HMI Education 8-12 (1985)

(page numbers in brackets)

Notes on the text

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

Preliminary pages (i-vi)
Contents, Preface

Chapter 1 (1-3)
Introduction
Chapter 2 (4-36)
The content of the curriculum
Chapter 3 (37-39)
Personal and social education
Chapter 4 (40-44)
Provision for children with special needs
Chapter 5 (45-53)
Planning, assessment, continuity and liaison
Chapter 6 (54-63)
The management and organisation of the teaching
Chapter 7 (64-72)
The main characteristics of the schools
Chapter 8 (73-81)
Some issues for discussion

Appendices (82-112)

1 Inspection procedures
2 Background to the schools
3 Statistical Notes
4 Summaries of HMI schedules

Index (113-122)


Education 8 to 12 in Combined and Middle Schools
A survey by HM Inspectors of Schools (1985)

London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1985
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[title page]

Department of Education and Science


Education 8 to 12
in Combined and
Middle Schools

An HMI survey





London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office


[page ii (unnumbered)]


Crown copyright 1985
First published 1985

ISBN 0 11 270581 2






[page iii]

Contents

Page
1 Introduction1

2 The content of the curriculum
4
   Introduction4
   Language and literacy5
   Mathematics11
   Science and health education16
   French20
   Social and environmental studies21
   Religious education25
   Home studies28
   Arts and crafts30
   Music32
   Physical education34

3 Personal and social education
37

4 Provision for children with special needs
40

5 Planning, assessment, continuity and liaison
45
   Planning45
   Assessment and record keeping46
   Continuity and liaison48

6 The management and organisation of the teaching arrangements
54
   The allocation and discharge of responsibilities54
   The deployment of staff56
   Timetabling arrangements61
   The composition of classes and teaching groups62


[page iv]

7 The main characteristics of the schools64

8 Some issues for discussion
73

Appendices
   1 Inspection procedures 82
   2 Background to the schools83
      Introduction83
      Teachers and other staff84
      Accommodation88
      Resources90
   3 Statistical notes94
   4 Summaries of HMI schedules100
      Items common to all schedules100
      Items specific to particular schedules101


[page v]

Preface




This report is based on a survey of sixteen 5 to 12 combined schools and thirty-three 8 to 12 middle schools chosen to illustrate the diversity of circumstances in which such schools operate. The focus of the report is an assessment of how appropriately the schools provided for the age group 8 to 12 and how well the children responded to the education offered. The survey did not seek to compare the educational provision in different types of middle schools, nor to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of two and three-tier systems of schooling. It does, however, make an indirect contribution to the discussion of such matters by providing evaluative comment on provision in two types of school.

Almost all the schools in the survey were pleasant places in which to live and work. They were characterised by good personal relationships, positive attitudes and conscientious work by children and staff. Children were being introduced to a range of knowledge and skills and were achieving satisfactory standards in reading, writing and computation. The report makes a number of suggestions for the further development of their work, based on practice seen in the survey schools and in other similar schools.

Although the generalisations and the recommendations within the report do not apply equally to all 5 to 12 or 8 to 12 schools, many of the points raised will be of interest to those concerned with such schools or with the age group 8 to 12 more generally. They are intended to help schools appraise their policies and practices with a view to improving still further the education they provide an - aspiration shared by teachers, administrators, advisers, governors and those involved in teacher education.


[page vi]

As with other reports published by HMI, no assumption can be made about government commitment to the provision of additional resources as a result of the survey.






[page 1]

1 Introduction


1.1 The establishment of middle schools was made possible by the 1964 Education Act which allowed local education authorities to establish schools straddling the primary and secondary phases. The report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (England) (1) under the chairmanship of Lady Plowden was published in 1967 and recommended that, following a three year course in the first school, there should be a four year course in the middle school. The first middle school opened in 1968 and the raising of the school leaving age in 1973, coupled with reorganisation to comprehensive secondary education, further encouraged some local authorities to plan in terms of three-tier systems. Most often the middle school age range covered was either 9 to 13 or 8 to 12 years, with combined 5 to 12 schools developing alongside 8 to 12 schools. After local government reorganisation in 1974 some authorities inherited a variety of two- and three-tier systems. This survey is concerned with 5 to 12 and 8 to 12 schools. Under the 1964 Act such schools were designated as falling within the primary stage of education.

1.2 Many of the new combined and middle schools occupied former primary or secondary school accommodation usually with adaptations to meet the needs of the new age ranges. The majority of the teachers came directly from existing primary or secondary schools. By the late seventies a considerable number of middle schools had been open for four years or more with a full age range. An appraisal of first and middle school education seemed appropriate. The Inspectorate undertook a survey of first schools during 1978-79 (2) and a survey of 9 to 13 middle schools during 1979-1980 (3). These were

(1) Children and their primary schools HMSO 1967.

(2) Education 5 to 9 HMSO 1982.

(3) 9-13 Middle Schools: an Illustrative Survey HMSO 1983.


[page 2]

followed by a survey of 5 to 12 combined and 8 to 12 middle schools during the summer and autumn terms of 1981; the findings form the substance of this document.

1.3 By January 1981 there were 388 combined schools providing education for 112,493 pupils aged 5 to 12 years in twenty-six local authorities (1), though six authorities had only one or two such schools. There were 768 middle schools providing education for 231,833 pupils aged 8 to 12 years in 25 local authorities. (2)

1.4 The purpose of the survey was to describe and assess the work of fifty 5 to 12 or 8 to 12 schools. As with earlier surveys, the intention was to report about how appropriately the schools provided for the particular age ranges, and how well the children responded to the kind of education provided.

1.5 The procedures adopted were similar to those used in the survey of 9 to 13 schools, but some modifications were necessary because of the different age ranges. During the autumn term 1980 a pilot exercise involving two combined and four 8 to 12 schools was undertaken. The survey itself took place during the summer and autumn terms of 1981; the findings result from the inspection of the sixteen 5 to 12 schools and thirty-three 8 to 12 schools. (3)

1.6 The sample was selected from 384 combined schools and 668 8 to 12 schools which had been in existence, with their full age range only, for at least the previous four years. Schools for the sample were selected to include 25 local education authorities which had 5 to 12 and 8 to 12 schools, to cover a range of sizes (4) and catchment areas, to include schools housed in former primary, former secondary and purpose-built premises and to include schools transferring pupils to one or a considerable number of upper schools. The proportion of

(1) There are 97 local education authorities in England.

(2) By January 1984 there were 354 combined schools providing education for 99,454 pupils aged 5 to 12 years in 23 local authorities, though 4 authorities had only one or two such schools. There were 686 middle schools providing education for 186,671 pupils aged 8 to 12 years in 25 local authorities.

(3) One inspection was delayed and its findings are not included in this report.

(4) For the purposes of the survey the schools were divided into three broad size bands based on the number of pupils on roll at the time of the inspections. The 17 schools described in this report as 'small' schools had fewer than 241 children on roll; the 29 'medium-sized' schools had from 241 to 480 pupils, and the 3 'large' schools had over 480 on roll.


[page 3]

combined 5 to 12 to 8 to 12 middle schools within the survey was similar to the national picture ie 1:2. The schools selected illustrate the diversity of circumstances in which 5 to 12 and 8 to 12 schools operate, but they were not a statistically representative sample of all such schools. (1) Details of inspection procedures are given in Appendix 1. In this report the descriptions and assessments of general features of the schools (such as accommodation and resources) and of particular areas of the curriculum relate, unless stated otherwise, only to the work undertaken by children aged 8 to 12, whether in 8 to 12 middle schools or 5 to 12 combined schools.

1.7 Like 9 - 13 Middle Schools (HMSO 1983), this survey differed in significant respects from both the primary and secondary surveys, and these differences are reflected in this report. Unlike Primary Education in England (HMSO 1978) which examined aspects of the work of classes, this report discusses the life and work of entire 8 to 12 middle schools and of middle school departments in 5 to 12 schools. In contrast to Aspects of Secondary Education in England (HMSO 1979) which provided a detailed appraisal of language, mathematics, science and personal and social development in the last two years of compulsory schooling, this report assesses the work undertaken by children aged 8 to 12 in a large number of subjects and areas of the curriculum. The report does not consider in detail every significant issue in the education of middle school pupils. For example, links between the home and the school are only briefly referred to.

1.8 This report provides a 'snapshot' of activities in sixteen 5 to 12 and thirty-three 8 to 12 schools during a particular period ie the summer and autumn terms of 1981. The final chapter takes account of developments since that time and their implications for 5 to 12 and 8 to 12 schools generally.

(1) Appendix 2 gives details of the schools inspected.


[page 4]

2 The content of the curriculum




INTRODUCTION

2.1 Although the range of the curriculum was similar in most schools, there was some variation in the proportion of time given to the various elements. There were also variations in the titles given to subjects or areas of the curriculum and in the extent to which such subjects were taught separately or appeared as part of more general courses which incorporated a variety of components.

2.2 The sections in this chapter cover the main elements of the curriculum. The headings reflect closely the predominant pattern of curricular organisation employed in the schools. Most commonly, areas such as English, mathematics, French, music, home studies, physical education and religious education were taught as separate subjects. In the majority of the schools, arts and crafts were regarded and timetabled as one area of the curriculum. Health education was normally an element in other areas of the curriculum, most commonly, science. The arrangements for social studies, environmental studies, history and geography were very varied: in 23 of the schools these subjects were included in the topic work which was undertaken by some classes or year groups while others studied history and geography separately; in 16 of the schools history, geography and social studies were part of the topics or themes pursued by all classes, and in 10 schools, history and geography were taught separately throughout.

2.3 The assessments reported in this chapter relate to the work of children aged 8 to 12, whether in combined 5 to 12 schools or 8 to 12 middle schools. In the inspection of each school, overall assessments were made of the general standards of their work in each area of the


[page 5]

curriculum. The sections which follow describe the content and achievements in the various elements of the curriculum. For convenience, the terms 'first year', 'second year', 'third year', and 'fourth year' are sometimes used; in each case these refer to the year groups 8 to 12. Furthermore the assessments of work in different subjects were made wherever that work appeared, whether in separate subject classes, in topic or thematic work or within a number of different subjects. For example, art or craft work which took place during history, geography or social studies lessons contributed to the overall evaluation of a school's achievements in arts and crafts. It must not be assumed that every school's curriculum was organised under the headings used in this chapter.


LANGUAGE AND LITERACY

2.4 The elements which most obviously permeated the curriculum were language and literacy, though almost all the schools also timetabled English as a separate subject. The work in English and in language development in the broader sense was assessed having regard to the four modes of reading, writing, talking and listening. Each of the modes appeared in a wide variety of contexts in the overall programme of each school.

2.5 Although in about two thirds of schools talking and listening were regarded as important aspects of the work, good practice more often depended on the initiatives of individual teachers than on the existence of agreed school policies. Many teachers were sympathetic to children's opinions and gave them time to reflect and think; such teachers were skilful in judging the time to hold back and the time to intervene. Talk was often used as a way of exploring ideas before the act of writing and this led to improved standards in both modes. The nature of teachers' questioning was an important factor in extending or curtailing speculation and discussion. An undue proportion of questions required a single answer and did not encourage children to offer alternatives or to speculate. Where topics under discussion were specific and concrete, pupils often participated fluently. Appropriate invitations to predict what might happen next when stories were being read often produced lively speculation and there were many instances where children listened intently to novels or poems which were being well read. in one school, for example,


[page 6]

children chose to miss playtime in order to carry on discussion about a book. However, the pleasure of listening to a story was sometimes spoiled for the children by numerous supplementary questions being asked by the teachers.

Sometimes, it seemed that the teachers were worried that activities which revolved around talk or discussion would produce too little evidence of work done. Where headteachers were convinced of the value of talk as a means of making sense of experience and communicating with others and conveyed these views to their teachers the quality of discussion and of resulting written work was good.

2.6 Fourteen of the schools provided a little time for drama on a regular basis; a further twenty schools had occasional lessons. Where drama occurred it was often related to topic work, broadcast programmes or forthcoming assemblies. In seven of the schools drama made a particularly influential contribution by creating opportunities for imaginative exploration, developing sensitivity towards language use, requiring thought and planning, and encouraging confidence and fluency. Some of the schools used broadcast programmes which linked drama to music and movement and a few used scripted material. The children appreciated the opportunities for enjoyment and performance provided by drama lessons but such activities were not often extended into work which led to language development. Most of the schools mounted annual dramatic productions but only a small number had drama clubs.

2.7 Many of the schools arranged regular visits to places of educational interest, both locally and further afield. These were sometimes used to promote language activities in class and to encourage a shared home/school interest. Many schools used visiting speakers, often local people such as a journalist, a miner, a policeman, a librarian and a mother. One school had used local radio material to develop its work in history, another had twice been visited by an author of books for children and in a third the children's impressions following visits to the local art gallery had been recorded and broadcast locally. In their talking or writing about such activities, the children showed that the value of these experiences in enriching and extending their use of language was considerable.


[page 7]

2.8 A large majority of the children in their final year were able to read at a satisfactory functional level, though some encountered difficulty in reading certain textbooks, notably those used in science. In about half the schools attention was paid to the development of extended reading skills, particularly the confident use of reference books, though in the majority of these cases the skills were practised in isolation from work in other areas of the curriculum. The best practice was based on effective use of a wide range of books, both fiction and non-fiction, where teachers extended the experience of children through well-considered topics and gave them opportunities to make notes and redraft the material they had written. Some of the teachers developed games and other strategies which encouraged the use of information books. Generally, however, opportunities for children to use a wide variety of sources and to discriminate between them were too limited.

2.9 The majority of the schools provided well for pupils in terms of the quality and quantity of fiction, mainly through good collections of paperback books and their use of the local authority library services. The schools which bought good quality fiction and regularly replaced worn out stock often took steps to promote their use through, for example, school book clubs, sharing of children's book reviews and, particularly, the encouragement given to children to take books home to read.

2.10 In the majority of the schools the children were read to, sometimes outstandingly well. A wide range of books was read: the teachers often chose material which children would have found too challenging by themselves but the quality of the material and the involvement of the teacher, who sometimes 'dramatised' voices, enabled children to follow and become involved in the narrative. The opportunities provided for the children to read for pleasure for themselves were satisfactory in over half the schools. Half the sample set time aside specifically for private reading and some encouraged children to read during registration and in other spare moments during the day. There were very few of the schools in which the teachers regularly spent much time talking about books or guiding children's choice of future reading. The discussion of books or poems by groups of children was also comparatively rare. However, there were a few examples of children informally discussing such books as 'The Silver Gown' and 'The Hobbit'.


[page 8]

2.11 Fiction was used as a means of deepening pupils' interest in other areas of the curriculum in about a third of the schools. Examples of books and poems used were Grice's 'Bonnie Pit Laddie', Flora Thompson's 'Lark Rise to Candleford' and some of DH Lawrence's poems.

2.12 Forty-two of the schools had libraries most of which were favourably equipped and reasonably stocked. Sometimes, however, the accommodation was poor or, more often, the room had to serve a number of purposes and consequently its usefulness as a library was limited. There were few schools where the library was seen as a resource which related directly to everyday classroom work. Good use of the school library was often matched by extensive use of the local library, a facility which many children claimed to use regularly. Nearly three quarters of the schools had book clubs or bookshops or both.

2.13 The schools monitored the children's reading ability, usually through reading schemes with the younger age groups, but only a few encouraged children to keep their own reading records. Three of the schools had attempted to link reading in school and at home, one developing regular visits to the local library, another lending sets of books for use at home, and a third following up private reading with a school book club and a regular book review system. Many of the schools were uncertain about the extent of the children's private reading but believed it to be very limited.

2.14 The teaching of poetry was considered to be satisfactory in half the schools. Where there was good practice the teachers read a large number of poems to the children including many with which children were not familiar. One teacher, for example, had introduced Edwin Muir's poem The First Men in Mercury to her class of 12 year olds. She gave sufficient help to interest them in the poem but rightly left them to wrestle with aspects of the meaning. In another school the English coordinator had circulated a list of poems which experience had shown to be successful with children. The amount of poetry presented to pupils depended to a large extent on the teacher's knowledge of, and liking for, it.

2.15 The opportunities for children to write poems were few in most of the schools. Where there was such provision the children appeared to enjoy the challenge and sense of achievement it made possible.


[page 9]

There were examples of good work influenced by recent occurrences but too often the children attempting this kind of work had too little contact with poetry. As a consequence the meaning of verses was often distorted by children's search for rhyme and their overemphasis on special features such as alliteration. In this, as in the reading of poetry, there was often insufficient attention paid to features of poetry such as its economy and precision and the range of sounds and moods which it can represent.

2.16 The kind and quantity of writing required of the children varied considerably among and within schools. A number of the schools provided opportunities for personal writing which encouraged individuality and which often resulted in the children's perceptions of life showing through with freshness and vitality. Extended writing occupied a relatively small place in many programmes of work. Teachers were often unable to provide a suitably differentiated range of starting points for writing. In schools which encouraged writing for readers other than teachers, for example for other children and for parents, children developed their use of written language confidently. However, only relatively few of the schools had a policy requiring the children to write in a variety of styles on a range of subject matter. There were too few examples of children using written language to speculate, investigate or reflect on first-hand experience. There was often insufficient differentiation in assignments for ability groups or year groups, some subjects sometimes being set in more than one year. Most of the schools had course books for English and the extent and way in which these were used varied considerably. There were occasions when the type of exercise worked on by the children was clearly inappropriate to their needs. For example, this is an extract from an able second year pupil's original story:

'One other passenger left the train, carrying the odd-shaped parcel; thrusting it into Jennie's arms he hissed "Take that". She called back to him, but he ignored her and carried on running. Jennie began to get worried and terrible thoughts of what might be in the parcel went through her head. But eventually she calmed herself and she decided to take it to her cousin's house with her and found out what was inside it ...'

The same pupil was also required to complete such exercises as:

'Mark is climbing ... the tree'

[page 10]

2.17 The help given to children as preparation for written work was sometimes extensive, particularly when it was linked to project work which entailed visits and personal research. Sometimes discussion or illustrated talks by the teachers or the children provided appropriate preparation. The assistance given during writing was usually confined to help with spelling and to the encouragement of those whose invention was flagging. The children were rarely given help in shaping sentences or passages either during or after the task. The marking and evaluation of work were usually conscientiously undertaken, though more concerned with features such as appearance and spelling than with content.

2.18 Approximately three quarters of the schools paid careful attention to handwriting. Good levels of achievement were often associated with handwriting practice throughout the school, consistency of approach by the teachers, displayed work and participation in handwriting competitions. In only four of the schools was presentation generally poor. Some children with handwriting difficulties required more help with specific problems. In some of the schools children spent more time on handwriting practice than they needed.

2.19 There were good standards of spelling in those schools where spelling was related to the specific needs of the children as identified in the work which they had done. Other helpful features were personal spelling books and methods of marking which helped pupils to overcome persistent individual errors. Most of the schools displayed only that written work which had been carefully corrected. Spelling as a separate lesson had the effects of dissociating the activity from its context and of giving it an undue allowance of time which did not necessarily result in any marked improvement.

2.20 In the main, punctuation was taught through textbook exercises, sometimes related to the children's own written work. There was often insufficient progression in the handling of sentence construction and a considerable volume of exercise-based work reinforced a tendency to use a limited range of punctuation. In some of the schools the teachers limited their corrections to full stops and capital letters throughout the four years of the middle school. Amongst examples of good practice was the effective teaching of speech punctuation using conversations written by the pupils themselves.


[page 11]

2.21 Overall, standards of work were satisfactory or better in three quarters of the schools, including eleven where standards were good. In general, the pupils of average ability were rather better provided for than those of above or below average ability, but in each of these cases standards were satisfactory in two thirds of the schools.


MATHEMATICS

2.22 All the schools gave high priority to the teaching of mathematics. It was taught as a separate subject to all the children in all the schools. In the majority of schools, between 16 per cent and 25 per cent of the week was devoted to it.

2.23 Mathematics was taught by just over four fifths of the total number of teachers in the sample. It was most often taught to younger children in mixed-ability classes, though thirteen schools formed ability sets in year 1 [now Year 4] and sixteen in year 2 [now Year 5]. Twenty-nine schools set by ability for mathematics in the third year, and thirty-five schools in the fourth year. In some of the schools, the least able children were taught in groups withdrawn from mixed-ability classes.

2.24 All the schools gave considerable emphasis to calculations involving whole numbers. In some of the schools a significant number of the children were spending too great a proportion of their time practising computational skills; some of the children had already acquired these skills while others needed more discussion and practical work if they were to understand the computational methods they were using and be able to carry them out in context.

2.25 About half the schools gave reasonable attention to work on fractions and ensured progression across the four years. A few of the schools gave too little attention to work of this kind, while in others the tasks were unnecessarily complicated. In nearly half the sample appropriate emphasis was given to decimals, but even where the children were competent in the techniques they were sometimes inexperienced in the solving of problems involving decimals. In many schools practical work such as that involved in measuring length and weight was helping to develop understanding of decimals. The majority of less able pupils needed more help in developing their understanding of place value.


[page 12]

2.26 In fifteen of the schools there was a strong emphasis on mental work, but in many others there was insufficient attention to this aspect. Quick recall of multiplication bonds was often practised but sometimes insufficient attention was given to other number bonds and to estimation and approximation.

2.27 Graphical representation was given adequate emphasis in about half the schools. In those cases where appropriate provision and progression were in evidence, the children collected and interpreted data and where appropriate, used bar graphs, pie-charts, pictograms or line graphs to represent their data. However in many of the schools too little attention was given to developing their work so that the pupils could interpret graphs and use them to answer questions.

2.28 Geometrical work was a significant part of the programme in about one third of the schools. In one class of 9 year olds links were made between natural, man-made and geometrical tessellations of regular shapes as part of the work involving the calculation of perimeter, area and volume. In a needlecrafts lesson in a second school, the children discovered that they could make a soft toy ball using regular pentagons, but not hexagons. Too few of the schools developed ideas of space and shape so that there was a progression in the work throughout the four years.

2.29 The exploration of patterns was rarely developed sufficiently to enable the pupils to make generalisations and to express these orally or through symbols and formulae. Mathematical investigations and puzzles were included in the work in less than a quarter of the schools. Games which involved children in making predictions are popular out of school hours, yet in the schools the pupils were rarely asked 'What would happen if ...?'.

2.30 In the majority of the schools practical work was carried out but this was usually limited to the measurement of length and weight. In some of the schools however, the programme also included the measurement of volume and capacity. In approximately a quarter of the sample good work occurred in the use of measuring instruments.


[page 13]

2.31 Except for some aspects of computation, there was considerable variation between the schools in the range of topics included in their courses and in the proportion of their pupils to whom these topics were taught. Many of the children at all levels of ability were not given a sufficiently broad range of mathematical experience.

2.32 Few of the schools developed investigational work related to the local or more distant environment. In one school, work in environmental studies required fourth year pupils to survey a cave system, to draw plans and to map a stream and a pond using ideas of scale and sections. A second example of good work occurred during a field trip when children measured different types of bridge. For measuring the curvature of an ancient pack-horse bridge the children were spaced at horizontal intervals of one metre along the bridge and they then recorded the height of the parapet from the water level using string. Later the recorded data were used to produce scale drawings.

2.33 Topic work in mathematics was observed in a few of the schools. Examples of this included topics on money using a range of reference books, on computers, and on the construction of three-dimensional solids. Two schools provided valuable thematic work for less able groups: in one the children tackled a topic on 'homes' which involved mapping, patterns of brick-bonding, the proportions of sand to cement when making concrete, and mathematical shapes in house design. In the other, a considerable amount of the mathematical work of a similar group of children was related to the running of a school gardening club, which involved children in ordering seeds and selling plants.

2.34 In about half the schools there were indications of satisfactory links between mathematics and other subjects. In one school, for example. The work in environmental studies included an analysis of traffic flow and a calculation of the heights of buildings through the use of scale drawings. Work in other subjects frequently had a mathematical content and contributed to mathematical understanding, for example through weather observations, the timing and analysis of athletic performances, graphs of crops growing within the locality, and the use of 5x and 10x magnifications in science and matrices in geography.


[page 14]

2.35 Most commonly the mathematics lesson consisted of an introduction by the teacher followed by the children working individually on mathematical exercises. In half the schools there were opportunities for the children to use a variety of methods when solving problems, but the active encouragement to use their own common sense methods and alternative strategies was rare. Where choice was provided, it generally related to the selection of materials and equipment for practical work, or to the organisation by pupils of their own learning, for example in programming their weekly assignments.

2.36 The pace of work varied from class to class. Where it was too slow it was often associated with poor record-keeping or with the children being given unnecessary practice in techniques already mastered. In one school where the pace of work was considered appropriate a check list of the pupils' progress was being used effectively and in addition the teachers submitted for comment fortnightly forecasts of their teaching plans to the mathematics coordinator.

2.37 There were reasonable opportunities for oral work in just under half the sample. In one school, where its practice was good, there was an excellent introduction to algebra which involved mathematical puzzles and gave good opportunity for discussion between the pupils both when they were engaged in practical work and when they were working on exercises. In those schools where inadequate attention was given to oral work, there seemed to be a belief that mathematical education was mainly the acquisition of techniques of computation rather than the ability to think, argue and communicate about mathematics in relation to a wide range of different situations.

2.38 In 43 of the schools there were schemes of work for mathematics. In half of these, the schemes had been written by the subject coordinator; in the remainder they had been written by the head, or by the head in conjunction with the coordinator and other staff. Just over half the schemes contained more than a list of the mathematical content to be taught; for example, methods of teaching were discussed, though often only a restricted range of mathematical applications were suggested. In a considerable number of the schools there was a need for a more comprehensive scheme of work which clearly described the progression of ideas, teaching approaches and methods of assessment, discussed the range of work


[page 15]

for different ability groups, and listed available resources. Where schemes were successfully used, there was usually considerable planned discussion between the mathematics coordinator and other teachers.

2.39 In most of the schools the pattern of textbook use was for one or two series to form the basis of the work supplemented by other published schemes or, in some cases, by teacher-prepared materials. In some of the schools certain elements provided by textbooks, for example, puzzles and practical applications were omitted from the work the children did. In the majority of the schools resources for practical work were readily available but in some they were used too infrequently. Many of the schools needed to clarify the purposes and determine the place of practical work in mathematics.

2.40 Reference books were rarely used to support the work in mathematics or to stimulate the children's interest in, or extend their awareness of, the subject. Some classes in about half the sample made use of televised programmes at some stage in their work. Good practice was seen in one school where various programmes were taped, were previewed by staff and were shown at appropriate points in the particular course.

2.41 At the time of the survey few of the schools had computing facilities, though some children had access to microcomputers at home. In four fifths of the schools the pupils were not encouraged or permitted to use electronic calculators in mathematics.

2.42 The attitude of pupils towards mathematics was positive in the majority of the schools: children cooperated well, worked diligently and took care in the presentation of their written work. But too often the pupils were given insufficient opportunity to think for themselves though, when a challenge was provided, their response to it was generally good.

2.43 In over four fifths of the schools, children of average ability were achieving satisfactory standards in the work they were doing, though very often this was too limited in range. Those of above average ability had satisfactory achievements in about three quarters of schools, and less able children were making satisfactory progress in about two thirds. In many of the schools there was insufficient practical work and the children were unused to applying mathema-


[page 16]

tics to everyday situations or to talking confidently about their work in the subject.


SCIENCE AND HEALTH EDUCATION

2.44 Science was part of the curriculum in all the survey schools and aspects of health education were taught in 36. Science was usually timetabled as a separate subject, particularly with the older age groups but also with the younger ones in about two thirds of schools. Health education was usually taught as part of science or as a contributory element to other areas of the curriculum such as physical education, home studies or religious education. In most of the schools the children were taught science and health education in mixed-ability groups. Girls and boys were usually taught together except in some schools for some elements of health education that were concerned with physical changes at puberty. The younger children were usually taught science and health education by their class teachers but older ones were more frequently taken by teachers who specialised in the teaching of science to some degree.


Science

2.45 The content of the children's work in science showed clear differences across the age range. Compared with the older ones, the younger children were more likely to be involved in the study of living things such as seeds, plants, pond life, birds and themselves. Older pupils also studied such natural phenomena but also aspects of physical science including simple mechanics, friction, heat, air pressure, electricity and magnetism. Nevertheless there was an imbalance of content in many of the schools where the courses failed to provide adequate coverage of elements of physical science.

2.46 Over half the schools made use of their grounds or of visits further afield to places such as field study centres, zoos or nature trails, but such visits were rarely part of a planned programme of development and often scientific aspects were not stressed as much as the historical or geographical ones. Particularly good use was made of the environment in ten of the schools. In one, the work


[page 17]

taking place on a local building site stimulated a visit to a brick works for a fourth year class and was followed up with an investigation into the composition of cement and mortar. In another, studies of local flora led to a tree survey which involved the measurement of height, girth and the spread of branches, using surveyor's tapes, clinometers and directional compasses.

2.47 In about half the schools the children were given opportunities to conduct experiments and enquiries. Older children did more of such work than the younger ones. In one of the schools for example, an able pupil had constructed a solar panel to provide power for a morse key. In a second the fourth year children's study of thermal insulation effectively incorporated controlled experiments using a range of insulating materials, calorimeters, second timers and thermometers. In a few of the schools the children were encouraged to select data relevant to the problems or topics under investigation. In a minority they were able to find patterns in the data they had collected. Good practice in the effective and safe handling of scientific apparatus was reported in eighteen of the schools. Generally, however, the prescribed nature of the practical work, often based on work cards, prevented genuine experimentation, speculation and problem-solving.

2.48 In about a quarter of the schools the children were regularly encouraged to explain what they had seen or found; the younger children were able to offer explanations in response to questions such as 'Why does a snail leave a sticky trail?'; the older children in one school were able to explain why a compass did not read true when a magnet was nearby. Often, a greater degree of understanding was revealed in discussion than was apparent in written work. However, the children frequently required more help if they were to attempt explanation or to identify inconsistencies in their findings.

2.49 The most common teaching mode in science lessons was instruction by the teacher using demonstrations and illustrative material. As a result, good exchanges of ideas between teachers and children occurred in about half the sample. However, in a number of classes too much copying from the blackboard and too many dictated notes inhibited scientific understanding and investigation.

2.50 Some links with other subjects were noted in about half the schools. Discussion of scientific problems often led to appropriate


[page 18]

use of mathematics, particularly measurement and graphical representation. Other subjects to which science was most often linked were crafts, topic work and home studies. Examples of such connections were in work about the Industrial Revolution and the impact of science and technology; a study of the local environment; and work on nutrition and food preparation. A number of technological projects were seen: the construction of battery-powered vehicles, the design of games using simple electrical circuits, and the building of an anemometer.

2.51 The vast majority of the schools had schemes of work for science, either as a separate subject or as part of a combination of subjects. About half the schemes were satisfactory. Such schemes included details of the topics to be taught, drew attention to progression, and listed the materials and equipment available in the schools.

2.52 In the majority of the schools the children enjoyed their work in science, especially where it was strongly based on practical activities. The children generally persevered even with tasks that were not particularly interesting. Standards of work were generally satisfactory or better in 27 of the schools. Children of average ability were achieving satisfactory standards in about half the schools.


Health education

2.53 The vast majority of the schools taught children about the functions of the human body, though the extent of this work varied considerably from passing mention of the senses to more extensive teaching, often using television, Schools Council materials and other published schemes. In most of the schools more needs to be done to give the children a simple knowledge and understanding of the body and of the place of man in the web of life. This foundation is essential for the development of a positive attitude to healthy life styles and the choices they entail from an early age.

2.54 About three quarters of the schools included sex education as part of the programme of work. Many of them dealt in some way with physical changes at puberty, sometimes with girls only. Emotional changes associated with puberty were discussed in only a quarter of the schools.


[page 19]

2.55 In about half the sample the hazards of smoking were considered and in rather more the pollution of the environment was discussed. In one example as part of a project about the sea, a class of 11 year olds talked about the dangers of pollution and acted out a play which drew attention to broken glass and other litter where children might play. As a follow-up, the children wrote letters to the local paper and television station, drawing the attention of the council and the public to the problem of litter.

2.56 The daily life of the schools and classrooms provided many opportunities for incidental learning about interpersonal relationships. Such relationships were often discussed in assemblies and promoted by residential weekends. In addition, a third of the schools reported that work about disabilities and how these affected those who suffered from them and topics such as 'Myself' or 'Friends' provided important ways to help the children to become aware of the circumstances and feelings of others.

2.57 Just over half the schools used outside speakers on the health education programme, such as school nurses, doctors, health visitors, policemen and road safety officers. In some cases, talks on dental health were organised. In a few of the schools dieticians or cooks talked about nutrition; in some, mothers were invited in to talk about child care and development.

2.58 Television programmes were used regularly for work in health education and often led to worthwhile discussion and good written work. As a follow-up to one such programme on the effects of tooth decay a class was divided into three groups: one took the role of the dentists explaining the dangers of tooth decay; another prepared a television script with narration and diagrams designed to publicise good oral hygiene; and a third prepared posters and slogans. Visits, usually as part of project work, provided other opportunities for work related to health education. For example, after a visit to Eyam, the plague village, one class of 9 year olds discussed 'cures' for the plague and made herbal tea. These activities led to discussion about the spread, prevention and control of disease.

2.59 Other resources used included material from the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, the Health Education Council, and the Schools Council. The provision of books for this aspect of the curriculum was generally poor but there were some examples of


[page 20]

classes making use of a range of reference books after seeing films and television. In only about a third of the sample were there guidelines for the teaching of health education, which were drawn up by the school or provided by the local education authority. Such schemes were often based on the Schools Council Health Education Project or Science 5-13 materials.

2.60 Health education was not a strong feature of the schools inspected. Many of the schools need to devise broad policies and detailed schemes of work, to identify those teachers responsible for coordinating the work and to take advantage of in-service provision at national and local levels.


FRENCH

2.61 French was taught in all but 6 of the survey schools. In 4 of the schools, the children began learning French in the first year, and in a further 11 the language was introduced a year later; 19 of the remaining schools provided a two year course and 9 a one year course. French was normally taught to mixed-ability classes, though 4 schools set by ability in the third year and twice that number did so in the final year. Where setting was employed, there was often insufficient differentiation in the work provided for the different sets: less able children usually followed the same course as the more able but at a slower pace. The small amount of time allocated to the subject and its distribution throughout the week gave some cause for concern in a number of schools.

2.62 Of the four language skills - listening, speaking, reading and writing - listening comprehension was the most successfully developed. In over half the classes observed the standards of work were considered as satisfactory or better. Where teachers used French regularly as a means of communication in the classroom, the children's understanding was good. In the best examples the children were spoken to in French, and listened to tapes, at near normal conversational speeds. Good listening comprehension was often associated with the use of pictures, figurines, flashcards and tapes.

2.63 The children's ability to speak the language was satisfactory in just under half the classes, though much of the French spoken


[page 21]

involved repetition or simple answers to standard questions. In the particularly successful schools the pupils were able to ask questions and to use the language in other simple situations, often in response to stimuli such as pictures or role play. Elsewhere, English was too often used in situations where French would have been appropriate.

2.64 In the vast majority of the schools, the children had opportunities to read French. This activity was almost entirely confined to word recognition, reading aloud from the board or from flash cards, or reading from course books. Only two examples were noted of reading for general understanding, sometimes called gist reading. Reading aloud by the children was often used mainly as an exercise in pronunciation rather than as an attempt to achieve an overall understanding of a text. Much more could be done to develop reading skills, especially those of the ablest pupils.

2.65 Where writing was undertaken, the early stages were confined to copying and often illustrating lists of vocabulary. In only a few cases was writing later developed in ways which led to the pupils using the written language in well rehearsed situations.

2.66 About half the schools had links with France either through correspondence or visits. Fourteen of the schools had organised excursions to France recently or planned to do so. One school's annual trip to France took the form of a study visit in which the children lived in a chateau, had daily French lessons, kept diaries in French and completed specific tasks related to the language and culture of the country.

2.67 Given the emphasis which the schools rightly gave to oral French, the overall quality of work of pupils of average ability was satisfactory in about two thirds of the sample. Satisfactory standards were achieved by more able children in slightly more than half the schools and by children of lower ability in about half.


SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

2.68 Topic or project work related to social and environmental studies was undertaken in about four fifths of the schools. The topics and projects were organised under the heading of social studies in


[page 22]

about a third of the sample and under environmental studies in about half. In the topic work in a few of the schools environmental studies and social studies were designations used at different stages in the work programme; differences in terminology did not always signify marked differences in content or approach. Most often historical and geographical elements were combined, though science, religious education or English were also included in the topics in some of the schools. In about half the sample the children in some year groups studied history and geography separately and in a further 10 of the schools the separate study of these elements occurred throughout the 4 year course. In most of the schools in the sample, historical and geographical elements received appropriate allocations of time, either as separate components or as aspects of topic work.

2.69 Those schools adopting a thematic approach to social and environmental studies introduced children to a wide range of topics. These topics were sometimes related to aspects of the locality but often involved a study of other countries and other historical periods. In the course of such work the children drew most often on historical and geographical sources but also on elements of science and religious and moral education, and, occasionally, on views of how societies are organised and how people earn their living.

2.70 Almost all the schools paid some attention to national history, either as part of project work or as a separate study of history. About two thirds of the sample introduced the children to aspects of world history, most commonly ancient civilisations and the European voyages of exploration, in a similar proportion of the schools the children studied aspects of local history.

2.71 In addition to work on their own neighbourhood the children in many of the schools studied aspects of the British Isles, such as farming, industry or cities. The study of other countries was concerned in a general way with how people live and was sometimes too superficial and led to misleading generalisations and stereotypes. Most of the books used did not give sufficient attention to what such places are like and how people's lifestyles are influenced by where they live. Features of the physical environment were studied in the majority of the schools, but were generally treated in isolation when they might advantageously have been related to human activities. On some occasions, detailed studies formed part of the field work, for example, the study of rivers and sediment processes or the


[page 23]

identification of rock types. Reference was sometimes made to environmental or social issues, when particular places were being studied; here, the teachers provided opportunities for the children to form opinions and make their own judgements on such issues as conservation and the care of the environment. Some incidental reference to Third World problems was often made in topic work. The study of the development of towns and villages was found in only a few schools where it was usually based on field work and the use of local maps and plans.

2.72 In the majority of the schools local fieldwork and visits to more distant places made an important contribution to developing the children's understanding of social and environmental studies. The children's writing, drawing, model-making, map work and use of reference books were often stimulated as a result of such first-hand experience outside the school. Over half the schools had made visits to museums and field centres. Some of these visits included residential stays of several days in such places as York, Weymouth or Swanage. Some visits were planned in order to study specific features such as railways, canals or harbours. In those cases where the results of fieldwork were good, the quality of the preparation and follow-up work was central to that success. Though valuable, the children's increased understanding resulting from first-hand experiences was rarely developed throughout the middle school course to enable pupils to look for patterns and make comparisons with other places or with other times.

2.73 An appreciation of continuity and change was being developed in just over half the schools by encouraging the children to consider questions of similarity and difference between different historical periods and through the study of the process of change in relation to particular topics or themes. For example, in one school a class of 8 year olds constructed a model village which they modified during the course of the year to illustrate the change from Iron Age to Roman to Anglo-Saxon settlement. In a second school the third year [now Year 6] children's work on 'Our Town' included the development of communications to London from the stagecoach to the first railway and finally to the building of a motorway link. However, in a majority of schools more attention needs to be given to developing children's awareness of time sequence and chronology through placing people, artefacts and events in time and arranging them in sequence in relation to one another and to other material previously studied. In topics or in


[page 24]

history lessons, little emphasis was placed on helping the children to understand causation or historical explanation.

2.74 In only a few of the schools was the concept of location being sufficiently well developed through field work and/or the use of maps and plans. Where there was good practice the children were encouraged not only to identify and describe places but also to suggest reasons for their location. Even where location received some incidental treatment in the topic work, not enough attention was being given to deepening the children's understanding of the concept. In order to facilitate such understanding, the children should be given regular opportunities to use atlases and local maps. The pupils' appreciation of the concept of adaptation was enhanced in a small number of schools through field visits which demonstrated how people make use of, modify, and adapt to, their local environment. Examples of such work included a study by a third year class [now Year 6] of the impact of urban encroachment on farming land and an investigation by a fourth year group [now Year 7] of the development of the local furniture industry. Studies of people in other lands made only passing reference to environmental use and adaptation.

2.75 A variety of skills and capabilities can be developed through environmental and social studies, whether taught as topics or in the form of history and geography. Such work can help children to learn how to collect, select, classify and record information and how to present it in a coherent and appropriate way. As indicated in paragraph 2.8 about half the schools encouraged the development of extended reading skills, particularly the competent use of reference books, but in the majority of cases these skills were practised in isolation and not as part of enquiries in social and environmental studies. In only a minority of the schools were the children given appropriate opportunities to collect, classify and record material drawn from books, displays, maps, photographs or field studies. In general too much of the work was based on textbooks or involved the copying of material from reference books. However, there were examples of more demanding work which required the children to collect relevant evidence from a variety of sources, to record it appropriately, to develop reasoned arguments and to draw careful conclusions.

2.76 Overall, about half the schools were succeeding in helping the children to appreciate the points of view, the force of ideas and


[page 25]

beliefs and the circumstances of other people in other times and places. An interesting example occurred in one school where the children were asked to imagine that they were the Pilgrim Fathers fleeing from religious persecution. But generally, there was insufficient awareness of the need to develop the specific historical skills concerned with empathy and the use and evaluation of primary source material such as artefacts, newspaper cuttings and other documents. A few of the schools had materials such as the 1851 census documents of their local areas or large-scale maps of the locality dating from the 18th or 19th centuries.

2.77 The schools varied considerably in the extent to which pupils used atlases confidently and skilfully. In only just over a third of the sample were atlases regularly used, and then not necessarily in all classes. In these schools the pupils were generally competent in the skills of using indexes, finding locations, and making simple interpretations. Elsewhere, atlases were used much less frequently, though there were some classes where good practice was observed. Overall little use was being made of globes.

2.78 In the majority of the sample there were examples of good or satisfactory practice in map work, though these were rarely part of planned programmes of work throughout the middle schools. Such work often emphasised the location of places on wall or atlas maps or the straightforward extraction of other information from maps. In a few classes map reading skills were developed to a more advanced stage where by comparing maps of different editions the children observed changes and then proceeded to look for explanations. In only a small number of cases were detailed map reading and map interpretation encouraged.

2.79 In about a third of the schools the children were achieving satisfactory or better standards in social and environmental studies. Those schools where topic work was undertaken did not achieve generally higher or lower standards than those where history and geography were taught separately.


RELIGIOUS EDUCATION

2.80 A corporate act of worship was a regular feature in the schools inspected, although only two thirds had whole school assemblies on


[page 26]

four or five days of the week. In addition, almost every school provided religious education either as a separate subject or, less often, as part of a combination of subjects such as topic work or humanities. Religious education was not inspected in the nine voluntary aided schools in the sample where the responsibility for arranging inspection of the subject rests with the schools' governors.

2.81 In almost all the schools assemblies were seen as important, although there was considerable variation in their pattern and form. Many were taken by the heads but some were taken by other teachers or by children. A common pattern was for a class to prepare and present the assembly. Often the school choir and orchestra took part and in a third of the schools, visitors, such as clergymen, were occasionally invited to lead assemblies. The content of assemblies was most frequently related to Christian festivals, topical matters, pupils' personal and social development and themes such as faith, forgiveness and consideration for others. In a few cases assemblies celebrated the festivals of other faiths such as Islam or Hinduism. Assemblies were of satisfactory quality in approximately two thirds of schools.

2.82 Both in assemblies and class work the children were introduced to religious ideas and topics based on biblical stories and Christian and other religious festivals. The thematic work observed included topics related to thankfulness, forgiveness, conservation and support for charitable organisations. Visits to local churches were undertaken by the majority of schools. One school included a visit to a mosque as part of a regular programme of visits to places of worship and in this way gave pupils some appreciation of the varieties of religious faiths active in our society.

2.83 Religious education was based mainly on stories from both the Old and New Testaments. Occasionally the children learned about how such material had been written and made comparisons with other sacred writings. In addition, some teachers sketched in the historical background in order to make clearer the significance of some episodes, for example, describing homes and family life as a background to the healing of Jairus's daughter. Where modern translations were used, the 'Good News Bible' was the most popular. Passages which had a strong narrative line were those most generally used, such as the story of Joseph and his brothers. In many of the schools an emphasis was placed on the life of Jesus, especially


[page 27]

the miracles and parables. There were a few schools which used stories other than from the Gospels and when they did, the stories most frequently related to the apostle Paul.

2.84 In about two thirds of the schools some attention was given to teaching the children about the language of myth, symbolism, worship and ritual. In a few schools, Greek, Icelandic, North American Indian and other myths were introduced, often associated with specific television programmes. In one of the schools 9 year old children learning about Egypt had been asked to consider the reasons why the Pharoahs were buried with their possessions. Other opportunities to appreciate symbolism and ritual and the influence of religious ideas and beliefs arose from the discussions about membership of local churches and children's organisations. Sometimes stories such as C S Lewis's The Magician's Nephew, or Spear's Bronze Bow were used; similarly, well-chosen reading and music at assemblies did much to promote the children's understanding and appreciation of religious language and ideas.

2.85 Moral and religious values were promoted in the schools' general approach to pastoral care. In a vast majority of schools relationships were good, heads and staff set high personal standards, and children were encouraged to be honest, kind and considerate.

2.86 The most successful classroom activities were questioning and discussion. Often such work concerned current events, behaviour and moral matters and in some classes children were encouraged to talk about their own experiences. Among the examples of such sensitive discussion was a fourth year [now Year 7] lesson in which the children looked at the nature and kinds of prayers and discussed the Lord's Prayer, Eli Jenkins' prayer from 'Under Milk Wood', the prayer of St Francis and a folk song by John Denver. Writing occupied a considerable portion of time in religious education lessons. The children were given a variety of assignments including copying, answering questions and writing in their own words. Sometimes, as in a project connected with the disabled, children were helped to understand the problems of other people by entering imaginatively into some of their difficulties. Some effective writing was produced when the children were required to write their own prayers. Similarly, some poems written in English lessons demonstrated an understanding of and insights into personal and social issues. Art, drama, music and dance made useful contributions to this aspect of the work in


[page 28]

some schools, particularly when used in assemblies. Musical plays such as 'Joseph and His Technicolour Dreamcoat' and a version of St Luke's Passion enhanced the quality of the religious education in the schools where they were performed.

2.87 In two thirds of the schools schemes of work for the subject had been drawn up and in about a third of these they had been developed directly from the agreed syllabus of the local education authority. In the more useful schemes it was clear that the teachers had carefully set out the basis upon which religious education was to be taught in the school. Where this was derived from the agreed syllabus, attention had been given to how it could be applied to the particular school concerned, with clear references to available resources. However, such schemes were in the minority. There was a need in many schools for more detailed schemes of work, giving guidance on the selection and nature of suitable biblical stories and their background, on contemporary religious practices and associated beliefs and on the distinctive contribution of religious education to pupils' development and the curriculum. Such schemes should also make clear the aims and objectives of the subject, the ground to be covered, the religious ideas to be explored, the methods and resources to be employed and the means by which work could be reviewed and assessed.

2.88 In a third of the schools where religious education was inspected, the work was satisfactory. In the remainder the work was often undemanding and the children were not being required to think deeply enough about a wide range of religious issues.


HOME STUDIES

2.89 Home studies were taught in thirty-nine of the schools, either as a separate part of the curriculum or as an aspect of topic work. When it occurred separately, it was usually provided for groups of children, more often the older rather than the younger ones, and was sometimes included as part of a rotational pattern of activities. About a quarter of the schools had a teacher with designated responsibility for the subject.

2.90 The majority of the schools engaged in work on such topics as human development, houses, furniture and the locality, often as an


[page 29]

element of science, social studies, environmental studies or project work. Aspects such as safety, nutrition, meal planning, costing and the preparation of food were taught by designated teachers with responsibility for home studies. In some schools, however, home studies consisted only of cooking.

2.91 The work with the younger children concentrated on the preparation of food: small groups of children prepared cakes and biscuits often with the help of ancillaries or parents under the supervision of the class teacher. In two such schools, the children planned the work, went shopping, carefully weighed and measured the ingredients, made the cakes and worked out the cost of the finished products.

2.92 For third and fourth year children in most of the schools the work was still narrowly focused on the preparation of cakes and biscuits. The best practice, which was present in a small number of the schools, consisted of home studies courses that dealt with a wide range of content, skills and processes, and was not confined to food preparation. In approximately a quarter of cases, the children were taught about elementary nutrition as well as the preparation of well-balanced meals. In one school a topic on fruit and vegetables was the basis for cookery and for scientific enquiry, including the preparation of a fruit salad, the preservation of foods, and experiments to discover the starch content of fruit and vegetables. At a second school the pupils planned a complete meal, purchased the ingredients, discussed the time plan for the lesson's activities, and proceeded to work in groups preparing and serving a three-course meal followed by coffee.

2.93 In most of the schools the children were taught to handle tools and equipment safely and appropriately. In seven schools insufficient attention was given to this aspect. Hygiene was carefully taught and practised in the majority of classes but there were a few instances where the conditions and habits of working were unsatisfactory.

2.94 The work of the pupils of average, above average and below average abilities was satisfactory in slightly more than one third of the schools, though not necessarily the same schools in each case. Overall, there was too little differentiation made for different ability levels in the planning of the work, teaching approaches and the pace of the lessons.


[page 30]

ARTS AND CRAFTS

2.95 All the schools provided opportunities for the children to use a variety of materials and to develop skills in art and in crafts. Such activities occurred in a variety of contexts, for example, art and crafts were used to enable the children to illustrate and understand aspects of work in history, geography, science and religious education. There were also times when art and crafts were timetabled as subjects in their own right. The titles given by the schools to these activities varied. Sometimes, collective terms such as 'arts and crafts' or 'design' were used to describe the work involving a wide range of activities such as drawing, painting, needlecrafts, ceramics and the design and making of models. In twenty-nine of the schools arts and crafts were taught largely or entirely as combined areas of study; the remaining schools timetabled art separately from craft, design and technology for most year groups. Needlecrafts were sometimes provided as part of arts and crafts and sometimes as part of home studies. Art was provided in all the schools, needlecrafts in almost all and aspects of craft, design and technology in twenty-five.

2.96 In all but a few of the schools boys and girls were given similar opportunities to work with materials both resistant and non-resistant. They were usually taught together, but in a small number of the schools, were taught separately for some aspects of the work. In approximately half the schools, arts and crafts were taught on a rotational basis so that, for example, the children worked on one craft for a period of three to six weeks and then changed to another; such arrangements sometimes made it difficult to ensure continuity of experience for pupils.

2.97 Overall, standards of work in art were satisfactory in about half the schools. Work with resistant materials such as wood and metal and with fabric and thread was less well developed than other aspects; standards were adequate in only a third of the schools where these particular activities were provided. The children usually worked enthusiastically though they were not always given sufficient opportunities to develop sensitivity to, or experiment with, materials or to use their imagination to produce individual solutions to problems posed by themselves or their teachers.

2.98 All the schools provided the children with opportunities to experience a number of processes associated with arts and crafts, but


[page 31]

in the majority of the schools the range of processes was narrow. Drawing and painting were the most common activities, but work with fabric, printing, weaving and clay were also important aspects, though not often all within any one school. The most common resistant material used was wood, though copper or aluminium sheet was also used in a few instances. In contrast to the general picture, one school offered a wide range of activities, including painting, drawing, block printing, pottery, tie-dye, batik, weaving and model-making. In another school, construction kits, wire and a variety of easily manipulated materials were used to make working models.

2.99 In about two thirds of the schools the children showed some sensitivity, especially in relation to colour, tone and balance but in only about a third was their ability to make judgements about and to discriminate between materials being sufficiently encouraged.

2.100 In slightly more than half the schools, the children were encouraged to develop their skills of observation and to record their observations in a variety of visual forms. A particularly good response was made by some children who were encouraged to examine with lenses a considerable variety of natural forms, technical and mechanical objects and other items. Nevertheless, in many cases, insufficient attention was given to observation and not enough use was made of the local environment for this purpose.

2.101 In almost a third of the schools the children were encouraged to make judgements and solve design problems in various ways. However, in many cases their willingness to talk about their work was not sufficiently utilised to explore design possibilities. Decision-making was usually restricted to aspects of the size and shape of the objects or structures being made, but some good examples were seen. In one school, a group of children observed a variety of living things and were then asked to make a decorative sculpture for their home. This involved choosing suitable wood, using various tools to shape it and finishing and polishing it so as to highlight the grain. They were then encouraged to devise ways of mounting the completed model on a stand, using copper wire.

2.102 Work with fabric included collage, needlework and toy-making, and weaving and knitting were also part of the programme in some of the schools. About a third of the schools usefully considered the history of clothes, usually as part of history or through topic work. In


[page 32]

a smaller proportion the pupils studied the properties of fabrics and fibres. In a few cases, the older pupils learned how to make simple clothes through measuring and cutting out cloth and executing a wide variety of stitches. The work given to the older pupils was not often challenging enough. Only in a few cases did it demand greater precision than previous work or the application of skills to new situations.

2.103 In most of the schools the children used a variety of manipulative skills, but in many cases these were being insufficiently developed. In those schools where good practice was identified, the children used a limited range of tools initially and progressed to careful and confident control over a wider variety. Tools for basic processes in art and in work with resistant materials were in general use, but only in a small number of the schools did the children have the experience of using more complex tools such as drilling machines or wood-turning lathes.

2.104 Adequate attention was paid to the safe handling of tools and equipment in the majority of the schools, but in some instances there were inappropriate handling of tools, poor work-holding facilities, slippery floors and overcrowding. The children's awareness of safety hazards generally reflected their teachers' attitudes towards this aspect of the work.

2.105 Links were most often made between art and historical, geographical or scientific aspects of topic work. Much of this work was illustrative and was often carried out as a follow-up to visits, enquiries or class discussions, but in some cases, the work took the form of preparatory drawings or designs. There were fewer links between work in crafts and other subjects, but there were some good examples. In one school, the older pupils pursued links with science when observing and interpreting designs and with humanities when studying buildings in which different materials had been used.


MUSIC

2.106 Music was part of the curriculum in all the schools. It was almost always taught as a separate subject to mixed-ability groups but in a few schools it was also linked to other aspects of the work


[page 33]

such as poetry, drama, topic work and science. In over three quarters of the schools the children were taught in single class groups; in the remainder various other arrangements were employed. In the majority of the schools the children had only one 30 to 40 minute lesson of class music per week - an inadequate amount of time in which to pursue a reasonable range of musical activities. Almost all the schools made extra provision, mainly for musically able children, through such means as peripatetic instrumental teaching, extracurricular instrumental and choral work and attendance at local education authority music centres.

2.107 Singing took place in all the schools but was regularly and consistently practised in only about three quarters of them. It was quite often accompanied by percussion and sometimes by recorder playing. In eight of the schools, hymn practice or other singing in very large groups constituted the only singing for many children. Three quarters of the sample had one or more choirs for interested children, who usually practised at lunch time or after school. In one 5 to 12 school there were 3 choirs involving 200 children in all, just over half of all those on roll.

2.108 Recorder playing in class was a regular activity in about two fifths of the schools but took place in every class in only half that number. In almost all the schools the children were given opportunities to play the instrument as an extra-curricular activity, usually in groups ranging in size from 12 to 30. In one school about 100 children had learned the recorder and in another a third of the pupils could play the instrument. Class music-making using instruments other than recorders was regularly practised in a quarter of the schools and more occasionally in a further 19. Learning to read music was practised regularly in classes in fourteen of the schools mainly through singing, recorder playing and the use of broadcast material and course books, and was developed through extra-curricular activities in rather more schools.

2.109 In only about a quarter of the sample were the children given some opportunities to devise their own music and in very few was this developed as an essential part of the music curriculum. There was a good example of this work in one school where with help from the teacher a group of 8 year olds made up a story about space exploration using percussion accompaniment. The children were given some encouragement to listen attentively to music in about


[page 34]

three quarters of the sample, but listening was developed regularly for all pupils in only 15 of the schools.

2.110 Almost every school provided some instrumental teaching for small groups of children. In most cases, the tuition was given by peripatetic teachers or by a combination of peripatetic and school staff. The children involved were very often withdrawn from classes for tuition, but some were taught at lunch time or after school. Most often the children were learning to play the violin but other instruments taught included the clarinet, trumpet, flute, cello, guitar, horn, trombone and cornet. Most of the children started to learn their instruments during the first two years of middle school [now Years 4 and 5] and the majority continued their tuition throughout the middle school course.

2.111 Orchestras had been formed in about half the schools and these usually met in out-of-school hours. A quarter of the sample had ensembles and a similar proportion had bands which usually included recorders, woodwind and/or brass instruments. Exceptionally, one school had a senior and junior orchestra and percussion and woodwind ensembles.

2.112 Standards of work in the musical activities offered were satisfactory in just over half the schools, including a quarter where the children's response was good throughout. In the remaining schools opportunities for children to listen to music and to engage in music-making were limited. In general, the less able children were less well served than their abler peers.


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

2.113 Physical education was taught in all the schools as a separate subject. In the majority of the schools, the programme included games, gymnastics, athletics and swimming. Outdoor pursuits and dance were each offered in about half the sample. Most schools provided some extra-curricular sporting activities which were often extensive in range though mainly for the more able pupils. In three quarters of the schools, the children were taught in normal class groups for indoor lessons. For games, about half the schools were organised on a year group basis. Some separation of the sexes for games lessons occurred in about three quarters of the sample. In


[page 35]

some cases, segregation took place at too early an age and, by emphasising the specific differences between traditional boys' and girls' games, hindered the development of a range of skills and knowledge applicable generally to games.

2.114 In approximately two thirds of the games lessons seen, the children responded enthusiastically and positively. In about half the sessions, the pupils' skills were being developed effectively. Other lessons were less satisfactory because the children's performance was not being improved sufficiently or because individuals had too little involvement with the games activities. Where games lessons were conducted by non-specialist teachers, not enough attention was paid to teaching the skills and the rules of the games.

2.115 Gymnastics usually occupied about a quarter of the time allocated to physical education. In about half the gymnastics lessons seen, large apparatus was used for climbing, balancing and vaulting and, in a further quarter, mats and benches were used for agility exercises and for work with partners. The level of the children's achievement was considered satisfactory or better in almost half the lessons. Successful sessions contained one or more of the following factors: variety and challenge; movement and pace; disciplined work and understanding by the children of the nature of the task. In over two thirds of lessons seen, the children responded with keenness and enthusiasm. However, many sessions had shortcomings including the setting of inappropriate or excessively difficult tasks, or undue emphasis given to a competitive approach to work on apparatus.

2.116 Provision for dance was made in just over half the schools, though this was often limited to a single class or year group. The content of the lessons seen included country dancing and dramatic material, often based on stories, poems or broadcasts. In some of these lessons there was a good balance between instruction and exploratory work.

2.117 All but 8 of the schools used off-site facilities for swimming, either public baths or local school pools. A quarter of the sample had their own swimming pools, the majority of which were small and only suitable for the initial stages of learning. In about half the schools, the teachers were assisted by one or more professional instructors. In the great majority of lessons seen, the response of the children was very good as were their standards of work. Many of the


[page 36]

pupils were keen to improve their skills and gain awards. Supervision was generally good as was the observation of safety measures. In a minority of cases, the children were taught in groups too large to allow effective progress in the development of swimming skills.

2.118 The athletics programme normally included sprinting, relay racing, jumping, throwing and team trials leading to awards in accordance with a national scheme. Most of the time was spent on running and jumping practice. In over half the sessions, the response of the children and the standards achieved were good. There were, however, some activities seen where the pupils were not sufficiently involved or where they were gaining little skill or knowledge.

2.119 The majority of the schools offered a wide variety of extracurricular sporting activities, including team practices, matches, gymnastics and other club activities. In a number of the schools, the children had opportunities to engage in activities such as sailing, canoeing and orienteering, often associated with residential visits.

2.120 In their approach to physical education, the children were generally enthusiastic, purposeful and hard-working. Many displayed independence and perseverance and responded well when asked to make decisions. Where the work was good, the children's positive attitudes and sense of fair play were complemented by the pursuit of high standards, a sensible balance between competition and cooperation, and the recognition by teachers and pupils of the importance of individual progression. The children showed responsibility at all times in organising, using and storing apparatus.

2.121 In just over two thirds of the schools, the children of average ability in physical education were achieving appropriate standards. Those of above average ability had satisfactory achievements in about three fifths of the sample and the less able children were making satisfactory progress in about half the schools. Factors contributing to the development of coherent and comprehensive programmes of work for children of all abilities included positive curriculum leadership, carefully devised schemes and discussion about the content of the work and children's performance by those teaching the subject.


[page 37]

3 Personal and social education




3.1 All the schools were concerned with the personal and social education of pupils as well as with the development of academic knowledge and skills. Most children spent the greater part of their school day with their class teachers who were important influences on this aspect of their education. Good relationships were fostered between teachers and children and among the staff of the schools. Corporate activities, particularly assemblies, games, outside visits and extra-curricular activities provided opportunities outside class through which children could develop cooperation, responsibility for themselves and others, consideration and fair-mindedness.

3.2 The quality of pastoral care was good at all age levels in three quarters of the schools; in all but a very few of the remaining schools it was satisfactory. Although written policies for pastoral care were not common, concern for the welfare of children was evident in day-to-day practice. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between standards of work and standards of pastoral care. The quality of work in those schools characterised by above average standards of pastoral care was higher than in schools with below average standards of pastoral care.

3.3 Schools were generally successful in creating working relationships and in achieving high standards of behaviour. The behaviour of children towards one another and towards teachers was good in almost all the schools. Where poor behaviour occurred, it was usually associated with the slow pace of work which led to boredom and poor work habits.

3.4 In all the schools the children responded favourably to opportunities for cooperation when these were offered, though in a


[page 38]

fifth of the schools there were too few such opportunities. Good examples of cooperation were most frequently found in group practical work in science, physical education, games and music.

3.5 There were some examples of children assuming responsibility in all the schools. Very often the pupils took some responsibility for the use and care of equipment in sports, team games and other activities in physical education. The welfare of animals, assistance with the library and the supervised preparation of materials, equipment and practical group work in science were other areas where children were sometimes given specific responsibilities which they carried out reliably. Occasionally the pupils helped to organise assemblies, school banks, tuckshops and house events.

3.6 Very few of the schools were good at providing opportunities for children to exercise choice or initiative but about half provided some, more often for older pupils than younger ones. Children displayed initiative more often in the context of craft subjects than elsewhere. In these subjects they were sometimes encouraged to make choices in the selection of tools, materials and fabrics and on occasion, they had to engage in problem-solving.

3.7 Consultation between teachers and parents about the children's progress was regarded as important in the majority of the schools. All the schools had arrangements for contacting parents about pupils' personal difficulties. An 'open door' policy which enabled parents to consult the head was operated in many cases. All the schools had arrangements for passing information about children's progress to parents either through annual written reports or through discussion at parents' evenings. A large majority of parents took advantage of such opportunities. Some of the schools were concerned that some non-English speaking parents were not able to take advantage of such arrangements; in one school this had been overcome, in part, by a teacher of English as a second language visiting these homes to ensure that parents were informed about their children's progress. Approximately four fifths of the schools contacted parents prior to their children starting at the school. The most common practice was to invite parents to visit the school on an open day or evening in the term prior to their children being admitted. In a similar proportion of the schools there were arrangements by which parents were informed of the procedures for transfer to the upper schools.


[page 39]

3.8 In the majority of the schools, especially denominational ones, links were established with the local community, though these varied in strength and frequency. Religious festivals such as Christmas, Easter or Divali provided opportunities for activities in the community such as carol singing or the distribution of gifts for the elderly. In some cases music and plays were performed for the community, and efforts made to collect money for various charities. In addition some children were encouraged to contribute to the community by, for example, planting bulbs in the local park or arranging displays of their paintings in the public library.





[page 40]

4 Provision for children with special needs




4.1 The survey took place before the legislation concerning the identification of, and provision for, pupils with special educational needs, embodied in the 1981 Education Act, came into force. The findings do not therefore reflect the steps subsequently taken by local education authorities and schools in response to the 1981 Act. The first part of this chapter discusses the provision made for those children with special educational needs as now defined by the 1981 Act, while the second part relates to provision made for children with other special needs.


Children with special educational needs

4.2 At the time of the survey nearly all the schools carried out screening procedures but the identification of children's learning difficulties sometimes relied too heavily upon unsatisfactory tests. Although some of the schools made good use of expertise and resources, such as the school psychological service centrally provided by local education authorities, the majority needed more effective arrangements for identifying pupils' learning difficulties and for planning responses to them.

4.3 Few of the schools had effective written guidelines covering special educational needs nor were such needs recognised in the subject schemes of work. This failing was associated with a lack of differentiated work in some classes where, for example, slow learners and pupils with learning difficulties were working with unsuitable material.


[page 41]

4.4 Specific accommodation for children with special educational needs was not necessary in many schools either because of the small numbers involved or because they were taught in normal classes for most of the time. Three of the schools had permanent specialist accommodation for remedial teaching. A third of the schools had no suitable area for the teaching of groups of children withdrawn from lessons. As a result the work had to be carried out in small or otherwise inconvenient spaces such as corridors, libraries or secretaries' rooms which lacked privacy and were susceptible to interruption.

4.5 About a fifth of the schools made satisfactory provision for meeting pupils' special educational needs throughout the age range by carrying out appropriate assessment and diagnostic procedures which enabled children to receive teaching and resources specific to their needs and closely related to the work of the majority of the pupils in their age group.

4.6 The largest group of pupils identified as having special educational needs were those with low attainment in the basic skills of literacy and numeracy. The vast majority of the schools provided help for such children by withdrawing them for special tuition, individually or in groups. The time given to this work ranged from ninety minutes to one day a week. The work was mostly concerned with the improvement of reading and writing skills and occasionally with mathematics. In some cases this work was little more than the practice of reading skills and was insufficiently related to the work in mainstream classes. The time spent in withdrawal groups was sometimes excessive or inappropriately allocated, for example, when children missed work in science, music or art in order to have additional help in English. Four of the schools had full-time remedial classes and this limited the amount of help available to other children who from time to time might have needed extra support to overcome particular learning difficulties. About half the schools had a teacher with responsibility for remedial work. In a substantial number remedial work was undertaken by peripatetic teachers, some of whom assumed responsibility for the coordination of the remedial provision in the school. In the few instances where the teachers had attended in-service training in remedial education, the courses had focused mainly upon the teaching of reading. In a few of the schools efforts were made to inform parents of low-achieving children about the procedures and aims of the teaching programme, but generally


[page 42]

there was scope for improved communication concerning these children.

4.7 Eight of the schools had one or more pupils assessed as having moderate learning difficulties. Some of these children had been assessed by local education authority's psychologists and were waiting a placement in special schools. None of the schools had a special unit and none of the teachers had any special qualifications for work with this group of pupils. Some of the children were taught in remedial classes, where such existed, and others were taught in mixed-ability classes.

4.8 In half the schools there were children with a degree of impaired hearing; eleven schools had five or more such children. One school had a unit for partially hearing children while in other schools these pupils were taught in ordinary classes. The children were usually identified as having a hearing loss in routine audiometric screening tests carried out by the local authority for all children in the school. A few schools reported that no such tests had been administered. Some children had very slight hearing loss and were considered to need no special treatment other than ensuring their close proximity to the source of sound. There were indications in some schools that although hearing loss had been noted, little account was taken of this in the way children were treated. In these cases there was a need for more exchange of reliable information between those responsible for diagnosing the children's hearing difficulties and the teachers. Greater recognition that hearing loss may be a long standing condition and may account for learning difficulties requiring appropriate provision is necessary. Where local education authorities gave support to children with impaired hearing, this was of a high order. There were usually good links between the schools and the support services and a high degree of parental support and involvement. The schools were appreciative of help given to the children by visiting teachers who had relevant qualifications and expertise.

4.9 Children with physical handicaps, other than impaired hearing, were found in less than half the schools; only four of these had four or more such pupils. Among the disabilities reported were partial sight, asthma, diabetes, heart malfunctions, speech defects, spasticity, mild cerebral palsy and epilepsy. The majority of such children were successfully integrated into ordinary classes with some


[page 43]

extra support where necessary. Some of the schools used ancillary staff to help disabled pupils and the majority of schools with physically handicapped pupils aimed to provide these pupils with access to the corporate life of the school and to participation in the curriculum. Activities for such children in lessons such as physical education sometimes had to be limited in the interests of safety.

4.10 Approximately three quarters of the schools identified children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. Although the majority of these schools had very few such children, seven schools claimed that they had ten or more. The range of difficulties reported by the schools varied from mildly disruptive behaviour to cases of severe maladjustment. In the majority of the schools parents were consulted when behavioural and learning problems arose and teachers met the parents informally during parents' evenings where progress reports were given. Fifteen schools reported contacts with educational psychologists about individual pupils. The general ethos of most schools was supportive and, through informal patterns of organisation, set out to help these pupils. Most difficulties were contained though not necessarily resolved. More effective collaboration between local education authority agencies and the teachers concerned with supporting these children is needed.


Children with other special needs

4.11 Twenty-two schools had children whose mother tongue language was other than English and who required some extra help to learn English as a second language. In the majority of these schools the number of such pupils was small but in five schools there were twenty-five or more. In some cases, the teaching of English as a second language took place at a language centre separate from the school. Where this happened there was often the need to establish better links between the work done in the centre and the work of the schools. Schools attempted to keep parents informed about their children's progress, but parents were reportedly sometimes reluctant to visit the schools.

4.12 Few schools considered that any of their children were especially gifted, although they considered that a number of their pupils were very able. Generally, little special provision was made for


[page 44]

exceptionally able pupils though one school provided an advanced mathematics group in Years 3 and 4 [now Years 6 and 7] and some other schools made special arrangements for instrumental teaching for able musicians. One school had a 'Gifted Pupils' Support Scheme' which used a wide-ranging schedule for the identification of such children and made arrangements for their educational needs through accelerated promotion, early transfer or other means. Though many schools considered that their existing arrangements and range of resources enabled exceptionally able children to make appropriate progress, generally such pupils were not given sufficient encouragement to extend their own learning or to explore material in greater depth than their peers. Where there was expert tuition available, for example in music, exceptionally able children made appropriate progress. Few schools used materials which had been specially developed for such children.





[page 45]

5 Planning, assessment, continuity and liaison




PLANNING

5.1 General responsibility for the planning and coordination of the curriculum lay with the head in consultation with the governors. The responsibility for planning the work in particular subjects or areas of the curriculum was frequently delegated to other teachers. The teachers holding curricular responsibilities usually drew up schemes of work, often in consultation with the head and other teachers, and sometimes with local authority advisers.

5.2 Table 1 shows the number of schools with schemes of work for particular subjects, though not all the schools offered all the subjects listed. Schemes of work were most often provided for mathematics, English, science, geography and history, though the last two or three subjects were sometimes included in a social studies, humanities, or environmental studies programme. Schemes of work for religious education, music, physical education, art and design, and needlecrafts had been drawn up in about half the schools. For French, health education, craft design and technology and home studies schemes of work were provided in about a quarter of the schools.

5.3 There was considerable variety in the quality of the schemes. Some did little more than list content as topic headings, or set out chapter headings from textbooks. Others stated aims and objectives, listed content and available resources, suggested forms of organisation and gave the skills and concepts to be acquired, indicating stages of progression which took account of different ability levels.

5.4 The extent to which the schemes influenced the work undertaken also varied considerably. Schemes were most often effectively prepared and used where there were opportunities for staff discussion, and advice from the teacher with special responsibility for the


[page 46]

subject was provided. This illustrates the need for such teachers to be given adequate time and opportunity to draw up schemes, to consult with teachers who will be using them, and to evaluate the schemes by observing the teaching programmes which result from them. Some schools took commercially produced materials for English and mathematics to be the only guidelines necessary to support their work. A significant association between the quality of the schemes of work and that of the pupils' work was found in art and design, history, geography, science, music, physical education and needlecrafts. (1)




ASSESSMENT AND RECORD KEEPING

5.5 The most frequently used forms of assessment were careful observation of activities and the marking of work produced by the children. Formal procedures such as the use of standardised tests or class/school examinations were also employed in most of the schools at least once a year. Assessment was usually undertaken to gauge children's levels of achievement, but it was not often used as an indicator of the need to change or adapt programmes of work.

5.6 Schools gave particular attention to assessing children's performance in English, especially reading. Nearly all the schools tested children's reading performance annually or biennially, often through the use of standardised, graded-word or sentence completion tests, which provided limited information about the children's progress. Reading tests were often used to indicate which children were in need of remedial help, notably where LEA screening occurred. Individual teachers usually kept detailed records of the stage reached by a child in the reading scheme, but records about children's personal reading were comparatively rare. The marking of written work was generally conscientious and supportive, but was rarely used to analyse errors or to plan work to overcome them. There was an emphasis on the correction of spelling and punctuation but comments which indicated an appreciation of content and meaning were relatively rare. Records of children's progress in English were maintained by the school and usually consisted of test score results set alongside the comments of the teachers.

5.7 In mathematics nearly all the schools undertook some form of assessment which involved formal testing procedures. Some

(1) The association reported here relates to those subjects where Kendall's rank correlation coefficients exceeded 0.3. (See Appendix 3, paragraph 12, Table 18).


[page 47]

teachers used tests of their own devising, others used standardised tests or those incorporated within a commercial scheme, and many schools used a combination of these procedures. The analysis of individual learning difficulties was much less prevalent, though in some schools this was attempted at the time when pupils' work was marked. The results of various tests were used to record levels of achievement as a basis for setting arrangements, for forming remedial groups and for providing information on transfer to the upper school. In the majority of the schools marking was thorough and sometimes it was supported by helpful comments. In just under half the schools where records were kept, they were little more than a list of test scores. Elsewhere, marks together with teacher comment formed the record, and in about a quarter of the schools this was supplemented by information which indicated a pupil's development across a range of concepts and skills.

5.8 The assessment of competence in French was generally confined to a termly or yearly grade based on the teacher's impression of a given pupil's achievement. Seven schools used tests devised within the LEA to assess pupils at the end of the middle school course, while in at least one authority graded tests for various levels had been drawn up by teachers and the modern language adviser. In over two thirds of the schools where French was taught no separate records were kept of pupils' progress in reading, writing and speaking French.

5.9 Only a small proportion of the schools assessed work or recorded children's progress in practical subjects such as art, needlecrafts and craft, design and technology. Where such assessments occurred they were seldom on the basis of criteria relating to skills and design. In a few schools the teachers had valuable discussions with pupils when grading pieces of work; in most schools the purpose and value of assessing practical work had not been fully clarified.

5.10 In about three quarters of the schools the main form of assessment in science was the marking of the work that was recorded in the pupils' books. In most instances the marking was predominantly concerned with such items as spelling, grammar and neatness of drawing, rather than with an assessment of scientific understanding and competence.

5.11 In PE much of the assessment occurred during the lessons and two thirds of the schools kept some written records, including brief comments or grades about the pupils' performance. A few of the


[page 48]

schools noted individual athletic, gymnastic or swimming achievements on the pupils' records.

5.12 In humanities the teachers usually gave the pupils' work a numerical or literal grade and sometimes added a written comment, but this was rarely concerned with the acquisition of particular skills and knowledge relevant to this aspect of the topics. Where records were kept they were frequently confined to a statement of topics covered.

5.13 In summary, assessment and record keeping were given high priority in mathematics and reading. Elsewhere assessment and written records of children's progress were much less systematic. While recognising that continuous assessment is an integral part of teaching there remains an urgent need to relate it much more closely to the aims and objectives of the particular area of the curriculum. In particular, there is a need to introduce policies and practices which enable assessments to be made of the children's levels of understanding and which help the teachers to adapt the programmes of work when necessary.




CONTINUITY AND LIAISON

5.14 Almost all the schools gave some time and effort to developing links between first, middle and upper schools, in an attempt to aid continuity and ease the transfer of children between the stages of the system. The extent to which liaison was achieved varied considerably depending on the priority and time heads and teachers were able to give to this activity, the initiative and support provided by local authorities, and the number and proximity of the schools involved. Table 2 gives details of the number of schools involved in transfer arrangements between first and middle stages. Table 3 gives similar information about the transfer to upper schools. More than a third of the schools transferred pupils to six or more upper schools.


Liaison with first schools

5.15 Nearly all the first schools arranged for their children to make an introductory visit to the middle school prior to transfer. Often the middle school teachers involved with the work of first year [now Year 4] pupils visited the first school to exchange information. It was common


[page 49]

practice for the first schools to complete and pass on the local authority record card, supplemented by the school's own records and sometimes incorporating examples of the children's work. Particular care was usually taken to discuss the needs of children with learning or behavioural difficulties.

5.16 Table 4 indicates the number of schools where the head reported that teachers consulted with first school staff about the various areas of the curriculum. Approximately half the schools had engaged in discussions about mathematics, English and remedial work. Consultation about other subjects or areas of the curriculum was comparatively rare. In mathematics just over one third of pupils in the 8 to 12 age range used the same course book or text as the contributory first school or 5 to 8 classes in a combined school, but in just under half the schools the teachers had little detailed knowledge of the mathematics programme followed in the earlier years. In English the most frequently transferred piece of information was a reading test score, though sometimes first year [now Year 4] leaders had discussions about the reading programme with first school teachers.

5.17 In addition the first and middle schools were concerned to pass on information about the personal and social development of pupils. Generally, there is a need for schools to liaise more effectively about other subjects in addition to mathematics and English and to exchange schemes of work, so that there can be mutual understanding about curriculum content, method and organisation. The information provided on individual record cards could then be more fully understood and interpreted, and continuity improved for the children.


Liaison with other middle schools

5.18 Links with other middle schools are valuable particularly, but not only, where a number of middle schools send pupils to the same upper school. Table 5 gives information about the number of schools engaging in consultation with other middle schools about particular subjects or areas of the curriculum. Over half the 43 schools which offered French had some liaison in this subject with other middle schools. Sometimes meetings were initiated by an LEA adviser and in the most effective cases meetings occurred regularly, eg termly. In science, where contacts took place in rather less than half the schools, LEA initiatives had been helpful in several instances. Liaison between middle schools was facilitated by the setting up of 'pyramid'


[page 50]

meetings involving the teachers from an upper school and all the contributory first and middle schools; by local authority meetings and in-service courses; and by the drawing up of LEA guidelines for particular subjects, eg 'science in the middle years'. As well as the advantages gained from discussion about the curriculum, schools benefited from establishing inter-school competitions and clubs, and sharing resources and equipment.


Liaison with upper schools

5.19 Table 6 suggests that the combined and middle schools had a slightly higher degree of contact about the curriculum with upper schools than they did with other middle or first schools. Nearly ail the middle school pupils made introductory visits to upper schools prior to transfer. In most cases the upper school teachers, particularly those with responsibility for the first year [now Year 8] pupils, visited the middle schools to talk to pupils before they were transferred.

5.20 There were few examples reported where curricular liaison was well developed and had been sustained. Table 6 shows that science, mathematics, French, remedial work, and English were the aspects of the work which most often involved liaison with upper schools. In science, the liaison usually involved at least one of a number of activities such as 'pyramid' meetings, staff discussions, and the sharing of apparatus and equipment. Similar activities occurred for mathematics, together with discussions about testing procedures at the time of transfer and the use of a common scheme of work for both stages. 17 of the middle schools used the same published mathematics scheme as that used in the upper schools to which most of their children transferred. In French, the liaison often included meetings of the teachers from groups of schools, sometimes involving an LEA adviser. These meetings often focused on course books, syllabus content, testing procedures and levels of attainment. Liaison for pupils in need of remedial help in English and mathematics ranged from the giving of information on the LEA record card, to joint meetings of teachers to discuss individual children and the programme of work in reading, language and mathematics. There was liaison for other aspects of the curriculum in only a minority of the schools. In general, the middle schools needed to give much greater attention to securing the continuity of teaching and learning across the range of the curriculum for pupils transferring to upper schools.


[page 51]

Table 1 The number of schools with schemes of work for particular subjects

SubjectNumber of schools
with schemes of work
Mathematics43
English42
Science42
Geography40
History36
Religious Education27
Music26
Physical Education24
Art and Design24
Needlecrafts22
French16
Health Education14
Craft Design and Technology (CDT)11
Home Studies11

Note: Not all schools offered all the subjects listed.




Table 2 The number of schools receiving children from various numbers of first schools by size of middle or combined school

Number of first
schools from which
children transferred
Small
1 - 240
Medium
241 - 480
Large
480+
All middle and
combined
schools
027-9*
1 to 2810-18
3 to 558114
6 to 102428
1729349

*ln these combined schools children were transferred internally from first to middle school departments but children were not transferred from other first schools.


[page 52]

Table 3 Number of middle and combined schools transferring children to various numbers of upper schools by size of middle or combined school

Number of upper
schools to which
children
transferred
Small
1 - 240
Medium
241 - 480
Large
481+
All middle and
combined
schools
15409
23508
30516
41405
50022
62709
72305
8 or more4105
1729349

The maximum number of schools to which any school transferred pupils was eleven.

Table 4 Number of schools with teachers engaging in consultation with those in first schools by subject

SubjectNumber of schools
Remedial teaching27
Mathematics26
English25
Religious Education11
Music10
Science9
Physical Education8
English as a second language5
History4
Geography4
Multi-racial Education4
Needlecrafts3
Health Education3
Social Studies3
Art and Design2
Environmental Studies2
Home Studies2
French1
CDT1
Humanities1


[page 53]

Table 5 Number of schools with teachers engaging in consultation with those in other middle schools -by subject

SubjectNumber of schools
French23
Science21
Music16
Mathematics15
English13
Geography13
History12
Environmental Studies12
Religious Education12
Physical Education11
Remedial teaching10
Art and Design8
CDT5
Humanities4
Social Studies4
Multi-racial Education3
Home Studies3
Needlecrafts3
Health Education3
Rural Studies2
English as a second language1

Table 6 Number of schools with teachers engaging in consultation with those in upper schools by subject

SubjectNumber of schools
Science29
Mathematics28
French28
Remedial teaching27
English20
Geography16
History13
Physical Education13
Religious Education12
Art and Design9
Music9
Environmental Studies9
Humanities6
CDT5
Home Studies3
Needlecrafts3
Health Education3
Rural Studies2
Multi-racial Education1
English as a second language1


[page 54]

6 The management and organisation of the teaching arrangements




6.1 The management and organisation of the teaching arrangements involve decisions and actions related to the allocation and discharge of responsibilities, the deployment of staff, timetabling arrangements and the composition of classes and teaching groups. Each of these is discussed in this chapter.




THE ALLOCATION AND DISCHARGE OF RESPONSIBILITIES

6.2 The way heads discharged their responsibilities significantly influenced the effectiveness of the education provided in the schools. Where heads provided strong leadership, overall standards of work tended to be higher: the strength of the head's influence was one of the three variables (1) found to be statistically associated with the school's quality of work. In all, about three quarters of the heads were judged to be effective. They provided leadership through teaching classes or groups of children; formulating policy and enabling the planning of specific curricular areas; promoting pastoral care and contact with parents; and constructing the timetable and organising recording and assessment procedures. The positive influence of heads was reduced when too great an emphasis was placed on any one aspect of their responsibilities at the expense of others, for example, when administrative matters overshadowed curricular concerns. Often in small (2) schools where heads had a

(1) Appendix 3, para 8 identifies the three variables which were statistically associated with the school's quality of work: the standard of pastoral care; the strength of the head's influence; the quality and quantity of resources.

(2) See the fourth footnote to paragraph 1.6.


[page 55]

considerable teaching load (1) there was insufficient time for them to attend to other major responsibilities.

6.3 Deputy heads carried out the responsibilities of heads in their absence, and very often had general administrative duties in addition to their work as class or specialist teachers. (2) About three fifths of the deputies fulfilled their roles effectively. Responsibilities which often fell to the deputy included helping in the construction of the timetable, organising duty rotas, liaising between head and staff, assisting probationers and new members of staff, coordinating year groups, and overseeing discipline and boys' or girls' welfare. The major influence of most deputies on the work of the school came through their contribution as class or specialist teachers, but some had an effect on organisation and pastoral care throughout the school. Some deputies coordinated the work of the 5 to 8 age range in the combined schools.

6.4 Twenty-three schools had designated year leaders with responsibility for coordinating pastoral care and academic work in particular year groups. Sometimes year leaders acted as specialist teachers with other age groups. Many year leaders had little time to carry out their additional duties (3) and, in some cases, difficulties arose as a result of the lack of precise job descriptions or because of the problems of liaising with specialist teachers. However, in about half the schools which had year leaders they had an important positive influence on the work.

6.5 All schools had teachers with designated responsibilities for certain subjects or areas of the curriculum. Usually one teacher was responsible for coordinating the work in a particular subject throughout the school, but in some schools the responsibility was shared. Many teachers in the survey carried several subject responsibilities. The duties of designated teachers often included several of the following: preparation of schemes of work; ordering and organising materials and equipment; some specialist teaching;

(1) On average, heads of 'small' schools taught for 39 per cent of the week, compared with 26 per cent of the week for heads of 'medium-sized' schools and 28 per cent of the week for heads of 'large' schools.

(2) On average non-contact time for deputy heads of 'large' schools was 26 per cent of the week; in 'medium-sized' schools it was 17 per cent and in 'small' schools 7.5 per cent.

(3) On average non-contact time for year leaders was nearly 7 per cent in 'large' schools and just over 7.5 per cent in 'medium-sized' schools.


[page 56]

advising colleagues; liaison with other schools. The major influence of such teachers was often through their own teaching contribution but a number had a positive influence through one or more of the activities listed above.

6.6 Table 7 shows the number of schools which had teachers with special responsibility for subjects or areas of the curriculum. Most of the teachers carrying curricular responsibilities were paid on Scale 2 or Scale 3. Some teachers held both organisational and curricular responsibilities, these being most common in 'medium-sized' schools. (1)

6.7 The amount of time available to teachers with either or both curricular and organisational responsibilities to perform their duties varied considerably: (2) in general it was insufficient to allow such teachers to visit other classrooms so as to work alongside their colleagues from time to time. Because of such constraints, the impact of most teachers with curricular responsibilities was limited largely to the classes they taught. There were, however, exceptions, as in one school where the designated teacher taught science to the third and fourth year pupils, organised the subject throughout the school, held twice termly meetings with teachers in each year group to establish continuity and progression, and established curricular links with first schools, other middle schools and the upper school.


The deployment of staff

6.8 There were considerable variations in the ways in which the teachers of children aged 8 to 12 were deployed, depending on the particular circumstances of each of the schools, but certain patterns of organisation occurred frequently.

6.9 A very high proportion of the teachers were class teachers and so were involved in teaching most subjects of the curriculum as Table 8 illustrates. Rather less than half the teachers taught music or science,

(1) The percentage of teachers holding both organisational and curricular responsibilities was 4.5 per cent in 'small' schools, 12 per cent in 'medium-sized' schools and 2.3 per cent in 'large' schools.

(2) Though there were variations from school to school, the average non-contact time for teachers with curricular responsibilities was 7 per cent in 'small', 'medium-sized' and 'large' schools.


[page 57]

Table 7 Number of schools having teachers with special curricular responsibilities by subject

SubjectNumber
of schools
Music41
Science38
Physical Education38
Mathematics37
English35
French34
Art and Design32
Remedial teaching23
Environmental Studies19
Religious Education16
Home Studies13
Needlecrafts12
CDT9
Drama7
Social Studies6
Humanities5
English as a second language4
Health Education3
Geography2
Dance2
History1
Rural Studies1

subjects characterised by rather more specialist teaching. Table 9 shows the relatively small number of teachers who taught a particular subject other than mathematics or English for more than a fifth of the week.

6.10 Table 10 gives the heads' classification of the different forms of organisation according to the age groups and sizes of schools. It reflects the predominantly class teacher based organisation of combined and 8 to 12 middle schools, and the number of schools which arranged some subject specialist teaching.

6.11 Typically, children in the first year [now Year 4] were taught by their class teachers for the vast majority of the time, though some received specialist teaching in music or, less often, in arts and crafts. Second year children were largely taught by their class teachers, though the teaching of music, French or arts and crafts was sometimes undertaken by teachers who specialised to some degree in one or other of these areas. In the third year, class teaching was still the predominant mode of organisation, though with some specialist


[page 58]

teaching, most often in music or French. But in about a quarter of the schools, children were taught by members of staff other than their class teachers for four or more areas of the curriculum, most often music, French, arts and crafts, home studies, science or mathematics. In the fourth year [now Year 7], just over half the schools retained class teaching as the main basis of their organisation, but arranged for children to be taught by other teachers in one or more areas such as French, science, arts and crafts, music, mathematics and home studies. In the remaining schools, children in the fourth year were taught by members of staff other than their class teachers for about half or more of the time, particularly in areas such as mathematics, French, science, arts and crafts, home studies and music.

6.12 Three examples illustrate the variety of ways in which class teachers and specialist teachers were deployed. Throughout one school, emphasis was placed upon members of staff teaching their own classes for most subjects. The children were divided into sets according to ability in the third and fourth years [now Years 6 and 7] for mathematics and in the fourth year for science. Remedial help in English and mathematics was provided in the fourth year. Specialist teaching of French was provided for the third and fourth years and some change of classes for such subjects as music, science and art allowed teachers to share their particular skills and interests.

6.13 In a second school, the proportion of time devoted to specialist teaching increased as children moved up the school: it took place in all years for physical education and music, in years 2, 3 and 4 [now Years 5, 6 and 7] for French and in years 3 and 4 for home studies and science. Teachers within year groups exchanged classes for certain work in order that the teachers' special interests and abilities could be used to benefit more children.

6.14 In a third school, first and second year children were taught for most of the time by their own class teachers, with a limited exchange of teachers for physical education, music and for French in the second year. In the third and fourth years there was some exchange of teachers for French, physical education, music, science, art and craft, social studies and home studies. The third and fourth year pupils were arranged in sets within the year group for their work in English and mathematics.


[page 59]

Table 8 The number of teachers teaching curricular areas or subjects to children aged 8 to 12

Curricular areas or subjectsNumber of teachers*
teaching the curricular
area or subject
Humanities524
English524
Mathematics496
Physical Education459
Arts and Crafts453
Science275
Remedial work87**
Music251
Modern Languages95**
Home Studies52**
Rural Studies16**
Teachers in sample who taught the 8 to 12 age group630

*Each teacher was only counted once for each curricular area, but could appear more than once if he/she taught in more than one curricular area.

**These subjects were not provided as separate curricular areas in all schools.

Table 9 Teachers of the 8 to 12 age group: proportion of their week spent teaching in subject areas

Number of teachers teaching in a subject area
Subjectfor 20%
or less
of the
week
for over
20%
of the
week
for over
25%
of the
week
for over
50%
of the
week
English1773442193
Mathematics320176301
Physical Education42627172
Art and Design38918114
Religious Education407210
Science24629204
Music22823122
History198110
Geography185210
Environmental Studies1201530
Social Studies94620
French7322183
Remedial Education5037307
Drama83100
Humanities71630
Needlecraft59220
Home Studies48440
Dance43110
Rural Studies16000

630 teachers taught the 8 to 12 age group


[page 60]

Table 10 Heads' classification of their form of year group organisation*

Size Range
1-240241-480481+Total
9+
Mainly Subject Specialist0000
Mainly Class Teacher1629348
Subject Specialist and Class Teacher1001
10+
Mainly Subject Specialist0000
Mainly Class Teacher1629348
Subject Specialist and Class Teacher1001
11+
Mainly Subject Specialist1102
Mainly Class Teacher1420136
Subject Specialist and Class Teacher28212
12+
Mainly Subject Specialist1304
Mainly Class Teacher1216129
Subject Specialist and Class Teacher410216

All 5+, 6+, 7+ and 8+ groups were taught mainly by class teachers

*Headteachers were asked to indicate which of the following most nearly described their organisation in each year: i. The majority of subjects are taught by subject specialists ii. The majority of subjects are taught by class teachers iii. There is approximately equal involvement of class teachers and subject specialists.


[page 61]

Timetabling arrangements

6.15 In all the schools the curriculum included English, mathematics, arts and crafts, physical education, music and aspects of religious education, science, geography and history. French was taught in over four fifths of the schools. Home studies as a separate subject was included on the timetable at some stage in about half the schools and needlecrafts as a separate subject in a slightly lower proportion. Craft, design and technology, as a separate subject, appeared at some stage in about a third of the schools.

6.16 The time allocated to the various areas of the curriculum differed considerably from school to school and occasionally between year groups within one school, but there were similarities in the overall pattern.

The diagram below shows the average proportion of the week given to particular subjects or aspects. The dotted lines indicate the extent to which a minority went beyond the average.


[page 62]

6.17 History and geography were timetabled separately for some classes in about two thirds of the sample. In about four fifths of the schools some classes combined such subjects under headings such as topics or projects. There did not appear to be any significant association between the quality of work in history and geography and the organisation of the teaching of these subjects in terms of topics/projects or separate subject teaching. Topics and projects were organised under the heading of social studies in a third of the schools and were called environmental studies in about half the schools. In a few schools, topics, environmental studies and social studies were designations used at different stages in the programme. A difference in terminology was not always an indication of marked differences in content.

6.18 In about half the schools parts of the timetables were organised on a rotational basis. The areas most often included in rotational patterns were art, home studies, needlecrafts and craft, design and technology. The survey did not reveal any clear connections between the quality of work in these areas and the presence or absence of rotational patterns.


The composition of classes and teaching groups

6.19 Just over half the schools had some classes containing pupils from more than one year group. The proportion of mixed age classes was higher in 5 to 12 combined schools than in the 8 to 12 middle schools, where they were comparatively rare. More than a third of the combined schools had a majority of their classes containing more than one age group and one school had mixed age groups throughout. Schools usually adopted these arrangements because of the uneven size of age groups, but a small number of combined schools formed their classes as mixed age groups as a matter of policy. Where there were mixed age classes in the 8 to 12 schools this usually involved placing a few pupils with a different age group to balance class sizes.

6.20 In nearly all the schools almost all registration classes were formed on the basis of mixed ability grouping. Four schools had set up one or more remedial classes for pupils with learning difficulties. These classes usually contained a smaller number of pupils than


[page 63]

other classes in the school. Only one school adopted streaming as an overall school policy, and two others used streaming for the older pupils only.

6.21 For some subjects, the schools regrouped children into sets according to their ability in the particular subject concerned. As Table 11 shows, setting arrangements were mainly used for mathematics and, to a lesser extent, for English and were more common with older pupils. In a small number of schools there was setting for science and/or French for the third and fourth year groups [now Years 6 and 7] only.

6.22 Special arrangements for less able pupils were made in all but 3 schools. These most often took the form of the withdrawal of individuals or groups of pupils for special tuition, but additional teaching help within classes also occurred in some schools. Much less often were special arrangements made for those considered to be very able, though some schools withdrew individuals or groups and a few used additional teachers to work with such pupils.

Table 11 The number of schools setting for subjects in each year group

9+10+11+12+
Mathematics13162935
English65813
French0048
Science0025





[page 64]

7 The main characteristics of the schools




7.1 This chapter gives a summary of the main characteristics of the work of 8 to 12 year olds In the 5 to 12 combined and 8 to 12 middle schools inspected and offers some recommendations based on the findings of the survey.

7.2 Almost all the schools were successful in fostering a sense of community. The teachers showed care and concern for the general welfare of their pupils. (1) Discipline problems were rare and pupils worked steadily and carefully through the programme of work which was provided, in many schools the heads' leadership was influential in developing cohesive communities. Arrangements were made for parents to discuss children's progress. (2) Contacts with parents and other members of the local community were often made, for example, when celebrating religious festivals. Many schools provided clubs and activities for pupils beyond the normal school day. A significant association was found between the overall quality of children's work and the quality of pastoral care and adult-child relationships. (3) All the schools where pupils produced good quality work in most areas of the curriculum were among those schools in which the pastoral care and relationships between adults and pupils were good or very good. In nearly all the schools with good standards of work and of pastoral care, clear leadership from the head and deputy was a marked feature.

7.3 Most subjects were taught by class teachers in the first and the second year [now Years 4 and 5]. (4) In many of the schools older pupils were taught by their class teachers for a substantial proportion of the week but were

(1) Paragraph 3.2

(2) Paragraph 3.7

(3) Paragraph 3.2 and Appendix 3 paragraph 8

(4) For convenience the terms 'first year', 'second year', 'third year', 'fourth year' are sometimes used in this report; in each case they refer to the age group 8 to 12. [These are now Years 4 to 7.]


[page 65]

taught by other teachers in areas such as arts and crafts, French, home studies, music and science. In some cases such arrangements involved the deployment of teachers as specialists teaching particular subjects to a number of classes and in others involved the exchange of classes, within year groups to allow teachers to share their particular skills and interests. Most often, children were taught in mixed ability classes, but there was some setting in some subjects, particularly in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, in English, French and science. (1) No association was identified between setting in English and mathematics and the quality of pupil's work in these subjects. Many schools had special arrangements, such as withdrawal groups, for pupils with special educational needs. Only one school was streamed throughout and two schools employed streaming for the older pupils only. (2)


The curriculum

7.4 In general, most schools offered a satisfactory range of subjects. All schools included English, mathematics, science, arts and crafts, physical education, music and work in humanities as regular components of the programme of work. (3) Children worked on topics or projects related to areas such as social and environmental studies in about four fifths of the schools; in 10, history and geography were timetabled separately for all children. Religious education was included in the curriculum in all the schools, usually through assemblies and lessons specifically devoted to the subject. French was offered at some stage in over four fifths of the schools, usually to older pupils. Aspects of craft design and technology were taught in about half the schools, often as part of a combined area of study. Home studies was taught in 39 schools, either as a separate part of the curriculum or as an aspect of topic work.

7.5 There were differences between schools in the proportion of time spent on each of the various subjects or areas of the curriculum. (4) In about half the sample the allocation was judged to be reasonable, but in the remainder there was some imbalance, usually because of the amount of time devoted to English and mathematics at the expense of other areas, especially French, science and music. English occupied between a quarter and a third of available time and on

(1) Paragraph 6.21

(2) Paragraph 6.20

(3) Paragraph 6.15

(4) Paragraph 6.16


[page 66]

average mathematics took up about one fifth of the timetable. There were considerable variations between schools as to the proportion of time given to these areas, for example, one school spent twice the time that another gave to mathematics. However, within the range present in the schools inspected there was no evidence to suggest that the amount of time spent on either English or mathematics was a crucial factor in influencing standards of work. Aspects of humanities, whether separate subjects such as history and geography or combinations such as social or environmental studies, took up between a tenth and a fifth of the timetable. Arts and crafts, and also physical education, usually occupied approximately one tenth of the time. Music was given about 5 per cent of the timetable. There was some variation in the extent to which science was included as a separate subject or subsumed under other timetable headings. Nevertheless, in many cases too little time (less than 10 per cent) was given to this aspect of the curriculum. The majority of the schools offered French to children in some year groups: there were variations in the time allocated and in the length of lessons.

7.6 There were also differences in the extent to which schools timetabled subjects separately. Work in humanities, science, health education, craft, design and technology, home studies and needlecrafts was sometimes included as separate subjects or sometimes under more general headings such as environmental studies or arts and crafts. In about half the schools art, home studies, and aspects of craft, design and technology appeared as part of rotational patterns of timetabling (1) in which children worked for a period of perhaps a term at one activity before moving on to another. Such patterns were often introduced to make optimum use of the accommodation available. The survey did not reveal any clear connections between standards of work and the presence or absence of subject combinations or rotational patterns.

7.7 Nearly all the schools were involved in some form of curricular planning at the time of the inspection. Schemes of work (2) which had been produced varied in quality and in the extent to which they influenced the programme of work adopted by the teachers. In some subjects, for example mathematics, textbooks or commercial programmes were highly influential in affecting the work. More than two thirds of the schools had teacher-devised schemes for mathematics, English, science and aspects of humanities; about half the schools had schemes for music, physical education, needlecrafts and art and design. Twenty-seven of the 40 maintained and voluntary

(1) Paragraph 6.18

(2) Paragraphs 5.1-5.4


[page 67]

controlled schools where religious education was inspected, had schemes of work; in some cases, the local education authority agreed syllabus formed the scheme, while in others the agreed syllabus had been supplemented by the school's own guidelines.

Schemes for French, health education, home studies and craft, design and technology had been drawn up in about a quarter of the schools. Often the teacher who had designated responsibility for a particular subject or area of the curriculum had drawn up the scheme in consultation with the head, though in some cases, the scheme had resulted from a working party led by a local education authority adviser. A significant association (1) between the quality of the scheme of work and the quality of pupils' work was found in art, history, geography, science, music, physical education and needlecrafts. There were some examples of good quality schemes which were influential but few of the schools had a comprehensive set of curricular guidelines based on agreed overall aims and objectives.

7.8 The teachers used a variety of techniques to assess pupils' progress including regular observations of children during their normal class work, short teacher-devised tests, class or school examinations and standardised tests of attainment in language and mathematics. Assessment (2) was mainly used to appraise children's level of achievement and only occasionally used by the staff as a means of evaluating a particular programme of work. Children's work was usually carefully and conscientiously marked. Most marking of written work concentrated on grammatical and spelling inaccuracies or on neatness of presentation; far less often did it focus on children's understanding of the content of the particular subject under consideration. Nearly all the teachers kept careful records of children's progress in reading and mathematics. In other areas of the curriculum, records of children's attainments were less systematic and often consisted of a general comment on annual reports or record cards. There was a need to relate assessment, record-keeping and evaluation more closely to the schools' aims and objectives of the various areas of the curriculum.

7.9 All but a few of the schools gave girls and boys a similar range of opportunities. Although often provided only in the third and fourth year [now Years 6 and 7], home studies was taught to both sexes, but in some year groups in a small number of schools girls did not have opportunities to work with materials such as wood or metal nor did boys have

(1) The association reported here relates to those subjects where Kendall's Rank correlation coefficients exceeded 0.3 (see Appendix 3, paragraph 12, Table 18).

(2) Paragraphs 5.5-5.13


[page 68]

opportunities of working with fabrics. Where similar opportunities were not provided for girls and boys existing curricular provision needed to be reviewed urgently and action taken to remove the differences.

7.10 Overall, the content, level of demand and pace of work were most often directed towards the children of average ability in the class. In many classes there was insufficient differentiation to cater for the full range of children's capabilities.

7.11 Most pupils were industrious and appeared to enjoy their work. They responded readily to the tasks set by the teachers and were generally well-behaved. When given opportunities to take responsibility, show initiative or cooperate with other pupils, they responded readily and successfully. (1) Many schools could usefully review the extent to which the pupils' programmes of work give them sufficient chance to develop these attributes. More frequent opportunities might be given for children to select appropriate materials, frame their own questions and devise their own solutions to problems.

7.12 Fifteen schools had satisfactory or better standards of work for at least two thirds of the areas of the curriculum. Nine schools had satisfactory or better standards in half to two thirds of curricular areas. In thirteen schools the quality of work was satisfactory in a third to half of the curriculum. Twelve schools had less than satisfactory standards for much of their own work; six of these were judged to have a very high proportion of their work which was less than satisfactory.

7.13 Standards were most often judged to be satisfactory in mathematics, English, physical education, science and music. Work was least often satisfactory in religious education, craft, design and technology, home studies, and the geographical aspects of social and environmental studies.


Liaison

7.14 The extent to which liaison between schools was successful depended on a number of factors including the number of schools involved, the relationships established between schools and the priority given to the activity by the heads and teachers. All the

(1) Paragraphs 3.4-3.6


[page 69]

schools gave some time and effort to developing links with upper schools. (1) The 8 to 12 middle schools formed links with first schools and the 5 to 12 schools liaised internally between the phases. In three quarters of the survey schools there were teachers with designated responsibility for liaison. It was particularly difficult to establish good liaison where pupils transferred to or from a large number of schools; for example, eight schools received children from between six and ten first schools and five schools sent pupils to eight or more upper schools. (2) When the children transferred between schools it was common practice for schools to complete and pass on the local education authority's record cards often accompanied by the school's own additional records. Almost invariably arrangements were made for pupils to visit their new schools prior to transfer, and teachers from the upper schools often visited the middle or combined schools before the pupils transferred. Schools were particularly concerned to ease the difficulties which might be experienced by children with learning or behavioural problems.

7.15 Liaison between the schools involving discussion about the content of the curriculum (3) received less attention than contacts involving visits by pupils. Discussions with first school staff about mathematics, English or remedial work had taken place in about half the sample. Discussion with other middle schools were held most frequently in respect of French and science, often through the initiative of local education authority advisers. Liaison with upper schools about science, mathematics, French or remedial work occurred in rather more than half the schools. There were examples of effective curricular planning involving groups of schools where local authority advisers had initiated the activity and had given it continuing support. Though there were promising developments, in general there was a need for teachers in the various phases of schooling to foster greater continuity in the programmes of work provided.

(1) Paragraphs 5.19-5.20

(2) Tables 2 and 3, Chapter 5

(3) Tables 4-6, Chapter 5


[page 70]

Staffing

7.16 Almost half the teachers (1) in the schools had taken courses of initial training for the primary years and more than a third had followed middle years or junior/secondary courses; (2) the remainder had trained for secondary education. About a fifth of the teachers were graduates of whom just over half held Bachelor of Education degrees. (3)

7.17 The pupil-teacher ratio in individual schools ranged from 1:14.5 to 1:27.0 with an average of 1:21.6. (4) Many schools received additional help from peripatetic teachers, most often for instrumental music tuition or remedial work. Small schools tended to have the more favourable ratios. In other cases a more favourable pupil-teacher ratio was allocated as a result of the particular circumstances of the school such as the recognition of its catchment area as one of social disadvantage. These factors have to be borne in mind when consideration is given to the finding that no statistical association was found between pupil-teacher ratios and the quality of work of pupils aged 8 to 12. (5)

7.18 In deciding how best to deploy staff, headteachers took into account a number of factors including teaching experience and interests, the main subject(s) studied by the teachers during initial training, and in-service courses they had attended. Most often English, art, history and geography were the subjects which had been studied during initial training. (6) Fewer teachers had studied physical education, science, mathematics, religious education, music or French. Every school had at least one teacher with an initial main subject qualification in arts and crafts and another teacher with a main qualification in an aspect of the humanities. Nearly all schools had a teacher who had studied English as a main subject. About three quarters of the schools had one or more teachers who had studied music, mathematics, physical education or science as a main subject. (7)

(1) The data presented in paragraphs 7.16 7.18 relate to all teachers in the survey schools, including those teaching the 5 to 8 phase in the combined schools. Paragraph 7.19 refers to the teachers who taught children aged 8 to 12.

(2) Appendix 2, paragraph 7

(3) Appendix 2, paragraph 6

(4) Appendix 2, paragraph 12 and Table 14

(5) Appendix 3, paragraph 3

(6) Appendix 2, paragraph 8 and Tables 12-13

(7) Appendix 2, Tables 12-13


[page 71]

7.19 A large majority of those teaching 8 to 12 year old children taught most aspects of the curriculum to their class. Just under half the teachers taught some science or music to 8 to 12 year olds; there was rather more specialist teaching of these subjects with older pupils. Only a relatively small number of teachers taught a particular subject other than English for more than a quarter of the week. (1)

7.20 Where heads provided strong leadership, overall standards of work tended to be higher. (2) Heads delegated certain organisational and curricular responsibilities to other members of staff. Various responsibilities were carried by deputy heads, (3) in addition to their teaching contribution which might be as either class or specialist teachers. Just under half the schools had year leaders, (4) who in addition to their class teacher role took responsibility for coordinating the work of particular year groups. Few year leaders had sufficient time away from their teaching to carry out their duties effectively. There was considerable variation among schools as to subjects for which members of staff had designated responsibilities. (5) Music, science, physical education and mathematics each had designated teachers in about four fifths of schools. Responsibility for English was allocated to particular teachers in just under three quarters of the schools and the same proportion applied to art and design, and also to French for those schools which taught the subject. In the vast majority of cases the duties carried out by teachers with curricular responsibilities were in addition to their class teaching. These duties included drawing up schemes of work, organising equipment and materials, advising and, less often, working alongside colleagues and leading meetings to discuss the programme of work. Lack of time, especially for visiting other classes, limited the effectiveness of many such teachers in making this kind of contribution.


Accommodation and resources (6)

7.21 The majority of the sample were housed in former primary school buildings. About a fifth of the schools were in accommodation

(1) Paragraph 6.9 and Table 9

(2) Paragraph 6.2 and Appendix 3 paragraph 8

(3) Paragraph 6.3

(4) Paragraph 6.4

(5) Paragraphs 6.5 6.7

(6) Throughout the report the term 'resources' refers to material resources, for example, books, equipment and apparatus, consumable materials.


[page 72]

which was purpose-built. Six schools were in buildings which had formerly housed secondary schools. Adaptations had been made to take account of the change in age range in 34 schools. (1) Attempts had been made in most schools to create attractive learning environments by the display of children's work. Almost all the teaching of English, mathematics and social and environmental studies took place in ordinary classrooms. All but one school had a hall which was used for physical education, but some schools had inadequate changing facilities. In three quarters of schools, there were designated teaching areas for science and for home studies. Half the schools had accommodation for art and slightly fewer than half for music and for craft, design and technology. A lack of suitable accommodation for craft, design and technology prevented a number of schools offering this area as part of their programmes of work. A shortage of storage space presented problems in a number of subjects, particularly in science and music. Many of the designated teaching areas were too small to take full classes, and in some cases the use of these areas for the teaching of a number of different subjects caused difficulties.

7.22 In about two thirds of the schools the overall level of resources (2) was considered to be generally adequate for the work being undertaken with the age group 8 to 12. However, the quantity and quality of provision varied between schools and in respect of different subjects. Statistical analyses indicated that better quality and greater quantity of material resources were significantly associated with higher standards of work. (3) Book provision for English and mathematics was satisfactory in both quantity and quality in about two thirds of the schools; and in about half it was satisfactory for geography, history, science and French. The provision of reference books was least satisfactory for art and design, religious education, craft, design and technology, physical education, needlecrafts and home studies. Equipment and apparatus for physical education, English and science were satisfactory in quality and quantity in about three quarters of the schools.

(1) Appendix 2, paragraph 14

(2) Appendix 2, paragraphs 24-28

(3) Appendix 3, paragraph 8


[page 73]

8 Some issues for discussion




8.1 This chapter raises a number of issues to which attention needs to be paid by those concerned with the education of children aged 8 to 12. While recognising the significant achievements of the schools in the survey in respect of the good standards of pastoral care and interpersonal relationships and the satisfactory standards in the basic competencies of reading, writing and computation, the chapter addresses the question of how the teaching and learning might be further enhanced.

Curricular policies and schemes of work

8.2 Policy statements setting out the principles to be adopted for establishing the content of the curriculum and its delivery should be drawn up after discussion between the head, teachers and governors, which has taken due account of policy statements issued by the LEA and by the Secretary of State. Because the middle school constitutes, by definition, an intermediate stage in education, 8 to 12 schools need to give attention to relating their policies to those formulated in the schools to which and from which their pupils transfer and to helping develop through discussion an overall coherence in the curriculum for children from 5 to 16. Equally 5 to 12 combined schools need to establish general curricular policies covering the whole of their age range and to relate these to policies drawn up in the upper schools to which their children transfer, in discussion with those schools.

8.3 There is a need for each school to have a comprehensive set of schemes of work which give guidance about the likely levels and range of achievement to be expected from the pupils at various stages through the middle school course, about the range of


[page 74]

materials and methods to be used, and about the ways in which the children's progress could be assessed. Where such schemes were influential within schools in the survey, they helped teachers to build on children's existing knowledge, skills, concepts and attitudes so that these were developed at an appropriate pace without unnecessary repetition.


Breadth

8.4 Many middle schools broaden the curricular range for their older pupils beyond that normally offered at the primary stage, but, in the survey, aspects of craft, design and technology were not taught in many of the schools and other subjects such as home studies were not provided in a number. (1) Where such subjects feature in local authority policies as important elements in the middle school curriculum, provision consistent with those policies needs to be made. Where these elements are not taught, it might be possible in the short term for schools to incorporate important aspects of the subjects into other areas of the curriculum or schools might consider whether, by taking account of teachers' curricular strengths and interests, the omitted elements might be taught to at least some pupils.

8.5 Except for the teaching of reading, writing and computation, which were emphasised in all the survey schools, there was considerable variation in terms of the range of work offered and attempted within particular subjects. (2) Although to a certain extent, the diverse content of the work properly reflected the differing circumstances of the schools, the variations revealed in the survey were sometimes the result of inadequate planning within the schools. Only in some of the schools were the important ideas and skills in the various areas of study identified in schemes or explicit in the programmes of work.

8.6 Schools should give particular attention to how children might develop a wide range of skills and capabilities, which are common to a variety of areas of learning, but which require understanding specific to particular areas of study if they are to be properly applied.

(1) Paragraph 6.15.

(2) For details see Chapter 2.


[page 75]

Individually, in small groups and in whole class discussion children need to be given more opportunities to pose questions, to offer explanations, to predict and to speculate; activities which are educationally valuable in themselves and serve as vehicles for the acquisition of useful skills. They need to be encouraged to test their ideas through conducting experiments, undertaking enquiries or designing structures; through selecting and considering evidence; and through establishing tentative conclusions, patterns or generalisations based on the observations they have made and the data they have collected. Such activities applied to realistic problems or everyday situations increase children's motivation. They can also help to foster qualities of initiative and independence, more commonly called for at present by activities outside the formal curriculum than within it.

8.7 Schools need to use a wide range of resources in order to develop children's capabilities. The local environment is one such resource, which could be used more effectively; chapter 2 provides many other examples of resources which could be used more extensively to promote children's intellectual development, such as the use of practical apparatus in mathematics and science, primary sources in social and environmental studies, instruments in pupil-devised music-making and a wide variety of resistant and non-resistant materials in arts and crafts. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between higher standards of work in the survey schools and better quality and greater quantity of material resources. (1) It was not possible to separate out the effect of the overall level of material resources available to the schools from the influencing factor of the management and use of the resources by the schools.


Differentiation

8.8 In middle, as in primary schools, teachers have the difficult task of providing work which matches the different abilities of pupils, and programmes which present a degree of challenge. Within the survey schools, the work was best matched to children of average ability and there was a tendency to give insufficient challenge to the more able and to misjudge the demands made on less able children. (2) A broad,

(1) Appendix 3, paragraph 8.

(2) Paragraphs 4.3 and 7.10


[page 76]

balanced and relevant curriculum is necessary for all pupils, including those with learning difficulties. Better means are required for identifying children's particular learning difficulties and for planning the work to remove, or at least, alleviate them. (1) Teachers' efforts to meet the educational needs of their pupils, including those having special educational needs as defined by the 1981 Education Act, would be aided by better communication between those engaged in helping such children (2) and by more specialist advice and support being made available to the schools. In addition, teachers would be helped if more schemes of work indicated the wide spectrum of objectives which might be achieved across the ability levels and age groups.

Balance and organisation of the curriculum

8.9 The balance of the curriculum in terms of the time allocated to different areas of learning reflects the particular priorities of schools. In the survey sample, there was general agreement about the elements to be included in the timetable but there were considerable variations in the proportions of time given to the various aspects of the curriculum. (3) Many schools could usefully re-examine the time they allocate to various aspects of the curriculum and in particular see if adequate attention is being given to areas of work such as science or music. (4) The provision of more time can help to develop the work to greater depth in subjects such as these and can also provide additional opportunities for the application of language and, to a lesser extent, mathematics across the curriculum.

8.10 There has been much discussion as to whether the primary and middle school curriculum should be planned and taught in terms of separate subjects or in terms of broad areas such as design or social studies, which incorporate two or more aspects of learning. The findings of the survey suggest that the way the curriculum is organised is not crucial in affecting standards of achievement or in fostering the kinds of capabilities discussed in paragraph 8.65; (5) a greater influence lies in the care with which the work is planned and

(1) Paragraph 4.2

(2) Paragraphs 4.6, 4.8, 4.10, 4.11

(3) Paragraph 6.16

(4) Paragraph 7.5

(5) Paragraph 6.17


[page 77]

evaluated. Where subjects are taught separately teachers should evaluate their work periodically to see that appropriate links are being made between individual subjects and other areas of the curriculum; similarly, where a thematic approach is adopted, teachers should satisfy themselves that pupils are learning the skills and understanding the ideas particularly associated with individual subjects as well as acquiring more wide-ranging capabilities and concepts.


Assessment and evaluation

8.11 Assessment is often focused on the work of individual pupils and less often concerned with the work of the class or the school. The range of criteria used in assessment needs to be widened to relate more closely to the aims and objectives of particular areas of the curriculum. There is need to undertake more assessment which is diagnostic and which leads to the adaptation of programmes of work in the light of the difficulties and strengths identified. (1) More often than at present, the teacher should discuss with individual children the progress they are making and the difficulties they are meeting and should encourage them to assess their own work constructively. in addition to the assessment and evaluation undertaken by individual teachers the staff of the school should regularly reappraise the curriculum they provide in the light of the aims and principles set out in their overall curricular policy statement. The governors also have a part to play in this process of review and appraisal.


Continuity between schools

8.12 Progression within individual schools should be complemented by continuity between the phases of education. The survey (2) shows that most of the middle schools made efforts to ease transfer between schools by arranging for children to visit prior to transfer and by passing on information about pupils' attainments. Liaison about the curriculum was less well developed, (3) particularly but not only in relation to first schools. More needs to be done to secure

(1) Paragraph 5.13

(2) Paragraphs 5.15, 5.19

(3) Paragraphs 5.16, 5.18, 5.20.


[page 78]

agreement among local groups of middle schools and with first and upper schools about what is to be taught. Though difficult to achieve, such agreement is necessary so that changes of school do not result in children's progress being unnecessarily hindered.


Transition

8.13 In the survey schools, the teaching arrangements adopted for the younger children in the age group 8 to 12 were very largely class-teacher based, as in many primary schools. As the children moved up the school and the range of the curriculum increased to include elements such as French or home studies, (1) the children were given increased access to specialist accommodation, and they were more often taught by teachers who specialised to some extent in the teaching of particular subjects. The introduction of such a gradual transition is worth considering in view of the formidable challenge presented to teachers of older pupils by the range of work to be covered and by the wide variation in their pupils' attainments and abilities. Combined and 8 to 12 schools could usefully re-examine their teaching arrangements to see if the learning needs of more of their older pupils might be better met by more effective use of consultants or by some exchange of classes to allow teachers to share their particular skills and interests, thus introducing these older pupils to a combination of class and specialist teaching.


Staff levels and deployment of teachers

8.14 The provision of a gradual transition in teaching arrangements as outlined in paragraph 8.13 makes heavy demands on staffing within overall pupil/teacher ratios often less favourable than those provided in secondary schools or in 9 to 13 middle schools. Except for head teachers and, to a far lesser extent, deputies, the staff in 8 to 12 and combined schools are timetabled to teach classes or groups of children for almost the whole of their working week. (2) In the survey schools, the non-contact time available for teachers holding curricular or organisational responsibilities was very limited - little more than that provided for teachers without such responsibilities. Such

(1) Paragraph 6.11

(2) Paragraphs 6.4, 6.7


[page 79]

teachers can be expected to undertake some of their duties in their own time, but many of their more demanding responsibilities can only be carried out while the schools are in session. In particular, many of the curricular issues discussed earlier in this chapter depend, in part, for their resolution on schools making more effective use of the capabilities of their teachers, not only through deploying them to teach in a specialist capacity for part of the time but also through enabling them to work alongside other teachers as consultants. The designation of responsibilities (1) for subjects or areas of the curriculum is now a widespread policy in primary and middle schools. Potentially it has much to contribute to the appraisal and renewal of the curriculum and to the further professional development of teachers. However, more needs to be done to enhance the status and effectiveness of teachers with such designated responsibilities through the clarification of their duties, and through recognition of their significant contribution to the work of the school. The provision of sufficient non-contact time to enable teachers to carry out their curricular and organisational responsibilities more effectively is a matter of some urgency for combined and 8 to 12 middle schools.


Size

8.15 The wide range of the middle school curriculum requires a corresponding breadth and depth of specialist knowledge within a staff group, so that appropriate advice about particular areas of the curriculum can be readily available to all the teachers. Although some small schools are able to achieve good standards overall, many schools with less than two forms of entry are unlikely to have the necessary range and level of specialist expertise within the teaching staff to provide effectively for children aged 8 to 12. In some cases, the closure or amalgamation of small schools to form larger ones might provide a solution. Where this is not possible or desirable, such small schools will need to be staffed more generously than average though this may be at the expense of larger schools elsewhere in the authority, or will need to cooperate closely and effectively with neighbouring schools to share expertise and plan programmes of work.

(1) Paragraphs 6.5, 6.6


[page 80]

Initial and in-service education of teachers

8.16 In some primary, middle and secondary schools, the range of main subjects taken in initial training by the teaching staff as a whole does not match the needs of the school for some expertise in all areas of the curriculum. As Table 12 shows (1) the main subjects studied in their initial training by the teachers in the survey were heavily weighted towards humanities and aesthetic subjects; only one in 8 teachers had studied science as a main subject in initial training; a similar proportion had taken mathematics as a main area of study. There is a need to attract more teachers with backgrounds in mathematics and science to teach as class or specialist teachers in combined and middle schools and to equip more of those already in the schools to do so.

8.17 In addition to academic knowledge and pedagogic expertise, teachers bring to their task a range of personal qualities such as their concern for children's social and personal education and their ability to foster effective working relationships with pupils. The survey indicates that these personal qualities are important factors in promoting successful learning. All the schools where standards of achievement were good were among those where standards of pastoral care were high and where the relationships between teachers and children were good. (2) When selecting students for initial training and when appointing teachers and head teachers, the interviewing panels need to assess carefully the personal qualities of applicants as well as take account of their academic qualifications.

8.18 Teachers require not only appropriate initial training but also opportunities for relevant in-service education in their own schools and through attendance at courses provided by local education authority advisers and other agencies. Given the combination of class and specialist teaching provided for many older pupils in combined and middle schools and the fact that many teachers teach across a wide range of the curriculum, in-service education intended to update and extend teachers' subject knowledge is very important. The evidence of the survey suggests that this is particularly needed in religious education, geography, home studies and craft, design and technology, where standards were least often satisfactory. The

(1) Appendix 2, Table 12

(2) Paragraphs 7.2, 3.2


[page 81]

management and organisation of schools and the role played by teachers with designated responsibilities in curricular planning are also important topics for in-service courses.

8.19 This survey took place at a time when combined and 8 to 12 middle schools were still developing and when they were facing changing circumstances as a result of factors such as falling rolls, reorganisation considerations and economic constraint. These were, and continue to be, important factors in making decisions about the rationalisation of school provision. Within these constraints local education authorities and teachers have sought to find the most suitable means of meeting the educational needs of the pupils concerned. Since the survey many schools have been engaged in the appraisal and development of their curriculum. These developments, plus the quality of personal relationships and satisfactory standards in basic competences achieved in the schools, provide a suitable foundation from which to tackle many of the issues raised in this survey.





[page 82]

Appendix 1 Inspection procedures




1. Inspection teams were made up of HMI drawn from different parts of England and arrangements were made, similar to those adopted in other surveys, to ensure a reasonable consistency of approach and evaluation. Detailed schedules (1) to be used during the visits were prepared by working groups of phase and subject HMI.

2. Each inspection team comprised specialists in subject areas as well as inspectors who had specialist phase knowledge of the 5 to 12 age range. Prior to the inspection each school provided information about accommodation, staffing, organisation, records, resources, and children with special needs. Work was inspected in ail aspects of the curriculum normally offered to children of the age range. Inspection of a school took place over a period of one week and the number of inspectors was related to the number of pupils in the school. The smallest schools were visited by 4 HMI, the largest by 7. Towards the end of the inspection discussion of the main findings took place with the head. A meeting with the school governors followed and subsequently an inspection report was issued to the head, the governors and the local education authority.

(1) For summaries of these see Appendix 4


[page 83]

Appendix 2 Background to the schools




INTRODUCTION

1. The size of the schools in the survey varied considerably, from the largest school with 585 pupils on roll to the smallest school with 99 children. Approximately one fifth of the schools were in purpose-built accommodation, almost three quarters in former primary buildings and the remainder in former secondary schools. All schools were coeducational and all had been open for 4 or more years with either the 5 to 12 or 8 to 12 age range only. Thirty-three of the schools taught children aged 8 to 12, and 16 taught children from 5 to 12.

2. The illustrative sample comprised 35 county schools, 9 voluntary aided schools and 5 voluntary controlled schools. Of the 25 LEAs whose schools were in the sample, one local authority had 5 schools in the survey and 5 authorities each had 3 schools; the remaining 19 authorities had one or two schools in the survey.

3. The catchment areas from which the schools drew their pupils were predominantly rural in 4 cases, predominantly urban in 37 and mixed in the remaining 8. Three of the schools had been designated as Social Priority Schools. The number of upper schools to which pupils transferred varied from one to 11.

4. For the purpose of the survey, the schools were divided into three broad size bands based on the number of pupils on roll at the time of the inspections. A school described as 'small' had fewer than 241 children on roll; a 'medium sized' school had from 241 to 480 pupils and a 'large' school had over 480 on the register. There were 17 'small', 29 'medium-sized' and 3 'large' schools in the sample.


[page 84]

THE TEACHERS AND OTHER STAFF

5. Most of the teachers in combined and 8 to 12 middle schools were employed as full-time members of staff. Of the remainder, some taught part-time and others were peripatetic or visiting teachers, who worked in a number of schools. In the schools there were 696 teachers (1) of whom 67 were part-time. Seventy-two per cent of the teachers were women. Ten of the 49 heads were women.

6. Nineteen per cent of the teachers held graduate qualifications, and of these, just over half held Bachelor of Education degrees. Graduate status was more common among recently qualified teachers, because of the replacement of the Certificate of Education by Bachelor of Education degree programmes.

7. Forty-eight per cent of the teachers in the sample had taken primary years initial training courses, 38 per cent had taken middle years and 14 per cent had taken secondary or other courses. There was a considerable variety in the phase training background of teachers holding special responsibilities. Six of the deputy heads had trained for the early years, though no headteacher, senior teacher or year coordinator was so trained; this reflected the fact that some deputies coordinated the work of younger children in combined schools. Just over half the headteachers in the survey had received training for the junior/secondary age, a further third were trained for the primary phase and almost all the remainder had trained for the secondary phase.

8. The teachers in the survey had studied one or more main subjects as part of courses leading to the award of first degrees or certificates in education. Table 12 shows the number of teachers who studied main subjects related to broad areas of the curriculum such as humanities, arts and crafts and to specific subjects such as music and mathematics. Table 13 subdivides this information into constituent subjects of the curriculum and indicates the number of teachers having an initial main subject. All schools had at least one teacher who had studied a main humanities subject, with history and geography as the most common of the individual humanities subjects. All schools had at least one teacher with a main subject in the area of arts and crafts. Five schools were without a teacher who had taken English as a main study, though in all 168 teachers had

(1) In this chapter, the term 'teachers', unless otherwise stated, refers to all teaching staff including heads, but excluding peripatetic teachers. The figures given refer to all such teachers including those teaching children in the five to eight age group in combined schools.


[page 85]

taken such a course. Fourteen schools had no teacher with main mathematics and the same number had no member of staff with main science. The tables show that initial main subjects of teachers in the survey were weighted towards arts/humanities areas. Most teachers would also have followed a range of professional and education courses in addition to their main subject(s) during initial training and so would have undertaken some study of mathematics, English and other subjects.

9. In addition to initial courses, some teachers had undertaken further studies. Six per cent of teachers had taken educational diplomas and a further 7 per cent had been awarded first or higher degrees.

10. Teachers in schools are paid on a series of salary scales rising from Scale 1 to Scale 4 and to senior teacher, deputy head and head. Just over one third of teachers in the survey were on Scale 1 and a similar number on Scale 2. About one seventh of the teachers were on Scale 3.

11. All the heads, all except four of the deputies and all senior teachers had been teaching for more than 10 years. All Scale 3 teachers except two had more than 5 years experience. A quarter of the Scale 1 teachers had between 5 and 10 years experience and a third of the Scale 1 teachers had taught for more than 10 years. There were 6 probationers in the sample.

12. For each school, the overall pupil/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the numbers of pupils on roll by the total teaching staff including the head and part-time teachers, (1) but excluding peripatetic teachers. In the sample as a whole the pupil/teacher ratio ranged from 14.5 to 27.0, the mean being 21.6. Table 14 shows pupil/teacher ratio by size of school and indicates that smaller schools tended to have more favourable pupil/teacher ratios than larger schools. (2)

13. All schools had clerical assistance and this was full-time in 20 schools. Thirty-two of the schools had a non-teaching ancillary helper and 8 schools had a paid library assistant for at least half a day a week. One school had a full-time library assistant. In a small minority of schools ancillary help was provided for one or more of swimming, arts and crafts, needlecrafts, home studies, science and audio-visual

(1) In calculating pupil/teacher ratios, part-time teachers were converted to the full-time equivalent fraction for which they were paid.

(2) The data in Table 14 relate to all teachers in the survey schools, including those teaching the 5 to 8 phase in the combined schools.


[page 86]

aids. Occasionally, voluntary unpaid help was available to assist in these activities.

Table 12 Curricular areas and subjects related to which teachers had taken main subjects in initial training
(5 to 12 combined and 8 to 12 middle schools)

Curricular areas and subjectsNumber of schools having at least one teacher with an initial main qualification in the subject or areaNumber of teachers with an initial main qualification in the subject or area*Number of teachers with an initial main qualification within the curricular area who teach that subject*
Humanities49285255
English44181149
Arts and Crafts49163106
Science358360
Physical Education378772
Mathematics357266
Modern Languages295036
Music386859
Home Studies665
Rural Studies9120
Remedial Education243

*The total number of teachers in this column does not equal the total number of teachers in the survey, since some of the teachers had taken more than one main subject in their initial training.


[page 87]

Table 13 The constituent subjects of curricular areas taken by teachers as main subjects in their initial training
(5 to 12 combined and 8 to 12 middle schools)

Curricular areasSubjectsNumber of
schools having at
least one teacher
with an initial
main
qualification
in the
subject
Number of
teachers having
an initial main
qualification
in the
subject*
Humanities
History44127
Geography43115
Religious Education2647
Environmental Studies911
Social Studies1113
Humanities66
English
English44168
Drama1922
Arts and Crafts
Art and Design46128
CDT1111
Needlecrafts2228
Physical Education
Physical Education3681
Dance78
Modern Languages
French2950
Other Modern Languages44

*Some teachers had studied more than one main subject in their initial training. Because of this the total number of entries related to each curricular area (as shown in Table 12) does not equal the total number of teachers who had studied main subjects related to each of the curricular areas, as shown in Table 13.


[page 88]

Table 14 Pupil-teacher ratio by size of school
(5 to 12 combined and 8 to 12 Middle Schools)

P-T ratiosSmall schools
(up to 240 pupils)
Medium-sized schools
(241-480 pupils)
Large schools
(over 480 pupils)
14.1 - 16.0100
16.1 - 18.0210
18.1 - 20.0310
20.1 - 22.04130
22.1 - 24.05111
24.1 - 26.0231
26.1 - 28.0001
All school numbers17293
Average PTR21.022.324.9

National figures at January 1982 with slightly different size bands were:
Up to 200 pupils201-400Over 400
First and middle schools20.822.723.2
Middle schools deemed primary18.922.023.0





ACCOMMODATION

14. 10 of the 49 schools in the sample were purpose-built. Thirty-two schools were housed in former primary school buildings, six in former secondary accommodation. One school occupied modified primary and secondary buildings. Adaptations to take account of the change in age range had been carried out in 34 schools. All except one of the schools had a hall and all but seven had some form of library accommodation. Just over half the schools had separate dining facilities.

15. Table 15 shows the number of schools which had designated teaching areas for work in particular subjects or areas of the curriculum. Most teaching took place in ordinary classrooms. All or almost all the teaching of English, mathematics, history and geography occurred in ordinary classrooms. Some special facilities were available for physical education in all but one school, and in three


[page 89]

quarters of schools for science and for home studies. Half the schools had designated teaching areas for art, and almost half had areas for music and for craft, design and technology. Of the 43 schools offering French, 14 had some form of special accommodation.

16. The only school without a hall or gymnasium rented the facility from the parish council, so all pupils in the survey had the use of a hall or gymnasium for physical education. This accommodation was often also used for other activities such as assembly, music or dining. In 37 schools this accommodation was considered to be satisfactory. Adverse features included inadequate space, or restrictions in the use of space because of the storage of dining furniture and/or apparatus. In seven schools the floor was unsuitable for some forms of physical education. Just over half the schools had changing facilities for pupils, but in many cases these were insufficient to cater for a whole class group. In many schools pupils had to change in classrooms, cloakrooms or toilets. In the majority of schools lack of showering facilities inhibited the development of sound habits related to personal hygiene.

17. Three quarters of schools had accommodation which was partially or completely designed or modified for use as science teaching space. The use of the special science areas was often limited to older pupils. Areas which had multiple uses formed a high proportion of the provision: for example, sharing an area with home studies frequently prevented the study of living organisms in science. Quite often the science area was designed to accommodate half classes or groups. Water and mains electricity services were available in all areas and mains gas in a large majority. Low voltage electricity was provided in about a quarter of the areas. Storage facilities were poor in about two thirds of schools.

18. In over three quarters of the schools there was some special provision for home studies; in about half of such schools the accommodation was shared with one or more practical subjects; these included science, art, needlecrafts, and craft, design and technology. Work surfaces, sinks and facilities for storage were often used jointly with other practical subjects. !n the 15 schools where special facilities for needlecrafts were provided these were usually only available to the oldest pupils.


[page 90]

19. Twenty-one schools had designated teaching areas for art and five others had provision for ceramics only. The special accommodation was adjacent to, or formed part of, the craft, design and technology area in eight schools. The suitability of the provision varied considerably as did its availability. In ten schools special art accommodation was available only to pupils in the fourth year.

20. Accommodation provided for work in craft, design and technology also varied considerably. In 13 schools the subject was taught in ordinary classrooms with some adaptations. Designated teaching areas were provided in about two fifths of the sample.

21. No school had a purpose-built music room, but ten schools had rooms which had been converted as special music rooms. In a further nine schools classrooms used for music had been appropriately adapted and resources provided for teaching music. The subject was also taught in ordinary classrooms, open-plan areas, the hall or dining areas; many of these lacked adequate storage facilities or had poor acoustics.

22. Geography, history or environmental studies was usually taught in ordinary classrooms, where there were adequate working surfaces and facilities for displays. A small number of year groups used a hall or one classroom for key lessons, filmstrips or television broadcasts. Although there was often convenient access to the school grounds and locality, these were insufficiently used for geographical and historical studies.

23. The range and the quality of accommodation varied greatly between schools. Many of the special teaching areas were multi-purpose; in some cases they were used only by older pupils and accommodated only small groups or half classes. These factors often presented organisational problems for the schools.




RESOURCES

24. In about two thirds of the schools resources were considered to be generally adequate for the work being undertaken with the eight to twelve age group at the time of the inspection, but in many there were deficiencies in one or two aspects of the curriculum. Table 16


[page 91]

gives information about the quantity and quality of books provided for the various subjects and Table 17 gives similar information about the provision of equipment.

25. Book provision in mathematics and English was satisfactory in both quantity and quality in about two thirds of the schools. It was also satisfactory in about half of the schools for geography, history, science and French. In just over one third of schools, book provision for music was adequate, but for physical education, art, religious education, craft, design and technology, needlecrafts and home studies, fewer than a quarter of schools had book provision which was satisfactory in quantity and quality for work in the particular subject.

26. In approximately three quarters of schools there was equipment which was satisfactory in quantity and quality for physical education, English and science. The least well equipped subjects were home studies and craft, design and technology. To supplement the provision of books and equipment and to provide more appropriate work for their pupils, teachers in many of the schools prepared their own teaching materials.

27. All schools had a record player, filmstrip/slide projector, typewriter and duplicating equipment or photocopier. Almost all schools had a film projector, overhead projector, tape recorders and radio. Thirty eight schools had colour television and 22 had black and white television. Twenty one schools had a video tape recorder. Twenty five schools had a camera and ten possessed a cine-camera.

28. Statistical associations were found between the quality of work produced by the children and the quality and quantity of books in geography, science and music; similar associations were found in respect of equipment and apparatus in art, music, physical education, French, home studies and needlecrafts; other associations found were with consumable materials for art, science, mathematics, home studies and needlecrafts. In each case, better resources were associated with higher standards of work.


[page 92]

Table 15 The number of schools which had designated teaching areas - by subject

SubjectNumber of schools
Physical Education48
Home Studies41
Science36
Art and Design26
Craft, Design and Technology21
Music19
Needlecrafts15
French14
History2
Geography2
Mathematics1
English0
Religious Education0

Table 16 The number of schools having a. adequate quantities of books, b. books of satisfactory quality and c. books, satisfactory in quality and quantity.

Subjecta.
Adequate quantities
b.
Satisfactory quality
c.
Satisfactory in
quantity and quality
English383331
Mathematics383332
Geography322622
History322927
Science283124
French243024
Music203018
Physical Education112311
Art and Design10239
Religious Education10189
Craft, Design and Technology5133
Needlecrafts5175
Home Studies3143


[page 93]

Table 17 The number of schools having a. adequate quantities of equipment, b. equipment of satisfactory quality and c. equipment satisfactory in quality and quantity.

Subjecta.
Adequate quantities
b.
Satisfactory quality
c.
Satisfactory in
quantity and quality
Physical Education424339
English394138
Science354435
French353130
Mathematics334030
History323631
Music303428
Art and Design303226
Geography283228
Needlecrafts262724
Home Studies212820
Craft, Design and Technology181916




[page 94]

Appendix 3 Statistical Notes




1. The 49 schools included in this survey illustrated the wide diversity of 5 to 12 combined and 8 to 12 middle schools in the country but they did not constitute a statistically representative sample. As a result of this and because of the relatively small numbers involved, the statistical analyses should be treated with caution. It is likely that only relatively strong associations will appear as statistically significant in a sample of this size. Weaker associations which may hold for all 5 to 12 and 8 to 12 schools may not appear statistically significant in this sample. Furthermore certain characteristics which only occur in a minority of 5 to 12 and 8 to 12 middle schools may have occurred so seldom in this survey that they cannot be tested for association with other factors. These notes provide further details of the associations commented on in this report and of the statistical tests used.

2. For each school 15 dependent variables were used reflecting the standards of work achieved. These variables were the average of the grades (1) awarded for each age group and ability level in each of the 14 separate subjects which are shown in Table 18, and for each school the overall score calculated as the average of these grades.

3. In the statistical analysis, a number of independent variables were used to see if they were associated with the overall standards of work achieved in the schools. (2) They included pupil/teacher ratios, the

(1) In each inspection HMI indicated the general standard of the children's work in each subject by awarding grades on a six point scale ranging from 'very good' to 'very poor'. In making these assessments HMI took into account the abilities of the pupils and the socio-economic circumstances of the schools.

(2) It must be borne in mind that each of the independent variables in the sample varied within a limited range and nothing can be said about the effect of these variables on standards of work in schools where they operate outside these ranges.


[page 95]

number of pupils on roll and the average class size. None of these variables proved to be significantly associated with the schools' overall scores. (Failure to find statistical significance does not necessarily mean that no associations existed. However, it is likely that any such associations with the schools' scores were weaker or more subtle than those established for the three major variables identified at the end of this paragraph.) Several definitions to create a measure of the degree of specialist teaching were investigated. It was found that the amount of specialist teaching in the organisational pattern of the schools was so small that it was not possible to carry out statistical analysis using specialist teaching as a factor. No suitable variable was found which could be included in respect of the age ranges for which the teachers were trained. In addition, no satisfactory variable could be derived for the overall quality of schemes of work since on average, the schools had schemes for only about half the subjects. Three major variables were found to be statistically associated with the schools' overall scores. These were the quality of pastoral care, the quality and quantity of resources, and the strength of the head's influence.

4. In each school, assessments on a five point scale ranging from very good to very poor were made of the quality of pastoral care. There were separate assessments for each of the four age groups 8 to 12 and these grades were averaged to provide an overall rating for pastoral care in respect of the school as a whole. Similarly, assessments of the behaviour of children towards one another and towards teachers were made and the average was calculated for each school.

5. Each inspection team was asked to comment on the influence of the head upon the school. The strength of that influence was subsequently rated on a three point scale: strong influence, moderate influence and little influence.

6. Assessments of the quality and quantity of resources were made for each of the 14 subjects. A three point scale was used for quality and a four point scale for quantity. Five types of resources were separately assessed: books, teacher prepared materials, commercial A-V [audio-visual] materials, equipment and apparatus, and consumable materials. The average of all these assessments was calculated for each school and was used as the independent variable for quality and quantity of resources.


[page 96]

7. Some of the variables were continuous data or derived from continuous data. (1) Where ordinal ratings (such as those for resources) were averaged over many values the result was treated as a continuous variable. The three point rating scale for the head's influence and certain other ordinal data were treated both as continuous and as classificatory data (2) with similar results appearing in both sets of analyses. The overall school score, being the average of the grades awarded for a large number of subjects, was treated as continuous.

8. The strength of any associations between the independent variables and the schools' overall scores was investigated by examining the proportion of the total variance in the schools' overall scores that could be explained by each of the independent variables. The list below shows what percentage of the total variance was accounted for by each of the three major independent variables in isolation:

Pastoral care32 per cent
Strength of head's influence18 per cent
Quality and quantity of resources17 per cent

9. Each of these three variables was significantly associated with the schools' overall scores; significance was established by F-tests with p less than 0.05. However, as there was a considerable degree of correlation between these variables, especially between the head's influence and the other two variables, when taken together they accounted for only 45 per cent of the total variance. The two variables, the ratings for pastoral care and for resources, accounted for 42 per cent of the total variance in the schools' overall score.

10. Most of the other independent variables were found to account for little or none of the variance. One or two variables which accounted for a significant proportion of the variance on their own, were so highly correlated with the major variables that they were

(1) Continuous data are measured on scales whose intervals are in some sense equal. Ordinal data are measured on scales whose points have a clear ordering, though little or nothing is known about the relative magnitude of the intervals between the points. Classificatory data are not measured on any scale and serve only to distinguish various subsets of the data.

(2) SPSS and GLEM-3, the two statistical packages used, have no facilities for dealing with ordinal data as such.


[page 97]

Figure 1. Effects of certain variables on the standards of work achieved.

A range of one standard error around each mean score is shown. The standard errors are quite large but no conclusions were drawn from this form of analysis about the significance of a relationship between overall scores and each of the three variables shown. F-tests based on the proportion of variance explained were used to establish significance.

(In the survey, schools' scores range from 3.50 to 1.20)

*The term 'resources' refers to material resources, for example, books, equipment and apparatus, consumable materials.


[page 98]

subsumed by them when all the variables were taken together. This was particularly true for the rating for children's relationships which was highly correlated with the rating for pastoral care. It explained 22 per cent of the overall variance on its own but it added little extra once the major variables were included.

11. The effect of the individual variables may also be examined by comparing the mean overall score of those schools which had higher than average values of an independent variable with the mean score of those which had lower than average values. These comparisons for the three major variables are shown in Figure 1.

12. Analyses for the other 14 dependent variables (the grades awarded for the quality of work in each subject) were confined to individual associations. The associations were measured using Kendall's rank correlation co-efficient. The associations with resources and with the quality of schemes of work are shown in Table 18. Any co-efficients which were not statistically significant have been omitted, but a number of those that are shown have quite low values and should be treated with some caution.



[page 99]

Table 18 Correlations between certain variables and grades awarded for specific subjects

Rank correlation between grade awarded and:
SubjectAverage of
assessments
of resources
Quality of
scheme of work**
English-0.21
Art and craft0.370.33
Craft, Design and Technology--
Religious Education-0.27
History0.210.33
Geography0.320.38
Science0.410.35
Maths0.300.20
Music0.520.38
PE0.340.43
French0.32-
Health Education0.49-
Home Studies0.46-
Needlecrafts0.480.44

*Only statistically significant co-efficients are shown. Those below 0.3 have quite low values and should be treated with caution.

**No attempt was made to test for associations between the quality of schemes of work in French, home studies, health education or craft, design and technology, since there were so few schools with schemes of work in these subjects.


[page 100]

Appendix 4 Summaries of HMI schedules




During the survey, HMI made their assessments in accordance with agreed schedules which listed a wide range of activities likely to be found in middle schools. While it was not expected that every school would necessarily include all the activities related to the items listed in the schedules, it was thought likely that each school would cover most of these, though the precise selection of activities would be dependent on the individual circumstances of each school.


ITEMS COMMON TO ALL SCHEDULES

For all the aspects of work examined each schedule asked HMI to report on the context of the work observed, in terms of:

i the nature of the accommodation
ii. the range and quality of resources and the use made of these resources during the period of the visit
iii. the extent to which out-of-school resources are used
iv. the responsibilities and qualifications of the teacher or teachers with designated responsibility for the subject
v. the criteria used for the organisation of teaching groups
vi. the extent to which the subject is taught separately or in combination
vii. the adequacy of the time allocation
viii. the use made by the school of the local education authority advisory service
ix. the schemes of work: availability, contents, extent to which they are followed, and procedures for reappraisal
x. the methods of assessment and quality of records kept on children's achievements

[page 101]

xi. the nature, extent and effectiveness of liaison between:

a. the middle school and the first schools from which pupils are received
b. the middle school and other middle schools in the area
c. the middle school and the upper schools to which pupils transfer.
In addition, at the end of each schedule, HMI was asked to comment on:
i. the general effects of having the age ranges 8 to 12 or 5 to 12 in one school
ii. the general effects of the size of school
iii. the appropriateness of the work for a. children of above average ability, b. children of average ability, and c. children of below average ability.





ITEMS SPECIFIC TO PARTICULAR SCHEDULES

The following sub-sections summarise the factors referred to in schedules related to more specific aspects of the work of the schools.

General features of the school: its organisation and management, and the provision made for children's social and personal education.

1. The range and quality of opportunities provided for pupils to exercise initiative, responsibility, leadership and participation; the response of pupils to such opportunities.

2. The characteristics of the school's catchment area.

3. Evidence of the practice and quality of pastoral care.

4. The quality of relationships between adults and pupils, and evidence on the general behaviour of pupils.

5. Evidence of arrangements made for consultation between parents and staff; evidence of parents' involvement in the day-to-day work of the school.

6. Evidence of links with the local community.


[page 102]

7. The factors which influence the range of subjects taught.

8. The nature of the responsibilities carried by the head and senior staff and the factors influencing the discharge of these responsibilities.

9. Evidence of the influence of head and senior staff on the work of the children.

10. The effects of local education authority policies on the school; the use made by the school of the local education authority advisory service.

11. The extent to which the school succeeds in creating an environment likely to encourage learning.

12. The nature of the 'out-of-school' activities organised for the children.


Language and literacy

1. Background features over which the school has little control but which influence the 'language life' of the school.

2. Evidence on the leadership or guidance given to teachers about language.

3. The range and quality of opportunities provided for talking and listening.

4. Evidence on the attention given to drama.

5. Evidence on the provision of fiction, information and poetry books.

6. The quality of library provision.

7. The quality of children's attainment in reading; evidence on the teaching of reading including strategies to develop and extend children's reading skills; opportunities provided for children to read for pleasure.

8. Evidence on children's use of information and text books.


[page 103]

9. Opportunities provided for children to hear, read or write poetry.

10. The extent to which fiction and poetry are used in different areas of the curriculum.

11. The emphasis given to writing, the assistance given to children, and the quality of their response. The range and nature of writing tasks undertaken by the children.

12. Evidence of each of the following aspects of the work: the teaching of handwriting, the teaching of spelling and punctuation, children's use of the current conventions of spelling and punctuation, and the standard of presentation of children's work.

13. The extent to which provision is made for slow learners and/or very able pupils.

14. Evidence of the school's awareness of out-of-school influences on children's language, eg television.


Mathematics

1. The degree of attention given to the application of mathematics across the curriculum.

2. Evidence on the general style of teaching in the school, and the factors leading to the successful teaching of mathematics.

3. The extent to which opportunities are provided for children to do each of the following: to use common sense methods, to practise mental mathematics, to participate in oral work, to exercise choice, and to organise their own work and materials.

4. The extent to which practical activities are provided.

5. The extent to which the pupils are given opportunities to work on each of the following topics: the four operations with whole numbers, fractions and decimals; estimation and approximation; experience with a variety of measuring instruments; applications of computation; geometrical aspects of natural and man-made forms; graphical representation of data; creative work (investigations, puzzles etc); and exploration of patterns leading to generalisations.


[page 104]

6. The range of topics included in courses and the proportion of children to whom the topics are taught.

7. Evidence of pupils' attitudes towards mathematics.

8. The quality of mathematical display.

9. Evidence of the use made of textbooks, workcards/worksheets and broadcasts.

10. Evidence of the use of calculators and computers.

11. The extent to which the school makes provision for very able pupils, for the least able pupils, or for children whose mother tongue is not English.

12. Evidence of the extent to which local education authority guidelines influence the teaching of mathematics.

13. Evidence of liaison with parents about the mathematics course and the progress of individual children.

14. Evidence of the use made of homework.


Science and health education

1. The extent to which the following activities are used: pupils' practical work, teacher demonstration, discussion, reading from text books and reference books, activities from workcards, formal recording, and free writing about science.

2. Evidence of the links made between science and other subjects, particularly mathematics.

3. The extent of which opportunities are provided for children to initiate and pursue their own investigations.

4. Evidence of the suitability of content.

5 The quality of provision made for, and of development achieved in, the following activities: observation, selection of evidence or data, pattern-seeking, experimentation, explanation, application, communication, perseverance, and the safe and confident use of equipment.


[page 105]

6. Evidence of children's attitudes towards science.

7. Evidence of attention given to the following topics:

a. the function of the human body
b. physical and emotional changes at puberty
c. hygiene
d. safety
e. environmental hazards
f. social hazards, and
g. interpersonal relationships.
8. Evidence that the school uses teaching materials from curriculum development projects to aid the teaching of health education.

9. The extent to which radio and television programmes are used regularly for health education.

10. Evidence that the school has discussed health education with a. parents, and b. officers of the Area Health Authority.


French

1. The quality of provision made for each of the following four language skills: aural comprehension, reading, speaking and writing.

2. The extent to which French is used in the classrooms.

3. The part played by background studies in the teaching of French.


Social and environmental studies

1. The extent to which children are helped to develop the following: an understanding of time sequence and chronology, an understand-


[page 106]

ing of change and continuity, an understanding of causality and historical explanation, an ability to appreciate the points of view and circumstances of other people, an awareness of the need for evidence, an ability to use and evaluate primary and secondary historical sources.

2. Evidence that children are given opportunities to develop the following abilities: to find information, to collate information from more than one source, to analyse and select what is useful and relevant, and to present material coherently and in an appropriate form.

3. The extent to which the work contains material from the following categories:

i. local history
ii. national history
iii. world history
iv. pre-500 AD
v. 500-1500 AD
vi. 1500-1850 AD
vii. 1850-present.
4. The emphasis given in the work to people's lives, work and beliefs.

5. The quality of children's response in the following aspects of the work:

a. oral work and discussion
b. written work
c. drama
d. pictorial work
e. three-dimensional work
f. audio-visual presentation, and
g. games and/or simulations.
6. Evidence that children have studied:
a. what places are like

[page 107]

b. how people have used and adapted their surroundings for various activities
c. the location of places, features and activities
d. the distribution of places, features and activities
e. the movements of people and goods between places
f. changes in the character of places and in the location of activities
g. environmental or social issues relating to particular places.
7. Evidence that children have attempted to find explanations or establish relationships in connection with the topics outlined in 6.

8. Evidence that pupils have opportunities to do each of the following: use a globe, use atlases as sources of information; draw maps and use maps to record information; interpret symbols, settlement features and relief from large-scale maps; and measure distances from maps.

9. Evidence that attention has been given to each of the following areas:

a. the locality
b. United Kingdom
c. areas beyond the United Kingdom.
10. Evidence on the contents and types of activities used in the study of geographical topics at the time of the inspection.

11. The nature and quality of pupils' response to work requiring them to:

a. observe
b. collect and record information
c. select relevant evidence
d. present information appropriately, and
e. recall and apply knowledge in new situations.
12. The extent to which children are given opportunities for:
a. independent work

[page 108]


b. work in groups
c. initiative
d. responsibility for planning work, and
e. perseverance.



Religious education

1. The degree of emphasis given to:

a. The Old Testament
b. The New Testament, and
c. the nature of the Bible and its background.
2. The attention given to world religions.

3. Evidence on the extent to which religious education is put in a broad perspective: for example, the historical development of the Church, the meaning of faith for Christians and followers of other religions, Christian and other ways of worship.

4. Evidence on the organisation, contents and effects of assemblies.

5. Evidence of the ways in which children communicate their response to religious ideas in class and assembly.

6. Evidence that children are beginning to consider major religious questions.

7. Evidence that children are being taught about the language of myth, symbolism, worship and ritual.

8. Evidence of the ways in which religious education in particular and the school in general promote the understanding of religious ideas and the formation of attitudes such as sympathy and tolerance.


Arts and crafts

1. Evidence of the extent to which pupils are required to observe carefully and to record their observations in visual form.


[page 109]

2. The range of processes experienced by pupils in art and in craft, design and technology and the extent to which pupils are able to select the appropriate processes for the task in hand.

3. The extent to which children develop a. sensitivity to the formal elements of art, b. the ability to discriminate and make judgements, and c. the ability to evaluate their own work and that of others.

4. Evidence that children are required to design and make forms or structures in response to problems where the answers are not prescribed.

5. Evidence of opportunities provided for personal interpretation.

6. The quality of teaching methods, programmes of work, materials, tools and equipment.

7. The quality of attention given to the environment, eg displays.

8. Evidence that pupils have opportunities to extend their competence in the use of graphics.

9. The quality of pupils' response as evidenced by their work, language, skills, judgements and attitudes.

10. The degree of attention given to the safe handling of tools and materials and to the development of safety awareness.

11. The extent of links between art, craft, design and technology and other areas of the curriculum.


Home studies and needlecrafts

1. Evidence that attention has been given to the following topics: human development, nutrition, meal planning, cost and value of food, preparation of simple meals, cooking of isolated dishes, food science, food and other cultures, the nature, use and selection of fabrics, history of clothes, creative embroidery, toy-making, study of shops and shopping and consumer education.


[page 110]

2. The extent to which children are given opportunities to learn to: solve problems; make decisions; cooperate with others; take responsibility; identify priorities; extract information; use initiative; work independently; plan and complete a piece of work; and use materials economically.

3. Evidence on the opportunities provided to extend pupils' competence in: language; mathematical understanding; scientific understanding; aesthetic and sensory awareness; manipulative skills; and social skills.

4. Evidence that children have developed their abilities to: manage money; manage time; care for their clothes or personal possessions; feed themselves sensibly; understand rules for health; show concern for others; and look after a home.

5. Evidence on the appearance of the teaching area and the use made of display.

6. Evidence on the attention given to hygiene and to teaching pupils how to handle tools and equipment appropriately and safely.

7. Evidence of links between home studies and needlecrafts and other areas of the curriculum.


Music

1. Evidence on the extent of instrumental teaching, the main instruments taught and the teaching arrangements employed.

2. Evidence on the contribution made by peripatetic teachers to the teaching of music.

3. The extent to which children engage in the following activities: singing; recorder playing as a classroom activity for all; guitar playing as a classroom activity; class music-making using instruments; pupil-devised music-making, eg original composition, improvisation; listening; music reading; written work; theoretical studies; electronic music-making; individual interests; instrumental playing in assembly; instrumental ensembles; orchestra; band; choir.


[page 111]

4. Evidence of the quality of children's response to music.

5. The extent to which special provision is made for gifted children, less able children or any other exceptional group of children.


Physical education

1. Provision for, and standards of work in, athletics, outdoor education, dance, games, gymnastics and swimming.

2. Evidence of children's ability to do the following:

observe,
make decisions,
work purposefully,
show perseverance,
extract information,
solve problems,
show independence
and
show initiative.
3. Evidence of pupils' readiness to play and be physically active; ability to cooperate and compete sensibly; and willingness to take responsibility.

4. Evidence that children had developed the following:

movement confidence and sensitivity;
skills in gymnastics, dance, swimming and games;
range and versatility of movement; and,
mobility, strength and endurance.
5. Evidence of children's knowledge of physical activity; of rules, of health and safety matters; and of the application of skills.


[page 112]

Provision for children with special needs

In relation to each of the following groups of children:

(a) Those with emotional and behavioural difficulties.
(b) Those having learning difficulties.
(c) Those having moderate learning difficulties.
(d) Those with impaired hearing.
(e) Those with physical handicaps.
(f) Those whose mother tongue is not English.
(g) Those believed by the school to have exceptionally high ability in one or more aspects of the curriculum.
1. Evidence of the patterns of teaching employed, eg the balance between class work and work in withdrawal groups.

2. The adequacy of the time allocated to specialist teaching.

3. Evidence of the screening procedures used.

4. Evidence of the use of standardised tests and other procedures for the diagnosis of children's special difficulties.

5. Evidence within schemes of work for curricular subjects, of reference to children with special educational needs.

6. Evidence of efforts made by the school to help parents understand their children's special educational needs.

7. Evidence of the extent to which the needs of the children are being met.


[page 113]

Index




Major references are set in bold type.




A

accommodation: 1.2, 1.6, 2.12, 4.4, Appendix 2, paras 1, 14-23

agreed syllabus: 2.87, 7.77

aims and objectives: 2.87, 5.3, 5.13, 7.7, 8.8, 8.11

ancillary staff: 2.91, 4.9, Appendix 2, para 13

application of knowledge and skills: 2.38, 2.39, 2.43, 2.102, 8.6

art (and design): 2.86, 2.95-2.105, 4.6, 6.12, 6.18, 7.6, 7.18
    accommodation: 7.21, Appendix 2, paras 15, 18, 19
    assessment and record-keeping: 5.9
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    designated responsibility for: 7.20
    equipment: 2.103, 2.104, Appendix 2, para 28
    materials: Appendix 2, para 28
    schemes of work: 5.2, 5.4, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.97, 5.4, 7.7, Appendix 2, para 28

arts and crafts: 2.2, 2.95-2.105, 6.9, 6.11, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 7.3, 7.4, 7.6, 7.18, 8.7, Appendix 2, paras 8, 13
    range of work: 2.98
    standards of work: 2.97
    rotational patterns: 2.96
    subject combinations: 2.2
    time allocation: 6.16, 7.5

Aspects of Secondary Education in England (the national secondary survey): 1.7

assemblies: 2.6, 2.56, 2.80, 2.81, 2.82, 2.84, 2.86, 3.1, 3.5, 7.4, Appendix 2, para 16, Appendix 7, para 4

assessment: by children: 8.11

assessment: by teachers: 2.38, 5.5-5.13, 6.2, 7.8, 8.11

athletics: 2.113, 2.118

B

Bible: 2.82, 2.83

bookshops: 2.12

broadcasts: 2.6, 2.7, 2.40, 2.53, 2.58, 2.59, 2.84, 2.108, 2.116, Appendix 2, para 22

C

calculators: 2.41


[page 114]

Central Advisory Council for Education (England): 1.1

children:
    attitudes: 2.42, 2.52, 2.97, 2.114, 2.115, 2.120, 7.2, 7.11
    average ability: 2.21, 2.43, 2.52, 2.67, 2.94, 2.121, 7.10, 8.8
    behaviour: 3.3, 7.2, 7.11, Appendix 3, para 4
    boys-girls: 2.44, 2.54, 2.96, 2.113, 7.9
    less able: 2.21, 2.23, 2.25, 2.43, 2.61, 2.67, 2.94, 2.112, 2.121, 6.22, 8.8
    more able: 2.21, 2.43, 2.61, 2.67, 2.94, 2.106, 2.112, 2.113, 2.121, 8.8
    older: 2.23, 2.44, 2.45, 2.47, 2.48, 2.89, 2.92, 2.102, 3.6, 6.10, 6.11-6.14, 6.21, 7.3, 7.4, 8.13, 8.18
    very able: 4.12, 6.22
    younger: 2.23, 2.44, 2.45, 2.48, 2.89, 2.91, 3.6, 6.10-6.14, 8.13

children with special educational needs: 4.1-4.10, 7.3, 7.14, 8.8
    accommodation: 4.4
    assessment of progress: 4.5
    assessment of provision made for: 4.5
    identification of: 4.2, 4.8, 8.8
    planning: 4.3, 8.8
    with emotional and behavioural difficulties: 4.10, 5.15
    with impaired hearing: 4.8
    with learning difficulties: 4.6, 5.15, 6.20, 7.14
    with moderate learning difficulties: 4.7
    with physical handicap: 4.9

children with other educational needs: 4.11-4.12
    whose mother tongue is not English: 4.11
    exceptionally able: 4.12, 6.22

choice-opportunities for: 2.35, 3.6

classes (and teaching groups): 6.19-6.22
    composition by age: 6.19
    mixed-ability: 2.23, 2.44, 2.61, 2.106, 4.7, 6.20, 7.3
    remedial: 4.6, 6.20
    setting: 2.23, 2.61, 5.7, 6.12, 6.14, 6.21, 7.3
    streamed: 6.20, 7.3

class teaching: 6.3, 6.9-6.14, 7.3, 7.19, 7.20, 8.13, 8.18

combined schools: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, Appendix 2, paras 1, 4

community, links with: 3.8

consultant (see teacher with designated curricular responsibility)

continuity (liaison): 1.7, 5.14-5.20, 7.14, 8.12
    with first schools: 5.14, 5.15-5.17, 7.14, 7.15, 8.12
    with other middle schools: 5.18, 7.14, 7.15, 8.12
    with upper schools: 5.7, 5.19-5.20, 7.14, 7.15, 8.12

cooperation, opportunities for: 2.42, 3.1, 3.4, 7.11

craft, design and technology: 2.50, 2.95-2.105, 6.15, 6.18, 7.4, 7.6, 7.9, 8.4, 8.18
    accommodation: 7.21, Appendix 2, paras 15, 18-20
    assessment and record keeping: 5.9


[page 115]

    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    equipment: 2.103, 2.104, Appendix 2, para 20
    resources: 2.98, 8.7
    schemes of work: 5.2, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.97, 7.13

curricular balance: 8.8, 8.9
    match: 4.3, 7.10
    opportunities for boys and girls: 7.9
    planning (see also schemes of work): 4.3, 5.1-5.4, 6.2, 7.7, 7.15, 7.20, 8.2, 8.3
    policies: 8.2, 8.4, 8.11, 8.14
    range (breadth): 2.1, 6.16, 7.4, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.8, 8.13
    standards: 7.12-7.13

D

dance: 2.86, 2.113, 2.116

Department of Education and Science: 8.2

deputy heads: 6.3, 7.2, 7.20, 8.14, Appendix 2, paras 7, 11

design (see also craft, design and technology and art and design): 2.95, 2.105, 8.6, 8.10

differentiation: 8.8

discussion: 2.5, 2.17, 2.37, 2.38, 2.49, 2.84, 2.86, 2.105, 2.121, 5.9, 8.6

display: 2.18, 2.19, 7.21, Appendix 2, para 22

drama: 2.6, 2.86, 2.106, 2.116

E

Education Act 1964: 1.1

Education Act 1981: 4.1

Education 5 to 9 (the first school survey): 1.2

English (see also language and literacy): 2.4-2.21, 2.68, 2.86, 4.6, 4.11, 5.4, 6.15, 7.4, 7.18, 7.21, 8.5, Appendix 2, para 8
    accommodation: Appendix 2, para 15
    assessment: 5.6, 7.8
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    composition of classes and teaching groups: 6.12, 6.14, 6.21, 7.3
    continuity and liaison: 5.16, 5.17, 5.20, 7.15
    deployment of teachers: 6.9, 7.19
    designated responsibility for: 7.20
    records: 2.13, 5.6
    resources: 7.22
    standards of work: 2.21, 7.13
    time allocation: 6.16, 7.5, 8.9

environment: 2.32, 2.46, 2.50, 2.69, 2.71, 2.72, 2.74, 2.100, 8.7, Appendix 2, para 22

environmental studies (see also social studies, humanities, history, geography and topic work): 2.34, 2.68-2.79, 2.90, 5.2, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.13, 7.18, 8.7

equipment (see resources)

experience, first-hand: 2.16, 2.72

experimentation: 2.47, 2.97, 8.6

exploration: 2.48, 2.73, 2.78, 8.6

extra-curricular activities (see voluntary activities)


[page 116]

F

faiths (other than Christianity): 2.81, 2.82

falling rolls: 8.19

fieldwork: 2.32, 2.46, 2.71, 2.72, 2.74, 2.75

French: 2.61-2.67, 6.15, 7.4, 7.18
    accommodation: Appendix 2, para 15
    assessment: 5.8
    books: 2.64, 5.20, 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    composition of classes and teaching groups: 6.21
    deployment of teachers: 6.11-6.14, 7.3, 8.13
    designated responsibility for: 7.20
    liaison and continuity: 5.8, 5.20, 7.15
    listening: 2.62
    reading: 2.64, 5.8
    resources: Appendix 2, para 28
    schemes of work: 5.2, 7.7
    speaking: 2.63, 2.67, 5.8
    standards of work: 2.62, 2.63, 2.67, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 2.61, 7.5
    writing: 2.65, 5.8

G

games: 2.8, 2.113, 2.114, 3.1, 3.4

generalisation: 2.29, 8.6

geography (see also social studies, environmental studies, humanities and topic work): 2.2, 2.34, 2.46, 2.68, 2.69, 2.71, 2.74, 2.75, 2.77, 2.78, 2.79, 2.95, 2.105, 6.15, 7.4, 7.5, 7.18, 8.18, Appendix 2, para 8
    accommodation: Appendix 2, paras 15, 22
    books: 2.71, 2.77, 7.22, Appendix 2, paras 25, 28
    schemes of work: 5.2, 5.4, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.79, 5.4, 6.17, 7.7, 7.13, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 2.68, 6.16

governors: 5.1, 8.2

grammar: 5.10, 7.8

guidelines (see schemes of work)

gymnastics: 2.113, 2.115, 2.119

H

handwriting: 2.18

heads: 2.5, 2.38, 2.81, 3.7, 5.1, 5.14, 6.2, 6.10, 7.2, 7.7, 7.14, 7.20, 8.2, 8.14, Appendix 2, paras 7, 11, Appendix 3, paras 3, 5, 7, 8, 9

health education: 2.2, 2.44, 2.53-2.60, 5.2, 7.6, 7.7

history (see also social studies, environmental studies, humanities and topic work): 2.2, 2.46, 2.68, 2.69, 2.70, 2.73, 2.75, 2.76, 2.83, 2.95, 2.105, 6.15, 7.4, 7.5, 7.18, Appendix 2, para 8
    accommodation: Appendix 2, paras 15, 22
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    schemes of work: 5.2, 5.4, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.79, 5.4, 6.17, 7.7
    time allocation: 2.68, 6.16

home studies: 2.2, 2.44, 2.50, 2.89-2.94, 2.95, 6.15, 6.18, 7.4, 7.9, 8.4, 8.18, Appendix 2, para 13


[page 117]

    accommodation: 7.21, Appendix 2, paras 15, 17, 18
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    deployment of staff: 6.11, 6.13, 6.14, 7.3, 8.13
    designated responsibility for: 2.89, 2.90
    materials: Appendix 2, para 28
    schemes of work: 5.2, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.94, 7.13, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 6.16

humanities (see also environmental studies, social studies, history, geography and topic work): 2.80, 2.105, 5.2, 5.12, 6.9, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.18, Appendix 2, para 8

I

ideas (concepts): 2.38, 2.73-2.74, 2.82, 2.84, 2.87, 5.3, 5.7, 8.5, 8.10

independence: 8.6

initiative, opportunities for: 3.6, 7.11, 8.6

inspection procedures: 2.2, 2.80, Appendix 1, paras 1, 2

J

job specifications: 6.4

L

language and literacy (see also English): 2.4-2.21, 2.84, 4.6, 5.20, 8.9
    drama: 2.6, 2.86, 2.106, 2.116
    handwriting: 2.18
    listening: 2.5, 2.62, 2.109
    literature: 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.84, 2.116
    poetry: 2.5, 2.14, 2.15, 2.86, 2.106, 2.116
    policy: 2.16
    punctuation: 2.20, 5.6
    reading: 2.8, 2.10, 4.6, 5.6, 5.20, 7.8, 8.1, 8.5
    speaking: 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.101
    spelling: 2.17, 2.19, 5.6, 5.10, 7.8
    standards of work: 2.21, 7.13
    writing: 2.5, 2.15, 2.16-2.17, 2.65, 2.86, 4.6, 8.1, 8.5

liaison (continuity): 5.14-5.20, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 7.14, 8.12
    with first schools: 5.14, 5.15-5.17. 7.14, 8.12
    with other middle schools: 5.18. 7.14, 8.12
    with upper schools: 5.7, 5.19-5.20, 7.14, 7.15, 8.12

libraries: 2.12, 3.5, 4.4, Appendix 2, paras 13, 14

links between curricular areas: 2.34, 2.50, 2.105, 8.10
    links between home and school: 1.7, 2.7, 2.13, 3.7, 4.6, 4.8, 4.11, 6.2

listening: 2.5, 2.62, 2.109

literature: 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.84, 2.116

local education authorities: 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 2.87, 2.106, 4.1, 5.14, Appendix 2, para 2
    advisers: 5,1, 5.8, 5.18, 5.20, 7.7, 7.15, 8.18
    assessment schemes: 5.6, 5.8
    guidelines: 2.59, 5.18
    library services: 2.9
    policy statements: 8.2, 8.4
    school psychological services: 4.2, 4.7, 4.10


[page 118]

M

marking: 2.17, 2.19, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.9, 5.11, 7.8

mathematics: 2.2, 2.22-2.43, 2.50, 4.6, 4.12, 5.4, 6.15, 7.4, 7.18, 7.21, 8.1, 8.5, 8.7, Appendix 2, para 8
    accommodation: Appendix 2, para 15
    assessment: 2.38, 5.7, 5.12, 7.8
    attitudes: 2.42
    books: 2.35, 2.39, 2.40, 5.16, 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    composition of classes and teaching groups: 6.21, 7.3
    continuity and liaison: 5.16, 5.17, 5.20, 7.15
    deployment of teachers: 6.9, 6.11, 7.3
    designated responsibility for: 7.20
    equipment: 2.41, 8.7
    range: 2.31, 2.38, 2.43
    records: 5.7, 7.8
    resources: 2.38, 2.39, 2.41, Appendix 2, para 28
    schemes of work: 2.38, 5.2, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.43, 7.13, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 2.22, 6.16, 7.5, 8.9

micro-computers: 2.41

9-13 Middle Schools (the 9-13 middle school survey): 1.2, 1.7

middle Schools
    development of: 1.1-1.2
    general issues: 8.1-8.19
    number of pupils: 1.3
    number of schools: 1.3
    size: 8.15, Appendix 2, paras 1, 4
    types of: 1.1

music: 2.2, 2.6, 2.84, 2.86, 2.106-2.112, 3.4, 3.8, 4.6, 4.12, 6.15, 7.4, 7.18
    accommodation: 7.21, Appendix 2, paras 15, 21
    books: 2.108, Appendix 2, paras 25, 28
    deployment of teachers: 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 7.19
    designated responsibility for: 6.6, 7.20
    equipment: 8.7, Appendix 2, para 28
    peripatetic tuition: 2.106, 2.110, 7.17
    schemes of work: 5.2, 5.4, 7.7
    singing: 2.107, 2.108
    standards of work: 2.112, 5.4, 7.7, 7.13, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 2.106, 6.16, 7.5, 8.9
    voluntary activities: 2.106, 2.107, 2.108, 2.110, 2.111

N

needlecrafts: 2.95, 2.98, 2.102, 3.6, 5.2, 5.4, 6.15, 6.18, 7.6, 7.9, Appendix 2, para 13
    accommodation: Appendix 2, para 18
    assessment: 5.9
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    materials: Appendix 2, para 28
    schemes of work: 7.7
    standards of work: 2.97, 5.4,


[page 119]

    7.7, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 6.16

O

observation
    by children: 2.100, 8.6
    by teachers: 5.5, 7.8

outdoor pursuits: 2.113, 2.119

out-of-school activities (see voluntary activities)

P

pace of work: 2.36, 2.61, 2.115, 3.3, 7.10

parents: 2.9, 3.7, 4.6, 4.8, 4.10, 4.11, 6.2, 7.2

pastoral care: 2.85, 3.2, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 7.2, 8.1, 8.17, Appendix 3, paras 3, 4, 8, 9

personal and social education: 2.81, 3.1-3.8, 5.17, 8.17

physical education: 2.2, 2.44, 2.113-2.121, 3.4, 3.5, 4.9, 6.15, 7.4, 7.18
    accommodation: 2.117, 7.21, Appendix 2, paras 15, 16
    assessment: 5.11
    athletics: 2.113, 2.118
    books: Appendix 2.25
    children's attitudes: 2.114, 2.115, 2.120
    dance: 2.113, 2.116
    deployment of teachers: 6.14
    designated responsibility for: 7.20
    equipment: 2.115, 7.22, Appendix 2, paras 26, 28
    games: 2.113, 2.114, 3.1, 3.4
    gymnastics: 2.113, 2.115
    outdoor pursuits: 2.113, 2.119
    schemes of work: 5.2, 5.4, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.114, 2.115, 2.117, 2.118, 2.120, 2.121, 5.4, 7.7, 7.13, Appendix 2, para 28
    swimming: 2.113, 2.117, Appendix 2, para 13
    time allocation: 2.115, 6.6, 7.5

poetry: 2.5, 2.14, 2.15, 2.86, 2.106, 2.116

prediction: 2.5

presentation of children's work: 2.18, 2.42

Primary Education in England (the primary survey): 1.7

problem-solving: 2.35, 2.47, 2.97, 2.101, 3.6, 7.11

progression: 2.20, 2.25, 2.27, 2.28, 2.38, 2.51, 2.103, 5.3, 8.12

project work (see topic work)

punctuation: 2.20, 5.6

pupils (see children)

pupil-teacher ratio: 7.17, 8.14, Appendix 2, para 12, Appendix 3, para 3

Q

question-posing: 2.63, 7.11, 8.6

R

reading: 2.8, 2.10, 4.6, 5.6, 5.20, 7.8, 8.1, 8.5
    records of progress: 2.36, 5.5-5.13, 5.17, 6.2, 7.8
    school: 5.6, 5.7, 5.15, 7.8, 7.14
    local education authority: 5.15, 5.20, 7.14
    samples of work: 5.15
    teachers': 5.6, 5.7, 7.8

relationships: 2.56, 2.85, 3.1, 3.3, 7.2, 8.1, 8.17, 8.19, Appen-


[page 120]

    dix 3, para 10

religious education: 2.2 2.44, 2.68, 2.69, 2.80-2.88, 2.95, 6.15, 7.4, 7.18, 8.18
    assessment: 2.87
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, para 25
    range of work: 2.88
    resources: 2.87
    schemes of work: 2.87, 5.2, 7.7

remedial classes: 4.6, 6.20
    work: 4.4,4.6, 5.6, 5.20, 7.15

resources: 1.6, 5.3, 5.18, 6.5, 7.22, 8.7, Appendix 2, paras 24-28, Appendix 3, paras 2, 6-9, 12
    books: 7.22, Appendix 2, paras 24, 25, Appendix 3, para 6
    consumable materials: Appendix 2, para 28, Appendix 3, para 6
    equipment: 6.5, 7.22, Appendix 2, paras 24, 26, 27, Appendix 3, para 6
    teacher-produced materials: Appendix 2, para 26, Appendix 3, para 6
    standards of work: 7.22, 8.7, Appendix 2, para 28, Appendix 3, paras 3, 8, 9, 12

responsibilities - opportunities for: 2.120, 3.5, 7.11

rotational patterns: 2.89, 2.96, 6.18, 7.6

S

safety: 2.93, 2.104, 2.117

schedules, HMI: Appendix 1, para 1, Appendix 4

schemes of work (guidelines): 2.38, 2.51, 2.59, 2.60, 2.87, 4.3, 5.1-5.4, 5.17, 6.5, 7.7, 8.3, 8.5, 8.8, Appendix 3, paras 3, 12

science: 2.2, 2.34, 2.44-2.52, 2.68, 2.69, 2.90, 2.95, 2.105, 2.106, 3.4, 3.5, 4.6, 7.3, 7.4, 7.6, 7.18, 8.7, 8.16, Appendix 2, paras 8, 13
    accommodation: 7.21, Appendix 2, paras 15, 17, 18
    apparatus: 7.22, 8.7
    assessment and records: 5.10
    books: 2.8, 7.22, Appendix 2, paras 25, 28
    children's attitudes: 2.52
    composition of classes and teaching groups: 6.13, 6.21
    deployment of teachers: 2.44, 6.9, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 7.19, 8.16
    designated responsibilities for: 7.20
    liaison and continuity: 5.18, 5.20, 7.15
    range: 2.45.
    resources: Appendix 2, para 28
    schemes of work: 2.51, 5.2, 5.4, 7.7
    standards of work: 2.52, 5.4, 7.7, 7.13, Appendix 2, para 28
    time allocation: 6.16, 7.5, 8.9

setting: 2.23, 2.61, 6.21, 7.3

singing: 2.107, 2.108

size: 8.15, Appendix 3, para 3
    'large': 1.6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.7, Appendix 2, paras 4, 12
    'medium-sized': 1.6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.7, Appendix 2, paras 4, 12


[page 121]

    'small': 1.6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.7, 7.17, Appendix 2, paras 4, 12

skills: 2.8, 2.24, 2.64, 2.75, 2.76, 2.77, 2.78, 2.100, 2.102, 2.103, 2.113, 2.114, 2.117, 2.118, 5.3, 5.7, 5.9, 5.10, 5.12, 8.3, 8.6, 8.10

social studies (see also environmental studies, history, humanities, geography and topic work): 2.2, 2.68-2.79, 2.90, 5.2, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 7.4, 7.5, 7.13, 7.21, 8.7, 8.10

speaking: 2.3, 2.4, 2.7, 2.101

specialist teachers (and teaching): 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.9-6.14, 7.3, 7.18, 7.20, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.18, Appendix 3, para 3

speculation: 2.5, 2.16, 2.47, 8.6

spelling: 2.17, 2.19, 5.6, 5.10, 7.8

standards (quality) of work: 2.3, 2.21, 2.43, 2.52, 2.62, 2.63, 2.67, 2.79, 2.88, 2.94, 2.97, 2.112, 2.115, 2.117, 2.118, 2.120, 5.4, 6.2, 6.18, 7.2, 7.3, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.12, 7.13, 7.17, 7.20, 7.22, 8.1, 8.7, 8.10, 8.15, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, Appendix 2, para 28, Appendix 3, paras 3, 8, 9, 12

statistical notes: Appendix 3

streaming: 6.20, 7.3

T

teachers: 6.1-6.14, 7.16-7.20, Appendix 2, paras 5 - 12
    deployment of: 6.8-6.14, 7.18, 7.19, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.18
    experience of: Appendix 2, para 11
    initial training: 7.16, 7.18, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, Appendix 2, paras 1, 8
    in-service education: 2.60, 4.6, 5.18, 7.18, 8.18, Appendix 2, para 9
    number of: Appendix 2, para 5
    peripatetic: 2.106, 2.110, 4.6, 4.8, 7.17
    probationers: 6.3, Appendix 2, para 11
    qualifications (initial) of: Appendix 2, paras 6, 8
    salary scale: 6.6, Appendix 2, para 10
    with designated curricular responsibilities (consultants): 2.38, 2.60, 4.6, 5.1, 5.4, 6.4-6.7, 7.7, 7.20, 8.13, 8.14, 8.18
    with designated organisational responsibilities: 6.3, 6.4, 6.7, 7.20, 8.14
    with designated organisational and curricular responsibilities: 6.6

technology (see also craft, design and technology): 2.50, 2.98

tests and testing: 5.5-5.8, 5.20, 7.8

timetabling arrangements: 2.2, 6.2, 6.3, 6.15-6.18, 7.5, 7.6, 8.9

topic work (see also environmental studies, history, humanities, geography and social studies): 2.2, 2.6, 2.33, 2.50, 2.68, 2.69, 2.70, 2.71, 2.74,


[page 122]

2.75, 2.79, 2.80, 2.82, 2.89, 2.90, 2.102, 2.105, 2.106, 6.17, 7.4, Appendix 2, para 22

transition: 8.13

V

visits: 2.7, 2.46, 2.56, 2.58, 2.72, 2.82, 2.105, 2.119, 3.1
    to first schools: 5.15
    to middle schools: 5.15
    to upper schools: 5.19

voluntary activities: 2.6, 2.106, 2.108, 2.113, 2.119, 3.1, 5.18, 7.2. 8.6

W

withdrawal groups: 4.6, 6.22, 7.3

work, inspection of: Appendix 1.
    pace of: 2.36, 2.61, 2.115, 3.3, 7.10
    standards of: 2.3, 2.21, 2.43, 2.52, 2.62, 2.63, 2.67, 2.79, 2.88, 2.94, 2.97, 2.112, 2.115, 2.117, 2.118, 2.120, 5.4, 6.2, 6.18, 7.2, 7.3, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.12, 7.13, 7.17, 7.20, 7.22, 8.1, 8.7, 8.10, 8.15, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, Appendix 2, para 28, Appendix 3, paras 2, 3, 8, 9, 12

writing: 2.5, 2.15, 2.16-2.17, 2.65, 2.86, 4.6, 8.1, 8.5

Y

year leaders (coordinators): 5.16, 7.20, Appendix 2, para 7