either in the school or at home to schools both urban and rural as a useful arrangement. It should be possible to use the machinery of county libraries more extensively than at present for circulating such sets of books. (Chapter IV, Section 57).

Reference Books for Teachers

18. We recommend that, where a special Teachers' Library is not provided by the Local Education Authority, the urban or county library should contain an educational section available for teachers.

We understand that nearly all library authorities now avail themselves of the facilities offered by the Central Library for Students, from which they obtain individual volumes for applicants, including teachers. (Chapter IV, Section 60).

19. The libraries of various provincial Universities and University Colleges have been generous in affording special facilities to teachers for consulting and borrowing books, and we consider it is highly desirable that such opportunities should be extended so far as is possible without impairing the value


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of such libraries for the students and the academic staff, for whom they are primarily intended. (Chapter IV, Section 60).

General co-operation between individual Libraries in Urban and County areas, and between all such Libraries and Public Elementary Schools

20. We think that general co-operation between urban and county libraries and Public Elementary Schools is the most economical and effective method of increasing within the near future the total supply of books available for pupils and teachers in such schools. From this point of view we consider it of great importance that the different Library Authorities throughout England and Wales should co-operate with one another in order to increase the scope and efficiency of the public library service as a whole. We find ourselves generally in agreement with the recommendations to this end made in the recent Report of the Public Libraries Committee. In particular we regard it as especially desirable that those areas for which no statutory library provision has yet been made or apparently contemplated should, without delay, either singly or in combination, be brought under the operation of the Public Libraries Acts. (Chapter IV passim, and Section 61).

The volume, character and quality of the existing supply of school books

Note. It is obvious that the books used in elementary schools should be excellent in quality as well as adequate in numbers. The children should learn from them to admire what is admirable in literature, and to acquire a habit of clear thought and lucid expression. The following conclusions, suggestions, and recommendations (numbers 21 to 31 inclusive) are put forward as means which will, in our opinion, lead to the attainment of this end.

Books for pupils in Senior Schools and Divisions

21. In view of the new outlook in education for children over the age of 11, we are of opinion that there is a need of books for older pupils adapted to the different types of curricula and to methods of individual and group work and supervised private study. There appears also to be a need for more works of reference within the capacities of the pupils. (Chapter II, Section 26).


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Books for selective Modern Schools and Advanced Classes

22. In view of the development of more advanced instruction with an industrial, agricultural, commercial or domestic bias in selective Modern Schools and Advanced Classes, where the pupils remain in increasing numbers up to the age of 15 or even 16, there is a growing demand for books specially adapted for these students. (Chapter II, Section 27).

Illustrations, Maps etc, in Class Books

23. We fully recognise that many books gain largely in interest by suitable illustrations. Illustrations are indeed essential in books for infants and young children. But we think that many of the illustrations in current use, particularly in books for older children, are unnecessarily elaborate, and, especially if they are coloured, increase the cost of production without proportionately adding to the usefulness of the book. Similar considerations apply to some of the small maps, plans etc. which are often included in school books on geography, history and literature. We would draw attention to the inappropriateness of many illustrations, and still more to the fact that they are often unsuitably placed in relation to the part of the text which they are intended to elucidate. (Chapter II, Section 23).

Illustrations etc. bearing on History, Geography and Science, and other branches of the curriculum

24. We think that Local Education Authorities and teachers in Public Elementary Schools might with advantage make more use of the various publications issued by the Public Museums and Art Galleries and by commercial and non-commercial associations throughout the country. Further we would urge those concerned with the production of school books, and the Local Education Authorities, to give due regard to these sources. (Chapter II, Section 23 and Sections 30 and 31).

The Bible

25. (a) We suggest that one or more well printed copies of the Bible in large and attractive type and form should be included in each school library, and we recommend that every Elementary School child who can read sufficiently well should be provided with a copy of one or more portions of the Bible, suitable for study, in a similar type and form.


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(b) We consider that there is room for a good anthology of the finest passages of the Bible suitable for school use and produced at a reasonable cost. (1) (Chapter II, Section 28).

History

26. We recommend that History books should be reviewed from time to time so as to ensure that they are in line with the results of modern research. (Chapter II, Section 30).

Geography

27. We regard it as most important that the statements in Geography text books also should periodically be reviewed in the light of the political changes and rapid economic developments in the modern world; we recommend that particular attention should be given to the provision of supplementary geographical reading matter which has special significance for British children. (Chapter II, Section 31).

Science

28. We regard it as important that in books on science intended for use in Public Elementary Schools the different scientific principles should be more freely illustrated from examples and applications that have come, or are likely to come, within the pupils' range of experience. We call attention also to the special character of the science text books required for use in Modern Schools and Advanced Classes. (Chapter II. Section 34).

Music

29. We recommend that separate class books of exercises in sight-reading should be provided for each pupil from about the age of 9 onwards. We also consider that small cheap manuscript books with staves should be provided for the children from quite an early age for taking notes on music. (Chapter II, Section 35).

We suggest that Local Book List and Book Room Committees, (2) in preparing lists of books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools, should devote special attention to the

(1) Such an anthology would be very useful in connection with the Syllabuses of Religious Instruction.

(2) See Recommendation No. 42.


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arrangement and classification of musical scores and books on music, and that care should be taken to display the collection of works on music in the Book Room in an orderly and attractive manner. We think too that the authority should, where possible, provide a piano in the book room or in some adjacent room, so that teachers may be able to try over songs before making a final selection. Failing this, teachers should be allowed to have the loan of a few books or separate copies of school songs so that they could try them over at home. (Chapter II, Section 35).

Practical Instruction

30. Our evidence indicates that there is still a wide field for good books published at a reasonable cost on the various branches of practical instruction. We recommend that a small collection of special books and periodicals bearing on the different forms of practical instruction should form an integral part of the normal equipment of schools and centres, and in any case provision should be made in the school libraries for books both for teachers and pupils. We consider it specially important that in Modern Schools, particularly those with a practical bias, generous provision should be made for the supply of publications connected with the branches of practical instruction taught in the school. (Chapter II Section 37).

Name of Author and Date of Publication

31. We would urge very strongly that all books intended for use in schools should contain the author's name and the date at which they were published. (Chapter II, Section 23).

The supply of Welsh Books for use in Public Elementary Schools in the bi-lingual districts of Wales

32. Recognising the existence of the bi-lingual problem in the Public Elementary Schools of Wales we find ourselves in agreement with the general principles for the improvement of Welsh school books put forward in the Report of the Departmental Committee on Welsh in Education and Life (1) In

(1) The principal recommendations in the report on Welsh in Education and Life which bear directly on the selection and provision of books for public elementary schools are quoted on page 56 of this Report.


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particular we consider that the existence of this problem warrants the provision by Welsh Local Education Authorities of more generous grants for books in Elementary Schools than have hitherto been customary. (Chapter II, Section 40).

The Use and Acquisition of Books by Pupils, and Arrangements for Keeping Books in School

The Possession of Books by Pupils

33. (a) We consider that every pupil should be allowed, at least in school, to retain possession of all the books which he is constantly using, and that they should remain in his keeping until the end of the term or year in which he requires them. (Chapter VI, Section 73).

(b) We think that the older scholars from the age of 11 and upwards should in addition be encouraged to take books home. (Chapter VI, Section 73).

(c) We agree with the suggestion made by several of the witnesses that books on certain subjects in which individual pupils have displayed special aptitude or interest might, towards the end of their school life, be given to them as a privilege or reward. We also suggest that Authorities might allow head teachers to give their pupils suitable books which have been removed from the school Stock Book, but which are still in sufficiently good condition for further use. In addition, Authorities, when providing senior pupils with books likely to be of permanent interest and value, and to be required by them throughout their whole course, should consider the possibility of giving such books into the keeping of each scholar at the beginning of the course, and of allowing scholars under appropriate conditions to retain them on leaving school. This will apply especially to Bibles, atlases, dictionaries and certain kinds of history books and anthologies of verse. (Chapter VI, Section 73).

Arrangements for Keeping Books in School

34. If, as we have recommended above, the books used by each scholar are placed under his own control, it is essential that locker desks should be provided, or nests of lockers or small compartments, either in cupboards or in some kind of framework which can be closed by the teacher at the end of


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the day's work. In view of the fact that inadequate and unsuitable accommodation for keeping class books inevitably tends to restrict their free use, we urge that suitable accommodation of the kind indicated should be provided whenever and wherever possible. (Chapter VI, Section 74).

Provision of Opportunities for Private Study in the School Building

35. We recommend that in cases where it is difficult or impossible for the children to study at home, and where there are no special facilities for juvenile readers in the local public libraries, the Authority, in consultation with the head teacher, might consider the desirability of assigning a room at the school on certain days of the week for the use of older pupils, so that they might read for themselves out of school hours, under proper supervision. It is highly desirable that the room assigned for this purpose should have some of the equipment of a library. (Chapter VI. Section 74).

Sources of Guidance for Teachers in the Selection of Books

36. One of the most serious responsibilities in education is the selection of books, and it is on the teachers, in the first place, that this responsibility rests. We regard it as among the most important of the functions of Training Colleges to develop in their students a capacity to form a just appreciation of the merits of different books. In order that this capacity may be turned to good account, we consider that it is necessary for the teachers to devote a considerable time apart from 'school hours' to reading the new works that from time to time appear on the subjects with which they are concerned. (Chapter V, Section 62).

37. The evidence indicates that teachers often derive much valuable guidance on the choice of school books from the different courses for teachers organised by the Board, from the Board's Inspectors, from inspectors and officials of the Local Education Authority, and from the librarians of urban and county libraries. We would suggest that teachers would be well advised to take the fullest possible advantage of these sources of guidance in the selection of books. (Chapter V, Section 65).


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Training Colleges

38. We recommend that the problem of selecting school books should be kept steadily in view throughout the course at the Training College, and that the students should be brought to realise the importance of a wise choice both of books for use in class, and of works of reference for the school library. To this end instruction on the proper selection of class books and library books should be included in the courses on the various subjects of the curriculum, and a special section of the library should be reserved for school books of different types. (Chapter V, Section 64).

39. We suggest that in any schools used as practising schools, the students should be encouraged to make themselves acquainted with the class books in use, and with the available works of reference in the school libraries. (Chapter V, Section 64).

40. We recommend that some general instruction should be provided in Training Colleges on the management of school libraries. (Chapter V, Section 64, and Chapter IV, Section 54).

Temporary Exhibitions of School Books and Permanent Book Rooms

41. While we recognise that the information obtained at temporary exhibitions of school books, whether held in connection with teachers' conferences, or organised specially by Authorities in concert with educational publishers, must be of considerable use to teachers, we nevertheless think that permanent book rooms are of even greater value for the purpose. We accordingly recommend that those Authorities which have not already done so should take steps to establish book rooms. Where possible each Authority should establish its own book room, but in many instances neighbouring Authorities might find it more convenient to combine for this purpose. (Chapter V, Section 67).

Book List Committees

42. We recommend the establishment of Local Book List Committees to draw up short annotated lists of books suitable for use in Public Elementary Schools. These might be set up by a single authority in large areas, or by several neighbouring


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Authorities in combination. We regard it as highly desirable that the general management of Book Rooms should, if possible, be entrusted to Committees responsible for drawing up and revising the book lists. If for any reason this arrangement cannot be adopted, we would suggest that members of the Book List Committees should be included on Committees responsible for the management of Book Rooms. Book List Committees should consist mainly of teachers, together with some members and officers of the Local Education Authority or Authorities. It is, however, in our view most important that any lists of books prepared by these Committees should be regarded as merely conveying suggestions, and that in no case should they restrict the freedom of the teacher in drawing up his requisition for books. (Chapter V, Section 68).

General Questions relating to the Production of School Books

Central Advisory Conference

43. We recommend that the Board of Education should convene from time to time a Central Advisory Conference, which should include representatives of the Local Book List Committees in the different divisional areas, (1) to deal with general questions relating to the supply, quality and content of books for Public Elementary Schools. (2)

Local Book List Committees will submit their observations on the existing provision of books, on the principal deficiencies which exist, and on the subjects for which books are most

(1) For purposes of inspection by the Board of Education, England and Wales are divided into the following divisional areas: Northern; North-Eastern; North-Western; West-Central; East-Central; Eastern; Metropolitan; South-Eastern; South-Western; Wales and Monmouthshire.

(2) It is assumed that questions connected with the publication and production of Welsh books for use in Public Elementary Schools in the bilingual districts of Wales would not fall within the province of such a Central Advisory Conference, but would be dealt with by the Press Board of the University of Wales, as suggested in recommendation 15 of the Report on Welsh in Education and Life, which runs as follows: 'That the University Press Board act as an Advisory Publication Board to guide publishers and encourage authors in the publication and production of Welsh books for children.' See page 56.


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urgently needed. In practice it may be found desirable that divisional conferences of representatives of the Local Book List Committees should be held from time to time for collating the information submitted by them. (Chapter V, Section 70).

(Signed) WH HADOW (Chairman)
GRAHAM BALFOUR
ERNEST BARKER
WA BROCKINGTON
ER CONWAY
HW COUSINS
DHS CRANAGE
EVAN T DAVIS
LYNDA GRIER
FREDA HAWTREY
PERCY JACKSON
FB MALIM
ALBERT MANSBRIDGE
AJ MUNDELLA
EM TANNER
RH TAWNEY
SAMUEL TAYLOR
H WARD
WC WATKINS
JA WHITE
ROBERT F YOUNG (Secretary)
26th July, 1928.


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APPENDIX I

(a) LIST OF WITNESSES

(i) Board of Education

Mr H Allsopp, HM Inspector.
Mr RH Crowley, MD, Senior Medical Officer.
Miss EA Ford, HM Woman Staff Inspector.
Mr JE Hales, HM Staff Inspector.
Mr FT Howard, HM Divisional Inspector.
Mr FO Mann, OBE, HM Inspector.
Mr HM Richards, CB, Senior Chief Inspector and Chief Inspector of Public Elementary Schools.
Mr JB Russell, HM Inspector.
Miss H Brown Smith, HM Inspector.
Mr GP Williams, HM Divisional Inspector for Wales.

(ii) Associations representing Members and Officials of Local Education Authorities

Association of Directors and Secretaries for Education:
Sir Benjamin Gott, FCS, Secretary to the Middlesex Education Committee.
Mr FF Potter, Director of Education for Cheshire.

Association of Education Committees:
Alderman SW Bush, JP, Chairman of the Bath Education Committee.
Mr Thomas Walling, Director of Education for Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Association of Municipal Corporations:
Mr FP Armitage, Director of Education for Leicester.
Mr CF Mott, Director of Education for Liverpool.

County Councils Association:
Sir Mark Collet, Bart., JP, DL, Chairman of the Kent Education Committee.
Mr E Salter Davies, Director of Education for Kent.
Mr JW Home, Chief Officer for Elementary Education under the Yorkshire (West Riding) Education Committee.

National Association of Inspectors of Schools and Educational Organisers:
Mr PB Ballard, DLitt, Divisional Inspector under the Education Department of the London County Council.
Mr L Brooks, District Inspector under the Education Department of the London County Council.
Mr R Sopwith, Inspector of Schools under the Sheffield Education Committee.


[page 122]

(iii) Organisations representing Teachers

Association of Assistant Mistresses:
Miss G. Bracken, The County Secondary School, Fulham.
Miss EC Latham, The County School, Sittingbourne.
Miss M. Wilson, The County High School, Braintree.

Association of Head Mistresses:
Miss Borthwick, Head Mistress of the County Girls' School, Wimbledon.
Miss Mickleburgh, Head Mistress of the High School for Girls, Oswestry.

Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools:
Mr JH Arnold, St. Dunstan's College, Catford, London.
Mr JH Jenkinson, Central Secondary School, Sheffield.

Incorporated Association of Head Masters:
Mr CW Bailey, Head Master of Holt Secondary School, Liverpool.
Mr WA Knight, Head Master of Sexey's School, Bruton, Somersetshire.

London Association of Head Teachers of Central Schools:
Miss Agutter, Head Mistress of the Girls' Central Council School, Bermondsey.
Mr B Dumville, Head Master of the Central Council School, North Kensington.
Mr H Millward, Head Master of Fleet Road Central Council School, Hampstead.
Mr AE Roberts, Head Master of the Boys' Central Council School, Fulham.

London Teachers' Association:
Miss FG Chamings.
Miss AE Phillips.
Mr JW Samuel.
Mr A Tasker, MBE, Hon. Treasurer of the Association.

National Association of Head Teachers:
Miss AJ Dawes, Fentham Road Council School, Birmingham.
Mr HJ Jackson, The People's College, Nottingham.
Mr HF Lee, Dowdon Council School, Seaham Harbour, Co. Durham.

National Federation of Class Teachers:
Mr TR Evans.
Mr WH Robinson.

National Union of Teachers:
Mr F Barraclough, President of the Union.
Mr GSN Ellis, Secretary to the Education Committee of the Union.
Mr JH Lumby.
Mr F Mander.
Mrs L Manning, JP.
Mr W Merrick, Chairman of the Education Committee of the Union.
Mr HT Morgan.


[page 123]

National Union of Teachers - Central Schools Section:
Mr HS Barker.
Mr H Player.
Alderman EJ Sainsbury, CBE, Chairman of the Section.
Miss AA Scorrer.

National Union of Women Teachers:
Miss EE Crosby, Chairman of the Educational Committee of the Union.
Miss EE Froud, General Secretary.

Training College Association:
Mr HEJ Curzon, DSc, Goldsmiths' College, New Cross, London.
Miss Mercier, Principal of Whitelands College, Chelsea, London.
Mr WP Welpton, The University, Leeds.

(iv) Other Organisations

The Associated Booksellers of Great Britain and Ireland:
Mr Basil Blackwell.
Mr F Brown.
Mr JG Wilson.
Mr Charles Young (President).

Association of Publishers' Educational Representatives:
Mr D Donaldson (McDougall's Educational Co. Ltd)
Mr OG Meredith (Macmillan & Co. Ltd).

English Association:
Miss GH Bracken, Hon. Secretary of the Association.
Mr George Sampson, District Inspector under the Education Department of the London County Council.

Geographical Association:
Mrs W. Katz, Chairman of the Committee for Primary School Teachers.

Historical Association:
Miss H. M. Madeley, Assistant Director of Education for Warwick- shire.
Miss E. E. Monk, Head Teacher of the Girls' Dept., Woodlands Park School, Tottenham.
Miss RR Reid, DLit, District Inspector under the Education Department of the London County Council.

Mathematical Association:
Mr AL Atkin, District Inspector under the Education Department of the London County Council.

Parents' National Educational Union:
Hon. Mrs Franklin, Hon. Secretary to the Union.
Mr H Household, Director of Education for Gloucestershire.


[page 124]

Publishers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland:
Mr JW Allen (Longman's, Green & Co. Ltd).
Mr GH Bickers (G. Bell & Sons, Ltd).
Mr GV Carey (Cambridge University Press).
Mr AJ McDougall (McDougall's Educational Co. Ltd).
Mr HS Milford, DLitt (Oxford University Press), Chairman of the Educational Group of the Association.
Mr H Scheurmier (Thos. Nelson & Sons, Ltd).
Mr J Tothill (George Philip & Son, Ltd).
Mr HG Wood (Nisbet & Co. Ltd).

(v) Individual witnesses

Mr C Birchenough, Chief Inspector under the Kent Local Education Authority.
The Hon. WN Bruce, CB, LLD, Pro-Chancellor of the University of Wales.
Mr Duncan Forbes, MBE, MD, Medical Officer of Health for Brighton.
Mr WJ Gruffydd, Professor of Celtic, University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff.
Miss EM Hill, Assistant Education Officer to the Wiltshire Education Committee.
Mr Rufus H Mallinson, Head Teacher of Fordham Church of England School, Cambridgeshire.
Sir Henry Newbolt, CH, LittD, Netherhampton House, Salisbury.
Mr C Nowell, Borough Librarian, Coventry.
Mr AE Palfery, Principal Assistant, Education Officer's Department, London County Council.
The late Mr James Wheatley, MD, County Medical Officer of Health for Shropshire.

(b) LIST OF ORGANISATIONS AND PERSONS WHO SENT MEMORANDA, STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA FOR THE USE OF THE COMMITTEE

Accrington, The Education Committee for the Borough of.
Acton, The Education Committee for the Borough of.
Mr AB Adams, OBE, HM Inspector.
Mr H Alderton, Borough Librarian, Bromley, Kent.
Mr EG Allard, Head Teacher, North Hackney Central Council School, Clapton, London.
The American Library Association, 86 East Randolph Street, Chicago, USA.
Mr W Attlee, MD, MRCS, MRCP, Chairman of the Medical Board of Eton College.
Mr John Ballinger, CBE, Librarian, The National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.
Miss R. Barker, Head Teacher of the Girls' Department, Coventry Street School, Kidderminster.
Barnstaple, The Education Committee for the Borough of.


[page 125]

Mr WH Barraclough, Chief Librarian of the Bradford Public Libraries.
Mr PH Alder-Barrett, Head Master, St. Owen's Council School, Hereford.
Bath, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Beckenham, The Education Committee for the Urban District of.
Mr TH Bentley, Head Teacher, Lovell Road Council School, Leeds.
Mr EH Betts, Head Teacher, 'Blackfriars' Council School, London.
Birmingham, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Blackburn, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Blackpool, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr GH Bland, FRGS, Borough Librarian and Curator, Lancaster.
Mr EFD Bloom, HM Inspector.
The Board of Deputies of British Jews.
Bradford, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr JT Bridge, Head Teacher, Watt Close Council School, Bromsgrove, Worcs.
Mr AS Bright, HM Inspector.
Brighton, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr JAH Brincker, MB, MRCS, Principal Assistant Medical Officer, Public Health Department, London County Council.
Bristol, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
The British and Foreign Bible Society.
The British Psychological Society (Education Section).
Miss G Brunton, Head Teacher of Marlborough Girls' School.
Buckinghamshire, The Education Committee for.
Mr GW Buckle, HM Inspector.
Mr Cyril L Burt, DSc, Psychologist to the London County Council, and Professor of Education in the University of London.
Mr J Buxton, late Head Master of Gipton Council School, Leeds.
Dame Janet Campbell, DBE, MD, Chief Woman Medical Adviser to Board of Education.
Cardiff, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Cardiganshire, The Education Committee for.
Carlisle, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Carnarvonshire, The Education Committee for.
Mr EH Carter, OBE, HM Inspector.
The Catholic Education Council.
Mr AH Cherrill, HM Inspector.
Cheshire, The Education Committee for.
Mr W Clayton, Head Teacher, Appleton Roebuck Council School, Yorkshire.
Mr PB Coles, HM Inspector.
Miss DI Collins, Head Teacher, Ledbury Girls' and Infants' Council School, Herefordshire.
Mr FN Cook, Education Department, Yorkshire (West Riding).
Cumberland, The Education Committee for the County of.
The Dalton Association.
Miss IE Davies, Head Teacher, Orchard Lane Council Girls' School, Lye, Stourbridge.


[page 126]

Mr HJ Dean, HM Divisional Inspector.
Derby, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Devon, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr RJ Done, Head Teacher, 'Wakefield' Central School, East Ham.
Dorset, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr WE Doubleday, Chief Librarian, Borough of Hampstead Public Libraries.
Durham, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr A Eastwood, MD, Ministry of Health Pathological Laboratory.
The Educational Handwork Association.
Mr C Eldred, Head Teacher, Hadleigh Council School, West Suffolk.
Essex, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr KBD Forbes, HM Inspector.
Mr GE Friend, MRCS, LRCP. Medical Officer, Christ's Hospital, Horsham, Sussex.
The Froebel Society and Junior Schools Association.
Miss A Garratt, Head Teacher, Little Waldingfield Council School, Sudbury, Suffolk.
Mr E Glasgow, HM Inspector.
Mr Duncan Gray, Borough Librarian, St. Marylebone, London.
Glamorganshire, The Education Committee for.
Gloucestershire, The Education Committee for.
Mr E Green, Chief Librarian of the Halifax Municipal Libraries.
Mr RH Green, HM Assistant Inspector.
Capt. FH Grenfell, DSO, HM Staff Inspector of Physical Exercises.
Mr CTC Hall, Head Teacher, Central Boys' Council School, Weymouth.
Mr SE Halman, HM Assistant Inspector.
Miss EE Harris, Head Teacher, St. Peter's Council School, Hereford.
Miss A Harrison, Head Teacher, Harkstead Council School, Ipswich.
Mr HR Havart, Reay Central Council School, Hackford Road, London.
Mr FH Hinton, Head Teacher, Ivy Lane Council School, Chippenham, Wilts.
Mr R Holland, Secretary to the National Society.
Mr HC Hooper, Head Teacher, The Boys' Council School, Ledbury, Herefordshire.
Hornsey, The Education Committee for the Borough of.
Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools - Welsh Branch.
The Institute of Handicraft Teachers.
Mr Marshall Jackman, Secretary of the National Association of Inspectors of Schools and Educational Organisers.
Mr WJ Jenkin, Head Teacher, East Soham Council School, East Suffolk.
Miss EM Jones, Head Teacher, Much Birch Church of England School, Herefordshire.


[page 127]

Mr TO Jones, Head Teacher, The Council School, Saxmundham, Suffolk.
Mr A Kahn, HM Staff Inspector.
Miss EE Kemble, late HM Inspector.
Kent, The Education Committee for the County of.
Sir Frederic Kenyon, GBE, KCB, DLitt, Director and Principal Librarian of the British Museum.
Mr A King, Head Teacher, Tophill Council School, Portland, Dorset.
Lancashire, The Education Committee for.
Mr A Law, The School House, Stanley, Perthshire, Scotland.
Leeds, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Leicestershire, The Education Committee for.
Mr LR Lempriere, OBE, MB, Medical Officer, Haileybury College, Hertford.
Rev. J Scott-Lidgett, DD.
Mr G Lilley, District Inspector under the Education Department of the London County Council.
Liverpool, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Llanelly, The Education Committee for the Borough of.
London, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr TRL Ludlan, Head Master, Huntsman's Gardens Council School, Sheffield.
Mr LR McColvin, Chief Librarian of the Ipswich Public Libraries.
Miss L Malcolm, Head Teacher, Church of England Girls' School, Icen Way, Dorchester.
Manchester, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr J Mauer, Comenius Educational Institute, Prague.
Middlesex, The Education Committee for the County of.
Lieut. Colonel JM Mitchell. OBE, Secretary to the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust.
Miss G Morris, Librarian, National Union of Teachers, Hamilton House, WC1.
Mr MC Morris, HM Inspector.
Miss M Munroe, Bishop Otter College, Chichester, Sussex.
Mr HJR Murray, HM Divisional Inspector.
The National Book Council.
The National Home Reading Union.
The National Union of School Teachers.
The National Union of Teachers - Welsh Committee.
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Sir George Newman, KCB, MD, Chief Medical Officer of the Ministry of Health and the Board of Education.
Norfolk, The Education Committee for the County of.
Northumberland, The Education Committee for the County of.
Nottingham, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Nuneaton, The Education Committee for the Borough of.


[page 128]

Mr T Percy Nunn, DSc, Principal of the Day Training College, and Professor of Education in the University of London.
Ontario, Canada, The Department of Education for.
Mr WM Page, CBE, HM Inspector.
Mr CD Pawle, HM Inspector.
Mr DB Peacock, Head Teacher, Saltash Council School, Cornwall.
Miss AG Philip, HM Chief Woman Inspector.
Mr CJ Phillips, HM Divisional Inspector.
Plymouth, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr AS Pratt, Chief Mathematical Master, Whitgift Grammar School, Croydon.
Miss L Prouty, Vice Librarian, The Public Library, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Mr JH Quinn, Borough Librarian, Chelsea, London.
Rhondda, The Education Committee for the Urban District of.
Mr OHT Rishbeth, FRGS, Professor of Geography, University College, Southampton.
Rev. JH Ritson, DD, Sec. to the British and Foreign Bible Society.
Mr Frank Roscoe, Secretary of the Teachers Registration Council.
Miss DW Rowell, Head Teacher, St. George's Intermediate Council School, Northampton.
Mr AH Russell, Head Master, East Bristol Central School, St. George, Bristol.
Miss E Russell, HM Inspector.
Rutland, The Education Committee for the County of.
Sir Michael Sadler, KCSI, CMG, LLD, Master of University College, Oxford.
Mr JW Samuel, late Head Teacher of West Square Central Council School, Southwark, London.
The School Nature Study Union.
The Science Masters Association.
Mr JS Scott, HM Inspector.
The Scottish Education Department.
Mr W Scutt, late HM Inspector.
Mr EF Sewter, Head Teacher, Halesworth Council School, East Suffolk.
Miss EP Sharp, Head Teacher, Weymouth Central Girls' School.
Mr GT Shaw, HM Staff Inspector.
Shipley, The Education Committee for the Urban District of.
Shropshire, The Education Committee for.
The Society of Friends - Central Education Committee.
Somerset, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr A Somervell, MusDoc, HM Principal Inspector of Music.
Southampton, The Education Committee for the County of (Hampshire).
Southampton, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr WK Spencer, DSc, HM Inspector.
Mr Ferdinand Spisek, DPhil, Ministry of Education, Prague.
Staffordshire, The Education Committee for.


[page 129]

Mr WJ Stanton, Head Teacher, The Boys Council School, Wimborne, Dorset.
Stoke-on-Trent, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr FC Stone, HM Inspector.
Suffolk (West), The Education Committee for.
Sunderland, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Surrey, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr J Susta, DPhil. Professor of History in the Charles University of Prague, late Minister of Education.
Mr GK Sutherland, DSc, HM Inspector.
Swansea, The Education Committee for the County Borough of.
Mr A Tasker, MBE, Head Master, Reay Central Council School, Hackford Road, London.
Mr W Tatley, Head Teacher, Chisledon Church of England School, Wilts.
Taunton, The Education Committee for the Borough of.
Mr L Acland Taylor, City Librarian, Bristol.
Mr AL Thornton, HM Divisional Inspector.
Mr JR Till, District Inspector for Commercial Subjects under the London County Council.
Mr CJR. Tipper, Director of Education for Westmorland.
Tottenham, The Education Committee for the Urban District of.
The Trades Union Congress General Council (Education Committee).
Transvaal, South Africa, The Education Department for.
The Union of Welsh Teachers (Undeb Athrawon Cymreig).
The Council of the University of Wales.
Mr JE Walker, Borough Librarian, Fulham, London.
Walthamstow, The Education Committee for the Urban District of.
Warwickshire, The Education Committee for.
Miss M Watson, Head Teacher, Chitterne Church of England School, Wilts.
Mr AF Watts, HM Inspector.
Miss MJ Wellock, Head Teacher, The Infants' Department, Medburn School, St. Pancras, London.
Mr RA Wesley, Head Teacher, Southbroom Council School, Devizes, Wilts.
Mrs Jessie White, DSc.
Isle of Wight, The Education Committee for the County of.
Mr CE Winn, HM Assistant Inspector.
The Workers' Educational Association.
Mr R Wright, County Librarian for Middlesex.
Mr JC Wyatt, Head Teacher, Sturminster Newton CE Senior School, Dorset.
Mr AN Bonaparte Wyse, CBE, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Education for Northern Ireland.
Yorkshire (West Riding), The Education Committee for.


[page 130]

APPENDIX II

NOTES ON THE PRACTICE OF A FEW TYPICAL LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES IN THE MATTER OF THE SELECTION AND PROVISION OF BOOKS FOR PUPILS AND TEACHERS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Note In the brief space available it has been possible to include notes on the provision and supply of books in Public Elementary Schools for a few typical Local Education Authorities only. These notes are based on information furnished by the authorities in question in reply to a Questionnaire issued by the Consultative Committee.

1. ACCRINGTON BOROUGH

The undermentioned scale of allowances has been fixed for the provision of books, stationery, needlework material, kindergarten requisites, etc, but excluding items of furniture:

Infants and Junior Schools or Departments:
Where the average attendance is under 753s 1d [15½p] per unit
Where the average attendance is between 75 and 1502s 10d [14p] per unit
Where the average attendance is over 1502s 8d [13p] per unit
Senior Schools and Divisions:
Where the average attendance is between 75 and 1504s 8d [23p] per unit
Where the average attendance is over 1504s 3d [21p] per unit
Central Schools and Departments6s 6d [32½p] per unit

A sum is set aside each year for the provision of additional supplies of books in schools where circumstances warrant extra expenditure, e.g. the Central School has been assigned a special sum each year over and above the allowance per head. Until a few years ago the Authority issued lists of approved books, but this practice has latterly been abandoned. The Authority states that head teachers prefer to interview publishers' travellers and see their specimen copies of new books. A small collection of specimen school books is exhibited at the education office. Works of reference are provided for teachers. A school library is provided by the Public Library for the middle classes (corresponding to Standards III and IV) of each upper department. These collections of books contain sufficient volumes for each child to have a different book at least once a week. The Public Library receives from the Authority an annual grant of 100 for the maintenance of this scheme.


[page 131]

Sets of Books (40 per set) circulate among the schools for general class reading in addition to the permanent school stock. The number of sets in circulation allows from two to five sets per school at any one time, according to the size of school, and the sets are changed three times a year.

The Borough Librarian or a responsible member of his staff visits the schools periodically to inspect the books in the school library and in the circulating sets, and arranges for re-binding and repairs. At these visits talks are given to the children on the care of books, the way to read a book, and on the choice of books. Lectures are also given from time to time at the Library on the way to use the Reference Library.

Children in upper standards are admitted as borrowing members of the children's section of the central Library on the recommendation of the head teacher.

2. ACTON BOROUGH

The Education Authority for the Borough of Acton has fixed the undermentioned scale of allowances for the supply of books and stationery. It is administered on the basis of the average attendance for the preceding school year.

Central School6s 0d [30p] per unit
Senior Mixed Schools4s 0d [20p] per unit
Junior Mixed Schools3s 6d [17½p] per unit
Boys' Schools3s 6d [17½p] per unit
Girls' Schools4s 6d [22½p] per unit
Infants' Schools2s 6d [12½p] per unit

Apparatus and equipment is supplied in all departments out of a flat-rate of 1s 6d [7½p] per unit of average attendance for the preceding school year. Unexpended balances from the scale or the flat-rate may be utilised for the provision of additional apparatus, or of books and stationery, as the case may be.

To the allowance for each department calculated on the above scale is added the amount received and paid in to the Borough Treasurer in respect of needlework sales for the preceding financial year.

A library of specimen books has been established, and head teachers are invited to inspect the collection before submitting requisitions. A reading panel elected by the teaching staff, consisting of head and assistant teachers, has been established for the purpose of reading and reporting upon the specimen books in this library. Permits are granted to recognised educational publishers to visit schools periodically.

School libraries are formed and maintained by voluntary gifts. It has been found inadvisable in some schools to allow books to be taken home. In the juvenile section of the Public Library, which is largely used, many of the books bear traces of unsatisfactory home conditions.


[page 132]

3. BATH COUNTY BOROUGH

The following limits of expenditure have been fixed for the supply of books and stationery, exclusive of needlework and handicraft materials:

Central Schools10s 6d [52½p] per head
Senior Schools6s 6d [32½p] per head
Junior Schools3s 6d [17½p] per head
Infants' Schools with Standard I2s 3d [11p] per head

The above scale is administered on the basis of the number of pupils on the roll, and in the case of Junior Schools and Infants' Schools with Standard I, where the number of pupils on the roll is less than 100, the allowance is increased by 3d [1p] per head.

Separate lists of approved school books are issued by the Authority for Senior, Junior and Infants' Schools. These lists are prepared and amended each year by committees of head teachers of Senior, Junior and Infants' Schools respectively. In compiling and revising these lists the head teachers consult with members of their staffs who have special knowledge of individual subjects. No special lists are issued for the Central School and the Special (MD) School. A list of approved songs and music is also issued by the Authority.

School and class libraries are provided by voluntary effort.

4. BIRMINGHAM COUNTY BOROUGH

The following scale of allowances for the provision of books, apparatus and stationery (excluding furniture, scholars' library books, science apparatus and needlework materials) has been in operation since 1925:

Boys', Girls' and Mixed Departments
Where less than 30% of the children are in Standards V - VIII5s 0d [25p]
Where there are 30% and less than 40%5s 3d [26p]
Where there are 40% and less than 50%5s 6d [27½p]
Where there are more than 50%5s 9d [28½p]
Where there are more than 60%6s 3d [31p]
Junior Departments3s 0d [15p]
Infants' Departments:
Where average attendance exceeds 752s 3d [11p]
Under 110 in average attendance2s 9d [13½p]
From 110 to 170 in average attendance2s 6d [12½p]

Head and class teachers have access to a display of specimen books for the purpose of selection.


[page 133]

School libraries in Elementary Schools are provided by means of a separate annual grant over and above the ordinary capitation allowance for school supplies. Arrangements are made with several of the leading booksellers in the city to display books suitable for juvenile libraries.

Works of reference may be provided for teachers and pupils in Elementary Schools, and the cost met out of the capitation allowance for school supplies.

The Education Committee has arranged with the Public Libraries Committee for borrowers' tickets to be issued, on the signature of a head teacher, to scholars attending the Public Elementary Schools. The Education Committee defray the cost of replacing or making good any books lost or damaged by pupils whilst holding such tickets. These facilities have been extensively used by pupils at a small cost to the Education Committee.

5. BRIGHTON COUNTY BOROUGH

The Local Education Authority has fixed the following scale of capitation allowances for books, stationery, and apparatus, based on average attendance for the previous year:

7s 6d [37½p] for pupils in Senior Boys' and Girls' Departments.
6s 6d [32½p] for pupils in Junior Mixed Departments.
3s 0d [15p] for Infants.
A special allowance for educational equipment is made to newly appointed head teachers.

The Education Committee, after consultation with head teachers, has issued a list of suitable books, and specimen copies of these works are kept at the Education Office. School libraries have been provided in all types of school, other than those for Infants, by means of an independent capitation allowance. Works of reference for school libraries may be purchased out of the general allowance. An education library, mainly designed for the use of teachers, has been established in the Public Library.

6. CARDIGANSHIRE

The following capitation allowances (per head) for books and stationery have been fixed in this area:

For schools and departments with an average attendance of:
less than 504s 6d [22½p]
between 50 and 1504s 3d [21p]
150 and upwards4s 0d [20p]
Central Schools5s 3d [26p]
Infants' Schools3s 6d [17½p]


[page 134]

The collection of specimen school books at the County Education Office is available for inspection by teachers, and the attention of head teachers is drawn periodically to suitable books dealing with various branches of the curriculum. Most schools in the area possess a school library collected by voluntary effort. Boxes of books are sent from the County Library to each school three times a year. A collection of works of reference for teachers is kept at the headquarters of the County Library.

7. DURHAM COUNTY

The Authority has fixed a scale of allowances for the provision of books, stationery, apparatus and other materials (excluding needlework materials), graduated according to the average attendance of the schools. The limits of the scale in departments for older scholars are 4s 10d [24p] and 4s 2d [21p] per unit; in departments for junior scholars 4s 2d [21p] and 3s 6d [17½p] per unit and in infants' departments 3s 6d [17½p] and 3s [15p] per unit. Requisitions for books for 'higher tops' are dealt with independently according to the special circumstances of the school course. The Authority has issued a list of text books and works of reference for teachers suitable for use in connection with schemes for advanced instruction in Public Elementary Schools. The authority has also published a school library catalogue, which is revised and reprinted from time to time. This catalogue also serves as a requisition list for teachers when they are ordering school books. Samples of most of the books mentioned in these two publications may be consulted at the library in the County Education Office.

A library of works of reference, books from which can be loaned to teachers, is provided at the Education Office and a special sum is allocated each year for its maintenance. The catalogue of this library is kept up to date by circulars containing a list of additions and deletions.

An annual allowance, based on average attendance, is granted to each school department for the provision of scholars' library books. This allowance has been sufficient to build up a considerable selection of books in the school libraries. For the year 1927 the allowance was 1s [5p] per head for seniors, and 6d [2½p] per head for infants.

8. GLAMORGANSHIRE

No information is given to head teachers as to the amount per head to be spent on school material.

The Authority has not issued a general list of recommended books, and does not maintain a central book room. The Authority's Primary Inspectors take suitable specimen books with them on their visits to the schools. Collections of selected books are temporarily left for examination by teachers.

Teachers may borrow reference books from the County Library headquarters at Bridgend on payment of postage one way. There is also a teachers' reference library in the County Hall at Cardiff, provided


[page 135]

and maintained out of the Secondary Education Fund, and teachers may obtain books from it on the same terms as apply to the loan of books from the County Library.

Through the medium of the County Library the authority has established, at most Elementary Schools in its area, centres for the distribution of books of every description. In these the head teacher generally acts as the local honorary librarian, and 20 to 25 per cent of the books so circulated are books for juveniles.

9. KENT

The Authority has fixed a scale of allowances for the provision of books, stationery and apparatus (excluding furniture, large apparatus, needlework material and equipment for practical instruction). The scale is graduated according to the average attendance of the schools. Thus, for example, boys', girls' and mixed departments with an average attendance up to 50 are allowed 5s 6d [27½p] per unit, and schools with an average attendance over 150, 4s 3d [21p] per unit; for mixed and infants' departments the corresponding allowances are 5s 1d [25½p] and 3s 10d [19p]; for infants' and Standard I departments 4s 3d [21p] and 3s [15p], and for infants' departments 3s 10d [19p] and 2s 6d [12½p] per unit.

The scale of allowances is not, however, rigidly enforced in every case. Requisitions beyond the scale are considered on their merits, and it is found necessary to exceed the scale on occasions when an important alteration is made in the character of the school, when changes take place in the supply of books, and often when new head teachers are appointed in place of those who have served for long periods.

Requisitions from schools providing approved 'courses of advanced instruction', e.g. Central Schools, are dealt with on their merits.

A catalogue of school books was published in 1922, and in 1925 a supplement was issued to bring the catalogue up to date. Subsequent revisions and additions to the catalogue are announced in the Kent Education Gazette, which appears monthly.

A central Sample Room is maintained at the County Education Office at Maidstone, and the Authority pay the travelling expenses of head teachers, and also, in certain circumstances, of assistant teachers so as to enable them to visit the sample room once a year. A limited number of duplicate copies of certain books can be lent to teachers for detailed examination at home.

The Authority grants a special allowance of 6d [2½p] per head, based on the average attendance of older scholars (i.e. scholars other than infants), towards the provision of school libraries. The county library service is also used to provide school libraries, especially in those cases where the local centre of the county library is housed in a school. In view of the use thus made of the county library service the Education Committee made a grant in 1927 of 100 and in 1928 of 200, to the county library fund.


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A Reference Library for teachers is maintained at the county library headquarters, and the work in connection with this library is carried out by the county library staff. Books are supplied by post to students and teachers on demand.

10. LANCASHIRE

The undermentioned block and capitation allowances are made in respect of books and stationery:

Small Schools (Mixed and Infants combined):
Average attendance under 309 6s [9.30] per school
30 to 3910 17s [10.85] per school
40 to 4912 8s [12.40] per school
50 to 6014 0s [14] per school
Older Scholars:
Average attendance under 755s [25p] per unit
75 to 1494s 8d [23½p] per unit
150 and upwards4s 3d [21p] per unit
Infants:
Average attendance under 753s 1d [15½p] per unit
75 to 1492s 10d [14p] per unit
150 and upwards2s 5d [12p] per unit
Central Schools, Central and Advanced Classes: 6s 6d [32½p] per unit

An additional allowance of 2s [10p] per unit is given in respect of pupils in all types of Elementary School of the age of 11 years and upwards on 31 March of the preceding year.

A special additional allowance may be given in all the above mentioned categories to meet exceptional circumstances.

The Authority has not printed a list of school books, although a list prepared in manuscript is used in consultation with teachers. A central store of specimen books is kept at the County Offices. Books from this collection are sent for the inspection of head teachers on request. Advice on the selection of books is given by the committee's organising staff in the course of their visits to Schools, and in connection with the consideration of schemes of work submitted by head teachers. Exhibitions are also arranged at convenient centres at which books suitable for school use are available for inspection by teachers.

The formation of school and class libraries in Elementary Schools is encouraged by the Authority, and their cost is met either (i) by special grant, (ii) out of the annual allowance, or (iii) by voluntary contributions.

In some cases Urban District Councils, which are Local Library Authorities, have supplied libraries to schools from the Public Library. These are changed at stated intervals.


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Reference books for both teachers and pupils may be purchased out of the ordinary allowance.

The following facilities are arranged by the county library service for the older children in the schools, or for teachers:

1. At all centres (of which 199 have been established with a supply of about 70,000 books) there is a juvenile section, and the older children in the Elementary Schools are encouraged to become members. Many of the centres are in schools. In an increasing number of centres lectures on the selection and use of books are given by the librarian.

2. In some instances the juvenile section is transferred from the centre library to a school.

3. Reference books are issued to teachers through the county library, on request, either by post or personal application, as to other student borrowers. The number supplied to an applicant at any one time is unlimited, and if necessary, the Central Library for Students is utilised.

11. LIVERPOOL COUNTY BOROUGH

A capitation allowance for the provision of books has not been adopted. Head teachers' requisitions are dealt with upon their merits by the Authority's inspectors, who are furnished with details respecting the financial provision in the general estimates for books and stationery.

Teachers are restricted, but not absolutely, when making requisitions, to a list of books for use in day schools, drawn up by a Consultative Committee on School Books. The committee consists of the Director of Education and his assistants, the local inspectors of Elementary and Evening Schools, two teachers nominated by the English Association and the Geographical Association respectively, two representatives of the Association of Schoolmasters, four representatives of the National Union of Teachers, two co-opted teachers nominated by the Director of Education together with the teachers' representative on the Local Education Committee. The Committee divides itself into sections to deal with school books on various subjects.

It is intended when suitable accommodation becomes available to provide facilities for teachers to examine at leisure the books and apparatus included on the list. From time to time displays have been held of new additions to the list.

Many schools have been equipped with school libraries by voluntary effort. No financial assistance is given by the Authority for this purpose.

In most of the schools which are situated near a public library, there is close co-operation between the schools and libraries. Such co-operation takes various forms, e.g. in some departments the teachers prepare lists of suitable books for the scholars' reading, and arrange for the collective borrowing and return of these books. Where the


[page 138]

library is provided with a children's room the older scholars are taken there by the teachers, during the ordinary school hours, for reading lessons. No financial arrangements between the Education Committee and the Libraries' Committee have been found necessary, the latter Committee having for many years shown the greatest readiness to assist the work of the schools in any way they can.

12. LONDON - See Appendix III

13. MANCHESTER COUNTY BOROUGH

The following scale of allowance for the provision of books, stationery, etc. applies to Elementary Schools:

Central Schools13s 4d [66½p] per head
Boys', Girls' and Mixed Schools:
Average attendance up to 3004s 0d [20p] per head
from 300 to 5003s 9d [18½p] per head
over 5003s 6d [17½p] per head
Infants' Schools:
Average attendance up to 2502s 6d [12½p] per head
over 2502s 3d [11p] per head
Infants' Schools with Standard I (or I and II)2s 9d [13½p] per head

In all cases, special additional allowances are given when needs are exceptional.

The Teachers' Education Library consists of two parts. One part comprises a large collection of specimen school books, which are kept in open shelves; the other part is a collection of works of reference. Since 1926 all teachers in the area have been invited to attend an annual exhibition of new school books organised under the auspices of the Authority. In view of the facilities thus afforded to teachers in the selection of books the Authority has hitherto not issued a list of books recommended for use in schools. Copies of certain works of reference and certain reports are provided in all schools. Other books, which may be required permanently in the school, may be purchased out of the ordinary allowance for books, stationery, etc. Many schools in the area possess school and class libraries, but the authority has not adopted any definite policy, or practice, in this matter. The children's sections in the local Public Libraries are largely used and much appreciated. The older pupils in Elementary Schools are encouraged to use reading tickets which entitle them to membership of the Public Library.

14. MIDDLESEX

Before the [first world] war, the Authority used a fixed capitation allowance for the supply of books and stationery. This arrangement has since lapsed and requisitions are considered according to the circumstances of each school or department. The average cost per pupil is higher in


[page 139]

small schools than in large, and the Education Committee differentiates in favour of schools in which advanced instruction is provided for the older pupils.

Although a list of text books has not been published teachers are advised regarding the suitability of books, and other items, by the Committee's officers when they visit the schools, and also at the time when requisitions are submitted for approval.

Specimen books may be inspected at the Central Office.

A Teachers' Reference Library is maintained at the education office. This contains a large number, of valuable reference books, and additions to it are notified in the Schools Gazette. A number of reference books are also supplied to teachers by the County Library.

Supplementary reading books, on the basis of one book for each scholar in and above Standard V, are supplied. These consist chiefly of juvenile fiction, but there is available a supply of other books for adolescent pupils. Such libraries are normally exchanged every six months, and for the purpose of organisation and transport the machinery of the County Library is utilised.

15. NORFOLK

The Authority has approved a capitation allowance of 4s 6d [22½p] for older scholars, and 2s 6d [12½p] for infants for the provision of books and stationery. Special consideration is given in exceptional cases, e.g. schools with a low average attendance, or schools in which 'advanced work' is being done. 500 per annum is set aside for special apparatus or works of reference for use in the upper classes of Elementary Schools. 1,000 has been thus set aside for 1928-29. It is probable that in the future this will be merged into the capitation allowance. Specimen copies of text books are kept at the Education Office in Norwich. The Education Committee's Inspectors attend at the Office on Saturday mornings, and are prepared to advise teachers on the choice of school books. School and class libraries are being gradually built up, chiefly out of the ordinary capitation allowance. The County Library has 218 local centres, most of which contain a juvenile section. Teachers can obtain, through the County Library, any works of reference which they may require.

16. PLYMOUTH COUNTY BOROUGH

No capitation allowance has been fixed in this area. The policy pursued by the Authority is that 'books are supplied on proof of desirability on educational grounds, subject to prior provision of necessary books, apparatus and stationery and to the limitation of the total amounts included in the approved estimates'. The Authority intends to establish a Sample Room when suitable accommodation becomes available; meanwhile the Education Committee's inspectors give assistance to teachers in the choice of books. The Authority will not provide a book which is not approved by the local inspectors.


[page 140]

School libraries have been formed in most Senior Schools and Divisions. During the four years ending 31 March 1927, approximately 400 has been raised voluntarily for this purpose, and about 300 has been contributed by the Authority. Works of reference for teachers can be obtained from the Authority's Central Library for Teachers. If such works are purchased for the school library, the cost is included in the expenditure on books and stationery.

17. SHIPLEY URBAN DISTRICT

During recent years the Authority has not fixed a capitation allowance in respect of the supply of books for Public Elementary Schools. A central store of specimen school books is maintained, and representatives of recognised publishers are permitted to visit the schools. School libraries are provided by the Authority and a small collection of works of reference for teachers and pupils is kept at the Education Office. All members of the Public Libraries Committee are also members of the Education Committee. Many of the pupils in Elementary Schools borrow the books from the Public Libraries for home reading. Classes of children are taken to the principal public library for instruction in methods of classifying books, in the use of the library catalogue, in the use of works of reference, and generally, in the proper selection and right use of books.

18. STAFFORDSHIRE

The allowances, based on average attendance, granted for books, stationery and apparatus, are at the rate of 4s 6d [22½p] per head for older scholars and 3s 6d [17½p] per head for infants. For schools which include infants' divisions the rate is 4s 6d [22½p] per head of average attendance of the whole school. Where schools have been re-organised into senior and junior departments, the allowances are 7s 6d [37½p] and 4s 0d [20p] per head of average attendance respectively. A special scale of block allowances, with the limits of 13 and 27, applies to small schools up to and including an average attendance of 120. Receipts from the sale of needlework and other forms of handwork are added to the allowances on the above basis.

The Director of Education is empowered in special cases to exceed the total allowances. Approximately 1,000 has been granted during each of the last six years for special allowances, mainly for expenditure on books.

In order to assist teachers in the selection of books, a library of school books has been established, but no list has been issued. No books are put into this library until they have been seen by the Inquiry Officers who are thus in a position to advise teachers on the merits of the various publications. Their advice is often sought, particularly by teachers in the small rural schools.

The formation of school, class and reference libraries is encouraged, and the cost of books for this purpose is usually met out of the annual allowance for expenditure upon books, apparatus and stationery. Special cases may be met by an additional allowance.


[page 141]

The library service in the county has, in the past, been limited to rural areas. In most instances the school is the centre of the library service in the parish or district, and the head teacher is the librarian. Boxes of books, which circulate to the schools, usually contain books for children.

19. SUNDERLAND COUNTY BOROUGH

In this County Borough no information is given to head teachers as to the amount per head to be spent on school material. The Authority considers that 'the head teacher's duty is not to spend so much per head automatically each year, but to requisition for needed supplies with due regard to economy ... schools differ in their capacity to use both books and material, and a generous supply, which might be profitably supplied to some schools, would be in a large measure wasted on others'.

The general estimate for the year for all schools is based on certain allowances per pupil. These allowances are not rigidly enforced, and there is a wide difference in the amounts spent per head in the different schools. The special needs of schools doing 'advanced' work, or following some course requiring special material, or of schools in poor districts, can usually be met without exceeding the general estimate. The Authority does not publish an approved list of books, nor does it maintain a Book Room. Head teachers are expected to keep themselves informed regarding the latest publications. Advice and suggestions may be obtained from the Education Office.

Special requirements in connection with school libraries and reference books for teachers are dealt with in the general estimate, but no stated sum is set aside for their provision.

20. SWANSEA COUNTY BOROUGH

The undermentioned scale of allowances for books, apparatus and stationery is administered on the basis of the average attendance for the preceding school year. The scale is graded to give a higher rate per head to the small than to the large schools.

Infants' RateSenior Rate
1-1753s 6d [17½p]1-1755s 0d [25p]
next 1253s 0d [15p]next 1254s 6d [22½p]
next 1002s 6d [12½p]next 1004s 0d [20p]
next 1002s 3d [11p]next 1003s 6d [17½p]
next 1003s 0d [15p]

The choice of books is left in the hands of head teachers, subject to scrutiny by the Director of Education. The Authority contemplates the formation of a library of specimen school books.


[page 142]

Every school is equipped with a school library, and the cost is met out of the capitation allowance or from voluntary assistance.

The Public Libraries Committee sends boxes of books to schools on the application of head teachers.

21. TAUNTON BOROUGH

No capitation allowance for books and stationery has been fixed for schools in the Borough. The Education Committee considers the quarterly requisitions from these schools, and, where necessary, deletes certain items, or reserves them for further consideration. Books in the public library are lent to elementary schools on request, and a grant of 20 per annum is made by the Education Committee in connection with the school library section of the Public Library. A grant of 10 per annum is allowed for the purchase of books for the teachers' library section of the Public Library.




[page 143]

APPENDIX III

NOTES ON THE ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE SELECTION AND PROVISION OF BOOKS FOR PUPILS AND TEACHERS IN PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN THE LONDON AREA

(Summarised from a Memorandum sent to the Consultative Committee by Mr AE Palfery, Principal Assistant in the Education Officer's Department).

Allowances for Books

The Education Committee of the London County Council prescribes a total capitation limit in respect of the supply of Books, Apparatus and Consumable Material for Public Elementary Schools to be administered on the basis of the average roll of pupils in attendance during the preceding year. The capitation limits for the different types of school and the allowance within the total limit allocated for supply of books are set out in the following scale:

Total
Capitation
Limit
Allowance
for
Books
1. Central schools and the higher grade departments of such higher grade schools as shall be nominated by the Elementary Education Sub-Committee:
    Girls'12s 0d [60p]3s 0d [15p]
    Boys' (with commercial bias)12s 0d [60p]3s 0d [15p]
    Boys' (with industrial bias)13s 0d [65p]3s 0d [15p]
2. Boys', girls' and mixed departments where there is no class below Standard IV6s 6d [32½p]1s 6d [7½p]
3. Boys', girls' and mixed departments which are not provided for under heads (1), (2) and (4)5s 6d [27½p]1s 6d [7½p]
4. Boys', girls' and mixed departments where there is no class above Standard III4s 0d [20p]0s 9d [4p]
5. Infants' departments2s 6d [12½p]0s 6d [2½p]

Although the total monetary allowances are divided for the general guidance of head teachers into separate allowances for stationery, small apparatus and consumable material; books; science and needlework teaching material; and apparatus, part of the annual allowance for one specific purpose may be utilised for any other approved purpose, provided that the allowance for stationery, small apparatus and consumable material shall not be increased without the authority of the Education Officer. Unexpended balances may be carried forward


[page 144]

over a period not exceeding three years, and in exceptional circumstances the allowances for a succeeding year may be anticipated. On the appointment of a new head teacher, or on the reorganisation of a school or department, or after a full inspection of a school or department, the limits of expenditure do not apply to the first requisitions submitted. Al! such requisitions, if in excess of the prescribed limits, must be presented to the Books and Apparatus Sub-Committee of the Education Committee for consideration on their merits.

Requisitions for Books

Books are supplied once a year from the Council's stores, but special requisitions are allowed at any time, if the circumstances justify them. Each head teacher is required to certify that the books and educational equipment for which he or she applies, are required for the purposes of the approved curriculum. The cost of all books supplied to schools is chargeable to the 'limits', except the supplementary reading material, which is provided by means of the Council's scheme for the circulation of continuous reading books.

The List of Books, Maps, Music and Diagrams approved for use in Schools maintained by the Council

The Education Committee has for some years past published a list of books approved for use in schools maintained by the Council. (1) This list was prepared, and is periodically revised, by the Books and Apparatus Sub-Committee of the Education Committee, with the help of experts on the local inspectorate. All books submitted by the publishers are referred to this sub-committee. The text-books submitted are sent to the appropriate officers of the local inspectorate, who report upon them and make definite recommendations. (The Education Committee has decided recently to associate teachers with the inspectorate in this duty). All reports are submitted to the Books and Apparatus Sub-Committee, whose decision is final. Books of general literature are referred to a committee of teachers known as the Advisory Committee on School Equipment. It consists of twenty-four teachers, twelve of whom are nominated by the Education Officer and twelve by the Central Consultative Committees of Head Teachers. So far as is practicable teachers from all types of educational institutions are represented. One-sixth of the members must be assistant teachers; one-fourth must retire each year, and the retiring members are not eligible for re-election until after the expiration of one year of their retirement. Each book submitted to this committee is in the first place read independently by two members. The Advisory Committee's reports are submitted to the Books and Apparatus Sub-Committee, which makes the final decision in each case. Special requests from teachers for books which are not on the List are considered on their merits, and they are encouraged to offer suggestions for the improvement of the List either by letter or by means of the suggestion book which is

(1) List of Books, Maps, Music and Diagrams approved for use in Schools maintained by the Council (1926). PS King & Sons (158 pages) 5s. This List is often described as the Requisition List.


[page 145]

kept in a prominent place in the Book Room at the County Hall. Every suggestion received is carefully considered and the result communicated to the teacher who offered it. Arrangements are made to keep the List up-to-date. Any alterations made in it from time to time, whether additions or deletions, are published in the London County Council Gazette. They are later issued as Supplements pending the publication of a completely revised edition of the whole List. Specimen copies of all books, etc. on the List are displayed in the Book Room at the County Hall. One of the rules of the Education Committee requires head teachers to visit the Book Room at the County Hall in person, or to depute a competent assistant for this purpose, so that they may become acquainted with the books and educational apparatus available and be in a position to select such as are most suitable for their schools. Copies of the books in the Book Room are frequently lent to teachers, who desire to make more detailed examination of any particular works. In view of the facilities for guidance in the choice of books thus afforded, the Council does not allow publishers' representatives to visit schools in the county area.

The circulation of Continuous Reading Books to Public Elementary Schools in the London Area

Some years ago the Education Committee being faced with the problem how best to provide a sufficient supply of general reading matter for the schools decided that a circulating scheme would probably be the most satisfactory and economical method. Experiments in this direction were accordingly made, and the existing scheme has been gradually developed in consultation with head teachers of schools at meetings held in different parts of the area. There is now a library of some 2,000,000 reading books in circulation. For the purposes of the scheme the County is divided into 99 areas, each of which appoints a local committee of head teachers to manage the scheme so far as the schools in their area are concerned. Books may be requisitioned for each area in accordance with the approved limit, which is quantitative. The number of sets of books available for any one area must not exceed that obtained by multiplying the number of lower classes in the schools in the area by four, and the number of upper classes by three. Each head teacher at the specified time informs the local secretary what books he would like to have, when the exchange is effected. Alternative selections are given, and the local committee determines the books which shall be sent to each school for the agreed period, which is usually six months. In accordance with the arrangements made by the local committee the Education Officer's Department arranges for the collection of books from each individual school and for the allocation of the fresh sets. Facilities are afforded to the local committees for the selection of continuous reading books for their catalogues. Books suited for circulation under the scheme are marked with an asterisk on the requisition list and copies of these are placed on special shelves in the Book Room at the County Hall. It is stated that this circulation scheme has had the effect of fostering definite reading habits on the part of the pupils and has improved their written and spoken English.


[page 146]

The Education Library

In addition to the works of reference for pupils and teachers supplied for inclusion in the school libraries, the London County Council maintains an Education Library for teachers. This collection now contains some 38,000 volumes and the stock is increased by about 3,000 volumes a year. All teachers are entitled to receive borrower's tickets. Two tickets are assigned to each teacher, and he or she may borrow one book on each ticket for a calendar month with the option of renewal for a further period. As the entire staffs of many school departments regularly borrow books from this library, one teacher usually undertakes the work of school collector. He or she conducts all correspondence with the library, applies for books, distributes them and subsequently collects them for return to the library. This arrangement has proved satisfactory and has contributed greatly to the efficiency of the library service. The books are distributed and collected by carrier without cost to the teacher. All books added to this collection are reviewed and reported upon in the same way as books for the Requisition List, and lists of additions to the Education Library are published in the London County Council Gazette. An annotated catalogue of the library is placed in every school, and brought up-to-date periodically by means of supplements. The circulation of the library has grown steadily from 11,000 volumes a year in 1913 to 107,000 in 1927.




[page 147]

APPENDIX IV

AVERAGE EXPENDITURE (IN PENCE) INCURRED ON 'BOOKS' PER PUPIL ON THE REGISTERS

[Note: This Table was presented in the form of a large fold-out sheet. It is reproduced here as a JPG image (1200x660 pixels - 451kb).]


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NOTES ON APPENDIX IV

1. In this table the expression 'books' has been regarded as including primers, leaflets, instruction cards, picture cards, textbooks, atlases and the like, but as excluding stationery, wall maps, wall pictures and other educational equipment.

2. It will be seen from the table that five Authorities (indicated by an obelus) have furnished data on expenditure, and number of pupils, in respect of a selection of typical schools only. The figures in Group F in respect of these Authorities should not, therefore, be taken as representing the true average expenditure for the areas concerned.

3. The omission of abnormal figures (indicated by *) affect:

(a) The average expenditure for the area as given in Group F. Thus the deletion of a figure from the 'Central School and Class' Group (E), which is relatively high, would lower the average for the area in question.

(b) The general averages as given in Columns 27 to 29.

4. The figures given in Group F and Column 29 must be taken as applying to expenditure in respect of the five main types of school only. Variations in school organisation, such as the not infrequent combination of Standard I, or Standards I and II, with Infants' Departments, involving a higher rate of expenditure on books, would affect these averages.


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APPENDIX V

MEMORANDUM BY THE SCOTTISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT ON THE SELECTION AND PROVISION OF BOOKS IN SCHOOLS CONDUCTED UNDER THE CODE OF REGULATIONS FOR DAY SCHOOLS IN SCOTLAND 1923

Note. The statistics quoted in this Memorandum have been compiled from answers given by Education Authorities to an enquiry which was addressed to them in 1927. The information covers all schools conducted under the Code of Regulations for Day Schools, including schools with fully organised 'advanced divisions' and special advanced division 'centres'; but schools conducted under the Secondary Schools (Scotland) Regulations were excluded from the enquiry.

Provision of School Books

Under Section 3 (6) of the Education (Scotland) Act 1908, Education Authorities in Scotland are empowered but not required to supply pupils with school books where they consider such provision necessary.

Selection of School Books

It has always been the policy of the Department to leave the entire responsibility for the selection of school books to the school authorities. Any advice which may have been given on the subject to teachers or local education officers by His Majesty's Inspectors has been given on the latter's private responsibility, and the department have no official machinery for directing it.

Supply of School Books by Education Authorities

Of the 37 Education Authorities, 20 supply text books free of charge to all pupils. Of the remaining 17 Authorities, all supply books free to necessitous school children, and 3 also supply free books to advanced division pupils, while 2 others supply books of a certain type (e.g. readers) to certain grades.

Custody of School Books

In the 20 areas where books are supplied free to all pupils, and in 10 of the 17 areas where books are supplied free only to necessitous pupils or to pupils of advanced divisions, the books are lent to the pupils. In 3 of the 17 areas last mentioned they are given unreservedly to the pupils; the arrangement in the remaining 4 is not stated. In 21 of the 30 areas where the books are stated to be lent, all the books are placed in the custody of the pupils, who are allowed to take them home during the terms in which they are in use; in the remaining 9, it appears that only some of the books, those required for use out of school, are so entrusted to the pupils' care, while others, such as readers, are kept in school and distributed at each lesson.


[page 150]

Expenditure on supply of free School Books

In the year ended 15 May 1926, the total sum expended by Education Authorities on the supply of free school books to pupils of day schools other than Secondary Schools, was approximately 110,000. The number of pupils supplied was about 440,000 out of a total of approximately 670,000. The average annual expenditure per scholar was thus about 5s [25p]. The rate per scholar varied from 2 or 3 shillings [10 - 15p] per head in one area to as much as 1 per head in another.

Books of Reference

(a) Provision in each school. Books of reference are provided, free of charge, for the use of both teachers and pupils in 19 education areas; for the use of teachers only, in 3 areas; for the use of pupils only, in 2 areas. In the remaining areas, no provision appears to be made.

(b) Provision in a central reference library. A central library for use, free of charge, by both teachers and pupils is provided in 12 education areas; for use by teachers only, in 9 areas. In 2 of the remaining areas the provision of a central library for teachers or pupils or for both is under consideration or is actually being made.

School and Class Libraries

Of the 2,945 schools concerned, about 2,500 are provided with school libraries, and some 400, comprising about 1,500 classes, have class libraries.

Library Schemes

A library scheme for the supply of books to pupils for reading or reference, has been established in some form in all county (1) areas with the exception of Argyllshire.

About one-third of the Education Authorities have made arrangements with public libraries for the supply of books for reading or reference, and these arrangements apply to about 50 libraries and 200 schools. In 6 areas, i.e. one half of the areas where these arrangements exist, the Education Authorities or the libraries provide a special catalogue suitable for juveniles.

(1) The Education Authorities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee have no statutory power to incur expenditure out of the Education Fund for the purpose.


[page 151]

APPENDIX VI

STATISTICS BEARING ON THE PUBLICATION OF NEW BOOKS FOR PUPILS AND TEACHERS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS DURING THE YEARS 1925 TO 1927

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[page 152]

INDEX

Abridgements 32
Accommodation:
    for class books 103, 116
    for school libraries 74, 109
Account, education 60-1, 108
Accrington 79, 130
Accuracy 18, 32, 37
Acquisition of books by pupils 101, 116
Acton 131, 147
Acts:
    Elementary Education Act 1870 9
    Education Act 1902 14
    Education (Scotland) Act 1908 149
    Education Act 1918 16
    Education Act 1921 69
    Copyright Act 1911 84
    Public Library Acts 68, 70, 71, 84, 112
Administrative arrangements for provision of books 57-65, 107-8
Advanced classes - see Modern Schools and Advanced Classes
Agents, publishers' 89
Algebra 44
Allowances for books:
    effect of low rates of 100, 105
    in infant departments 25
    in Wales 56, 116
    provision for school library from 76
    types and administration of 57, 62
Alteration of text - see also Abridgements 31, 32
Anthologies:
    Biblical 30, 114
    prose 26, 31, 33
    verse 26, 31, 32
Antiquities of Britain, illustrated publications on 23
Appearance of books 21, 30
Archaeological societies 23
Architecture 35
Arithmetic 41, 44
Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 83
Arnold, Matthew 7, 9
Art galleries - see Museums and art galleries
Arts and crafts 35
Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools 97
Association of Directors and Secretaries for Education 95


[page 153]

Association of Education Committees 96
Association of Municipal Corporations 94
Atlases:
    in Junior Schools 27
    in the School Library 74
    production of 34, 100
    wear and tear of 40
Authors 94, 98
Backward children, arithmetical exercises for 42
Barbauld, Mrs 2
Bath 132, 147
Beckenham 147
Bias in Modern Schools and Advanced Classes 28, 47
Bible 21, 29, 113
Bindings 104, 106
Birmingham 81, 132, 147
Board of Education:
    and the Education Account 61, 108
    and physical training 52
    and reading 19
    Handbook of Health Education 53
    Handbook of Suggestions 15, 19, 20, 43, 52, 87, 88
Bodleian Library 84
Book Department of Committee of Council on Education 6, 7
Book Lists 6, 7, 9, 92-4, 118-9
Book Rooms 48, 56, 90-1, 93, 115, 118, 119
Book vans 72, 91
Bookkeeping 44
Books:
    circulating sets of 78-9, 111
    General questions relating to:
      arrangements for keeping 103, 116
      Board of Education and use of 18-20
      care and safety of 103
      Committee's interpretation of the term 60, 148
      expenditure on 65-7, 107
      fixed grants for 62, 107
      form of - see Appearance of books
      provision of 57-60, 69, 77, 110
      quality of 18, 94
      removed from school stock book 102, 116
      requisition forms for 61, 108
      transfer of 64
      wear and tear of picture 25
    Reading 24, 26, 31, 55
    reference 27, 40, 45, 48, 52, 111
    supplementary for geography 40
    text 20, 26, 27, 36, 41, 43, 44, 46, 51
    Welsh 56


[page 154]

Bookshops, educational 86, 90
Boxes of books 91
Bradford 80
Brighton 133, 147
Brincker, Dr JAH 106
Bristol 81
British and Foreign School Society 3
British Association 21, 105
British Museum 22, 35, 84
Buckinghamshire 147
Cambridge University Library 84
Capitation allowances - see Allowances
Cardiff 77
Cardiganshire 133, 147
Carnegie United Kingdom Trust 71
Catalogues, illustrated 51
Central:
    Advisory Committee 96-8
    Advisory Conference 98, 119
    Library for Students 72, 83, 111
    Sectional Committees 97
Children's Bibles 30
Choice of school books 20, 63, 85, 117-9
Circulation of sets of books for general reading 65, 78, 111
Class libraries 73, 109
Classics, English 30
Codes:
    1862 7-9
    1875 9
    1882 10, 12
    1902 13
    1904 14
    1906 15
    1925 15
    1926 16
Coloured illustrations 22
Commerce, elements of 45
Commissions and Committees, Reports of official:
    Royal Commission of 1858-61 ('Newcastle' Commission) 7
    'Cross' Commission 1886-88 12
    Departmental Committee's Report on the Teaching of English in England 29, 31
    Consultative Committee's Report on the Education of the Adolescent 27, 36, 41
    Departmental Committee's Report on Welsh in Education and Life 53-6
    Public Libraries Committee's Report on Public Libraries in England and Wales 71, 77, 80, 84


[page 155]

Committees:
    Education and Public Library 69, 70, 75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 110
    of Council on Education 6
Conference, Central Advisory 98, 119
Conferences between Local Book List Committees 98, 119
Content of books 98, 119
Cookery 51
Co-operation between Public Libraries and Schools 84, 112
Cost of books 22, 38, 100
County Councils Association 94, 100
County Libraries:
    education libraries and 83
    provision of school libraries from 78
    service and administration of 70, 72, 78
    use of 72, 78, 79, 82, 111
    use of schools as centres for 72
Courses
    for teachers 88, 117
    of advanced instruction 28
Coventry 77
Cross - see Commissions and Committees
Crossley, Mr 5
Crowley, Dr RH 105
Cupboards for books 103
Custody of school books - see also Possession of books 149
Date of publication 24, 115
Design 49, 51
Destruction of school books 105
Dictionaries 21, 74
Directors and Secretaries for Education, Association of 95
Disinfection of school books 106
Distribution of books by County Libraries 72
Divisional areas 98, 119
Domestic subjects 29, 51-2
Dominion agencies 37, 40
Dominions 35, 37, 39
Drawing 49
Durham County 134
Economic History Society 93
Economy 67, 103
Edgeworth, Miss Maria 3
Education Committees, Association of 96
Education Account, The 60-1, 108
Education Library:
    definition of 68
    maintenance of 83, 111
Educational Handwork Association 93
Empire Marketing Board 37
English 19, 28, 30, 31-3, 73


[page 156]

English Association 93
Entries in stock books 64, 108
Excerpts 31
Exercises - see Questions and exercises
Exhibitions of specimen school books 90, 118
Expenditure on books:
    adjustment of between Education Fund and Library Fund 69, 78
    and stationery 60, 108
    average 65-7, 107, 147
    methods of controlling 57-9, 107
    on geography books 39
Expenses of visits to Sample Rooms 90
Facilities for private reading and study in schools 104, 117
Fumigation of books 106
Games 52
Gardening 52
Geographical Association 93
Geography 36, 114
Geology, Museum of Practical 22
Geometry 44
Gibbon, Edward 36
Glamorganshire 134
Glosses 32
Grading in books 25, 31
Grammar 33
Grammar schools 27, 28, 29, 41, 44, 46, 101
Halifax 77
Hampstead 80
Handbook of Suggestions - see Board of Education
Handwork 50, 100
Historical Association 93
History 33, 114
Hobbies 28, 46
Home libraries 102-3
House of Commons 5
Housecraft 51
Hygiene 53
Illustrations:
    cost of books and 22, 100, 113
    for infants 22, 25
    geographical 37-8
    historical 35-6
    reproductions for drawing 49
    scientific 23
    use of 22-3, 113


[page 157]

Imperial Education Conference 1927 38
Imperial Institute, The 22
Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools (Welsh branches) 54
Incorporated Association of Head Masters 102
Individual work 14, 16, 25, 26, 27, 42
Industrial districts - effect on life of books 104
Infants Schools and Departments:
    average expenditure in 66, 147
    books for 24
    musical material in 47
Infection 105-6
Inspectorate 88, 117
Inspectorial Divisions 98, 119
Instructions to Inspectors:
    1882 10
    1891 11
Interests of pupils 28, 29, 36
Junior Schools and Departments:
    average expenditure on books in 66, 147
    books for 25
Juvenile reading and lending departments 70, 80-2
Kent 78, 90, 92, 135, 147
Laboratory cards 46
Lancashire 78, 136, 147
Lancaster 80
Lancaster, Joseph 3
Laundry 51
Lectures at Public Libraries 80
Leicestershire 147
Lending departments - see Juvenile reading and lending departments
Letterpress 22-3
Librarians 88, 117
Libraries - see Class libraries, County libraries, Education libraries, Public libraries, School libraries, and Urban public libraries
Life of school books 104
Lindley Murray 3
Literary treatment, geography books and a 38
Liverpool 79, 137
Llanelly 147
Local Book List Committees 49, 93-9, 114, 118-20
Local Book Room Committees 49, 93, 114, 119
Local Education Authorities:
    and expenditure on books 56, 60, 65-7, 107
    and provision of books 57, 84
    and provision of Education Libraries 83, 111
    and provision of school libraries 73-8, 110
    co-operation with Public Library Committees 69, 84, 112


[page 158]

Lockers, locker desks, etc. 103, 116
London 21, 83, 92, 143-6
London Association of Head Teachers of Central Schools 95
London Museum 23
Loose-leaf system 24
Loss of books 104
Macaulay 36
McCulloch, Dr JM 5
Manchester 90, 138, 147
Maps:
    and cost of books 22, 100, 113
    geographical 38, 40
    Ordnance Survey 40
Marcet, Mrs 5
Mathematical Association 96
Mathematics, elementary 44
Medical Research Council 21
'Mental' arithmetic 42
Methods of teaching:
    effect on demands for books 22, 42, 58, 62
    effect on number of books required 101
    in housecraft 51
Middlesex 138
Minimum number of books required by pupils 101
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries 52
Ministry of Health 60, 61, 108
Modern foreign languages 41
Modern Schools and Advanced Classes:
    allowances for books in 58, 59-60
    average expenditure on books in 66, 147
    books for 28, 36, 41, 44, 47, 50, 51, 52, 113, 114, 115
    facilities for possession of books in 102
Monographs, historical 35
Municipal Corporations, Association of 94
Museums and Art Galleries 22-3, 35, 113
Music 35, 47-9, 114
Musical games 47
Name of author 24, 115
National Gallery, The 23
National Library of Wales, The 23, 84
National Museum of Wales, The 22
National Portrait Gallery, The 23
National Society 3, 4
National Union of Teachers 84, 96
National Union of Women Teachers 95
Nature study 45-7
Needlework 51, 100
Newcastle - see Commissions and committees
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 147


[page 159]

Non-provided schools 63
Norfolk 139, 147
Nottingham 147
Nuneaton 147
Obsolete books 105
Office procedure 45
Officials of local education authorities 75, 88, 109, 117
Older scholars 102, 116
Open access system 81
Ordnance Survey maps 40
Painting 35
Palfery, Mr AE 143
Paper 21, 105
Periodicals 51, 52
Physical Training 52
Pianos 48-9, 115
Picture books 24
Pictures for schools 22-3, 37
Plymouth 139-40
Poetry - see also under Anthologies 32-3
Portrait, National Portrait Gallery 23
Possession of books 101-2, 116, 149
Practical Geology, Museum of 22
Practical instruction 29, 50-2, 74, 100, 115
Practising schools 87, 118
Press board of University of Wales 56, 99, 119
Primers 20, 25
Private study in school buildings 104, 117
Prizes - see Rewards
Problems, arithmetical 43
Production of books 21, 86, 94, 100
Prose miscellanies 26, 33
Provincial Committees 97
Public Libraries:
    functions of 69-73, 76
    provision of books for schools by 16-7, 50, 74, 77-9, 110, 111, 112
Public libraries committees 69, 75, 76, 77-8, 81, 83, 110
Public Record Office, The 23, 35
Public Record Office Museum, The 22
Publishers:
    and the production of books 54, 94, 98
    of music 47
Publishers' agents 89
Publishers' Association of Great Britain and Ireland 50, 89, 90, 96, 100, 101, 151
Pyke, RL 21


[page 160]

Quality of books:
    Central Advisory Conference and 98, 119
    general comments on 18-21
    for schools in Wales 54
Questions and exercises 32, 41-3
Reading 19, 20, 24-5, 26
Reading and reference departments of urban libraries 69, 81-2
Re-organisation of schools 27
Reports:
    Report on the Education of the Adolescent (1926) 27, 36, 37, 41
    Report on Public Libraries in England and Wales (1927) 71, 77, 80, 84
    Report on Psychological Tests (1924) 8
    Report on the Teaching of English in England (1921) 29
    Report on Welsh in Education and Life (1927) 53-56, 119
Representatives, publishers' 89
Requisition forms:
    provision of 61, 108
    scrutiny of 63, 108
Revision in history books 35
Rewards 14, 102, 116
Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew) 22, 23
Rural areas:
    state of books in 105
    the transfer of books in 64-5
St. Marylebone 80
Sample Rooms - see Book Rooms
Scales of allowances - see Allowances
School buildings, use of out of school hours 104, 117
School Libraries:
    definition of 68
    disposition and arrangement of 74, 109
    importance and provision of 13, 15, 73, 76-8, 109-10
    in Wales 56
    maintenance of 76, 109
    management of 74-5, 88
    use of 24, 75
School pictures 22-3, 37
Science, elementary 45-7, 114
Science Museum, The 22
Scotland, provision and selection of books in 149-50
Secondary Schools - see Grammar Schools
Sectional class teaching, arithmetic books for 42
Selection of books - see Choice of books
Senior Schools and Divisions:
    average expenditure on books in 66, 147
    books for 27-8, 47, 112


[page 161]

Sets of reading books 27, 78-9, 111
Shipley 140, 147
Shropshire 147
Sight reading 47
Silent reading 15, 19, 26, 79
Size of books 21
Skill in reading 26
Small schools:
    allowances for books in 59-60
    average expenditure on books in 66, 147
    books on arithmetic for 42
Society, Economic History 93
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 1
Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Ireland 4
Society of Antiquaries 23
Song books 47-8
Southampton (CB) [County Borough] 147
Specimen copies of school books 89-91
Specimen Libraries - see Book Rooms
Staffordshire 140-1
Standards 8, 10, 11, 43, 132, 138
Stock Books 62, 64, 108
Stoke-on-Trent 147
Story books 24-5, 35
Style in books 18
Sunderland 141
Supplementary allowances 58-9
Supply of books:
    Central Advisory Conference and 98-9, 119-120
    general co-operation between Urban and County Libraries and Public Elementary Schools 84, 112
    Urban and County Libraries and 16-7, 68-9
Surplus school books 64-5, 102, 116
Surrey 147
Swansea 141, 147
Syllabuses of Religious Instruction 31
Tate Gallery (National Gallery, Millbank), The 23
Taunton 142
Teachers:
    and choice of books 57, 85-6, 117
    and juvenile reading and lending departments of Public Libraries 81, 110
    and lists of selected books 92-3
    and requisitions for books 62, 63-4, 108
    and use of books 19-20, 28, 32, 33
    as local librarians for County Library Centres 82
Teachers Reference Library - see Education Library
Tests, arithmetical 43


[page 162]

Tottenham 147
Training Colleges:
    collections of class books in 87
    instruction on choice of books in 85, 87-8, 118
    instruction in management of school libraries in 88, 118
Transfer of books 64-5
Trigonometry 44
Trimmer, Mrs 2
Type 21, 30
Union of Welsh Teachers 54
University Libraries 83-4, 111
University Press Board (Wales) 56, 99, 119
Urban Public Libraries:
    administration of 69-70
    Education Libraries and 83, 111
    provision of School Libraries from 73-5, 77-8, 110
Use of books 17, 18-21, 27, 101-2, 116
Van, travelling book 72, 91
Verse - see Poetry
Victoria and Albert Museum 22, 35, 51
Visits to Public Libraries 80, 81, 110
Volume of school books 21-56, 86
Voluntary contributions for School Libraries 76
Wales:
    books in 53-6, 115-6
    National Library of 23, 84
    National Museum of 22
    Press Board of University of 56, 99, 119
Wallace Collection, The 23
Welsh books 53-56, 115-6
Wiltshire 79
Women's Institutes 71
'Work' type of reading book 24
Workers' Educational Association 95