McNair (1944)

(page numbers in brackets)

Notes on the text

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

Preliminary pages (1-8)
Membership, Contents, Preface, Introduction

Part I Primary and Secondary Schools
Chapter 1 (9-18)
Recognition, training and supply of teachers
Chapter 2 (18-30)
Future supply of teachers
Chapter 3 (30-45)
Salaries and recognition of teachers
Chapter 4 (45-62)
Central Training Council and Area Organisation of Training
Chapter 5 (63-77)
Training and training institutions
Chapter 6 (77-83)
School practice: secondment of teachers: probationary year
Chapter 7 (83-87)
Art and crafts, music, PE and domestic subjects
Chapter 8 (87-90)
Responsibilities of Board of Education and Area Training Authorities
Chapter 9 (90-92)
The 'Pledge' and other conditions of aid

Part II
Chapter 10 (93-106)
Introduction; The service of youth
Chapter 11 (106-107)
Young people's colleges

Part III Technical colleges and schools
Chapter 12 (108-114)
Introduction; Present position and future needs
Chapter 13 (114-119)
Factors which affect supply
Chapter 14 (119-122)
Training of technical teachers
Chapter 15 (122-123)
Salaries

Part IV The special needs of Wales and some other important matters
Chapter 16 (124-129)
Wales
Chapter 17 (129-140)
Some other important matters

Conclusion (140-141)

Summary of recommendations (141-150)

Appendix I (151-169)
Reports from curriculum sub-committees
Appendix II (170-176)
List of witnesses


The McNair Report (1944)
Teachers and Youth Leaders

Report of the Committee appointed by the President of the Board of Education to consider the Supply, Recruitment and Training of Teachers and Youth Leaders

London: His Majesty's Stationery Office 1944
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[inside front cover]

PREFATORY NOTE

The Committee of Council on Education first defined the conditions under which training colleges could qualify for grant in 1843-44, exactly a hundred years ago. About thirty years later, when Board Schools were established, the Committee had recognised 34 colleges accommodating 2,500 students. After another thirty years, when the School Boards were abolished, there were 61 colleges and 6,000 students. The Board of Education now recognise more than 100 institutions, voluntary colleges having been supplemented, since 1890, by university training departments and, since 1902, by colleges provided by local education authorities. In 1938 there were 15,000 students, including degree students in their undergraduate years, in attendance at training institutions recognised by the Board of Education.

The development of training facilities during the past hundred years has not been systematically planned. It has certainly not matched, either in quantity or variety, the growth and diversity of other educational provision. It is sufficient, in this connection, to mention that a large number of teachers now in the secondary schools have not pursued any course of professional training and that there is at present no systematic provision for the training of teachers in technical colleges.

It is significant that an official enquiry into the training of teachers which was instituted so recently as twenty years ago was confined to teachers in public elementary schools. But that enquiry was made before the publication of the Hadow Report on the Education of the Adolescent. The recommendations of that report relating to the reorganisation of schools as primary and secondary schools are embodied in last year's White Paper entitled Educational Reconstruction and in the Education Bill now before Parliament, the provisions of which involve the abolition of the term 'elementary school' and the creation of a unified system of education. The McNair Committee was appointed before the publication but not before the inception of the White Paper, and it could not, with profit, have been limited by its terms of reference to the training of teachers in any particular type of school. Moreover, the Committee was charged to consider also the training of youth leaders.

Legislative and administrative changes will not by themselves make effective the educational reforms upon which the country is determined. There must be a supply of teachers adequate both in quantity and quality. The Board of Education will therefore examine the far reaching proposals made in this Report with great care. They commend them also to the study of other bodies and persons who are interested in the education and training of teachers and youth leaders.

May, 1944.


[title page]

BOARD OF EDUCATION

TEACHERS
AND YOUTH LEADERS

Report of the Committee appointed by the
President of the Board of Education to
consider the Supply, Recruitment
and Training of Teachers and
Youth Leaders




Crown Copyright Reserved


LONDON
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE
To be purchased directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses:
York House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2; 13a Castle Street, Edinburgh 2;
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or through any bookseller

1944
Price 2s. 0d. net


[page 2 (unnumbered)]

THE COMMITTEE

Sir Arnold McNair (Chairman)
      Vice-Chancellor, University of Liverpool.

Sir Fred Clarke
      Director, University of London Institute of Education.

Dr. A. P. M. Fleming
      Director, Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd.

Mrs. Lionel Hichens
      Member, Oxfordshire County Council.

Sir Frederick Mander
      General Secretary, National Union of Teachers.

Mr. P. R. Morris
      Director-General of Army Education, formerly Director of Education, Kent Education Committee.

Miss A. H. Ross
      Organising Secretary, London Union of Girls' Clubs.

Mrs. J. L. Stocks
      Principal, Westfield College, University of London.

Mr. B. B. Thomas
      Sometime Warden, Coleg Harlech, Harlech, Merioneth.

Mr. S. H. Wood (also Secretary)
      Board of Education.

Miss E. C. Oakden (H.M. Inspector)
      (Assistant Secretary).

Mr. H. W. Hazlewood
      (Clerk to the Committee).

NOTE

The estimated gross cost of the preparation of the appended Report (including the expenses of the witnesses and members of the Committee) is 2,462 10s. 0d. of which 554 14s. 9d. represents the estimated cost of printing and publishing the Report.


[page 3]

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
PREFACE5
INTRODUCTION5

PART I
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER 1. RECOGNITION, TRAINING AND SUPPLY OF TEACHERS.
RECOGNITION. TRAINING: some facts about training institutions; grants and the 'Pledge'; examinations; refresher and other courses; SUPPLY
9

CHAPTER 2. FUTURE SUPPLY OF TEACHERS.
WIDENING THE FIELD OF RECRUITMENT: recruitment from grammar (secondary) schools; the factor of the special place examination; recruitment from post-primary schools other than grammar schools; recruitment from industry, commerce and the professions; married women. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE: bad buildings and large classes; a narrow life; resignation on marriage; part-time teachers; sabbatical terms. THE STANDING OF EDUCATION: teachers not a race apart; the esteem in which the profession is held
18

CHAPTER 3. SALARIES AND RECOGNITION OF TEACHERS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
THE BURNHAM COMMITTEES. PRINCIPLES ON WHICH SALARY SCALES SHOULD BE BASED: the personal test; the test of the market; the professional test; the educational test. A BASIC SCALE WITH A VARIETY OF EMOLUMENTS: heads of schools. RECOGNITION
30

CHAPTER 4. A CENTRAL TRAINING COUNCIL AND AN AREA ORGANISATION OF TRAINING.
DUTIES OF THE CENTRAL TRAINING COUNCIL. COMPOSITION OF THE CENTRAL TRAINING COUNCIL. THE ORGANISATION OF AREA TRAINING SERVICES. UNIVERSITY SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION: the present system; an integrated training service; constitution and functions; finance. THE JOINT BOARD SCHEME
45

CHAPTER 5. TRAINING AND TRAINING INSTITUTIONS.
TRAINING: duration of the course; professional subjects; general subjects. TRAINING INSTITUTIONS: staffing of training colleges; staffing of university training departments; size, location and amenities of training institutions; the provision of hostels; the life of students in training colleges
63

CHAPTER 6. SCHOOL PRACTICE: THE SECONDMENT OF TEACHERS FOR SERVICE IN TRAINING INSTITUTIONS: THE PROBATIONARY YEAR.
SCHOOL PRACTICE: The responsibilities of local education authorities and schools. THE SECONDMENT OF TEACHERS FOR SERVICE IN TRAINING INSTITUTIONS. THE PROBATIONARY YEAR
77

CHAPTER 7. ART AND CRAFTS, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND DOMESTIC SUBJECTS
83

CHAPTER 8. THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND OF THE AREA TRAINING AUTHORITIES.
APPROVAL OF COURSES. ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS
87

CHAPTER 9. THE 'PLEDGE' AND OTHER CONDITIONS OF AID.
THE DECLARATION. GRANTS AND LOANS FROM LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES
90


[page 4]

PART II
THE SERVICE OF YOUTH AND
YOUNG PEOPLE'S COLLEGES

INTRODUCTION93

CHAPTER 10. THE SERVICE OF YOUTH.
HISTORY; PRESENT POSITION: staffing; qualifications; salaries and pensions; age and field of recruitment. THE FUTURE: supply; TRAINING: nature and length of the course; eligibility for training, methods of selection; assessment of the work of the student; minimum age for recognition of full-time leaders; shorter training courses; refresher courses and courses for part-time and for voluntary workers; youth leaders and teachers; the provision of courses
93

CHAPTER 11. YOUNG PEOPLE'S COLLEGES
106

PART III
TECHNICAL COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS

INTRODUCTION108

CHAPTER 12. PRESENT POSITION AND FUTURE NEEDS.
STUDENTS. TEACHERS: numbers; distribution and type of teacher; recruitment; quality of entrants; qualifications required
109

CHAPTER 13. FACTORS WHICH AFFECT SUPPLY.
CONDITIONS OF WORK AND SERVICE: buildings and equipment; research and investigation; release from teaching duties; excessive teaching hours. THE CO-OPERATION OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE WITH TECHNICAL EDUCATION: some suggestions
114

CHAPTER 14. THE TRAINING OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS.
Need for a period of further experiment. THE NATURE OF TRAINING COURSES
119

CHAPTER 15. SALARIES
122

PART IV
THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF WALES
AND SOME OTHER IMPORTANT MATTERS


CHAPTER 16. WALES
124

CHAPTER 17. SOME OTHER IMPORTANT MATTERS.
SECONDMENT: educational services in this country; the service of teachers abroad. STUDENT TEACHERS AND PUPIL TEACHERS. NURSERY SCHOOLS. SPECIAL SCHOOLS: training. EDUCATION AND THE COUNTRYSIDE. LIBRARIES. SHORT COURSES. BROADCASTING, THE CINEMA AND OTHER AIDS TO TEACHING. SPECIAL GROUPS OF COLLEGES: colleges of physical education for women; the Froebel Colleges; some independent colleges. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
129

CONCLUSION
140

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
141

APPENDIX I: ART AND CRAFTS, MUSIC, PHYSICAL TRAINING, DOMESTIC SUBJECTS
151

APPENDIX II (A): List of bodies who have given oral evidence or submitted written evidence, or both, to the Committee or to one of its sub-committees
170
(B): List of persons, other than officers of the Board of Education, who have given oral evidence or submitted written statements, whether as representatives of one of the bodies mentioned in List A or in their private capacity171


[page 5]

PREFACE

To the Right Hon. R. A. BUTLER, M.P.,
      President of the Board of Education.

SIR,

You appointed us in March, 1942, and gave us the following terms of reference:

'To investigate the present sources of supply and the methods of recruitment and training of teachers and youth leaders and to report what principles should guide the Board in these matters in the future.'
We beg now to present our Report.


INTRODUCTION

1. We are directed to advise the Board of Education upon the principles which should in future guide them with regard to the supply, methods of recruitment and training of teachers and youth leaders. Before we began our investigation we received a letter from the President of the Board emphasising that it was principles rather than details which were required of us and that we were not expected to make any precise quantitative estimate of the number of teachers that would be needed after the war. The President further made it clear that in his view any 'substantial reform of the present system of training will involve discussion of details with many bodies' and that he did not expect us to undertake the necessary negotiations, though we should, of course, bear constantly in mind the implications of the policy which we recommend. We gladly accepted this view of our task. We have therefore concentrated on broad principles and have not attempted ourselves to fill in the complete pattern of reform. Our recommendations, taken together, constitute a long-range programme the details of which must be worked out over a period of years.

2. We held our first meeting on the 17th April, 1942, and for the remainder of that year we devoted ourselves almost exclusively to our main problem, namely, the supply, recruitment and training of teachers for primary and secondary schools. Early in 1943 we appointed two main sub-committees: one to advise us on the training of teachers in technical colleges and schools and the other on the training of youth leaders. The terms of our reference gave the Chairman power to co-opt other persons to serve on sub-committees, and we were fortunate in securing the services of Miss D. C. Collins and Mr. E. G. Savage for the first of these sub-committees and of Mr. J. F. Wolfenden and Miss Eileen Younghusband for the second. Other sub-committees have been appointed to advise us on the supply and training of teachers of art and crafts, music, physical education and domestic subjects; and on these bodies we have had the advantage of the services of the following co-opted members: Miss Evelyn Gibbs and Mr. Kenneth Holmes (art and crafts), Sir George Dyson (music), Mr. F. J. C. Marshall and Miss P. Spafford (physical education) and Miss G. M. Eland (domestic subjects). We wish to make it clear that though we are deeply indebted to the co-opted members of the


[page 6]

sub-committees, whose industry and wisdom have greatly lightened our task, we do not regard them, and others should not regard them, as necessarily committed to our final conclusions. We alone are responsible for this Report.

3. Members of the Committee, either singly or in groups, have visited a number of training colleges, university training departments and technical colleges as well as training centres for youth leaders; and on these occasions consultation has taken place not only with those responsible for the conduct of the institutions or centres, including members of the teaching staff, but also with students and, in the case of youth centres, with the young people for whose benefit the centres exist. Members of the Committee paid a special visit to Wales and consulted with representatives of the four university colleges, the training colleges, local education authorities and the Church in Wales at conferences held in Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Some members also visited one of the chief training centres in Scotland. In addition the Committee have discussed problems of training with a number of practising teachers, more particularly with those who have recently completed their training. The sub-committees have also visited many institutions and consulted a variety of persons.

4. We record in Appendix II a list of the bodies and persons whom we have consulted orally or who have submitted statements of evidence to us. In addition, many teachers and others, too numerous to mention by name, have corresponded with us on aspects of our enquiry. Our practice has been to invite witnesses whom we wished to consult to submit a statement to us beforehand if they felt so inclined but to emphasise that it was informal consultation with them at one of our meetings that we most desired. We wish to express our thanks to our witnesses and to all those who have submitted evidence to us. In particular we desire to record our great appreciation of the hospitality which was offered to us by the authorities of the institutions which we visited and of the care which they took to ensure that we should become familiar with every aspect of their work and have opportunities of discussing problems of training with staff and students alike. If we have not quoted extensively from the evidence that we have received it is not because we have failed to appreciate the suggestions made to us by our witnesses, many of which we have in fact adopted, but because extensive quotation would have unduly lengthened our Report. We owe a special debt of gratitude to H.M. Inspectors and other officers of the Board who have unreservedly placed their experience and advice at out disposal.

5. It is obvious to us, as it must be to everyone who is interested in schools and young people, that the present situation is unparalleled in the history of education in this country. Although we are not called upon to make any quantitative estimate of the additional number of teachers who will be required after the war, we are bound to take note of the nature of the educational reforms about which there appears to be general agreement: namely, the raising of the age of compulsory school attendance, the establishment of young people's colleges, the classification of all education provided for children over eleven years of age as 'secondary', a reduction in the maximum number of children to be allowed in a class and an extension of the provision of nursery schools or their equivalent. Any one of these reforms would require a substantial addition to the present corps of teachers; and taken as a whole the addition required has been estimated at figures ranging from 50,000 to 90,000. When it is realised that the number of full-time teachers employed in grant-earning and recognised schools before the war was about 200,000, many of whom were untrained, the magnitude of the supply and the training problems needs no emphasis. Further, we are


[page 7]

concerned not only with teachers but also with youth leaders: that is, those who by companionship and leadership aim at helping to meet the recreative, cultural and spiritual needs of young people who are no longer in full-time attendance at school.

6. Moreover, the question of supply arises at a time when the educational system is disorganised by war and when as part of that disorganisation more than 20,000 of the normal teaching staff of the schools are in the Forces or are engaged in national service other than teaching. It is obvious that improvisations will have to be made and intensive courses of training provided to meet the immediate post-war situation. We might ourselves have considered what was necessary as a short-term policy, but we were advised by the President of the Board of Education that in view of uncertainty about the date when improvisations would have to be made the Board would assume responsibility for immediate post-war problems, leaving us to advise about permanent schemes. We are, nevertheless, deeply interested in the emergency scheme for the training of teachers which the Board have planned and announced; and we hope it will be carried out in a way which will relate its development to our own proposals.

7. Our problem is not one which can be solved by a mere readjustment of training facilities nor even by a modification of curricula and syllabuses. We must ensure that those who intend to be teachers, or otherwise to associate themselves professionally with the young, have the chance to enjoy a period of education and training which, above all else, will encourage them to live a full life themselves so that they may contribute to the young something which arises as much from a varied personal experience as from professional studies.

8. Since we began our task the Government have issued a White Paper entitled 'Educational Reconstruction' and the Norwood Committee have presented their Report on 'Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools'. Our own deliberations have naturally been influenced by these two documents as well as by the Education Bill now before Parliament. Sometimes we use the words 'elementary' and 'secondary' in the sense in which they have hitherto been understood, but sometimes we have occasion to use 'secondary', as distinct from 'primary', to describe the type of school or education envisaged in the White Paper. In either case we have taken care to see that the context makes clear what we mean. We have not considered it necessary to devote a separate chapter to the history of the training of teachers. The Report of the Departmental Committee on the Training of Teachers in Elementary Schools (1925) included a historical chapter, and the Annual Report of the Board of Education for 1912 surveys the history of training up to that date. There are, in addition, several books and reports which will inform those who are interested in the historical aspect of our subject.

9. We have, divided our Report into four parts. Part I deals with teachers in primary and secondary schools and with the organisation of training generally, Part II deals with youth leaders and teachers in young people's colleges and Part III with teachers in technical colleges and schools. In Part IV we consider the special needs of Wales and some other important matters. Finally we summarise our recommendations. We print the substance of the reports of four of our sub-committees in Appendix I.

10. We make proposals which embody two substantial constitutional changes. One is the establishment of a Central Training Council to plan the detailed structure of a training service and to advise the Board of Education


[page 8]

about its operation. The other is the close integration of all training institutions and interests on a convenient area basis. This second proposal raises the issue of the future relationship of the universities to the training colleges. On this we are not all of one mind. We present two alternative schemes, and we do so in Part I of our Report because the significance of some of the recommendations which we make in Parts II, III and IV, about which we are unanimous, depends to a certain extent upon which of the two alternative schemes is adopted. We have indicated that part of the text which represents the alternative schemes by means of a vertical line in the margin.

11. After we had substantially completed our inquiry and were well advanced in the planning of our Report the Minister of Agriculture made a statement of policy in the House of Commons which will affect the responsibilities of the Board of Education with regard to agricultural education. We could have re-opened our inquiry and taken further evidence in order to discover how the new situation would affect the problems of the supply and training of teachers, but this would have delayed the presentation of our Report. We consulted the President of the Board of Education on the matter and he asked us to proceed without regard to this new situation.

12. We realise the immense importance to the country of securing as teachers an adequate supply of men and women of character, and we are convinced that nothing but drastic reforms involving the expenditure of considerable additional sums of public money will secure what the schools need and what children and young people deserve.


13. Before going further we must acknowledge our great indebtedness to our staff. The fact that Mr. S. H. Wood is a member as well as the Secretary of this Committee must not be allowed to prevent us from placing on record our recognition of our deep indebtedness to him. He has brought to this task the varied experience of a lifetime spent in educational administration, together with a special knowledge of the problems of training. We have profited greatly from his experience and knowledge, while his enthusiasm for education has enabled him to carry the burden of the past two years with unflagging zeal and unfailing patience. We are also very much in the debt of our Assistant Secretary, Miss E. C. Oakden, who has acted as Secretary to our six sub-committees and has been responsible for arranging our numerous visits to training colleges and other institutions. It has been manifest to us that in the course of her work as an Inspector her sympathetic attitude and her personal devotion to the welfare of the training colleges and the schools have enabled her to acquire a very intimate knowledge of the problems of education, particularly on the human side, and we have derived great benefit from this knowledge. We wish to thank the Clerk to the Committee, Mr. H. W. Hazlewood, for his orderly handling of the mass of documents that we have accumulated and for his efficiency and thoughtfulness which have contributed so much to the smooth progress of our work.


[page 9]

PART I

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER 1

RECOGNITION, TRAINING AND SUPPLY OF TEACHERS

14. This chapter deals with the recognition, training and supply of teachers in elementary and secondary schools in the years before the war. The word 'elementary', as the White Paper points out, is wholly inappropriate to schools which provide education for children up to fourteen years of age. It is a relic of the days when the most that the country hoped for was that in course of time all its children would at least be taught to read, write and count. We must, however, use the word in this chapter because what it stands for historically has profoundly influenced the arrangements for the recognition, training and supply of teachers.

15. The State, by which we mean the central government of the country, began its interest in building up a system of elementary schools more than a hundred years ago. The Committee of Council on Education, the forerunner of the Board of Education, was established in 1839; and the Committee and H.M. Inspectors who reported to it were primarily concerned with the elementary education of the 'children of the poor'. The State's direct concern with a system of secondary education for the whole of England and Wales dates from 1899,* when the Board of Education was established, or more strictly from 1902, when the County and County Borough Councils, in addition to taking over the duties of the School Boards in regard to elementary education, were given power under the supervision of the Board of Education to provide secondary schools and thus supplement the work of the long-established grammar schools.

16. The White Paper proposes that in future the word 'elementary' shall disappear from our terminology and that schools for children up to about eleven years of age shall be known as primary schools and those for children over that age shall be planned and described as secondary schools. It is easy to be wise after the event; but considered in retrospect it is clear that this fundamental reform is forty years overdue. The failure to make this distinction between primary and secondary education in 1902 has resulted in the creation of disparate yet overlapping systems of elementary and secondary schools, the existence of which has complicated almost every other educational problem, and not least the recognition, the training and the supply of teachers.

Recognition

17. This section on the recognition of teachers reveals, among other things, some of the principles on which salary scales are based. It is probably the most technical and, perhaps to the layman, the most tedious part of our Report; but an analysis of the position is necessary if our subsequent recommendations are to be understood. We do not propose to review the matter historically in any detail, but rather to reveal the complications with which we are now faced. We do not suggest that history could have taken any different course in the absence of the fundamental reform which the White

*The Welsh Intermediate Act, 1889, provided the machinery for establishing and maintaining a system of intermediate and technical education throughout Wales and Monmouthshire.


[page 10]

Paper now proposes. However critical we may be of the present position we must not be regarded as placing responsibility for its complications on the Burnham Committee. In 1919 they were called upon to bring order out of chaos and to improve the salaries of teachers who up to that date had been disgracefully exploited. They have succeeded in their task in a large measure and the teaching profession owes an immense debt to them. That committee, however, like everyone else concerned, has been hampered by the pattern of education which the law has prescribed.

18. The regulations governing the elementary schools, that is the 'Code', prescribe the qualifications required of the several types of teacher employed in these schools. Teachers in elementary schools are thus recognised individually in grades. The grades are as follows: Certificated Teachers,* that is teachers trained in accordance with approved arrangements which will be described later in this chapter: Uncertificated Teachers, that is untrained teachers who are over 18 years and have certain minimum academic qualifications: and Teachers of Special Subjects, that is teachers who, though qualified to teach special subjects such as handicraft and domestic subjects, are not qualified for recognition as certificated teachers. Many teachers of special subjects are, however, also certificated teachers. There is also a limited class of Supplementary Teachers, that is suitable women over 18 years of age who, with the approval of H.M. Inspector, may be employed in teaching younger children in rural schools.

19. The regulations governing secondary schools, on the other hand, do not define any grades nor prescribe any particular qualifications for the teachers employed in them. The teaching staff of a school must be 'suitable and sufficient in number and qualifications for providing adequate instruction in each subject of the curriculum'. In practice, the majority of the teachers are university graduates, more than half of whom have been trained.

20. The grading of teachers in elementary schools is thus determined by the Board through the regulations governing these schools, and the Burnham Committee allocates scales of salary to each grade. No grading of teachers in secondary schools is laid down in any regulations of the Board; the classification of teachers in these schools arises directly from the Burnham salary scales for different types of qualification. The basic salary scales for teachers in elementary schools, leaving aside teachers of special subjects, are related to the question whether the teacher is a certificated, that is a trained, teacher, or an uncertificated, that is an untrained, teacher. The basic scales in the secondary schools, on the other hand, are related to whether the teacher is a graduate or a non-graduate.

21. A few figures will illustrate the composition of the staffs of the schools regarded from the point of view of academic and professional qualifications. Of the 167,000 full-time teachers employed in 1938 in public elementary schools 80 per cent were certificated teachers and 9 per cent of these were university graduates. Only one or two uncertificated teachers were graduates. Of the 25,000 full-time teachers employed in grant-earning secondary schools in the same year 78 per cent were graduates of whom 60 per cent were trained, and perhaps as many as 50 per cent of those who were not graduates were also trained.

*It must be remembered that though the term 'Certificated Teacher' now almost invariably means a 'college trained' teacher, this has not always been the case. Up to 1926 it was possible for a practising teacher. e.g. an uncertificated teacher, to take the Certificate Examination for Acting Teachers and thus qualify for recognition as a certificated teacher. Such certificated teachers are obviously diminishing in number and we shall disregard them for the purposes of our argument.


[page 11]

22. It is broadly true to say that the certificated teacher is to the elementary school what the graduate teacher is to the secondary school. The certificated teacher who has had the minimum of two years of training has no status in the secondary school as a trained teacher; he is classified for salary purposes merely as a non-graduate: and the graduate who is not trained has no academic status in the elementary school; he is graded merely as an uncertificated teacher, or rather he would be so graded if he were self-sacrificing enough to take a post in an elementary school. From the point of view of salary the position can be stated thus: training (except the comparatively rare three-year course) is unrewarded in the secondary school unless the teacher is a graduate; and academic attainments are unrewarded in the elementary school unless the teacher is a trained teacher.

23. Though the number of graduates (19,600) in the grant-earning secondary schools is very much larger than the number (11,800) in the elementary schools, the number of trained graduates in each type of school is approximately the same: 12,300 in the secondary schools and 11,800 in the elementary schools. We shall deal with salaries in some detail in a later section of our Report, but it is relevant here to remark that the salary scale of the trained graduate in the elementary school is very much lower than it is in the secondary school. There are more than 7,000 untrained graduates in the secondary schools but practically none in the elementary schools. This cannot be accounted for on the ground of the age of the children, for in the latter schools there were, in 1938, more than half a million children in each of the age groups 11-12, 12-13 and 13-14, to say nothing of 170,000 over 14 years of age. The reason for this difference in the staffing of secondary and elementary schools is thus not an educational reason but a historical one expressing itself in terms of grading and salary.

24. There is another striking anomaly. Certificated teachers, uncertificated teachers and teachers of special subjects are required by the Code to serve a probationary period of one year in a public elementary school before recognition of their status can be confirmed. But no period of probationary service is required by the Board of teachers in secondary schools, nor can a certificated teacher serve his probationary period in a secondary school. Thus a graduate who is a trained teacher and is qualified for recognition as a certificated teacher might be employed for a year or two in a secondary school and still have to serve his year's probation if thereafter he took employment in an elementary school.

25. Further, there is the recognition aspect of the salary and status of the Heads of schools. We shall deal with this matter in greater detail later in our Report. Here it is necessary only to say that the Heads (known as Head Teachers) of elementary schools receive a salary which is integrally related to the basic salary scale of assistant teachers in those schools; but that the Heads (known as Head Masters or Head Mistresses) of secondary schools receive a salary which is independent of the salary scales of assistant masters or mistresses. These arrangements lead to many anomalies. For instance, no woman Head Teacher of an elementary school however large can, save by the device of a special allowance, receive a salary equal to the minimum salary recommended by the Burnham Committee for the post of Head Mistress of a secondary school however small.

26. We conclude this analysis by saying that the complications and the anomalies of the system arise from the existence of parallel and overlapping systems of elementary and secondary education, from the fact that the Board's regulations for schools prescribe the grading of teachers in elementary schools


[page 12]

but not in secondary schools, and because training under the Board's regulations for the training of teachers results, as we shall show later, in statutory qualifications which are relevant only to the schools in which the Board prescribe the grading, namely the elementary schools. There is also the fact that Burnham salary arrangements had necessarily to take account of the distinctions arising from history. The White Paper reforms will, in any case, make hay of the present arrangements so far as the future secondary schools, that is, schools for children over eleven years of age, are concerned. We shall recommend changes which will not only be in accord with those reforms but will also aim at unifying the teaching profession as a whole.

Training

27. The institutions which educate and train teachers for the elementary and secondary schools are of two main types: Training Colleges and Universities, including University Colleges. The Board of Education recognise 83 training colleges and 22 university training departments under their Regulations for the Training of Teachers. They also recognise courses in 16 art colleges or schools for the training of teachers of art. There are other institutions which are not recognised by the Board but which nevertheless provide the schools with trained teachers. Chief among these are the six colleges of physical education for women.

28. More than 60 of the 83 training colleges are what are known as Two-Year Colleges: that is to say they provide the minimum two-year course of general education and professional training, conducted more or less concurrently, which leads to a student's recognition as a certificated teacher. There are 11 domestic subjects colleges offering a three-year course which is the minimum for the combined qualification of certificated teacher and teacher of domestic subjects. The course at the six colleges of physical education mentioned above also extends over three years.

29. The course of education and training at a university is known as the Four-Year Course. The first three years are devoted to study for a university degree and the fourth, or professional year, is taken at a university training department. The reason why there are 22 university training departments, although there are only 12 universities and 5 independent university colleges, is that the University of Durham and the University of London each has two training departments and the University of Wales has four, one at each of its constituent colleges.

30. The two-year course at training colleges does not lead to a university degree, and the students from these colleges teach almost exclusively in elementary schools, including nursery schools. The four-year course at a university involves a university degree, and some 40 per cent of the students obtain posts in secondary schools. The others teach in elementary schools, mainly in senior schools. Both types of course lead to the same statutory qualification, namely recognition as a certificated teacher. The domestic science colleges provide teachers for both elementary (senior) schools and secondary schools. Teachers from the six colleges of physical education for women are to be found, with rare exceptions, only in secondary schools.

31. Students in training colleges and in universities have usually received their preliminary education at a secondary school. The minimum qualifications for admission to a training college are satisfactory health, an age of at least 18 and a pass in a school certificate examination or its equivalent. These, it may be noted, are also the qualifications required for recognition as an uncertificated teacher. The minimum age for admission to the four-year


[page 13]

course at a university is 17, and the academic attainment required is matriculation or whatever examination the university prescribes for admission to its degree courses. In practice many of the training colleges and universities demand, or at any rate secure, a pass in the higher school certificate examination.

32. The total number of recognised students in training colleges in normal times is about 10,000 and in the universities about 5,000. The annual output of trained teachers is about 5,000 from the training colleges and 1,500 from the university training departments. About 4,500 of the annual output are women and 2,000 are men. The proportion of women to men in the training colleges is about three to one; but men outnumber women in the four-year course at the universities.

33. There are many divergencies from the simplified pattern outlined above. A few are recorded below. Some of the two-year colleges provide Third Year Courses for selected students which may be taken either on completion of the two-year course or after a few years' experience as a practising teacher. These courses are, as a rule, designed to give special qualifications in particular subjects, such as physical education, handicraft, music or art. In one or two colleges these third year courses enable students to complete university degrees. The colleges associated with the Froebel Foundation which, like some of the ordinary two-year colleges, concentrate on training teachers of young children offer a three-year course, only the last two years of which, however, are recognised by the Board for the purposes of grant. Teachers trained in the Froebel Colleges find places in the preparatory departments of secondary schools as well as in elementary schools. There are two men's colleges devoted particularly to handicraft and another to physical education. One training college in London admits only four-year students who take a degree course at one of the colleges of London University and a final year of professional training at the training college. Any graduate is eligible for acceptance by a university training department for the professional year of training; that is, the professional course is not confined to graduates who entered in the first place on the four-year course. The significance of some of these and of other divergencies will emerge more dearly in later parts of our Report.

Some Facts about Training Institutions

34. The history of the voluntary training colleges goes back to the beginning of our system of elementary education. Many of these colleges, some of them still in existence, were at work nearly 100 years ago, and up to 1860 they received capital grants in aid of building. The first college to be provided by a local education authority was established in 1904. The purpose of the training colleges has always been the preparation of teachers for the elementary schools; and the trail of cheapness, to which we shall presently refer, which has dogged the elementary schools has also cast its spell over the training colleges which prepare teachers for them. What is chiefly wrong with the majority of the training colleges is their poverty and all that flows from it.

35. The other type of training institution, the university training department, which provides for the training of graduates has a much shorter history, going back only to 1890. These institutions are commonly regarded as preparing teachers particularly for the secondary schools, though in fact 60 per cent of their students become teachers in elementary schools. Students and staff are full members of the university and therefore have access to all university amenities. Poverty has not, therefore, set its mark on them


[page 14]

as it has on the training colleges. They have other difficulties to overcome. These arise partly from the poor regard in which Education has in the past been held by some universities and partly from the related fact that training departments tend to be conducted as self-contained units.

36. Of the 83 recognised training colleges 54 belong to voluntary bodies, the remainder being provided by local education authorities. The voluntary colleges are divided as follows: 27 Church of England, 9 Roman Catholic and 2 Methodist. The other 16, some of which are religious foundations, are undenominational in character. There are 60 colleges for women only, 16 for men only and 7 for both men and women. The large majority of the colleges are for resident students only, but a number of them also admit day students. All the university training departments admit day as well as resident students and all, except the department at the University of Cambridge, admit both men and women. There is an independent postgraduate training college for women in Cambridge.

37. The majority of the training colleges are small in size, many of them being too small for either effective staffing or economical management. In 1938, 64 of the colleges had fewer than 150 students in attendance and 28 of these had fewer than 100. Further, many of the colleges are exceedingly ill-equipped and housed not only from the point of view of adequate teaching facilities but also as regards reasonable living conditions for students and staff alike. We give in the next two paragraphs some facts and figures based on returns made to the Committee by 77 of the colleges. In this connection it is only fair to say that, in 1938, new buildings and other improvements were being planned for about 20 colleges, but the outbreak of war caused their indefinite postponement.

38. In 50 per cent of the colleges the laboratories, studios, workshops and gymnasia are inadequate. More than 50 per cent have no music room. In more than 25 per cent of the colleges the assembly halls, libraries, lecture rooms or dining accommodation are inadequate. Nearly 60 per cent have no cinema projector and more than 30 per cent have no broadcasting reception equipment for teaching purposes; and these figures do not mean that the remainder are adequately equipped in these respects. Such figures are depressing enough, but in the form of totals covering the whole field they fail to reveal the conditions in the most unfortunate of the colleges, in one of which there is no gymnasium, craft room or music room and the hall, common rooms, laboratories and art rooms are inadequate. On the other hand some colleges, but they are very few in number, appear to be adequately housed and equipped in almost every way. We are glad to record that nearly every college has an allowance, in some cases quite generous, for library books, even though libraries may be inadequately housed and the space for reading sometimes insufficient. We should add, too, that many colleges provided by voluntary bodies have chapels or rooms set apart for devotion, and these they greatly appreciate.

39. As regards accommodation for students and staff, only 27 of the colleges have study bedrooms for an their students and more than 50 per cent fail to provide two rooms for each member of the resident staff. The sleeping accommodation for students who are not accommodated in study bedrooms is, in round numbers, as follows :

in cubicles1,800
in dormitories770
in bedrooms400
in approved lodgings390
at home1,300


[page 15]

Some colleges have fine gardens, but thirteen have none, and as a group the domestic subjects colleges are least well provided in this way. Playing fields are often at a considerable distance. Washing and sanitary accommodation in some colleges is insufficient or unsuitable in kind and the sick-bay is often poorly equipped. In many colleges and college hostels the kitchens and kitchen equipment are out-of-date and the accommodation available for domestic staff is poor.

Grants and the 'Pledge'

40. Both types of training are subsidised by grants. The Board of Education meet 50 per cent of the net expenditure incurred by local education authorities in providing and maintaining training colleges; and they pay capitation grants, tuition and maintenance to or on behalf of students at voluntary training colleges. The annual fee at training colleges over and above the Board's grants ranges from about 35 to 70. The standard rates of grant for the four-year course at a university cover, during the first three years, the students's fees for the degree course and an annual maintenance grant of the same amount as that payable at a training college. But the grants for the first three years of the four-year course, unlike those at a training college, are subject to financial need. There is a tuition grant for the fourth year as well as the normal maintenance grant. The Board also pay to the university training department a small supervision grant in respect of each student for each of the three years of the degree course.

41. The annual rates of grant, other than the normal fees for the degree course referred to in the previous paragraph, are as follows. The tuition grant at training colleges is 28 for men and 26 for women. The maintenance grants, whether the student is at a training college or a university, are 43 for a man and 34 for a woman, if the student is resident, and 26 for a man and 20 for a woman in the case of a day student. The tuition grant for the fourth year of the four-year course is 35 and the supervision grant in respect of each year of the degree course is 5 per student.

42. The total annual expenditure of the Board of Education on the training of teachers is about 900,000. The local education authorities which provide training colleges receive an 'additional grant', not exceeding 70,000 per annum in all, which is contributed by those which do not provide training colleges. The distribution of this grant among the providing authorities is based on a number of somewhat complicated factors including the actual cost of residence at each college.

43. Students who accept the Board's grants, whether at training colleges or at university training departments, are required to sign a Declaration, frequently known as the 'Pledge', acknowledging that they are taking advantage of public money in order to be trained as teachers and undertaking to complete the approved course and thereafter to follow the profession of teaching. We devote a separate chapter to this Pledge and to the undertakings which some local education authorities require of students to whom they make grants or loans.

Examinations

44. At one time the Board of Education were responsible for the examination of students in training colleges, although in some colleges an alternative to the final examination conducted by the Board was approved. About fourteen years ago, however, there was a change of policy. The colleges were arranged in groups and brought into an examination relationship with the universities by the establishment of Joint Examination Boards, each consisting


[page 16]

of representatives of the university and of the colleges concerned. The fact that the several colleges of a group are all represented on the same Joint Board has not, in general, resulted in their having any closer relations with one another, save in the matter of examinations, than they had when they were more directly under the Board of Education. There is no co-operation between them about staffing, nor do they share amenities.

45. There are ten Joint Examination Boards. The distribution of the training colleges throughout the country is, however, quite unplanned; and for this and other reasons, Oxford University plays no part in this examination arrangement; Cambridge University is concerned only with one college, and the Universities of Manchester and Liverpool are both represented on one Joint Board as are also the Universities of Leeds and Sheffield on another. Further, the Froebel Foundation is the examining body for the six Froebel colleges. The haphazard and unequal distribution of training colleges throughout the country is illustrated by the fact that, for instance, 1,000 students are in the colleges coming under the Western Joint Board (University of Bristol) and only 400 under the Birmingham Joint Board. Moreover, the group of training colleges associated with the Western Board include three domestic science colleges but no such college is to be found in the Birmingham group. Finally, students in the university training departments are in no way affected by these examination arrangements, nor are students in the six colleges of physical education for women.

46. The Joint Boards conduct the examinations on syllabuses and under arrangements which are subject to the approval of the Board of Education who accept the recommendations of the various Boards about the eligibility of each student for recognition as a certificated teacher at the end of the course of training. There is a Central Advisory Committee, representative of all the interests concerned, which advises the Board of Education about minimum requirements; and thus a rough parity, though not necessarily identity, of qualification is secured throughout the country so far as students coming under the Joint Boards are concerned.

47. The examination arrangements for the four-year student at a university are entirely different, although the recognition granted to successful students is the same, namely recognition as a certificated teacher. The Board accept a university degree as adequate evidence of academic attainment, and success in the university Diploma in Education or Teaching Diploma as sufficient for professional purposes. If specially recommended by the university a student who fails in his final degree examination may nevertheless take the fourth professional year, and a graduate who fails to obtain the university diploma in education may in certain circumstances nevertheless be recognised as a certificated teacher.

48. The Board of Education retain a responsibility with regard to the practical teaching test of students which they have relinquished in other parts of the examination. H.M. Inspectors assess the practical teaching of a sample of students in each training college and university training department and the Board reserve the right to be the final arbiter whether a student has acquitted himself well enough in practical teaching to justify his recognition as a certificated teacher.

Refresher and other Courses

49. The preceding paragraphs deal solely, except for mention of the few third-year courses taken after a spell of teaching, with training before teachers begin their work in the schools. Arrangements, by no means systematic,


[page 17]

are made so that practising teachers may attend refresher courses or courses designed to equip them for particular branches of the school curriculum. These courses are conducted by training colleges and university training departments, by local education authorities and by independent organisations. The Board also, through the agency of H.M. Inspectors, hold a number of courses. There is no requirement that a teacher, trained or untrained, shall attend a refresher or any other type of course. On the other hand the number of courses provided is by no means equal to the demand.

50. The courses may be full-time, lasting two or three weeks or even a full term; or they may be part-time courses held in the evenings or at week-ends. In 1938 approximately 7,000 teachers attended short full-time courses, 700 attended term courses and 47,000 part-time courses. The courses in physical education, pedagogy, handwork, art and music, in that order, are most in demand, or at any rate are most fully provided.

51. The Board have power to award Studentships not exceeding 200 to serving teachers who wish to spend a period of not more than a year away from their schools for the purpose of making some special study or investigation. The money available for encouraging this form of sabbatical year has never been more than 1,500 a year.

Supply

52. There were in 1938 about 200,000 full-time teachers, of whom nearly 70 per cent were women, employed in elementary schools and in secondary schools which were either grant-aided by the Board or recognised by them as efficient. Of this number about 170,000 were in elementary schools including nursery schools and special schools for the physically or mentally defective; the remaining 30,000 were in secondary schools including preparatory schools. In addition to the 200,000, there were an unknown number of teachers, possibly as many as 15,000, engaged in schools, mostly private schools, which were not inspected by the Board.

53. Rather more than three-quarters of the teachers in elementary schools were either trained teachers, including for this purpose all certificated teachers, or teachers of special subjects such as physical training and handicraft; and rather more than half of the teachers in secondary schools were trained. These figures do not necessarily reveal the proportion of teachers taking a first appointment during 1938 in elementary and secondary schools respectively who were trained teachers, but rather that the cumulative effect of the appointment of trained teachers over a long period of years has resulted in these proportions.

54. The annual wastage of teachers due to retirement because of age, disability or other causes, including marriage, and on account of death was about six per cent, thus giving a numerical wastage on 200,000 teachers of about 12,000 per annum. The annual output of teachers from training colleges and departments recognised by the Board of Education was between 6,000 and 7,000.

55. There are many reasons why the recorded output from the recognised training colleges and departments falls so far short of the annual wastage. The following are some of them:

(a) all types of school appoint untrained teachers. Nearly 1,000 uncertificated teachers were appointed to elementary schools in 1938, and more than 700 untrained teachers were appointed to secondary schools.


[page 18]

(b) trained teachers in the schools include a number of teachers who have received their training either at an institution which is not recognised by the Board or as unrecognised students in a recognised institution. The Board's statistics of teachers in the schools include and classify such teachers but their record of output from the training colleges does not.
(c) teachers return to service in the schools after a break. For instance, about 1,800 returned to the elementary schools in 1938 after an absence of a year or more.
(d) for many years the number of teachers required on current staffing standards has steadily diminished owing to a decline in school population. It was not therefore necessary, on these standards, to match wastage with replenishment.
56. The Board do not prescribe the proportion of trained teachers to be employed in the different types of school. They attempt, however, to adjust the output of certificated teachers to demand by fixing a quota of students who may be admitted as recognised students to training colleges and departments each year. University Training Departments naturally admit, above the quota, students whose sole object is to be trained for teaching in secondary schools where it is immaterial whether the applicant for a post is or is not qualified for recognition as a certificated teacher.

57. In fact, the Board's control of the supply of trained teachers never has been, nor could it have been, related in any strict quantitative sense either to the needs of the schools as a whole or to elementary and secondary schools considered separately. The Board do not know how many untrained teachers will be appointed to schools a few years hence; nor can they know what proportion of the four-year students whom they recognise will obtain posts in secondary schools, nor how many unrecognised students the training departments will admit. Finally, the Board have no control over admissions to those training colleges which are not recognised under their Regulations for the Training of Teachers.

Conclusion

58. This first chapter of our Report reveals that the existing arrangements for the recognition, the training and the supply of teachers are chaotic and ill-adjusted even to present needs. In the next two chapters we examine supply, and salaries and recognition, respectively in the light of future needs, leaving training to be considered after we have explained the proposals for constitutional changes to which we refer in the Introduction.


CHAPTER 2

FUTURE SUPPLY OF TEACHERS

59. Three things in particular must be done if the number and quality of teachers required to match the reforms proposed in the White Paper are to be obtained. The field of recruitment must be widened; conditions of service which deter people from becoming teachers must be abolished; and the standing of education must be improved so that a sufficient number of men and women of quality will be attracted to teaching as a profession.

60. In this chapter we deal with the future needs of the primary and secondary schools. We include nursery schools and nursery classes under the heading 'primary schools'. It is not our business to advise on the organisation or detailed staffing of nursery schools or indeed of any type of


[page 19]

school. We wish only to emphasise that whatever arrangements may be made for recruiting persons who are not qualified teachers to help with the care and training of children under the age of compulsory school attendance, the teachers who are responsible for the conduct of nursery schools and nursery classes must be as well trained as teachers in any other type of school. The proposals in this part of our Report regarding the supply, salaries and recognition of teachers and our plans for the reorganisation of training apply to all teachers in secondary and primary schools, including teachers of the youngest children. We make a special reference, however, in Chapter 17 to teachers in nursery schools.

Widening the Field of Recruitment

61. Training colleges and universities draw students who intend to be teachers almost exclusively from secondary schools; and, so far as the publicly provided system of education is concerned, almost exclusively from the publicly provided or aided secondary schools. The teaching profession throughout all its ranges must in future recruit from all types of secondary school including the 'Public Schools'. We urge teachers in Public Schools to place the claims of teaching before their pupils when advising them upon their careers. We now consider separately recruitment from grammar (secondary) schools, modern (senior) schools, technical (junior technical) schools and from industry, commerce and the professions.

Recruitment from Grammar (Secondary) Schools

62. Barely one in seven of children of eleven years of age in any particular year are subsequently to be found in grant-aided secondary schools, from which the large majority of teachers come; and only one in four of those who reach these schools remain there until 17 years of age, which is the earliest age at which a boy or girl can begin a course of training for the teaching profession. There were 19,000 boys and girls between 17 and 18 years of age in grant-earning secondary schools in 1938. There is also recruitment to the profession from pupils in secondary schools which are recognised as efficient* but are not grant-earning, such as private schools and Public Schools. But as the number of pupils in these schools, excluding preparatory schools, is less than one seventh of the number in grant-earning secondary schools it would not be reasonable to put the numerical scope of this additional field of recruitment above 2,000, making 21,000 in all.

63. But this group of 21,000 is also the major source of supply of other professions and occupations such as medicine, law, engineering, architecture, the Church, the civil service and many other types of work which require a preliminary education of the kind which is offered by secondary schools to boys and girls up to 17 and 18 years of age. Another small source of supply for the professions are the few secondary schools which retain boys and girls up to 17 or 18 years of age but which are not recognised by the Board.

64. If the total number of teachers who will, in future, be required for the primary and secondary schools is put at the modest figure of 250,000, and if annual wastage remains at 6 per cent, the schools will ultimately require 15,000 new teachers a year. In so far as these are to be trained teachers or even teachers who have had a full secondary education the problem of supply

*The Board of Education do not pay grant to private schools nor to secondary schools which do not comply with certain regulations about the admission of a proportion of pupils from public elementary schools. Any secondary school, however, may be recognised as efficient if, having invited inspection by the Board and been duly inspected, the Board so decide. The names of such schools are printed in italics in the Board's List of Efficient Secondary Schools (List 60).


[page 20]

from the existing field of recruitment reduces itself to an absurdity. There are 21,000 people available for teaching and comparable professions, and the teaching profession requires 15,000 of them! If, however, the ban on married women is lifted the 15,000 may be considerably reduced. We give these figures in order to show the magnitude of the problem. They are not intended to forecast the future accurately. It remains to be seen, for instance, whether, when the White Paper reforms are in full operation, there will be a larger number of pupils in the grammar schools than there are now in the secondary schools and whether a larger proportion of them than at present will remain in attendance up to 17 or 18 years of age.

65. This question of the early withdrawal of pupils (three out of four) from secondary schools leads us to our first recommendation. There are no doubt many reasons, such as attractive openings at 16 years of age or younger, why boys and girls leave secondary schools before they have taken the school certificate or, having taken it, before they are 17 or 18 years of age. But there are two causes for which there are remedies: (a) straitened economic circumstances of the family and (b) failure on the part of those concerned to inform boys and girls year by year about those professions and occupations which would be open to them if they completed a full secondary school course. We have no doubt that the teaching profession is losing a large number of recruits from both these causes. The first needs no elaboration except to remark that it remains to be seen what the effect of the abolition of fees in secondary schools will be and what form family allowances or children's allowances will take. As to the second, many pupils who leave school at or before 16 years of age for lack of any objective would remain until 17 or 18 if, without in any way being required to commit themselves, the teaching profession were attractively presented as a possibility for them. It could not, however, honestly be so presented unless it were in fact attractive; and it can only be attractively presented with sincerity by teachers who themselves find in it a satisfying career. Quite apart, however, from the claims and opportunities of the teaching profession there is something to be said for not regarding a school as efficient unless it shows by its yearly practice that it takes special care of its pupils in relation to their future occupations. The school should be a socially responsible institution.

66. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should ensure that maintenance allowances and other aids to pupils in grant-aided secondary schools are sufficient to prevent children from being withdrawn prematurely solely on economic grounds; and that when fees in secondary schools are abolished and when family or children's allowances are in operation, the Board should ensure some supplement to these aids if experience shows such to be necessary; and
(b) that the Board of Education should instruct H.M. Inspectors to satisfy themselves that the claims, conditions and prospects of the teaching profession are adequately presented to older children in secondary schools.
The Factor of the Special Place Examination

67. Whether a boy or girl in an elementary school is to enter a secondary school or not is decided, at present, by the special place examination taken by children at about eleven years of age, except in so far as a child who fails to secure a special place may nevertheless enter on payment of fees. It follows that, since the secondary school is almost the sole avenue to training colleges and universities and indeed to recognition as an uncertificated teacher, the question of being able to become a teacher is, for most


[page 21]

children, settled at that early age. It is true that there are occasional transfers from elementary to secondary schools a year or two after the special place examination, but their number is so small that it does not materially affect our argument. This is a deplorable situation, and is in no way redeemed by the reflection that similar considerations apply to children in the same schools in relation to the other professions we have mentioned: medicine, law, the Church and so on. Recruitment to the teaching profession as compared with other professions is, in fact, worse than appears on the surface because whereas other professions recruit largely from the independent schools, to which pupils are admitted at 13 or 14 years of age, those schools make a comparatively small contribution to the teaching profession so far as teaching in grant-aided schools is concerned.

68. The present system would be satisfactory

(i) if the special place examination were a valid test of suitability fur education in a secondary school or, if it were not valid, a further systematic review of suitability took place at about 13 years of age,
(ii) if there were sufficient secondary schools in every area to accommodate all those who achieved the necessary standard in the examination,
(iii) if parents were always, on financial and other grounds, in a position to accept the secondary school education offered to their children, and
(iv) if education of the type given in secondary schools were the only type which could be regarded as a suitable preparation for admission to a training college or university.
69. But none of these propositions is true. The first three need not be examined in detail because proposals have already been made which will remedy the situation. The Norwood Report recommends that the special place examination in its present form should be abolished and that, in any case, a further review of suitability should take place before a child is 13 years of age. The proposals in the White Paper coupled with family or children's allowances which, as already pointed out should be supplemented if necessary, will ensure adequate financial assistance to parents and sufficient grammar school accommodation in each area. Parents ought not to be hampered by financial anxieties about the possibility of their children receiving the education for which they are fitted, nor ought they to be frustrated by the absence of proper school facilities. As the necessary reforms appear to be covered by the intentions of the Government we confine ourselves to urging that they (or as a temporary measure some provisional substitute for them) should be put into operation at the earliest possible moment; otherwise the necessary additional teachers will not be available when the major reforms in prospect are due.

Recruitment from Post-Primary Schools other than Grammar Schools

70. Our main concern is with the fourth proposition stated in paragraph 68. The fact is that the type of education now given in secondary schools or which will be given in the grammar schools of the future is not the only type of education which is a suitable qualification for the admission of students to a course of training for the teaching profession. To put it in another way and more concretely, there are some boys and girls now in the senior schools, and there will be more in the future modern schools, of the right quality to become teachers. This widening of the field of recruitment can thus be considered from two closely related points of view: the suitability of the curriculum of the modern (senior) schools as a preparation for training and the abilities of the boys and girls who will be found in those schools. Some of the best senior schools, untrammelled by external examinations, have already evolved an education and a life which offer to their older pupils knowledge and skill, and which encourage interests, of


[page 22]

great value to a future teacher. A still better curriculum will be possible when the school leaving age is raised to 15 and ultimately to 16, when classes are smaller, and when amenities, the salaries of staff and conditions of service generally are on the secondary level.

71. We have received some evidence about the quality of the boys and girls who are now to be found in senior schools and the number who would be likely to succeed as teachers. Estimates differ, but no one who is familiar with the achievements during the war of many boys and girls from these schools can doubt that there is no justification for ignoring the modern (senior) school as a normal field of recruitment to the profession. It would be a profound mistake, and contrary to the intention of the White Paper, to think that effective distribution of children to grammar, modern and technical schools will mean that all the most intelligent children will be sent to the grammar schools. The more intellectual children will naturally find their way into the grammar schools but not necessarily always the more intelligent.

72. There were, before the war, 500,000 children between 13 and 14 in the elementary schools. If only one per cent of this number, over and above the few who may now ultimately enter training colleges or universities, completed a course of training each year there would be an additional annual output of 5,000 trained teachers. The number of children in this age-group, or rather in the age group 14-15, which will be the relevant one when the age is raised to 15, will be considerably smaller in the immediate future owing to the low birth rate a corresponding number of years ago. We set against this, however, the fact that all children will have the benefit of full-time education up to 15 and ultimately to 16, instead of the large majority of them leaving before their full potentialities have been discovered.

73. It is true that raising the age to 16 will require still more teachers. We agree, however, with those who say that the problem may prove to be not so much one of finding the teachers to raise the age as of raising the age to find the teachers. The provision of full-time education up to 16 years of age will greatly stimulate recruitment to the profession, both qualitatively and quantitatively, if the other reforms in the White Paper and our own recommendations are put into operation.

74. When every child in the modern school remains until 16, a position which is by no means achieved even in the present secondary schools, it will be necessary for these schools to develop sixth forms or their equivalent and to provide pupils between 16 and 18 with an education which will qualify them for admission to training college or university. The immediate question is what to do in the interim period, when the leaving age is 14 or 15, about the further education up to 18 years of age of boys and girls in senior schools, who might become teachers. It may well be that in some areas or for some children transfer to a secondary school at 14 or 15 will be the best solution. In other cases employment combined with a carefully planned course of part-time education up to say 19 or 20 may be better.

75. Boys and girls who enter technical (junior technical) schools at 11 years of age, or who are transferred to them from other schools between 11 and 13, should not thereby be regarded by others, nor regard themselves, as finally committed to employment in industry or commerce. These schools should be free to furnish a quota, however small, to the teaching profession. Here and there a boy or girl may, by 15 or 16 years of age, discover that it is teaching rather than industry or commerce that he or she really desires. We therefore regard it as important that local education authorities should make known to pupils in technical (junior technical) schools that their


[page 23]

admission to these schools does not debar them from choosing teaching as a career, and should make the necessary arrangements for the further education of those who choose and are provisionally judged fit for the profession.

76. We recommend

that every local education authority should from time to time be required to submit proposals to the Board of Education for the continued education up to 18 years of age, or older if necessary, of those boys and girls in their senior (modern) schools and junior technical schools who are willing, without commitment, to consider preparation for the teaching profession and are provisionally judged suitable for it.
Recruitment from Industry, Commerce and the Professions

77. There is a further possible source of supply, namely industry, commerce and the professions. No one would wish teachers to be recruited from failures in other walks of life. We have no doubt, however, that there are intelligent men and women still comparatively young who, after a spell in some other occupation, which in the case of women might have been in the home, would adopt teaching as a profession if a clear way into the profession were available and made known. The fact that a person chooses, or drifts into, a particular occupation at 18 years of age does not always mean that he would have been found in it if choice had been delayed until he was 20, or if other possibilities had been fully presented to him. There are also other men and women beyond the normal student age who for one reason or another, such as a return to this country after residence abroad, might well be free to consider teaching as a profession.

78. Whether the number of teachers who could be recruited from this source be large or small the schools cannot afford to dispense with the services of that leaven of people who do not approach the profession along the normal avenues. A very large majority of teachers under our present system of recruitment inevitably have much the same educational history: school to college or university and then back to school. It would be of immense advantage to the schools if there were more who, before they became teachers, had experienced life in some capacity other than that of full-time students. It is to be hoped that this variety will be achieved in the immediate post-war years by the recruitment of men and women demobilised from the Forces and Auxiliary Services. Further, wider experience amongst teachers will be secured if there should be, after the war, a compulsory period of national service for all young people. Our concern, however, is with permanent recruitment and with something more than six months or a year away from educational institutions. We mean planned recruitment from amongst those who have achieved some standing in business or a profession or have had some other responsible experience.

79. It is obvious that such people, if they have profited by their business, professional or other experience and have kept alive their intellectual or cultural interests, should not be required to undergo so long a period of training as a boy or girl of 18 years of age. The course must be one which in point of length and character is tolerable to them having regard to their maturity and experience. It is equally obvious that if they do adopt the profession they should enter the salary scale at a point which gives due recognition to their age and experience. There are not at present, however, any grant arrangements which would tempt such people to abandon their salaried occupations in order to undergo a course of training.


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80. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should offer a maintenance allowance (with adequate additions where appropriate for wife and children) to men and women of maturer years who desire to be trained for the teaching profession and are judged fit for such training; and
(b) that such recruits to the profession should on appointment receive a salary which takes account of their age and experience.
Married Women

81. There remains the employment of married women. The elementary and secondary schools lose about 11,000 teachers a year owing to retirement on grounds of age, infirmity, death and 'other causes'. The 'other causes' account for nearly 8,000, and it is probable that a large proportion of this loss is due to the retirement of women on marriage, though there is some re-entry later on. We cannot say how many women would have continued in service after marriage if there had been no ban on their continued employment, nor can we estimate to what extent staffs would be conserved after the war if the ban were removed. We deal with this matter in more detail under the heading 'Conditions of Service' and we defer our recommendation until then. All we need say here is that the schools cannot, as a mere matter of supply, dispense with the service of qualified teachers who are anxious to continue to serve in them; and that it is surely the height of irony to adopt a policy which, in effect, rules that women with children of their own shall as a class be debarred from making any contribution in the schools beyond that of sending their children to them.

Conditions of Service

82. There are many conditions which teachers have now to endure which deter people from entering the profession. Some of these we shall deal with under the heading 'The Standing of Education'. Here we deal only with bad buildings, large classes and the narrow life which is sometimes imposed on teachers.

Bad Buildings and Large Classes

83. The nature of school buildings and the size of classes can make or mar the satisfaction that teachers find in their work. They affect their efficiency and comfort and, indeed, their health. They are sometimes related, in that the shape or size of rooms, particularly in comparatively small schools of antiquated design, may make inevitable the grouping of an over large number of children. But not all large classes are due to ill-conditioned buildings nor do such buildings always result in large classes. We do not say more about school buildings beyond emphasising that the contentment of teachers depends in large measure upon the spaciousness and attractiveness of the buildings and grounds in which the school as a community conducts its work and play; and that recruitment will suffer so long as there are school premises which are mean, niggardly, ugly, or otherwise ill-adapted to their purpose.

84. We are more concerned with large classes, not only because they are an even greater deterrent to recruitment than bad buildings but also because smaller classes would demand a substantial increase in the number of teachers employed in the schools. Large classes thus affect supply in two ways: they depress recruitment and yet to get rid of them would magnify the problem regarded as a purely numerical affair. Moreover, since by far the greater part of the expenditure on education is due, not unnaturally, to the salaries


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of teachers, any substantial reduction in the size of classes would add considerably to educational costs. Despite these considerations we have no hesitation in saying that one of the major educational reforms required, from the point of view of the recruitment of teachers alone, is a reduction in the size of classes. Further, though it is not strictly our business to make such a comment, we feel bound to say that we have yet to discover any educational justification for the view, which unfortunately is crystallised in our national practice, that large classes are more tolerable amongst younger than amongst older children.

A Narrow Life

85. The teacher is often said to lead a narrow life. The doctor, engineer, architect or lawyer has several possibilities before him when he has completed his qualifications or soon after he has obtained some experience of his profession. He may engage in private practice as a consultant or otherwise, enter the public service or combine the two. The trained teacher, on the other hand, enters an institution, the school, with its familiar shape and organisation. Whether it be an infant school or a grammar school it is nevertheless an institution tending to mould its servants to the pattern of an institutional life; and there, in some school or other, the large majority of teachers remain until they retire at 60 or 65 years of age.

86. The nature of the work of teachers is such that, contrary to what is often supposed, they have much to do out of school hours. They cannot teach effectively without carefully preparing their work beforehand and subsequently spending time on the correction of the work of their pupils. Much of this is done at home. They also undertake supervision duties in connection with the social and athletic activities of the school, some of which take place after the normal school day is over. We draw attention also to the fact that, particularly in war time, they are asked to shoulder a number of additional responsibilities, many of them only remotely, if at all, connected with their work as teachers. In normal times, teachers are free to use their leisure as they will, subject, we suppose, to certain broad limitations which may differ under different local education authorities and governing bodies; and many undertake work which is of great value to the community. It is comparatively rare, however, for teachers to engage in forms of public service which may make demands requiring them occasionally to be absent from the school during normal hours of duty. This is a pity. Many teachers acquire in the course of their school experiences a type of qualification which is particularly valuable. We would, for instance, favour a more generalised practice of securing the services of teachers on education committees; and, of course, they should be free to play a full part in organising their own professional associations. We have in mind, also, service as a Justice of the Peace, membership of a children's court, membership of a local authority, service on university bodies or rural community councils and so on.

87. Not only would the public bodies or services concerned benefit from the contribution which teachers could make, but the teachers would find that their lives were enriched. Any disturbance of school organisation would be more than made good, so far as the children were concerned, just because those responsible for their education had, and were allowed to enjoy, interests and responsibilities outside those of the school. We go further and say that it would be a positive advantage if schools, generally, were so staffed and organised that the presence of all the teachers all the time was not regarded as a necessary condition for effective work.


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88. We recommend

that the Board of Education. should take steps to secure the relaxation of rules, prescribed or implied, which unduly limit the participation of teachers in public affairs, and to render possible the more generous staffing arrangements which such relaxation might require.
Resignation on Marriage

89. One aspect of this narrow life is the requirement, where it exists, that women teachers shall resign on marriage. This requirement rests on no legal obligation. Local education authorities and governing bodies of schools have discretion in this as in many other matters. Practice varies, therefore, from area to area. There are areas where retirement on marriage is not required; there are others where resignation is demanded but employment may be continued in a temporary capacity for one year, and married women may be appointed to vacancies if no other suitable candidate is available. Some authorities recognise the value of married women on the staffs of schools but limit the number who may be employed in each school. A number of authorities require resignation on marriage and limit their employment of married women to temporary or supply work. These are but some of the varieties of practice which local education authorities adopt.

90. There is no doubt that current practice tends to stamp the profession as being, for women, a celibate profession. This deters young women, most of whom naturally look forward to marriage, from spending the time and money required to prepare themselves for teaching. They seek other occupations, though many of them may be gifted as potential teachers. In short, the marriage bar depresses recruitment.

91. The considerations, apart from supply, which should determine policy in this matter are obvious. Children of all ages, and not only young children, benefit from the care and training of teachers with experience of home responsibilities, including the experience of marriage and, perhaps, the care of children of their own. The influence of a wise married woman on adolescent boys and girls and on her colleagues, both men and women, is an advantage which the schools ought not to have to forgo. The presence of married men on a staff is equally desirable and is almost universally secured. We do not say that marriage inevitably improves the outlook of a teacher or necessarily increases his or her efficiency; but we do say that generally to debar married women from work in the schools is patently contrary to common sense. No other criticism of the schools by mothers can compare in significance with their criticism (though it may not be formulated in these precise terms) that the staffs of the schools to which they entrust their children fail, by design, to include a reasonable proportion of women with experiences and responsibilities like their own.

92. We do not prophesy that if the marriage bar were abolished a large number of women would, nor are we urging that they should, continue their work in schools immediately after marriage or return to it after they are free from the more exacting claims of motherhood. Our view is simply this: that if a married woman has the time and inclination to teach, the choice whether she pursues that inclination or not should rest with her; and if she wishes to teach, the deciding factors, so far as her employers are concerned, should be her professional competence and the need for the type of service which she is qualified to render. Suitable arrangements should be made to meet the needs of married women, particularly for motherhood; and these arrangements should, so far as is practicable, be the same in all parts of the country.


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93. In practice the employment of married women raises two separate but related issues: first, whether a woman teacher should be required to resign on marriage and second on what conditions married women should be re-employed after a prolonged absence from teaching. We have made it clear that we do not think women should be required to resign on marriage. Married women who have been away from school for several years should be given the opportunity of a period of preparation to bring their knowledge of educational practice up to date. They would then, as they do not always now, resume work in the schools with confidence and with reasonable prospects of promotion.

94. Finally we believe that before the full possibilities of married women in the schools are discovered it will be necessary to make arrangements for the part-time employment of some of them with, of course, appropriate modifications of salary. Married women might be offered the option either of full working hours or of an arrangement whereby they were not required to arrive at the school so early or stay so late as the general body of teachers. This may not be possible now, but when, as the White Paper proposes, schools are more spacious and classes are smaller, it will be practicable to organise the school day in such a way that there will be a proper place for a small proportion of teachers who are, in effect, part-time teachers. We make a recommendation about part-time teachers later on. Such an arrangement would obviously be very convenient to some married women with domestic responsibilities: and we have already said that schools should be organised and staffed in such a way that it is not always necessary to have all the teachers present all the time.

95. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should ensure that teachers in grant-aided schools are not required to resign or otherwise to give up their appointments solely on the ground of marriage; and
(b) that the Board of Education should secure throughout the country suitable arrangements, particularly as regards motherhood, to meet the needs of married women who wish to remain in or return to the schools, including the provision of refresher courses for those returning to school after a prolonged period of absence.
Part-time Teachers

96. It is regrettable that, generally speaking, the elementary and secondary schools do not know how, or are not allowed, to make use of the part-time teacher, except the peripatetic teacher of some special subject or the person who comes in to give an occasional 'talk'. And yet there are well qualified men and women scattered up and down the country, some of them trained teachers, who have a contribution to make and would be willing to teach regularly for short periods each week throughout the year. The fact is that, on the whole, schools are too tightly organised to accept outside gifts of this kind, and it is their loss. We know that the presence of part-time teachers often means troublesome adjustments, but schools would not suffer in the long run by making them. As wide a cross-section of the community as possible should make a contribution to the education offered in the schools. Some schools, like some homes, never experience a breath of fresh air until a stranger arrives and is welcomed.

97. We recommend

that the Board of Education should encourage local education authorities and governing bodies to institute arrangements whereby schools, wherever it would be advantageous to do so, could make use of the part-time services of qualified persons.

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Sabbatical Terms

98. The life of teachers should be made more attractive, but not by artificial aids. The positive attractions which are added must arise from the peculiar needs of the profession. There has been much talk for many years about sabbatical terms for teachers, but nothing systematic has been done to establish or authorise them. The case for a sabbatical period for each teacher after a substantial spell of continuous service can be, and frequently has been, overstated. It is not true that all teachers or perhaps even most teachers wholly lose their freshness after ten or twenty years of continuous teaching. Nevertheless teaching, with its constant pre-occupation with the young, probably makes greater demands on resources and personality than any other type of occupation; and the danger, after a period, of failing to work at maximum capacity is very real. Moreover there are many teachers who need, and many others who naturally desire, an opportunity of bringing their knowledge or skill up to date or of investigating educational practice in schools other than their own.

99. We do not suggest that all teachers would or should take advantage of sabbatical periods. In any case they should not be available to any teachers whose service was unsatisfactory from causes within their own control. Even so, any systematic arrangement of sabbatical terms would clearly require generous staffing arrangements; and we realise that such are not immediately possible. We therefore refrain from any specific recommendation. Our view is, however, that when circumstances make it practicable, every teacher who makes suitable proposals for the use of the period should be allowed a sabbatical term on full pay after five years' continuous teaching, and that, where the circumstances and proposals of the teacher warrant, the period should not be limited to one term.

The Standing of Education

100. The standing of education itself must be raised if teaching as a profession is to become attractive to intelligent and cultured men and women. We realise that it is not only teachers who are involved, since education is not a matter only of schools and children. Education is concerned with the growth of individuals of all ages, and therefore with the shape of institutions of many kinds; and it embraces any human activity designed to influence the development of children or grown men and women, either individually or collectively. It is a truism to say that every teacher, in however humble a capacity he or she may be serving, is directly and vocationally involved in moulding the shape of things to come; and that therefore the character of a teacher is no less important than his intelligence. It is necessary, however, to emphasise these truths because there are those who seem lazily to think that growth and development inevitably proceed in desirable directions. Recent history surely teaches us that it will be fatal to the future society if people are encouraged to believe in what an American writer has described as 'the immoral idea of progress as a law of life'. Moreover, education is a unity. It does not make sense to regard the education of young people as one thing and that of adults as another and quite different thing; or to consider that though it may be desirable to have cultured teachers in charge of the sixth form of a grammar school it does not matter what kind of a person is entrusted with the education of infants, so long as she is fond of children.

101. It is easy to make generalisations, but it is difficult to frame recommendations designed to secure a higher public regard for education. The universities obviously have an important rôle to play. As centres of study


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and research they ought to give education a high place in their range of studies, and as institutions maintaining high cultural standards they ought to exercise a profound influence upon the education of teachers.

Teachers not a Race apart

102. We turn from the standing of education to the status of teachers. There are teachers who have chosen their profession because they have a call to it which cannot in any circumstances be denied. It would, however, be foolish to rely upon this missionary spirit for maintaining the supply and the morale of a quarter of a million teachers. Teaching is indeed a form of social service but like other professions it is also a bread and butter affair, and a large proportion of teachers not unreasonably treat it as such. They are interested in children, in their general welfare and education, but they are also interested in the emoluments of the profession and in the prospects which it offers of a satisfying life for themselves. This measure of self-interest is common to the majority of people in the majority of professions and we see no reason why teachers should be expected to judge their profession by different standards. There is, indeed, a positive danger in such an expectation. It encourages people to treat teachers as a race apart, when the prime need is that they should be regarded as what in fact they are: ordinary people with a personal life to live and a necessary and therefore useful task to perform.

The Esteem in which the Profession is held

103. The esteem in which the profession is held by the public is an obvious factor in recruitment. We wish to place on record that our own investigations have led us to a high appreciation of the profession and to the conviction that parents especially are conscious of the debt they owe to teachers, particularly at the present time. It is incontrovertible, for instance, that it was the confidence which parents placed in teachers that alone made the Government scheme for the evacuation of school children a practicable proposition. But parents may highly value what a particular school or teacher has done for their children and yet discourage one of those same children from entering the profession. There are many reasons for this. One, in homes in which teaching is not regarded as a step up in the social scale, is the feeling, to which we have already referred, that teachers are a race apart; another is a knowledge of the conditions under which many teachers have to work.

104. The fact is that a sense of indebtedness on the part of a large number of parents to individual teachers who have charge of their children is not necessarily reflected in any corporate esteem of the profession nor in any widespread public interest in teaching conditions. Practically every family has dealings of some kind or another with a number of schools and teachers and this familiarity breeds a kind of careless content with things that be, so long as the children are happy, which they generally are. Teaching as a profession will not be accorded the esteem it deserves until the interest of men and women generally extends beyond the happiness of their own children and beyond schools which they happen to know, and reaches out to an appreciation of education as something of vital concern to all citizens.

105. We recommend

that authorities responsible for adult education should offer to parents and others the opportunity of learning about the educational system in this country, including its history, and of discussing under skilled guidance the function of education in a community.


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106. We have not hitherto specifically mentioned adult education as a source of supply of teachers of mature years because those attending adult education classes, if they are not already teachers, are probably engaged in industry, commerce, or the professions, recruitment from which we have already considered. But we draw attention to the fact that a desire on the part of men and women in other occupations to enter the profession of teaching might be very much stimulated if the range of adult education studies included, as we recommend above, a study of the schools and their needs.


CHAPTER 3

SALARIES AND RECOGNITION OF TEACHERS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

107. It would be a bad day for education if the chief attraction of the teaching profession ever became the money to be earned in it. Salaries are, nevertheless, an important aspect of the supply problem. Normal young people look forward to a life which will be compatible with personal interests, with prospective family responsibilities and with the efficient discharge of professional duties. It is natural, therefore, that before they make their choice they should compare the financial emoluments offered in the several occupations which are open to them. We therefore examine the salary arrangements which were in force in elementary and secondary schools before the war and record our opinion whether they will be adequate to secure teachers of the quality and quantity required to staff the system of primary and secondary schools proposed in the White Paper. Before doing this, however, we wish to draw attention to the tradition of cheapness which dogged the elementary school, in particular, for 100 years and more. There was nothing approaching a system of elementary education until the establishment of the Charity Schools of the 17th and 18th centuries. These were supplemented in the latter part of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries by the widespread establishment of Sunday Schools; and in turn both Charity Schools and Sunday Schools, as instruments for providing a minimum education for the 'children of the poor', slowly gave way to the voluntary schools established by the National Society, the British and Foreign School Society and other religious bodies. It was not until 1870 that the first Education Act was passed, and the provision of elementary schools was made the responsibility of publicly elected authorities who had power to levy a rate for the purpose. Throughout the whole of this period there were also a number of 'Dame Schools'; and it was a teacher in such a school who, when asked about 'the amount of the remuneration which she received and the amount of the knowledge she imparted', replied: 'It's little they pays us, and it's little we teaches them'.

108. The terms of reference of a Royal Commission of 1858 reveal the attitude of the time towards elementary education. They were:

'To inquire into the present state of popular education in England and to consider and report what measures, if any, are required for the extension of sound and cheap elementary instruction to all classes of the people.'
The attitude towards education was naturally reflected in the view taken of the task and the status of teachers. Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, the first Secretary of the Committee of the Privy Council on Education, who laid the


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foundations of our system of elementary education, established, in his private capacity, a training college. After describing the work and duties of the students he says:

'By this laborious and frugal life, economy of management is reconciled with efficiency both of the moral and intellectual training of the school, and the master goes forth into the world humble, industrious and instructed.'
Finally, Mr. Robert Lowe, Vice-President of the Education Department, defending the 'Payment by Results' Code of 1861 in the House of Commons, said:
'If the new system will not be cheap it will be efficient, and if it will not be efficient it will be cheap.'
We can sum up the matter by saying that the atmosphere of the Poor Law and a trail of cheapness lay across the elementary schools right up to the end of the 19th century.

109. The situation improved, or at least was capable of improvement, when in 1902 the present local education authorities took over the responsibilities of the School Boards and were made financially responsible for the secular instruction of all recognised elementary schools whether voluntary or publicly provided. But this measure did not ensure suitable buildings; and even now there are areas where the majority of the elementary schools date from the 19th century and are unfit for the education of children according to present standards. Nor did the 1902 Act do anything to remedy the salary position. This was undertaken in 1919 by the Burnham Committee, appointed at the instance of Mr. Fisher. This Committee, however, as we have said in an earlier part of our Report, were limited by their terms of reference to the historical distinction between elementary and secondary education. The elementary schools remain the cheap part of the educational system not only because of their lower salary scales but also because local education authorities can, and some still do, employ a large number of uncertificated teachers.

110. We cannot emphasise too strongly the need that the public should recognise these historical facts, because in our opinion realization of them both affords explanation of so much that is unsatisfactory and suggests the remedy for its improvement. The truth is that we have not yet emancipated ourselves from the tradition of educating our children on the cheap. We say nothing about the folly of that policy from the point of view of the spiritual heritage of the community and the social justice due to each individual member of the community. But we wish to stress the fact that from the economic point of view also it is a short-sighted policy. It is not customary to liken education to agriculture and industry as productive activities, but in fact it is one of the most productive of all human activities, and we are persuaded that the material wealth and the defensive capacity of a community depend in very high degree upon the kind and quality of education which it gives to its children.

The Burnham Committees

111. The salaries of teachers in schools provided or maintained by local education authorities have for over twenty years been governed by agreements reached between representatives of teachers and of local education authorities sitting together on the Burnham Committees, which were set up in 1919 to bring order out of a variety of conflicting and competing scales of pay. The salary scales so agreed (and approved by the Board of Education for grant purposes) cannot be enforced by the Board directly, but they are supported by the Board's Grant Regulations which provide that, if the scales of remuneration are less than the recognised scales and if in the Board's


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opinion educational efficiency in the area is thereby endangered, the Board may make such deductions from the grant as will, in their opinion, secure that the expenditure by the Authority falling to be met from the rates shall not be less than such expenditure would have been if the scales of remuneration in question had been in accordance with the recognised scales.

112. The scales now in force are based, so far as the teachers we are here considering are concerned, on two separate reports: one dealing with teachers in public elementary schools and the other with teachers in secondary schools. The scales are thus related to the type of school in which the teacher is serving and, as will be seen, they emphasise the division between elementary and secondary schools in terms of that cheapness to which we have already referred.

113. For teachers in elementary schools there are three scales: Scales II, III, and IV. Scale I, the lowest, was abandoned in 1936. Scale IV is that in force in the London area which, in addition to the London County Council area, includes the whole of the County of Middlesex, and with one exception all the boroughs and urban districts which are local education authorities of the metropolitan parts of Essex, Kent and Surrey. Scale III is the predominant scale in the county boroughs and boroughs, and also operates in some counties; and Scale II is reserved mainly, but not exclusively, for the areas of authorities which are predominantly rural in character. For teachers in secondary schools there are only two scales: a London scale for the London County Council, Middlesex, East Ham, West Ham and Croydon, and a provincial scale for the rest of the country. There are special arrangements for the payment of Heads of schools and there is also a system whereby very modest additions are made to the salaries of some secondary school teachers in respect of special responsibility, special qualifications or service of exceptional value. Somewhat similar arrangements operate in the elementary schools.

Principles on which Salary Scales should be based

114. It is not our task to frame new scales of salaries for teachers. That is the business of the Burnham Committees. But we do suggest certain criteria by which the emoluments of the profession should be judged. Salary scales should satisfy four main tests:

(a) a test of personal need: they should make possible the kind of life which teachers of the quality required ought to be enabled to live;
(b) a market test: they should bear a relationship to the earnings of other professions and occupations so that the necessary supply of teachers of the right quality will be forthcoming;
(c) a professional test: they should not give rise to anomalies or injustices within the teaching profession; and
(d) an educational test: they should not have consequences which damage the efficiency of the education provided in any particular type of school or area.
The Personal Test

115. We consider first the personal life of the teacher. We emphasise that we are dealing with the scales in force in 1938 and not with any war-time additions or adjustments. At the outset we record that, apart from any addition to salary due to the teacher holding a post of special responsibility or having special qualifications,

(a) no woman assistant teacher in an elementary school, even though she be a trained graduate, can earn more than 258 in the lowest paid

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(Scale II) areas or more than 324 in the highest paid (Scale IV) areas. The corresponding figures for men teachers are 330 and 408; and
(b) no man assistant teacher, however well qualified, in a secondary school can earn more than 480 in the provinces or 528 in London. The corresponding figures for women are 384 and 420.
It is important to remember that these are gross salaries and that 1 in every 20 is not available for day by day living expenses since it is deducted as the teacher's 5 per cent contribution towards his pension. We make no comment on these maxima at this stage except to say that they do not, in our view, offer teachers a reasonable standard of life.

116. We record below two examples of the elementary school scales:

(i) The scale in the lowest paid areas for a trained woman teacher in an elementary school who has spent two years in a training college in preparation for her work is as follows:
Initial salary 150.
Annual increment 9.
Maximum salary 258.

The first increment does not accrue until after the completion of two years service.

A woman teacher on this scale who began teaching at 21 years of age would therefore reach a net salary of about 211 a year by the time she was 30 years of age; and when she was 34 she would have reached her maximum of 258 gross or about 245 net, and at that figure her salary would remain for the next 25 years supposing she served until she was 60, remained in a Scale II area and did not become a Head Teacher.

(ii) The scale in a Scale III area, such as Birmingham, for two-year trained men teachers in elementary schools is as follows:

Initial salary 180.
Annual increment 12.
Maximum salary 366.

The first increment does not accrue until after the completion of two years service.

A man teacher on this scale who was teaching in a junior or a senior school and began his teaching at 21 years of age would by 30 years of age be receiving a net salary of about 262. He would reach his maximum, 366 gross and 348 net, by the time he was 38 years of age. If such a teacher had spent four years instead of two years over his training and had thus taken a university degree as well as completed an approved course of training he would nevertheless be on the same scale. It is true that he would receive, on appointment, two increments in respect of his additional qualifications but since it would have taken him two additional years to secure these qualifications his salary on appointment is what it would have been if he had limited himself to a two-year course of training: his maximum is the same in either case. In fact the trained graduate in the elementary school is financially worse off than his two-year trained colleague in that while he was spending money on his two years of additional training his colleague was earning 180 a year as a teacher. It is true, however, that graduation improves his prospects of promotion.

We regard these figures and these scales as amply justifying our earlier statement that the country has not yet emancipated itself from the tradition of cheapness in elementary education.

117. We now record two examples of scales in the secondary schools:

(i) The scale for women graduates in secondary schools in the provinces is as follows:-
Initial salary 216.
Annual increment 12.
Maximum salary 384.

An increment is awarded for training but the maximum remains the same.


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It follows from this that a woman who has spent four years in training for the profession and is a university graduate, perhaps with high honours, may look forward as an assistant teacher to a net salary of 365 a year by about the time she is 40 years of age.

(ii) The scale for men graduates in secondary schools in the London area is as follows:

Initial salary 276.
Annual increment 15.
Maximum salary 528.

An increment is awarded for training but the maximum remains the same.

It follows that a man teacher with the highest academic attainments and serving in the most important publicly provided secondary school in the country cannot under present Burnham arrangements earn a net salary of more than 502 a year unless his service is deemed to be of exceptional value or he holds a post of special responsibility or becomes a Head Master.

118. We do not wish to pitch hopes too high. We do not suggest that teachers, in contrast with most other people, should be wholly freed from anxiety about their financial position. But when we consider the nature of the work of teachers, the need for their enjoyment of a life of reasonably high cultural standards, and the fact that they have domestic and family responsibilities not differing from those of other men and women, we urge most strongly that current salaries for the great majority of teachers, as illustrated by the figures we have quoted, are demonstrably inadequate.

The Test of the Market

119. We now deal with our second principle. We could compare teachers' salaries with those obtainable in many other occupations and professions. We propose, however, to analyse the position in detail as regards only the Civil Service. We do this for various reasons: the requisite figures are easily obtainable, both services are public services and the field of recruitment to the civil service is as nearly the same as the field of recruitment to the teaching profession as is that of any other occupation or profession. Before we quote any figures or make any comparisons we wish to make three points quite clear. We are not attempting to equate the value of one service with the other; we are not passing any judgment whether civil servants are abler or less able than teachers; but we are concerned with the fact that, at the time when the majority of boys and girls or young men and young women make their choice of a career, the teaching profession and the civil service present themselves as two among many possibilities. It is therefore sensible to attempt to describe the vista which reveals itself to young people at this critical moment of their lives, and to their parents who have the responsibility of advising them.

Clerical and Executive Classes of the Civil Service

120. We shall first consider the Clerical and Executive Classes of the Civil Service, excluding the Departmental Clerical Grades. The age of admission to the clerical grade is 16 to 17, that is approximately the school certificate stage and a year or two earlier than a student could enter a training college. The age of admission to the Junior Executive Grade is 18 to 19, that is approximately the higher school certificate stage and about the age at which students enter a training college or university. The junior executive grade can also be reached by promotion from the clerical grade. The normal promotion of the clerical officer, however, is to the higher clerical grade, the maximum of which is the same as for the junior executive grade.


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121. The salary scales of civil servants, like those of teachers, are subject to area differentiation. There are London, intermediate and provincial rates of pay. For our purposes it is sufficient to say that the differentiation between the highest and lowest rates is 20 for salaries exceeding 200 but not exceeding 300; and 30 for those exceeding 300 but not exceeding 650. In this connection it should be noted that the differentiation for certificated teachers at their net maxima between Scale IV and Scale II is 74 for men and 63 for women.

122. It is not easy to make a fair comparison of salaries because whereas, for instance, more than 70 per cent of clerical and junior executive officers are on the London scale, only 22 per cent of certificated teachers are on Scale IV. As 64 per cent of the teachers are on Scale III we compare their salaries with civil servants on the intermediate scale, although this scale applies to only 20 per cent of civil servants. We give two tables: one for men and the other for women. We record the salaries, if any, for ages from 16 to 24 or 25 and again from 35 to 38 or 40, between which the various maxima are reached. The civil servant does not contribute to his pension out of his annual salary, but the teacher does so to the extent of 5 per cent. We therefore give the teacher's net salary: that is the scale salary less 5 per cent calculated to the nearest pound.

MEN

Certificated Teachers (Scale III) and Clerical and Junior Executive Officers (Intermediate Scale)

It will be seen that though the certificated teacher's maximum is slightly higher than that of the clerical officer it is 162 less than that of the junior executive officer. Moreover, if he is a two-year trained teacher he will have been at school and college up to 20 years of age, by which time the clerical officer will have earned 375; and if he is a graduate he will have been at the university between 18 and 22, during which period the junior executive officer will have received salary amounting to 670. This consideration of immediate earnings naturally influences young people and their parents, and the more so if sacrifice of immediate earnings does not result


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ultimately in a higher salary. It should be added that if the graduate spent the whole of his teaching period in a secondary school on the provincial scale, the maximum salary he could reach as an assistant master, without any additions for a post of special responsibility, would be 456 compared with the 510 of the junior executive officer.

WOMEN

Certificated Teachers (Scale III) and Clerical and Junior Executive Officers (Intermediate Scale)

The comments made on the figures for men teachers apply with equal force to women. It need only be said that if the graduate teacher had spent her teaching life in a secondary school on the provincial scale her maximum salary would be 365 against the 405 for the junior executive officer.

123. If we attempt to compare maximum salaries of higher clerical or junior executive officers with those of Heads of elementary schools we meet a difficulty which makes a direct comparison misleading. The salaries of Heads of schools depend not only upon the area in which the school is situated but also, not unnaturally, on the size of the school. For the purpose of Head Teachers' salaries there are five grades of school according to the number of children in attendance.

Grade I: not over 100 in average attendance,
Grade II: over 100 but not over 200 in average attendance,
Grade III: over 200 but not over 350 in average attendance,
Grade IV: over 350 but not over 500 in average attendance,
Grade V: over 500 in average attendance.
124. If, for example, we take the lowest maxima, that is Grade I schools in Scale II areas, the figures are as follows: men Head Teachers 342 net, and women Head Teachers 274 net. For Grade II schools in Scale III areas the figures are 416 net and 331 net for men and women respectively. If on the other hand we take the highest maxima, that is Grade V schools on Scale IV areas, we get 576 net for men and 462 net for women. These highest maxima, it is true, compare reasonably well with the maxima for higher clerical or junior executive officers, which in London are 525 for men and 420 for women. But there are only 150 schools in the whole country in Grade V. There are 1,500 in Grade IV, 7,500 in Grade III, 8,500 in Grade II and 11,000


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in Grade I. The facts are: that on the whole the size of schools is small; that small schools tend to predominate in rural areas; that salaries in rural areas are low; and that therefore the salaries of the majority of Heads are on a scale with the lower rather than higher maxima.

125. The matter, as regards men, can be put in another way. About 3 in 10 of all men in the clerical and executive class of the civil service were, in 1938, in the higher clerical, junior executive or a still higher grade. It so happens also that in the same year about 3 in 10 of all male certificated teachers were Head Teachers. This does not necessarily mean that the prospects of promotion in each service were the same: a knowledge of the normal age of promotion in each service would be required in order to make any comparison. But what can be said is that a male higher clerical or junior executive officer is on one of three scales, the highest maximum of which is 525 and the lowest maximum 495. The male Head of an elementary school, however, is on one of 15 scales, the maxima of which range from 342 net for small schools, of which there are a large number, in Scale II areas, to 576 net for very large schools, of which there are very few, in Scale IV areas.

126. We have shown that though the certificated teacher does not compare unfavourably as regards maximum salary with the clerical officer, he is at a great disadvantage when compared with the higher clerical officer or junior executive officer, and that even when certificated teachers receive the highest promotion within their branch of the school service, namely to that of Head of an elementary school, the large majority of them still receive salaries the maxima of which are below those of higher clerical or junior executive officers. This still leaves out of account the fact that officers in higher clerical and junior executive grades have prospects of promotion to posts with salary maxima far in excess of anything within the reach of a Head of an elementary school. These grades are the sources from which are filled the posts of staff officer and higher executive officer (maximum 650 for men and 525 for women) staff officer, higher grade, (maxima 750 and 650) and senior executive officer, senior staff officer and Head of a division or section with maxima of 860 for men and 700 for women. Further, some officers of these grades may advance still further if they are selected for posts in the administrative class with which we deal later.

127. We emphasise again that we are not comparing the duties in the two services or the precise nature of the abilities required to perform them. We are solely concerned with recruitment to the teaching profession from amongst the same group of young people to whom the civil service is also a practical alternative. The two vistas which present themselves leave us in no doubt that the scales are heavily weighted against the teaching profession.

The Administrative Class of the Civil Service

128. So far we have dealt mainly with young people who enter the civil service or the teaching profession from institutions other than the universities. There is, however, a large recruitment to teaching from amongst university graduates. About a quarter of the annual intake of qualified teachers to elementary and secondary schools are graduates; and not only a larger number but a larger proportion of the whole must in the future be university men and women if the types of school proposed in the White Paper are to be efficiently staffed. This leads us to a consideration of the Administrative Class of the civil service. We have no fear that any improvement in the salaries of teachers would affect the quality of those, all of them university graduates, who take the highly competitive civil service examination for appointment to the administrative


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class. But we are of opinion that the public system of education needs and should attract a fair number of people of like quality. They would presumably in due course fill some of the highest posts in the profession.

129. It is instructive, therefore, to examine the salaries and prospects of the administrative class, always bearing in mind that we are not attempting to evaluate the different types of service but to reveal the vista which presents itself to the university graduate who may be attracted to teaching but who is also of the quality which makes the civil service a possibility. The lowest grade in the administrative class is that of Assistant Principal with a salary range of 275 to 625. This is, in effect, a cadet grade and provided the young man gets through his period of probation satisfactorily he is likely to become a Principal within six or seven years with a salary range of 800 to 1,100. The normal expectation of a civil servant in the administrative class is that he will become at least an Assistant Secretary (salary range 1,150 to 1,500) some years before his retirement. What about prospects in the teaching profession? If a university graduate of the quality we have in mind chose the teaching profession he could not, under the Burnham scales, even if he received a special allowance, obtain a net salary as an assistant master in a secondary school of more than about 600. Even if he became a Head Master he would not be likely to be so well paid as a Principal in the civil service at his maximum, since there are only 8 Heads of provided secondary schools with an approved maximum of 1,100 or over; and 1,500, the maximum of an Assistant Secretary, is at present quite out of the question. Indeed, such a potential recruit to the teaching profession might well be chastened by the reflection that if he chose, and succeeded in entering, the civil service and became an Assistant Secretary by the time he was 50 years of age and so reached his maximum three years before retirement, he would receive as a pension, without contributing to it out of his salary, about the same annual sum as he could earn as an assistant master holding a post of special responsibility in a publicly provided secondary school. The same considerations apply to women but at a rather lower level of remuneration.

Other Professions

130. We make only a brief reference to one or two other professions in the public service which might present themselves as alternatives to a young man who was trying to make up his mind at about 18 years of age about a career. The normal remuneration in the lowest grade of the School Medical Service, and it applies to both men and women, is 500 rising by annual increments of 25 to 700; and there are many better paid posts in the medical service of local authorities, some of which carry high salaries. In the School Dental Service the scale is 500 rising by annual increments of 25 to 600 or in some areas 650 with a prospect of promotion to posts of 800 to 900. The period of training of a doctor is about six years and of a dentist four and a half for the licence and about five and a half for the degree. Appointments to the local Medical and Dental Service may be made some years after, or quite soon after, qualification. Again, there is the State Veterinary Service with its prospects of considerable expansion. The minimum period of training for the veterinary profession is five years. Candidates are eligible for appointment to the State Veterinary Service immediately on qualification, but preference is given to those with some experience of private practice. The initial salary is 400 per annum on a scale rising to 700; above that there are two grades with maxima of 850 and 1,000 respectively, while a few posts carry salaries well in excess of 1,000.


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The Professional Test

131. It is very important that the operation of salary scales should not give rise to anomalies and injustices within the profession itself. Some anomalies and injustices have already been revealed in the course of our examination of the scales from other points of view. We limit ourselves here to two further instances, one involving the salaries of Heads of schools, a subject about which we shall have something to say later, and both arising from the regrettable salary distinction which has hitherto been made between elementary and secondary schools.

132. We have said elsewhere that a graduate in an elementary school receives no real recognition for his degree. Let us compare the position of a certificated teacher, two-year trained, and a graduate certificated teacher, four-year trained, both of whom started on their courses of training at the same date and approximately at the same age, for example, eighteen, and both of whom performed all their service in London. Five years after the beginning of their training they are both on the same position on the Burnham scale and henceforth they proceed together to the same maximum on which, unless they receive promotion, they remain for the rest of their teaching lives. During this time the teacher with the lesser qualifications will have received two years' salary more than the other. Thus, in the course of a full teaching life, that is, assuming both retire at the age of sixty-five, the four-year trained graduate actually receives over 300 less than his two-year trained non-graduate colleague. Had both been appointed to a secondary school, the graduate would have earned over 3,000 more than his non-graduate colleague. The joint earnings of the two teachers in the secondary school, during a full teaching life, would have exceeded their joint elementary school earnings by well over 5,000. Anomalies such as these appear to have no justification, for in the elementary school the teachers referred to might well have been teaching children of the same age as in the secondary school and giving them a comparable type of education. Nor must it be forgotten that the graduate in the elementary school carries his heavy disability after retirement, since his pension will be some 60 a year less than that of a colleague possessing the same qualification in a secondary school.

133. Headships in the elementary schools carry with them definite additions to the scales for assistants, but in a rural area a woman Head Teacher of a school may get a net salary of about 5 a week at the maximum and much less during the earlier years following appointment. Only a very small portion of the rural headships carry with them a net maximum salary exceeding 8 a week, and the commencing salaries in these cases also are frequently very much lower. In London, provision is made in the scales by which the Head Teacher of the largest grade of school may rise to a net salary of over 11 a week. This represents the peak of professional ambition and opportunity in the elementary schools of the country, but it cannot be reached in any case before the age of forty-six. It is, however, well-known that, with the decline in the school population in London, schools of the larger size have almost disappeared and the better paid posts now rarely rise above the 10 a week mark.

134. There is also a curious anomaly involved in the calculation of Head Teachers' salaries in the elementary schools as compared with secondary schools. In the secondary schools a minimum of 600 is laid down for men and 500 for women, these minima being respectively substantially higher than the maxima of the corresponding assistant teachers' scales. The Head Master of a secondary school is consequently throughout his career the highest paid member of the school staff. In the elementary schools the


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minima for Head Teachers are fixed by adding a promotion increment to the minimum of the assistants' scale and the further addition of annual increments (the same in amount as those for assistants) for each year of service completed by the promoted teacher. One result of this is that enterprising and successful teachers who secure promotion to headships early in their careers start at very low commencing salaries and may for some years be paid considerably less than some members of the assistant staff. In extreme cases the Head Teacher has actually for a period been the lowest paid teacher in the school. The basis of the payment of Heads in all types of schools obviously calls for review.

The Educational Test

135. The existing salary scales have some very unfortunate educational results. They tend, not unnaturally, to attract the best teachers to the higher paid areas. It is not suggested that all teachers in rural areas are, in consequence, of a comparatively inferior kind, but it has been the constant complaint of rural local authorities that an embarrassing one-way tendency has revealed itself. It is well known that vacancies in higher scale areas attract a reasonably wide field of competition, whereas the areas on the lowest scale are frequently left without any choice. Such a situation is clearly the enemy of mobility which means free movement in many directions and not merely in one. We cannot emphasise too strongly the injustice to country children and parents which arise, first, from the rate of salaries in the lowest scale areas, and second, from the fact that even within these areas mobility is from rural to urban areas because of the larger size of schools and the consequent higher salaries of Heads.

136. The unfavourable consequences to the schools in the rural areas arising from their difficulty in competing with the higher paid areas for teachers are also reflected in the outlook of the rural school staffs and in their attitude, not indeed to their work, but to the rest of the teaching profession. The Scale II areas, which include what were, until 1936, Scale I areas, have by usage become known as the 'lower paid areas' and the Scale II teachers as the 'lower paid teachers'. This has produced an unhappy state of mind, and for many years the rural teachers have shown how much they resent the label which has become attached to them and the unpleasant suggestion of professional inferiority which it seems to imply. Their feeling of resentment tends to create a cleavage between the town and country teacher which presents a definite obstacle to the unification of the profession. There is little doubt that the continued existence of Scale II and the consequent impoverishment of the schools in the lowest paid areas must prove vexatious and discouraging to local authorities and teachers alike, and inimical to the best interests of the schools. We suggest that there is no case for more than two differentiated areas, relevant both to primary and secondary schools, and that salaries in the higher paid area should be arrived at by the simple device of a suitable addition to a basic scale. The higher salaries would be, broadly speaking, for London, and the basic scale would cover the rest of the country.

137. There is another part of the problem of mobility which the Burnham scales have so far failed to solve. Under the conditions governing the operation of the Burnham agreements, teachers on appointment must be placed on their correct position on the scales, that is, their salaries must be calculated strictly in accordance with their qualifications and years of service. From the age of thirty-five or forty onwards, teachers are more expensive than at any time previously, and appointing authorities, particularly governors of secondary schools, have not always proved ready to appoint


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older teachers to new posts when younger and less expensive teachers have been available. This has been especially noticeable when there have been plenty of teachers to go round. The result is that older teachers feel that they are 'frozen' in the posts they occupy and at a certain stage come to fear that the loss of their appointments may be almost synonymous with permanent unemployment. This produces a state of mental anxiety which is good neither for the teacher nor the school in which he serves. From time to time suggestions have been made for revising the grant basis of the scales so as to remove the incentive to appoint an undue proportion of young and therefore less expensive teachers and thus to encourage that mobility among teachers which is so desirable in the interests of schools and teachers alike. The fact that, up to the present, a solution of this problem has not been found should not prevent fresh efforts being made to find one, particularly as the administrative and financial changes outlined in the White Paper would bring about a state of affairs in which a satisfactory solution of this problem might be found.

138. It will be impossible to unify the teaching profession or, what is more important, to create a national education service which does justice to all children so long as salary arrangements penalise certain types of area or have a disturbing effect on particular groups of teachers.

A Basic Scale with Variety of Emoluments

139. We consider that there should be one basic salary scale for those who are recognised by the Board of Education as qualified teachers. The scale should be arranged so that teachers reach the maximum about the time when the majority of them are experiencing the greatest demands on their financial resources. To this basic scale there should be additions to the initial and the maximum salary, not necessarily of the same amount to each, to mark the possession of certain types of special qualification. A university degree would be one such special qualification; there would also be others. There would not be, as now, a separate 'graduate scale' and the consequent attempt to secure recognition of other qualification as equivalent to graduation. Under this arrangement the salary scale of a teacher would be the same in whatever type of school he or she was serving, except for additions for special qualifications or responsibilities or for serving in the London area.

140. Such basic scale with the additions proposed would do something to produce that variety of qualification matched by variety of emoluments which the schools need. But it is not enough. Salaries would still be too uniform and would not sufficiently recognise differences in human quality nor provide the necessary stimulus and encouragement to teachers who, by reason of ability or application or both, are capable of rendering services of special value to the schools. Local education authorities and governing bodies already have power within limits to reward posts of special responsibility, and they frame their own policy in the matter. Their practice varies. Payments at present are much too low to achieve the purposes mentioned above. The great majority of them are less than 50 and a very large number are 20 or less. There is also a tendency, quite understandable in view of the lowness of the present scales, to use this power to make additional payments in order to supplement inadequate salaries, and there are schools in which special responsibility posts are held in rotation for this purpose.

141. The principle of making additions to a teacher's salary to mark any special functions he is discharging or any special responsibility he is carrying from time to time is sound. Indeed, in our opinion, the proper organisation of a school of reasonable size makes necessary more posts of special


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responsibility than exist at present, or at any rate more than are at present remunerated as such. Such payments should, however, continue to be individual in character and not used so as to create a new scale of salaries for a whole category of teachers. We are clear that such additions should be substantial and not merely nominal, and they might well, as regards amount, be divided into two grades.

Heads of Schools

142. This brief analysis of the spread and structure of the emoluments properly awarded to the staff of a school leads us to the payment of Heads of schools. We resist the temptation to suggest the amount of salary which ought to he paid to the Heads of the most important of the publicly provided schools - and we do not judge importance by the age of the children concerned - but we say without any hesitation

(a) that the headship of a school, whether elementary or secondary, involves the possession of gifts and the carrying of responsibilities which make the present maxima in elementary schools wholly inadequate, and the range of salaries in the secondary schools, if a few are excepted, insufficient;
(b) that in large schools, the proper organisation of the school requires the creation of one post, or in very large schools possibly two posts, of Deputy Head carrying a salary between that of the Head and those of the holders of special responsibility posts.
143. If our view is accepted the lay-out of the staff of a large school would be something like this: the Head, one or two Deputy Heads, several teachers holding posts of special responsibility and being remunerated accordingly, and the remainder of the staff receiving basic salaries plus any additions to which they might be entitled in virtue of special qualifications. Such a structure would make it easier to recognise and reward differences of responsibility, of human quality and of special qualifications; and it would do much to make the world of schools and teaching satisfying and attractive to the adventurous.

144. If it is desired that the publicly provided schools should have the same freedom in recruiting their staff as the independent schools, they must be placed in a position to offer higher salaries than at present, both to their Heads and to other members of their staffs. Salaries in the independent schools vary greatly, and it is difficult to give any figures that can be called typical; but it is well known, by way of illustration and without mentioning the highest salaries, that the Heads of many of them receive from 1,500 to 2,000 and that many of the senior assistant masters receive salaries of 750.

145. There is one further consideration with regard to the salaries of Heads of schools. It will be necessary to adopt some mixed criteria, among which will have to be, for example, the size of the school, the size and nature of the area which the school serves and the qualifications and experience of the staff under the Head's direction. The weight to be given to the various factors will be very important and must not be such that the Heads of schools in rural areas, where the number of children in attendance is likely to be comparatively small, find themselves in receipt of salaries which inevitably tempt them to seek posts elsewhere.

General

146. We wish again to emphasise that what we have said is not intended as an assessment of the quality or competence of teachers now in the schools. It is an attempt to show that without improved salary arrangements and prospects


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the country will not secure the quantity, and still less the quality, of teachers required in the primary and secondary schools to give effect to the fundamental educational reforms which have been announced in the White Paper.

147. We wish also to make it clear that in pointing out certain respects in which the Burnham scales require revision we must not be thought to undervalue the great work which has been done by the Burnham Committees. They have substituted an era of peace for one marked by much friction and misunderstanding and bad feeling. They have evolved order out of chaos by reducing more than three hundred differing local authority scales to three in the elementary schools and two in the secondary schools. It is, however, inevitable that after a period of nearly a quarter of a century it should be found that certain provisions have not worked out in practice in the manner expected and that a revision of the whole system is due. But we insist that the teachers, the local education authorities and the public stand much in the debt of the Burnham Committees.

Recognition

148. The foregoing analysis of salaries reveals the system of recognition of teachers which we think should be adopted. The Board should recognise 'qualified teachers'. Qualified teachers would normally be teachers who have satisfactorily completed the minimum course of training required to give them the basic professional qualification. Under our proposals this would be a three-year course for those who entered upon their training at about 18 years of age or a shorter course for those whose age, attainments or experience justified it; for example, a shorter course for graduates or for those with substantial experience in some other occupation. The graduate who was trained would, as we have already explained, receive an addition to the basic scale in virtue of his holding a university degree; and the person who came into the teaching profession after some years spent in another occupation would, after securing the basic professional qualification, be placed on the basic scale at a point which took account of his age.

149. We are concerned, as our terms of reference require, with principles and future supply; and the basic principle which we have adopted is that the Board should in future recognise only 'qualified teachers'. It is not for us to advise on the application of this principle to teachers now in the schools. We realise that the Board will find it necessary for some time to come to recognise as qualified teachers a number of persons of good academic or other attainments who have not undertaken a course of professional training; indeed the Board must always reserve to themselves discretion to recognise exceptional qualifications or experience as justifying a dispensation from professional training.

150. It will be seen that we discard the use of the term 'certificated teacher' to indicate a trained teacher. The term has a meaning only in the elementary schools and when these schools, as such, disappear it would be fatal to retain it for anyone particular type of school; and it would be unwise, because of its previous connotation, to attempt to extend it to all schools. We prefer the title 'qualified teacher'; and, with our reservation that in certain circumstances other than trained teachers might be recognised as qualified teachers, we are firm in our conviction that as soon as the present emergency is over the Board should not recognise the appointment of any but qualified teachers.

151. We refrain from any detailed discussion of the question of the different rates of salary for men and women because it involves public policy in fields


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other than that of education. The work of women teachers is as responsible as that of men teachers. In so far as the argument for salary differentiation must rest primarily on the heavier family responsibilities of the majority of male teachers, we remark that if and when a national system of children's allowances is in operation this argument for salary differentiation will be weakened.

Conclusion

152. Before recording our recommendations on the salaries and recognition of teachers we make three points:

(a) We have refrained from suggesting what salary scales would be appropriate in the future and have confined ourselves, as our terms of reference require, to the enunciation of principles. These principles lead us to the conclusion that, whatever the precise emoluments of teachers may be in the future, they must be increased relatively to the emoluments obtainable in other occupations if the number and quality of teachers required for the White Paper reforms are to be obtained.

(b) It is our business to make recommendations which we consider will secure the teachers required. It is not our business to investigate the modifications of educational organisation or of the adjustment of financial arrangements between the central and local authorities which may be required to give effect to our recommendations. We are quite alive to the fact, particularly as regards rural areas, that drastic financial adjustments will be required if, in the distribution of teaching power, justice is to be done to country children and parents.

(c) An improvement in salary scales for teachers is required for a reason which may easily be overlooked. Although the White Paper does not go into any detail in the matter, it is clearly the intention of the Government to secure an increase in the provision of scholarships or allowances to enable young men and women to pursue courses of higher education, including a university education. These scholarships or allowances will not, however, tie their recipients to preparation for any particular profession. In other words, preparation for all professions and not only the teaching profession will in effect be subsidised. Elsewhere in our Report we recommend the abolition of the 'Pledge' which binds a student to enter the profession of teaching in return for the payment of his university tuition fees and aid towards his maintenance. But whether the 'Pledge' be abolished or not, it will become increasingly ineffective since young men and women will not pledge themselves in advance to teaching if they can obtain adequate financial assistance to pursue the course of their choice without any prior commitment. In short, recruitment to teaching will suffer in an increased degree compared with recruitment to medicine, engineering and so on unless the profession is made attractive enough to stand on its own merits.

153. Finally we draw attention to the different terminology which is commonly used when referring to the staffs of elementary and secondary schools respectively. The terms teacher and Head Teacher are normally applied to the staffs of elementary schools, and the words master (mistress) and Head Master (Head Mistress) to the staffs of secondary schools. We regard this distinction as objectionable and an obstacle to the unity of the profession. We do not consider the matter to be one requiring a formal recommendation but we suggest that the Board of Education, by the example set in their official documents and in other ways, should encourage the use of a common terminology for primary and secondary schools in the future.


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154. We recommend

(a) that the salaries of teachers in primary and secondary schools should be substantially increased;
(b) that there should be a basic salary scale for qualified teachers and that additions should be made to the minimum and the maximum salaries of the scale to mark the possession of special qualifications or experience;
(c) that allowances to reward those holding posts of special responsibility should be more widely distributed and should be substantial, and not merely nominal, in amount;
(d) that the post of Deputy Head, with a suitable salary, should be established in large schools; and that two such posts should be recognised in very large schools; and
(e) that the Board of Education should recognise only one grade of teacher, namely the grade of 'qualified teacher', and that, subject to the Board having discretion to accord such recognition to persons with good academic or other attainments, a qualified teacher should be a teacher who has satisfactorily completed an approved course of education and training.



CHAPTER 4

A CENTRAL TRAINING COUNCIL AND AN AREA ORGANISATION OF TRAINING

155. We now come to the constitutional changes mentioned in the Introduction to this Report, namely the establishment of a Central Training Council and the integration of training institutions and interests on an area basis. We consider that the President of the Board of Education should appoint a small Central Training Council to advise the Board on certain matters regarding the supply and training of teachers. At no period during the past 30 years has there been occasion for a rapid and large addition to the number of teachers. When we compare the modest increases of the past with the need, in the near future, to maintain an establishment of teachers increased by, say, 70,000, it is clear that the supply methods of the past will not be adequate. And when we consider the unintegrated variety of existing training institutions in the light of the teaching needs of the educational system envisaged in the White Paper, it is clear that only a carefully planned yet flexible scheme for the training of teachers will suffice. The Board must now assume the obligation, not of taking over the existing training colleges or of establishing new ones, but of ensuring that training institutions, adequate in number and quality, are available and are fused into a national training system. The planning of this programme of development on the lines which we shall recommend will involve creative, pioneering and experimental effort; and we consider that it should be undertaken on behalf of the Board rather than by the Board itself.

Duties of the Central Training Council

156. We begin by stating what should in our view be the duties of the Council during the initial stage, and we then consider the situation which will arise when that stage has been completed or substantially completed.

The Initial Stage

Our terms of reference enjoin us to report upon matters of principle and the President has specifically told us that he does not expect us to deal with details. Accordingly we have tried to lay down the general principles of a national training service organised on an area basis, but it is no part of our duty to prepare a detailed scheme for each area. Just


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as a Royal Commission upon a University is usually followed by a Statutory Commission for the purpose of translating its recommendations, if adopted, into practice, so, without pressing the analogy too far, we foresee the necessity of a body of persons who will be charged with the duty of applying one or the other of our alternative recommendations relating to the organisation of the training service.

The first duty of this body will be the visitation of each area and the examination of the available resources for training with a view to making recommendations to the Board upon the steps which must be taken to enable that area to play its due part in a national training service. It will be necessary for the Government to provide substantial sums of capital and income for the proper equipment of training colleges, for their extension and for the building of additional colleges; and the expenditure of these sums must be preceded by full investigation of local resources and full consideration of national needs. Financial assistance will be required both for existing colleges and for new colleges to be provided; and we note that the Education Bill now before Parliament provides, in Clause 93, for the payments of grants to persons other than local education authorities in respect of expenditure incurred by them on educational services. There is no doubt that some of the voluntary training institutions will require substantial assistance if they are to play their part in the new system of training.

The Council will have to report on the location and the nature of existing colleges, where new colleges should be provided and what their size and character should be. If the Council came to the conclusion that a particular college was superfluous or at any rate in its present form did not meet the requirements of the national programme it would report accordingly. It would be for the Board of Education to consider the Council's recommendations and, if they accepted them, to conduct the necessary negotiations to secure the training facilities required in each area. The object would be to plan the area organisation in such a way that, in general, each area was self-contained in the sense that it could offer suitable courses for the different types of teacher employed in the primary and secondary schools.

We expect the initial stage to last for a period between five and ten years, during which the training service will be organised, new training colleges will be built, and the Council will be busy forming links with the different area services and diffusing throughout the areas the experience gained in anyone of them. During this process valuable personal contacts between the Council and the area training authorities and the training institutions will have been developed.

After the initial stage

At some convenient date to be fixed by the President of the Board of Education the Central Training Council should (apart from its Annual Reports referred to later) be called upon to report upon its past and present work, upon what remains to be done to complete the framework of the training service and upon the question whether any part of its work should be placed upon a permanent footing. The Board of Education will thus be placed in a position to consult with the Council and to review the whole situation. The end of the initial stage lies so far ahead that we do not feel justified in making any specific recommendations as to what should then be done, beyond saying that, so far as we can forecast the situation, it will still be necessary to make some kind of central provision for the maintenance of the personal contacts to which we have referred and for continuously fostering the development of training policy.


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157. We wish to emphasise two things. First, that the need for teachers and, in consequence, the need for new training facilities will be very great and will be national in its scope. We therefore consider a central body, supplying the initiative and motive power, as quite essential at the beginning. Only under central direction can the new framework be brought into being. We do not mean that local initiative will not be forthcoming; indeed it is vital to the scheme. But we are sure that area training authorities would welcome assistance and stimulus from the centre. Second, that though we use the word 'area' we are not thinking of particular geographical areas but of the integration of training institutions which, because of their character and location, can be suitably grouped on educational grounds. But the last thing we wish is that the institutions grouped together in an area should be regarded as responsible for the training of persons living in that area or for the training of teachers to be employed in that area. There are positive advantages in students not being trained and in teachers not being employed in the locality in which they have been born and brought up.

Composition of the Central Training Council

158. We are of opinion that the Council should consist of not more than five nor less than three persons, including the Chairman who should devote the whole of his time to the work and receive a full-time salary. The Chairman should be a person of considerable standing whose career and achievements command respect in the educational world. The personality of the Chairman is of the utmost importance, because it is essential that he should develop close and continuous personal contacts with the members of area authorities and with the heads of universities, university training departments and training colleges. There should be three or four other members of the Council, and power should exist to pay them for part-time services in proper cases. Amongst the others should, if possible, be persons who have knowledge of training institutions, universities, agriculture, commerce, working class life, and of education in Wales. The Chairman might himself have had experience of one or other of these aspects of life. The Chairman and the other members of the Council should be appointed, in the first instance, for a term of five years.

159. It is vitally important that the members of the Council, and particularly the Chairman, should spend a considerable amount of their time 'in the field'. They should not merely sit in London and administer. That is not their job. We believe that universities, training colleges and other interests concerned will welcome direct access on their own ground to a small body (and particularly access to its Chairman) which is concerned solely with training, so that they can present and discuss all the problems involved by their participation in the new scheme.

160. The question of the constitutional relation of the Central Training Council to the Board of Education is a technical one the definition of which we must leave to those who are expert in the machinery of government. It seems to us, however, that the Central Training Council, while appointed by the President of the Board and being carried on the Vote of the Board, ought to have an independent existence just as the University Grants Committee, though within the framework of the Treasury, has an independent existence. The Council must be independent enough to advise the Board with authority and not be the mere mouthpiece of the Board. It should make and publish an Annual Report. The duty of inspecting training colleges will, of course, remain with the Board of Education, but the advice of H.M. Inspectors would be available to the Central Training Council. The administration of the Regulations relating to training and, in particular, the accounting for purposes of grant will remain with the Board.


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161. We recommend

(a) that the President of the Board of Education should appoint a Central Training Council for England and Wales consisting of not less than three nor more than five members; that the Chairman should receive a full-time salary and that the other members should receive suitable payment; and
(b) that the Central Training Council should be charged with the duty of advising the Board of Education about bringing into being that form of area training service recommended in this Report which the Board may decide to adopt.
The Organisation of Area Training Services

162. While we are all in agreement upon the recommendations relating to the supply of teachers and to the creation of a Central Training Council we are not all of one mind about the method of securing the integration, on an area basis, of the institutions which are to be responsible for the education and training of teachers. Some of us wish to place general responsibility for the training of qualified teachers upon the universities (in which term we include some of the university colleges) and recommend a scheme which requires the establishment of 'University Schools of Education'. Other members of the Committee recommend what may be called 'The Joint Board Scheme'. The main difference between them lies in the part which should be played by the universities. We now describe the two schemes in paragraphs 163 to 182 and paragraphs 183 to 196 respectively. As stated in our Introduction we distinguish these paragraphs by a vertical line in the margin.

UNIVERSITY SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION

163. We, Sir Fred Clarke, Sir Frederick Mander, Mr. Morris, Mr. Thomas and Mr. Wood, are of opinion that a major constitutional change is required in the organisation and administration of the education and training of teachers. We use the words 'education' and 'training' because there is a danger that the personal education of the teacher may be overlooked. It is as important for the teacher to be well educated as it is for the doctor or lawyer. He who would educate must himself be educated. But this does not mean that there is one thing called 'education' and another and inferior thing called 'training'. It is true that this conception of training held sway during the greater part of the 19th century. The teachers of the 'children of the poor' were not expected to be, and for the most part were not, educated persons. Training was, therefore, regarded as some process which had to be applied to young people so that, by conducting the narrow instruction required of them, they should be able to hold their own in the schools. But practices arising from the social and educational conditions of the 19th century are proving increasingly unsuitable to those of the present time. Training is no longer a matter of giving the intellectually undernourished some 'tricks of the trade'; it is the enlightenment of reasonably cultured young people about the principles underlying their profession which, incidentally, includes much more than teaching.

164. We wholly dissent, therefore, from any sharp distinction between education and training, as though the one were the proper concern of the best institutions and teachers and the other were not. Training is that part of the education of a student which emphasises that he is preparing himself for a particular profession. The studies and practices of one student which reveal that he is to be a teacher and not an engineer are as much 'education' as are the studies and practices of another student which reveal that he is to be an engineer and not a teacher.

The present system

165. The fundamental weakness of the present system is that there are 100


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institutions engaged in the training of teachers but they are not related to one another in such a way as to produce a coherent training service. The present Joint Examination Board arrangements, which are described elsewhere in this Report, have not led to the further results which were expected of them when they were planned some fifteen years ago. There is no doubt that the work of these Boards has had the effect of establishing useful contact between the universities and training colleges: contacts which are more intimate and fruitful in some areas than others. It is nevertheless broadly true to say that they have not
(a) brought into being any constitutional relationship between the training colleges and the universities as such,
(b) resulted in the university training department and the training colleges, though engaged in a common task, sharing any work or influencing each other's activities, or
(c) promoted amongst the training colleges themselves any more intimate relationship than they had 20 years ago so far as the pooling of staff and sharing of facilities are concerned.
166. Further, there are technical colleges, schools of art, schools of music, agricultural institutes and other institutions which provide instruction and maintain standards in subjects and skills which are of vital importance to many teachers. But only in very few instances have any of these institutions been invited to make any contribution to the training of the general body of teachers, though occasionally a student may take a third year course at one of them.

167. There are also the schools in which the students will ultimately find a place as teachers, and the local education authorities who will employ the great majority of them, Neither the schools, except to some extent those which are used for school practice, nor the local education authorities, save the very few who provide training colleges, make any contribution to the training of teachers or have any responsibility for it.

An integrated training service

168. It is clear to us that the idea of separate and self-contained training institutions must be abandoned. The problem is to retain the services of existing institutions in so far as they are or can be made efficient, to add other institutions which have a contribution to make and, with the co-operation of those whose responsibilities entitle them to an interest in the matter, to weld the whole into an integrated training service. There are, in our view, two workable alternatives which could achieve such an integrated service. One is to create a single national service directly controlled by a central authority. The other is to create a system in which real responsibility is borne by the constituent parts, each possessing authority sufficient for the tasks it has to perform.

169. We are opposed to a single centralised training service. We agree that to bring any form of integrated service into being and to guarantee its development will require, in the initial stages and for some years to come, the pioneering work of a central body of the kind already proposed. This body would advise the Board of Education and other interests concerned about the framework of the service, would plan its expansion over a number of years and would make recommendations to the Government about the financial aid required to create, develop and maintain it. We reject, however, anything approaching permanent central control over the training of teachers. Centralisation of power and authority has potential dangers in every sphere of education and nowhere are those dangers so great and subtle as in the


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training of teachers. The Board of Education must for many years to come, and perhaps always, be the sole authority with power to recognise a person as a qualified teacher, but neither the Board nor any other central authority should conduct or directly control the education and training of teachers. We therefore picture a national service consisting of a number of area services with a high degree of area autonomy.

170. We do not believe, however, that any area system for the training of teachers can be effective unless those who shoulder the responsibilities derive their authority from a source which, because of its recognised standards and its standing in the educational world, commands the respect of all the partners concerned and which, because of its established independence, is powerful enough to resist the encroachments of centralisation. The universities embody these standards and have this standing and this independence. But quite apart from these considerations the universities have an obligation to the whole educational system. Their vitality depends in part upon the kind of education given in the schools, both primary and secondary; and the schools, in turn, look to the universities for some measure of leadership in educational, as distinct from administrative, matters. There is no more significant way in which this mutual dependence can be expressed than for the universities to play a leading part in the initial education and training of teachers and for them to maintain a creative relationship with practising teachers and others concerned with the conduct of the schools.

171. These facts lead us to the conclusion that the universities should accept new responsibilities for the education and training of teachers and, to that end, should establish University Schools of Education. Some universities may find it desirable to establish more than one such School. We wish to state with the utmost frankness that we are not proposing something which is comparatively unimportant and which will make no substantial difference to the work of the universities. On the contrary our scheme asks much of them. It demands of the universities a richer conception of their responsibility towards education: it will also involve additional staff, both teaching and administrative. On the other hand we are not proposing that the universities should burden themselves with detailed administration, but rather that they should accept responsibility for the general supervision of the training of teachers and that in that task they should have the active partnership of those already engaged in the work and of others who ought to be engaged in it.

172. Our scheme places the training of graduates and non-graduates under the same authority, namely the University School of Education; and it makes institutions which are approved for the training of qualified teachers of all kinds an integral part of the School. We thus reject the idea, which is sometimes suggested, that the universities should concern themselves only with the education and training of teachers of older children. Such a proposal is both undesirable and impracticable. It is undesirable because the teachers of younger children need to be well educated and well trained, because the kind of education given in the primary schools profoundly affects the educational prospects of children when they reach the secondary schools, and because, particularly when the educational system is being unified, it would be doing a great disservice to education to take a step which divided the teaching profession. It is impracticable because some students, very sensibly, do not make up their minds about the type of school in which they intend to teach until towards the end of their course of training, and because there is and should be mobility of teaching staff between primary and secondary schools. Further the fundamental studies and disciplines of all


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teachers, primary and secondary alike, are, at their apex, the concern of the universities. A School of Education of the kind we have in mind could enrich the work of the departments of the university which deal with physiology, psychology and sociology, and not least because of the inclusion of teachers of younger children.

173. Our proposal does not in any way give colour to the suggestion that all teachers should be university graduates. We are convinced that many good teachers would be lost to the profession if any such requirement were insisted upon at the present time. But it does mean that the education and the training of anyone fit to seek recognition as a qualified teacher are the proper concern of a university. And if we are asked whether the university would be expected to cast its authority and exercise some supervision over studies which were not of degree standard, our reply would be that the university, without in any way modifying its present work and standards for university degrees, would be expected also to concern itself through its School of Education with other work and other standards. The institution of a School of Education would not mean that undesirable influences would be brought to bear upon the faculties and boards of studies of the university. There may be good reason for the modification of courses of undergraduate study, but the professional needs of teachers should not and, in our view, would not determine such modification. The abolition of the 'Pledge' and the consequent resolution of an anomalous relationship between the institution responsible for training graduates and the several faculties of the university would remove restrictions which now exist. We also anticipate that suitable university courses in non-professional subjects would be pursued by some students who intended to be teachers but were not seeking to take a university degree.

174. Nor does our proposal involve the concentration of training institutions within a certain mileage of the university. There should be nothing disturbing, though there may be something new, in the idea of a school or department of a university having an outpost in the form of an affiliated institution fifty miles away. If a university has a department of education the nature of educational provision makes it desirable that it should have such outposts. Of course a University School of Education would not admit to affiliation a distant institution unless the authorities of the School were satisfied that the institution was co-operating with other educational institutions in the area, for example, technical colleges, schools of arts, agricultural institutes, in such a way that it became a centre of cultural interest for the neighbourhood and was not merely an institution for the training of students isolated from the community. Moreover the whole of a student's course would not necessarily be taken at a distant institution; part of it might, in many cases, be taken at some other institution within the School; and conversely a student whose parent institution was within easy distance of the university might take part of his training, for example, a course of rural study and practice, at a distant college. In any case the School as a whole would be staffed in such a way that there could be regular courses of lectures given in the distant colleges by teachers from other parts of the School; and the traffic would be both ways. To break down the isolation of staff is even more important than mitigating the segregation of students.

175. Our scheme associates local education authorities with the management of the School. It also provides for the co-operation of institutions which, though not primarily devoted to training, offer instruction and other facilities which are essential to the education of many teachers; and this instruction and these facilities would be recognised by the School. We refer to such institutions


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as technical colleges, schools of art, schools of music and agricultural institutes. The specialist training colleges, such as those devoted to domestic science and physical education, would, like the more general training colleges, be part of the School of Education.

176. We thus picture the University School of Education as the unit which would provide the courses required for students entering at about 18 years of age and for those entering after graduation. It would also provide the great variety of courses required for those of all ages and stages of maturity who were qualified to pursue short or specialised courses. It would be for the authorities of the School of Education to determine, subject to some general direction from the Board of Education in order to ensure comparable standards, the length and nature of the courses which should be followed by those whose experience and attainments justified something less than the normal period. A student might enrol at one of the federated institutions but as his course developed he would find that the resources of all kinds of institution were available to him.

Constitution and Functions

177. We realise that the administrative machinery required for the management of a School of Education would not be the same in each university and that the precise functions of the School, and even the extent to which it exercised authority over affiliated institutions, might depend upon local circumstances. We are convinced, however, that it is the university and no other body which must be the focus of the education and training of teachers in the future. We record very briefly some suggestions for the constitution and functions of a University School of Education in its relation to the training of teachers of primary and secondary schools. In other chapters of this Report the modifications required to provide for the training of technical teachers and of youth leaders, both of which should be undertaken by the Schools of Education, are indicated.

(a) The School should be governed administratively, subject to the ultimate control of the university, by a Delegacy consisting primarily of representatives of the university and of training institutions affiliated to the School, with suitable representation, by co-option or otherwise, of the interests of local education authorities. The Chairman of the Delegacy would be appointed by the University.
(b) The School should be directed educationally, subject to the control of the Delegacy, by a Director and a Professional Board. The Director would be appointed by the university and the Professional Board would consist primarily of university teachers and representatives of those teachers in the affiliated institutions who were granted the title of 'Recognised Teacher in the School'.
(c) The School as a physical institution managed and controlled by the university, through the Delegacy would consist of a building owned by the university; but as an educational instrument with authority to supervise training and plan the pooling of training resources it would embrace the amenities of the affiliated and other contributing institutions.
(d) The School would absorb the existing university training department; and the Professional Board would replace the existing Joint Examination Board.
(e) The School would undertake the training of graduates. Some of their training might be taken at one or more of the affiliated institutions, if such an arrangement proved desirable and convenient. The Professional Board would be responsible for the examination of all students.


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(f) Training institutions would be affiliated to the School subject to the Delegacy being satisfied with their staff, buildings, internal organisation and financial position. They would retain their identity in that they would continue to have their own governing bodies and enrol their own students, but they would lose some of their autonomy in that the approval of the Delegacy would be required to the appointment of a principal or senior member of the staff of an affiliated training institution. The Delegacy would also have a voice in the establishment and distribution of teaching power throughout the affiliated institutions.
(g) The Delegacy would advise the university about which teachers in the affiliated institutions should be granted the title of recognised teacher in the School and would recommend the conditions, if any, under which courses undertaken in an affiliated training institution, or in any other educational institution with approved facilities, should be accepted as satisfying part of the requirements of a degree course.
(h) The School would offer a common professional qualification, which the Board would accept for the purposes of recognising a student as a qualified teacher, to graduate and non-graduate students alike.
(i) The School would plan educational investigation and research and it would organise and provide accommodation for refresher and advanced, courses.
(j) The main building of the School, separated possibly from other university buildings, should be so equipped with libraries, conference rooms, and other amenities that it became the centre of the professional interests of practising teachers in the area and the place to which local education authorities and other bodies concerned with education would look for accommodation and guidance in the matter of public lectures, conferences, discussion groups, exhibitions and other means of promoting the interests of education.
Finance

178. We leave the question of finance to be considered by the Central Training Council and the Board of Education. It is obvious that the university would require substantial additional funds to provide and maintain the kind of School of Education we have in mind. The training colleges, excluding those which did not qualify for affiliation, might, for the present, continue to receive direct grant from the Board, but the possibility of a block grant to the School to cover all the institutions affiliated to it should not be ruled out as the ultimate solution. Considerable sums of money will be required to establish any type of integrated system of training, but to focus this system on the universities will certainly not cost more than to bring into existence a self-contained independent system.

Conclusion

179. We make this proposal for a major constitutional change at a time when fundamental reforms are being made in our educational system, when we are within sight of full-time education for every boy and girl up to 16 years of age, with compulsory part-time education up to 18, and when it is necessary to attract to the profession of teaching men and women of high quality and potentialities. We believe that in years to come it will be considered disastrous if the national system for the training of teachers is found to be divorced from the work of the universities or even to be running parallel with it. We are not looking a few years but twenty-five years ahead, and such an opportunity for fundamental reform as now presents itself may not recur within that period.


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180. We do not say that the universities here and now are equipped or staffed to undertake the task proposed, nor even that they could qualify themselves for it without the closest co-operation with the training colleges, the schools and the local education authorities. But there is no good reason why the universities should not be adequately staffed and equipped for the purpose so that their Vice-Chancellors and Principals and other officers who already have heavy responsibilities should not be directly burdened with the new duties we propose. Nor is there any good reason why the universities should not co-operate with bodies whose activities have such a profound effect on their own work and welfare. Moreover, the study of education, its theory and practice, is one of the proper functions of universities, however inadequate the past provision for it has been. We admit, however, that our proposals would not achieve the result desired unless the universities accepted the full implications of their new responsibilities and willingly shouldered them.

181. We are asking the universities not merely to enlarge an existing department, but to change its nature and in co-operation with a variety of other educational institutions and authorities to explore, and exercise a measure of supervision in, fields which are comparatively strange to them. The country is passing through a period of change, upheaval and destruction which is making heavy demands on a host of responsible institutions, authorities and individuals; and sooner or later we shall be faced with an era of reconstruction which will make still greater demands. The test will then be not whether these things have been done in the past but whether they ought now to be done.

182. We, Sir Fred Clarke, Sir Frederick Mander, Mr. Morris, Mr. Thomas and Mr. Wood, recommend

(a) that each university should establish a School of Education, it being understood that some universities may find it desirable to establish more than one such school;
(b) that each University School of Education should consist of an organic federation of approved training institutions working in co-operation with other approved educational institutions; and
(c) that University Schools of Education should be responsible for the training and the assessment of the work of all students who are seeking to be recognised by the Board of Education as qualified teachers.


THE JOINT BOARD SCHEME

183. We, Dr. Fleming, Mrs. Hichens, Sir Arnold McNair (Chairman), Miss Ross and Mrs. Stocks, have formed a different view as to the organisation of the training service. We begin by considering what should be the function of our universities in regard to the training of teachers. There are three approaches to this question.
(i) In Scotland, where the percentage of the whole population which goes to a university is higher than in England, the percentage of teachers who receive their general education at a university and become graduates is also higher than in England. But the Scottish universities do not give teachers their professional training. This is done by the National Committee for the Training of Teachers in Scotland, constituted by Minutes of the 'Committee of Council on Education in Scotland', and acting through a Central Executive Committee. The National Committee delegates to Provincial Committees the management of the four Training Centres, St. Andrews and Dundee, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh, the executive


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officer of the Provincial Committee being the Director of Studies of the Training Centre. The conduct of the three training colleges, the Glasgow and Edinburgh Roman Catholic Training Colleges for women and the Dunfermline College of Hygiene and Physical Education for women, is delegated to Committees of Management. The Directors of Studies of the St. Andrews and Dundee Training Centre and of the Edinburgh Training Centre are respectively the Professors of Education in the Universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh. The universities are represented on the Provincial Committees which are responsible for the Provincial Training Centres. The courses of training lead to certain qualifications granted by the Scottish Education Department and known as the Teacher's General, Special and Technical Certificates. The universities have their own arrangements for the granting of degrees and diplomas in education. These degrees and diplomas do not, however, confer a qualification to teach in Scottish schools.
(ii) Some of our colleagues consider that the universities should be asked to create University Schools of Education and to accept general responsibility for the training of all teachers.
(iii) We have formed a view which is intermediate between the two preceding views. Our approach to the problem is: What is the contribution which the universities, having regard to their experience and their resources and their other present and future obligations to the country, are best qualified to make, and what are the best ways in which they can make it?
184. If we may venture upon a few general observations upon the functions of the universities, we may say that in our opinion their main duty consists and properly consists in teaching basic subjects and in the advancement of knowledge. For a variety of reasons, historical and other, they also participate in the provision of training for certain professions, but this is a subsidiary function, which proceeds further in some professions than in others, and the universities cannot undertake all kinds of professional training. We are also impressed by the fact, now a matter of common knowledge, that many new demands are being made upon the universities which will take effect as soon as the war comes to an end; and it is our view that in considering those demands they must exercise a high degree of discrimination, accepting only those tasks which they are best fitted to carry out and rejecting those for which they are unsuitable instruments. We do not consider it to be either practicable or desirable from the national point of view that they should accept responsibility for the training of all teachers, and we shall now indicate what in our opinion should be their contribution to the public educational system, with particular reference to the supply and training of teachers.

185. In the first place, we consider that the universities, or at any rate some of them, should be better equipped with staff and money for the purpose of carrying out research and investigation in the theory and practice of education. Some training colleges also are already engaged in this work. To an increasing extent they should regard it as one of their duties, and should make provision for members of their staffs either to undertake it as part of their work in the training college or to be seconded for that purpose to the universities. But it is peculiarly the duty of the universities, because so many educational problems are not the sole concern of a department of education but involve collaboration with other university departments such as those of philosophy, psychology, divinity, physiology, social science or studies, fine arts, music and physical education. Individual initiative is the essence of successful research, but in order to make the best use of the


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resources available in the universities and the training colleges we consider it necessary that in this respect they should keep in close touch with the national body concerned with educational research which we describe in Chapter 17 of our Report.

186. In the second place, in view of the increased provision of financial aid for university students which has been foreshadowed by the Government, we expect to see a larger number of teachers being educated at the universities and graduating there. If, however, as we all recommend, the 'Pledge' is abolished, students in universities will no longer be earmarked as prospective teachers from the beginning but will be free to choose any profession or occupation. After graduation, intending teachers should be trained either in a university training department or in a training college, according to the kind of training they want and the various alternatives available. This choice will be facilitated by the recommendations which follow.

187. In the third place, we are going to recommend an important development in the use to be made of the Joint Boards. Fifteen years ago the universities (with one exception based on grounds which do not require discussion here) at the request of the Board of Education took over from that Department the responsibility for the testing and examination of students in training colleges for the purpose of their recognition as certificated teachers. Each university and the training colleges grouped round it (some quite near, some at a distance of many miles) formed a Joint Board, which is responsible for the appointment of the external examiners (who are for the most part members of the staff of the university), and for the conduct and standards of the examinations. The Chairman of the Joint Board, who is sometimes a Vice-Chancellor, certifies the results of the examinations to the Board of Education. The composition of the Joint Boards varies but usually includes the principals of the training colleges, representatives of the university, representatives of the governing bodies of the training colleges, and not infrequently one or more directors of education. One or more of His Majesty's Inspectors attend meetings of the Joint Boards by invitation. The Joint Boards appoint Boards of Studies or Subject Committees. Syllabuses are discussed between the external examiners and members of the staffs of the training colleges, and in this way a good deal of contact between universities and the training colleges has resulted in some areas. In the areas under the control of some Joint Boards this contact has developed further than in others.

188. It is clear to us that the training colleges value the connection with the universities established by these Joint Boards and the attendant Boards of Studies and that they would welcome closer contact with the universities, provided that it takes the form of a partnership between equals and does not lead to the universities having a predominant influence in the training of the students in the training colleges.

189. The nation as a whole has woken up to the deficiencies of its public educational system, and at the moment we are witnessing one of the most widespread and insistent of popular demands for its reform. The universities are amongst the bodies to which this demand is addressed, and they have an important contribution to make towards its satisfaction. We appeal to them, in the first place, to ensure that their training departments shall be as efficient as care and money can make them, and shall be regarded as important in every way as a department engaged in preparing students for their degrees; and, in the second place, to accept the view that the universities' contribution towards the improvement of our public educational system should be the concern of the universities as a whole and not be looked upon as the duty of their training departments alone. We shall now elaborate the


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development of the Joint Boards, which we regard as the principal instrument of the universities' contribution.
(a) We are of the opinion, in the light of the experience of the past fifteen years, that the time has now arrived for going beyond the contact which is concerned with examinations and studies and for developing between the universities and the training colleges and between the training colleges themselves a wider relationship, and we believe that this can best be done by making use of the existing Joint Boards and of any new Joint Boards that may be created. For this new purpose the Joint Boards must be enabled to equip themselves in several ways. They consist at present, for the most part, of representatives of the universities and of the training colleges, but the increasingly closer relationships between the training colleges and their surrounding districts and the greater inter-dependence that we have recommended between the training colleges and the schools require that the Joint Boards should reinforce themselves by the addition of other persons interested in the well-being of our educational system, such as directors of education, teachers, parents and other representative citizens.

(b) The Joint Boards should be in close and direct touch with the Central Training Council and should aim at co-ordinating the training work of the university and of the training colleges so as to create a training service organised upon an area basis and linked up with the Central Training Council to form part of a national training service. For this purpose they will also establish relations with technical colleges, art colleges and schools, agricultural institutes and other educational institutions in their areas. They will in fact function as the instruments in each area of our general policy of integrating the training agencies and facilities. Hitherto the Joint Boards have tended in each area to develop relations between the training colleges and the university rather than relations between the training colleges themselves. One of the new developments that we have in mind is that in each area the university and every training college should become conscious that they are all engaged, each in its different way, in the common task of training teachers, and that the experience, and to some extent the training potentialities, of each should be reciprocally available for the purpose of a more unified service.

(c) The Joint Boards should appoint small executive committees and must have the necessary office accommodation and staff. What that staff should be is a matter for discussion with the members of the Central Training Council who visit each area. In some of the areas it may be necessary to appoint a whole-time officer of considerable standing.

(d) The university training departments and the training colleges should preserve their separate identity, and the Joint Boards should exercise, in respect of the final assessment of the students of both (including their practical teaching), the control which they now exercise over the examinations taken by the training college students. The courses of study and the examinations in both cannot be identical, for normally the students in the university training departments will be graduates and the students in the training colleges will not be, though it should be made possible for a student to enter the institution which will best meet his particular needs.

(e) One of the new duties to be discharged under the direction of the Joint Boards will be the arrangement of the Practical Training in Schools and the Continuous Teaching Practice to which we refer in Chapter 6.


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190. The following sub-paragraphs indicate a number of specific ways in which these objects can be achieved:
(a) Refresher and other courses for serving teachers. We recommend that the Joint Board should be made responsible for organising the provision of Refresher and other Courses for serving teachers given either on university premises or on the premises of training colleges or on both, and during either term or vacations. We attach importance to the desirability of teachers, while attending these courses, being resident in university or training college buildings, as the case may be, and there may be periods even during term when they can be housed in training colleges owing to the absence of students engaged on continuous school practice. The courses should be both professional and upon specific subjects on which the teachers wish to refresh or add to their knowledge.

(b) Sabbatical Terms. We think it probable that the Joint Board will play an important part both in making the necessary arrangements for teachers to be allowed sabbatical terms and in helping them to make the best use of them.

(c) Consultation upon appointments and use of staff. We recommend that, through the instrumentality of the Joint Board, the university and the training colleges should develop a practice of consultation upon certain of their appointments and upon the use of their staff. While there are some subjects in which it will usually be desirable for the university training department and each training college to have its own teaching staff, there are other subjects in which it is better that sharing should take place between some or all of these institutions. The teaching strength of the whole group of training institutions will be increased if in the making of appointments the needs of the group are taken into account. Similarly it will often be of value that a member of the staff of one institution who is an expert in a particular subject should give a course of instruction upon that subject in another institution, and it may often be possible to borrow the services of a member of some institution outside the group, such as an agricultural or a technical college. The co-operation in training referred to in this sub-paragraph can be fruitful only if it is regarded as co-operation between equal partners.

(d) Reciprocal attendance of students at courses of study. The careers of students in the universities who intend to enter the teaching profession and of students in the training colleges follow different lines. With unimportant exceptions, the former complete their general education before they begin their professional training: the latter receive their general education and their professional training concurrently. Nevertheless it sometimes happens that there are courses of study given in one institution, be it the university or a training college, which students of the other can, when distance permits, profitably attend, and this also occurs as between the training colleges themselves. We recommend that the universities and the training colleges, through the medium of the Joint Boards, should explore these possibilities and facilitate attendance when it is profitable and practicable.

(e) Governing Bodies. Already in some areas the universities are represented on the governing bodies of the training colleges, which in turn nominate representatives on the Courts of the universities. We regard this reciprocity as most desirable. We recommend that the universities should be invited to nominate representatives upon the governing bodies of all the training colleges with which they are associated in the common membership of a Joint Board, and that where the governing organ of the university


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is a large Court, such as exists in most of the modern universities, the university should invite the training colleges to be represented upon it. It is a necessary condition of the recognition of a training college by the Board of Education that it should have a governing body.

(f) Educational Centres. In some areas, and perhaps eventually in all, the Joint Board should, by means of financial provision made by the Treasury, be responsible for a building which would become the Educational Centre of the area for the use of members of the staffs of the university, of the training colleges, of other educational institutions in the area such as technical colleges, colleges of art, drama, physical training, and schools of all kinds. This building should be used for the purpose of informal contact and formal meetings and addresses and discussions of any kind that may interest the members of these staffs and the teaching profession as a whole. While affording some of the amenities of a club, it should be something much more than a club, and should be an instrument for the development of an alert public opinion upon educational problems throughout the area. It should be near the university and in some cases might be a part of its buildings. Some universities may wish it to be also a centre of interest in connection with their extra-mural adult education. The Joint Board should consult with the Central Training Council upon the establishment of Educational Centres of this kind.

(g) Staff contacts. Above all, we believe that the universities have an opportunity of making a substantial contribution to the welfare and attractiveness of the teaching profession by developing, or developing further, friendly relations and contact between the members of the staffs of the university, the training colleges and other colleges and of the schools in any way possible. In this way much can be done to destroy the feeling of isolation from which some members of the staffs of the training colleges suffer. We must, however, emphasise our view that this policy should not aim at the dependence of the training colleges upon the universities but rather at strengthening and broadening the life of both. We should much prefer to see the training colleges acquiring a higher status by reason of their own work and merits than that they should attempt to derive it from their connection with the universities.

191. We have been dealing mainly with closer relations between the universities and the training colleges by means of a development of the existing Joint Boards. But we must again stress our view that there is at present far too little contact between the training colleges themselves. We are satisfied that much could be done both by them and by the university training departments to create out of their somewhat isolated operations an integrated training service in which greater use could be made of the resources, both personal and material, of all these institutions without destroying their individuality. The Joint Board, strengthened in the way that we have suggested, seems to us to be the most suitable instrument for this purpose.

192. At present H.M. Inspectors are responsible for the final assessment of the students' practical teaching, both in the university training departments and in the training colleges, for the purpose of recognition of a student by the Board of Education as a certificated teacher; and the assessment is made in consultation with the teaching staffs of those institutions as part of their general final examinations. The university training departments and the National Froebel Foundation also award their own diplomas with the aid of external examiners, but H.M. Inspectors are not concerned with them. In the interest of unifying the teaching profession by establishing the same qualification for the right to be described as a 'qualified teacher', we


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recommend that the examinations taken by graduates in the university training departments should not carry the University Diploma and that the examination, which could not be identical with the examination taken by training college students, should also be controlled by the Joint Board. This recommendation would not obliterate the distinction between graduate and non-graduate teachers, but would mean that both classes would obtain a common professional qualification accepted by the Board of Education. The term 'Diploma in Education', if retained, should be reserved for rewarding more advanced studies.

193. As mentioned above it is our duty to recommend principles for adoption and not to prescribe details. We are convinced that it would be a mistake to prescribe a rigid and uniform system for the relations between the universities and the training colleges and each of the latter in every area. There is wide diversity in the size, character and aptitudes both of the universities and of the training colleges, and it is in our opinion highly desirable that that variety and flexibility should continue. What our educational system needs is variety and freedom to experiment, rather than rigidity and uniformity. Accordingly we recommend that representatives of the Central Training Council should as soon as possible visit each university area and confer with representatives of the universities and the training colleges upon any changes required in the composition and powers of the Joint Boards to give effect to the recommendations outlined above, and generally upon future development.

194. We have three further comments to make:

(a) At Oxford there is at present no Joint Board, because there are no training colleges in association with the University of Oxford. If any of the new training colleges are placed in or near Oxford, the University should be asked to create a Joint Board.

(b) It may be desirable to alter the areas of some of the existing Joint Boards, but it will be necessary for the Central Training Council to bear in mind, before they subdivide any of the existing areas, that many of the suggestions and recommendations that we have made for the integration of the training service upon an area basis presuppose an area comprising a substantial number of training institutions. already existing or to be added in future.

(c) Having regard to the peculiar educational conditions prevailing in Wales, and the constitutional character of the University of Wales, we concur in the recommendations about Wales contained in Chapter 16.

195. But we owe it to our colleagues who differ from us and to those who read this Report to explain why we are unable to accept the University School of Education Scheme. The reasons are as follows:
(a) If the proposed acceptance of responsibility by the universities for the training of all teachers were to become a reality and not remain merely a gesture, the desire to make the most of the university connection would in our opinion inevitably tend to bring about the concentration of the many new training colleges required upon the university cities and towns. which for the most part are crowded industrial areas in which it is already difficult enough to find adequate accommodation for hostels on healthy sites and adequate ground for sports and physical training.

(b) The concentration of training colleges upon the university towns would in some cases increase the difficulty of finding adequate facilities for what is described in Chapter 6 as Practical Training in Schools and preclude access to that variety of schools which can be enjoyed by students of training colleges situate in the larger country towns.


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(c) Our schools, and in particular our rural schools, are already suffering from the unduly urban outlook of our teachers, and in our opinion this tendency must be counteracted and not aggravated.

(d) We are often told that our schools are suffering from the too academic outlook of many of their teachers, and we are opposed to a policy which would tend to emphasise that outlook.* It is inevitable that insistence upon the successful passing of examinations, and the concentration upon specific subjects of study thereby involved, should bulk large in the life of the universities, and should tend to produce in the universities a particular outlook on life. It must not be forgotten that for the vast majority of the quarter of a million or more of the teachers needed by our schools the predominant qualities required, in addition to a good general education, are an interest in, and an understanding of, children and a desire to live one's life with them and help them to develop themselves on the right lines - qualities which have no necessary connection with university standards at all and are apt not to receive due recognition and encouragement in an academic atmosphere, but will be adequately safeguarded in the training colleges. Just as our educational system needs variety and flexibility, so we must avoid the production of our teachers on a standard pattern.

(e) As soon as the new educational reforms have gathered their full momentum and the three-year course of training has been established, we estimate that at any given moment there will be about 30,000 students actually in receipt of training to become teachers (as compared with 12,000 in 1938-39), and if this number is to be added to the existing number of university students, which in 1938-39 was 37,000, and after the war is expected to increase considerably and will include a larger number of students intending to graduate and become teachers,

(i) the total number of students for whom the universities will become responsible will be excessive, and
(ii) it will be marked by an excessive preponderance of students preparing themselves for one profession.
If the training college students are not to become full members of the student body of the university and share in all the activities of university students but are to remain a kind of 'sub-student', a most undesirable differentiation would arise which could only harm the training college student.

(f) In conclusion, the Joint Board scheme is more flexible than the University School of Education scheme; it involves an association of equals in the discharge of a common task instead of making the training colleges the dependants of the university; and by bringing the Central Training Council into direct relations with the training colleges it gives greater scope for the power and influence of that Council. As a result of these and other factors, the Joint Boards will in our opinion be more effective instruments than University Schools of Education for the purpose of raising the standard of training.

*See the following passage in 'History of Elementary Education in England and Wales', by Charles Birchenough, 3rd edition, page 399:

'A grave danger to educational progress lies in the academic outlook of many secondary schools, fostered by a system of school leaving examinations, which unless carefully watched, tend almost inevitably to have a bias in the direction of prescribed University courses. In the same way the more a training college approximates to a university standard the greater is the danger of passing all students along well-defined routes instead of encouraging those with particular capabilities to develop them and to specialise in the various arts and practical subjects. The danger is avoided once a variety of institutions of high standing in art, music, crafts, etc. are utilised in connection with the training of teachers.'


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196. We, Dr. Fleming, Mrs. Hichens, Sir Arnold McNair (Chairman), Miss Ross and Mrs. Stocks, recommend
(a) that some or all the members of the Central Training Council should, as soon as may be practicable after its establishment, visit each joint Board and confer with it, and with the Universities and Training Colleges represented on it, upon
(i) any modification in its area,
(ii) the acquisition of further powers,
(iii) the addition of new representatives,
(iv) the further staffing and office accommodation,
that may be required to enable it to discharge the functions assigned to it;

(b) that the joint Board thus reconstituted should become responsible for the organisation of an area training service in which there will be a university training department and training colleges preserving their identity and being in direct relation with the Board of Education and the Central Training Council, and in particular should, in addition to their present duties, make or ensure the making of arrangements for

(i) Practical Training in Schools and Continuous Teaching Practice,
(ii) refresher and other courses for serving teachers,
and, so far as distance and other factors may permit,
(iii) enabling the students of one training institution to receive instruction in others,
(iv) enabling members of the staff of one training institution (more particularly specialists) to give instruction in others;

(c) that, with a view to making reciprocally available the resources of the university training department and the training colleges in each area, so far as distance and other factors may permit, the university (in respect of its training department) and the training colleges should through the instrumentality of the joint Board develop the practice of consulting upon appointments to their staffs and the use of their staffs;

(d) that in each area the university should be invited to nominate representatives upon the governing bodies of the training colleges, and that the university, if its constitution provides for the representation of external bodies upon a Court, should invite the training colleges to appoint representatives;

(e) that the passing of the examinations in the university training departments and in the training colleges, which must necessarily differ in content, should result in obtaining a common professional qualification accepted by the Board of Education, while the term 'Diploma in Education', if retained by a university, should be reserved for rewarding more advanced studies;

(f) that the joint Board should be responsible for the examination and assessment of students both in the university training, department and in the training colleges for the purpose of the grant of the above-mentioned professional qualification; and

(g) that the joint Board should consult with the university and the training colleges as to any steps that may be required to equip them to carry out research and investigation.


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CHAPTER 5

TRAINING AND TRAINING INSTITUTIONS

197. We have presented two alternative methods of organising an integrated service for the education and training of teachers. We now consider training courses and training institutions. We have several recommendations to make but we reserve the details of two of them for the next chapter. One of these is concerned with the course of training and the other with the staffing of training institutions. Our reason for devoting a separate chapter to them is that they are drastic and require somewhat lengthy explanation, and our reason for treating them together is that each of them involves a measure of co-operation between local education authorities and schools on the one hand and training institutions on the other far beyond anything which has been practised in the past.

198. Certain verbal difficulties have to be met in writing this and some later chapters of our Report. These difficulties arise from the two alternative schemes for the area organisation of training which we have presented in Chapter 4. If the 'University Schools of Education' scheme were adopted there would be no separately organised university training departments, whereas under the 'Joint Board Scheme' there would be such departments. Sometimes the difficulty can be surmounted by referring to the training of graduates, but on the other occasions it is necessary to use the term 'University Training Department', though it may or may not prove to correspond to the future pattern of organisation. We use the term 'Area Training Authority' to cover either a University Delegacy which the establishment of Schools of Education would involve or the corresponding authority under the Joint Board Scheme.

Training

199. We wish at the outset to emphasise certain objects which we intend should be secured by our proposed reform of existing training arrangements. In the first place, institutions other than purely training institutions, such as technical colleges, colleges of art, colleges of music and agricultural institutes, should be brought within the ambit of the training service and contribute to the education of students preparing to be teachers. In the second place, admission to training should not be limited to those who either at the end of a secondary school course proceed to a training college or at the end of a degree course seek a one-year course of training. All forms of post-secondary education, such as that provided in technical colleges, colleges of art, agricultural institutes, adult education classes and such as that obtained independently at home or elsewhere, should be regarded, under reasonable safeguards and subject to compliance with adequate standards, as a proper qualification for a course of training. In the third place, courses of training should not be limited to a three-year course for those admitted without a degree and a one-year course for graduates. The training service should provide courses, suitable in nature and length, to meet the needs of applicants showing great variety as regards age, maturity, attainments and experience. A mature person whose maturity is matched by cultural interests and attainments pursued or secured otherwise than by a formal education, for example, by study which has been combined with home duties, by experience abroad or during work in some profession or occupation, should be as eligible for consideration for a shortened course as would be a graduate. Further, it should


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be open to older people to pursue their training while residing at home or in some place other than a recognised residential institution. We do not exclude the possibility of the professional qualification being obtained by means of part-time study and practice; indeed we provide for this in the case of part-time teachers in technical colleges and it might apply in exceptional circumstances to others. However certain it may be that the large majority of teachers will be recruited either direct from the secondary schools or the universities, it is of the utmost importance that the profession of teaching should be made attractive and accessible to those who have not followed an orthodox approach to it, and that training courses should be specifically adapted both in character and duration to their needs.

200. An important characteristic of the student body of a training institution is the wide range of ability and interest which is represented. This variety will not diminish as the field of recruitment is widened. We hope that in the future those who are qualified to enter upon a university degree course, and wish to do so, will not be prevented by poverty. Even so, there will be many students of high capacity who will prefer, or who will be better suited educationally for, a training college course rather than a university degree course, and there will continue to be those who have secured only the minimum qualification for admission to a course of training. Graduates in training range from the first-class honours man to the pass man. Moreover, the background of the science graduate is very different from that of the graduate in arts. There is also as wide a variety of personal interests among graduates as there is among non-graduates.

201. We deal in a later chapter with the approval of courses, the assessment of students' achievements and the responsibilities in these matters of the Board of Education and the area training authorities respectively. Courses consist broadly of 'Professional Subjects' and 'General Subjects'; and, in the main, the distinction between them is that professional subjects, unlike general subjects, are not studied with a view to a student subsequently teaching them in the schools. This distinction must not be pressed too far, since there is a close relationship between professional and general subjects in that every student must consider and must practise special methods of teaching individual subjects, and particularly those which he will be called upon to teach. Further, the English language, to which we shall presently refer, clearly belongs to both groups.

202. The best preparation a young person of 18 or upwards can have for his future work as a teacher is a course of study and activity which will result in his achieving a balanced development of mind and body during his student days. The course must, however, be planned and conducted in such a way that at the end of it the student realises that, far from his education being complete, he is about to enter upon its most significant stage: the stage which depends upon his own initiative and effort. We believe that this end will be served by an arrangement, such as we propose, which aims at bringing students into contact with fellow students and with staffs of colleges other than their own, including specialist colleges. This will make them aware of the importance of studies which they are not themselves pursuing and of high standards of achievement in subjects which they may be studying up to only a moderate level. In any case, the course of every student should be planned so that he has the experience of doing at least one thing as well as he can do it, and of being fully extended thereby. We refrain from enunciating any other principles. The training of teachers must always be the subject of experiment. It is a growing point of education.


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Duration of the Course

203. A two-year course is not sufficient for students entering upon their training at 18 years of age. The studies and activities required of them and the claims of school practice are such that their day is overcrowded with things that must be done, leaving them little time for necessary recreation and reflection. An essential element in education at this stage is a reasonable amount of leisure and a personal choice in the use of it. Many students in training colleges do not mature by living: they survive by hurrying.

204. The course should be lengthened for three reasons. First, the schools need better educated men and women and this better education cannot be secured unless students are released from the strain and hurry which now conditions many of them. Secondly, students in general have not, by 20 years of age, reached a maturity equal to the responsibility of educating children and young people; and thirdly, we intend that a longer amount of time than at present should, during training, be devoted to contact with and teaching in schools. We regard this longer course as necessary whether or not a period of compulsory national service is imposed after the war. We offer one warning. Our intention in recommending an extension of the course from two to three years would be frustrated if the longer period were used mainly as an excuse for a general increase in the number of subjects which students were called upon to study. We aim at a liberally conceived plan so that courses may be adapted to the needs, capacity and interests of each student.

205. We were urged by some of our witnesses to extend the course to four years, We do not accept this proposal; but later we recommend that training should be followed by a year of genuine probation regarded as an essential part of a teacher's preparation for his professional qualification.

206. We have considered the view that the graduate training course should be lengthened by the addition of a year and have rejected it. A student who has spent three or four years in obtaining a degree and then undertaken one year of training should take a post in a school and start upon his profession, unless he can arrange for a short period of work neither as a student nor a teacher. He is not likely to benefit from further training until he has spent four or five years in teaching. For these, as for other teachers, a refresher course would then obviously be of great value. The one-year post-graduate training must, however, become something more than it is at present.

207. The student having obtained his degree, must, like his fellow students entering other professions, expect to find his training more arduous than his undergraduate period. It is no part of our business to prescribe the length of terms or the precise distribution of a student's time between work in the training institution and work in the schools. But we consider that the graduate student ought to be in training from early in the September after graduation until late in the following July, with reasonable vacations and planned study or practice during parts of them; and that the time occupied by written tests and examinations should be cut down to the minimum. The adoption of this policy might involve the more generous staffing of the department, for the staff must have adequate leisure if they are to remain fresh and keep their knowledge and experience up to date.

208. We recommend

(a) that the normal period of education and training provided by area training authorities for those entering upon preparation for the teaching

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profession at about 18 years of age should be three years; and that the period of training for graduates should be one year;
(b) that suitably qualified persons other than graduates should be eligible for a one-year course of training; and
(c) that courses of training, varied in duration, should be provided to meet the needs of others whose attainments and experience, however obtained, justify their entering upon a course of training.
Professional Subjects

209. The essential requirements of all teachers are (a) some mastery of their own language and the power of clear speech; (b) a grounding in the fundamental principles of education; and (c) competence in the art of teaching. Training in these essentials must be provided for all students who intend to be teachers, whether they be graduates or non-graduates, They are 'professional subjects'. In practice the studies and activities which they involve are interlocked and become the responsibility of the staff as a whole. We treat them separately for the sake of emphasis and because we have a specific recommendation to make about each.

(a) Language and Speech

210. Language is the instrument through which teachers both teach and educate. Unless a teacher has at least a moderate competence in reading, writing, speaking and listening he is hampered at every turn. This competence is far from being acquired in the secondary schools. The Norwood Report is emphatic on this point. 'The evidence is such as to leave no doubt in our minds that we are here confronted with a serious failure of the Secondary Schools. The complaint briefly is that too many pupils show marked inability to present ideas clearly to themselves, to arrange them and to express them clearly on paper or in speech; they read without sure grasp of what they read, and they are too often at a loss in communicating what they wish to communicate in clear and simple sentences and in expressive and audible tone.'*

211. Three things are involved: clear and, if possible, pleasant speech; the power to say and write what one means; and the capacity to direct one's understanding to what other people say and write. Children are sensitive to the quality of a teacher's voice and, even though they may not give it any conscious attention, it not only influences their own manner of speaking, it also directly affects a teacher's ability to manage children happily. There are few students who will not need some help in the use of their voice and advice about their manner of speech. There are some who will need definitely therapeutic training and for such it should be compulsorily prescribed.

212. A person's powers of expression or understanding obviously depend largely upon his intellectual ability and upon his familiarity with the material with which he is dealing. But training and practice can improve powers of lucid expression and the art of reading and listening intelligently. We doubt whether set lessons on the English language meet the situation, though in very skilled hands they may be useful. Too often they become arid exercises in lifeless forms of expression. English is everyone's business; and a teacher, no matter what his subject, who is not incidentally training his pupils in a mastery of the English language is a failure. All members of the staff of a training institution should insist on students speaking and writing clearly.

*Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools, page 13.


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Clear speech should always be taken into account when assessing the quality of a student as shown by his school practice, and students should be made aware of this.

213. We are not here dealing with those who may make a special study of English language and literature or of speech training; nor are we expecting from the students an impeccable standard of taste in written and spoken English. What we urge is that every student should be trained to acquire a sufficient mastery of his own language to enable him to use it as an effective instrument for his own education and for that of his future pupils; and in the matter of speech we make specific recommendations.

214. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should require every training institution to pay attention to the speech of every student, and every area training authority to include in the assessment of a student's practical teaching his ability to use the English language; and
(b) that the Board of Education should require every training institution to make arrangements for the detection of speech disabilities and for the provision of speech-therapy and training where necessary.
(b) Principles of Education

215. The course of instruction usually called 'the principles of education' covers a wide range of studies. The object of such studies is to enlighten a student about the nature of educational processes and to enable him to appreciate their historical and social significance. They are essential studies because they help to make the teacher, and because the objective in teaching is a person and not a subject.

216. A necessary part of the course in the principles of education is instruction upon and observation of the physical and mental development of children. Teachers may sometimes be called upon to instruct older children in the elements of physiology; but, apart from this, some knowledge of the subject is essential for every teacher because every teacher is concerned with hygiene and with the posture and physical development of his pupils. In this sense physiology and physical education must be compulsory subjects for all students. Similar considerations apply to psychology, a subject which can easily be mishandled. Study of the mental growth and behaviour of children is vital to the teacher, but during training it must be study which is related to the student's personal experience and observation of children, and must therefore be intimately connected with his school practice. It is very desirable that young teachers, when they take their first post, should have some broad understanding of current thought in psychology, if only so that they may be alive to the fact that the backwardness of a child or his persistent bad behaviour may possibly have a psychological cause which demands the attention of some specially qualified person. When such specialists are called into the schools it is important in the interests of the child concerned that they should find in the teacher a sympathetic and intelligent colleague. The age and experience of students and the time at their disposal necessarily place limitations on the nature and the extent of the instruction which they should receive. Neither physiology nor psychology should be pursued as though the students were reading it as a subject in a degree course; nor should either of them be regarded as the reserved domain of specialist members of the staff. All the staff are to some extent concerned even though only a few may be particularly responsible for directing and integrating the studies and observations of students. We make these observations because we have reason


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to believe that in some university training departments, and perhaps in some training colleges, specialist lecturers in psychology, in particular, exact too large a proportion of the time available and expect too much of their students.

217. Other studies should be included under the heading 'principles of education'. Students should be introduced to some of the great classical writers on education even if they cannot, at the time, study them deeply. This is desirable so that students may realise that they will be the trustees of a great tradition and that the work of their chosen profession has exercised some of the greatest minds over a period of two thousand years. The esteem in which education is held in this country does not depend only upon what others think of the way in which teachers acquit themselves but also upon the value which teachers themselves place upon their profession. Teachers should also have some acquaintance with the history of educational systems in general and a more detailed knowledge of the history and structure of the system in their own country, as well as an appreciation of the place which their own school has in it. This involves an elementary knowledge of the powers and responsibilities of central and local authorities respectively, and of the part which voluntary effort has played in building up the system. The foundations of this knowledge can be laid during training. In particular, students should be given opportunities for observing educational practice in this country so that they may consider it in the light of their study of educational principles.

218. There remains as part of the understanding of the principles of education the need for teachers to appreciate the home circumstances of their pupils and the impact of the social services on the lives of children and their parents, The initial discipline of accurate observation of social conditions, and the stimulus to subsequent study of the economic and other problems which inevitably face teachers when they get to work in the schools, can be provided during student days. Students should be encouraged, as in many colleges they now are, to take an active part in social and educational work outside the walls of the college and thus lay the foundations of an interest in public affairs and of the practice of being a good citizen. We regard good citizenship as a habit of mind and conduct to be learned as much from example as from instruction; knowledge is necessary but is not enough. Citizenship has no foundation apart from habits of moral reflection and a high sense of duty. Instruction in the principles of education generously interpreted will afford the staffs of training institutions ample opportunity to explain and stress the duties of a citizen and to equip the teacher in his turn to do the same, more particularly in the higher forms of secondary, schools and in young people's colleges, but we do not consider that specific instruction in these duties should form a separate and compulsory subject for every student in training. At the same time, we realise the value to a school or college of having on its staff some teachers who have made a special study of the social services and of the machinery of government, both central and local; and in each training area there should be one or more training institutions which include these matters in their curricula as an optional subject under the name of social studies, public administration or some similar title. In some areas the existence of a university department of social science will help to meet this need.

219. It would be a profound mistake to regard professional studies as concerned only with the student's professional equipment in the narrow sense. Well planned courses in the principles of education play an important part in the personal education of students; they are part of the process of producing educated men and women for the schools. For this reason we suggest that advanced courses in any branch of professional study should be available for those qualified to profit from them.


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220. The main difficulty, we believe, about providing for the studies which we have grouped under the term 'principles of education' is that, having regard to future needs, there are not sufficient people in this country who are qualified to deal with them: that is, persons who will direct professional studies even though they will not be wholly responsible for the instruction of students and their practice. Lecturers in Education are difficult to find, and we doubt whether appointing bodies always know what they want or ought to look for. Such lecturers should have had significant teaching experience in schools, should have devoted a substantial period to study and observation of educational problems and practices in this country and, if possible, abroad, and should be men and women of high intellectual ability with a gift for organising the study and practice of students.

221. Special arrangements will have to be made if the new area training services are to be properly staffed as regards professional studies. The present activities and resources of the training colleges and universities are not of a kind that will provide either the number or the quality of persons required; and steps ought to be taken by both types of institution to remedy this. We consider, however, that a certain degree of responsibility in this matter rests with the Board of Education. The training of teachers is a national service even though it be organised on an area basis, and the proper staffing of training institutions and colleges is a national as distinct from a local responsibility. The Board should offer from time to time a limited number of valuable Fellowships to enable carefully selected practising teachers of high intellectual ability to give up teaching for a year or two and devote themselves to the study and observation of some aspect of education, including, whenever possible, study abroad. At the end of the tenure of their Fellowship some of these teachers would be well qualified to be appointed to lectureships in education. Others might obtain headships or post of special responsibility or be appointed to the post of inspector or to some administrative post in education. Appointments to Fellowships of this character and value should be made, under the direction of the Board, by a selection committee specially constituted for the purpose.

222. We therefore recommend

that the Board of Education should offer a small number of valuable 'Education Fellowships' to enable highly qualified practising teachers to give up teaching for a period of one or two years in order that they may study education, its principles and practice, in this country and, where desirable, abroad.
(c) The art of teaching and school practice

223. The course in the principles of education, as we have reviewed it, covers much of the study of the art of teaching, but effective practice can be obtained only in the schools. One of our reasons for proposing an extension of the period of training to three years is so that students may have more extensive and more varied experience of the schools before they enter upon their year of teaching on probation. It is in connection with this additional practical experience that we have a somewhat drastic proposal to make; and we deal with it at some length in our next chapter. We wish, however, to make it quite clear that we separate our consideration of school practice from that of the remainder of the professional work merely as a matter of convenience in the arrangement of our Report. We realise that the whole of the course and all the staff are involved in any substantial change which is made in the education and training of students.


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General Subjects

224. We now deal briefly with general as distinct from professional subjects. A teacher must be equipped for his task not only with professional skill but also with such a knowledge of the subjects he proposes to teach that he can justify his claim to teach them. We are dealing with teachers ranging from those who will be responsible for teaching groups of subjects to younger children to those who will be specialists in charge of a single subject to be taught to, among others, boys and girls of 18 years of age who may be on the point of entering a university for an honours degree course. The one type of teacher is not more important than the other but the course of study of the one will generally differ very much from that of the other. In saying this we do not mean that graduates will be needed exclusively in the secondary schools. On the contrary, we hope they will be found in every type of school.

225. Specialist teachers of what are called the academic subjects will usually, though not always, be university graduates. The schools need men and women of high academic attainments; and the course for an honours degree will remain the best type of course for many teachers. There is no doubt, however, that many of them would be best equipped for their task by studying a number of subjects for their degree up to a reasonably high standard; and during recent years an increasing number of universities afford facilities for doing this. Most teachers graduate as members of the old established Faculties of Arts or Science. We hope that in the future a larger number will graduate in such subjects as social science, fine arts, music, engineering, horticulture and agriculture. While the main object of the undergraduate must be to lay the foundations of a sound education by means of the intellectual discipline of studying one or more subjects up to a rather specialised standard, he can often, consistently with this primary obligation, take advantage of opportunities that may arise of attending courses, preferably without examination, in other subjects.

226. The general subjects in a course for those who are not reading for a degree should present few difficulties if colleges are of reasonable size and particularly if there is a pooling of staff. We deal in another chapter with art, domestic science, music and physical education because at the specialist level teachers are trained in these subjects in separate colleges. We do not propose to enumerate or discuss other general subjects, beyond stating that any subject which is available should be allowed as an optional subject for those qualified to pursue it. We have already mentioned social studies and we include such subjects as philosophy or a foreign language. We draw special attention to the fact that the Board of Education have announced in the White Paper that, in future, religious knowledge shall be an optional subject for the purpose of enabling a student to obtain a teaching qualification, rather than, as hitherto, an extra subject which could not be taken into account in determining his recognition.

Training Institutions

227. We deal with the staffing of training colleges and training departments separately though in the future, under either of the alternative schemes of reorganisation that we have proposed, staffing must to some extent be considered as a single problem.

Staffing of Training Colleges

228. In 1938, 200 men and nearly 700 women were engaged full-time on the staffs of training colleges recognised for grant and probably there were in addition some 200 to 300 part-time lecturers. The replenishment rate was about 30 to 40 a year, a figure which will have to be greatly increased.


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229. Members of training college staffs are recruited mainly in the late 20s or early 30s and the majority from the staffs of secondary schools. Many have had only secondary school teaching experience but a proportion have taught in elementary schools. Very few have held posts in public schools. Some have had overseas experience, usually in the educational field, and experience in various forms of social work. Principals have been recruited from the ranks of H.M. Inspectors and of local education authority inspectors as well as from the staffs of training colleges and of secondary schools.

230. Though we have found it convenient to refer to the content of training under the two headings of professional subjects and general subjects it would be wholly wrong to regard the staff as though some were concerned exclusively with one aspect of training and some with another. The whole of the staff are concerned with the personal education of the student and with his preparation for professional life. The staffing of an area or of a college, and particularly if the college is more or less remote from the centre of the area, must be seen in terms of creating a team whose members are complementary to one another rather than of collecting together a number of individuals each of them being expert in a particular subject. The qualifications of the staff as a whole must be such that adequate provision can be made for

(a) subjects such as are to be found in the curriculum of all universities e.g. English, history, geography, mathematics, science;
(b) subjects which are sometimes called 'practical subjects', some of which do not figure in a normal university curriculum, such as physical education, domestic science, music, art and crafts;
(c) the fundamental principles of education;
(d) the art and practice of teaching.
231. The staffing of training institutions is thus no simple matter. Training colleges quite rightly demand lecturers of high academic standing or those who are acknowledged experts in some art or craft. Many such highly qualified persons have had no experience of teaching in schools or in schools other than secondary schools. There are not many men and women who are qualified to teach their subject at the post-secondary level and who also appreciate the part it should play in the education of children and have had substantial experience of teaching it to them. Where such men and women exist they may be reluctant to join the staff of a training college under present conditions. The small size of many colleges means that one lecturer must play many roles and many specialists are naturally unwilling to do this or learn to do it. Moreover m many cases the isolation of a college, particularly when combined with small size, results in lecturers losing touch with others who profess the same subject and in their falling behind current thought and practice. To obtain the highly qualified staff required it will be necessary to improve conditions of service, to enlarge many of the colleges and to ensure that, wherever located, no college pursues its work in isolation. We make proposals about all these things. We are not thinking only of the appointment of highly qualified persons from the staffs of schools; we have in mind also the appointment of lecturers from amongst the younger teachers or research fellows in the universities. If the team is properly balanced it is not necessary that the staff of a training college should consist of men and women all of whom, before appointment, have had experience of the schools.


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232. The core of the staff of any training institution must, however, consist of men and women who not only have the requisite standing in their subjects but have proved themselves as teachers. The difficulty is to ensure that some members of the staff have recent and intimate experience of current school problems and practice. On this aspect of staffing we should not be dealing faithfully with our subject if we did not record that one of the criticisms levelled against the training colleges by some of the young teachers who gave evidence to us was that those who instructed and supervised them in the arts of teaching were not always themselves sufficiently acquainted with school conditions and practice. This is not surprising. When a teacher gives up the daily business of school life, with all the insistent demands of children, parents, colleagues and officials, he is in danger of losing touch with school realities, however keenly he may retain an interest in fundamental educational principles. This tendency to remoteness from day to day school problems is increased if there is a likelihood, amounting almost to a certainty, that the teacher concerned will never return to work in the schools.

233. A proportion of the staff of every training college, or at any rate of every area training service, should consist of those who have been appointed fresh from the schools. The present system of recruiting the staffs of training institutions cannot ensure this. There is only one solution: that is, the whole-hearted acceptance by local education authorities and others of the principle of secondment from one educational institution to another. We deal with this principle in Chapter 17 of our Report, and in Chapter 6 we make a recommendation about the application of this principle to the problem of the secondment of teachers from schools to training institutions.

Salaries and Conditions of Service

234. The staffs of training colleges are paid on approximately the same scale as the Burnham scale for secondary schools, with a fairly high proportion of posts of special responsibility carrying extra emoluments. To transfer from a secondary school to a training college often means, however, to transfer from a reasonable prospect of promotion to a service which is a blind alley; and this is naturally a deterrent to those who regard themselves as prospective candidates for headships of schools.

235. Appointment to the staff of a training college from a school should be regarded as promotion, which means that, among other things, the salary scales operative in the training colleges should be higher than those in the schools. Whether the training colleges should have a wholly different scale or whether service in a training college should be marked by a substantial addition to a basic scale is not a matter on which we offer any opinion, but it is quite useless to expect to get the staff which the training colleges need and the students deserve unless the present arrangement whereby training colleges and secondary schools have substantially the same scales is modified.

236. We may sum up the salary question by saying that training college work in all its ranges is work at a post-secondary level, and that the staff should have the qualifications expected of, and be accorded the status granted to, the staffs of institutions doing comparable work, the chief of which are the universities.

237. We recommend

that the salaries of the staffs of training colleges should be on a higher scale than that at the schools and should approximate to university levels.

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238. Among the conditions of service of training college staffs, the question of residence is very important. A large proportion, especially of women lecturers, are resident. There must be resident members of staff in institutions in which students are almost wholly residential. But there is no doubt that many men and women eminently suited for training college work will not accept posts which involve residence; while some others, we fear, become in the long run so accustomed to residence that they shrink from the alternative even when, in the interests of themselves and of the college, they should cease to be resident. We suggest that, in future, residence should not, wherever it can be avoided, be made a condition of appointment and that so far as practicable there should be a residential rota so that few members of staff are required, or indeed allowed, to be permanently resident. The conditions of residence are in many cases poor: the facts are given in the section on accommodation. A resident lecturer should have two rooms, privacy, and the means of entertaining friends without embarrassment.

239. Finally there is the question of teaching duties. The staffs of training colleges are overburdened in the sense that many of them cannot find the leisure for reflection, private reading and investigation which is, or should be, the prerogative of those engaged in work of higher education. This is partly due to the arduous duties imposed by school practice, but it is also part and parcel of the history of training and the comparatively poor estimation in which training colleges have been held. They have never ranked in the public mind as institutions which have a duty as regards the promotion of research and investigation in the field of education, and they have been financed according to the cheap standards to which we have already referred. The remedy for this is to lift the colleges to a higher plane by, among other things, offering conditions of service as regards teaching hours comparable with those which prevail in the universities. Only so will the colleges extricate themselves from their present position and fit themselves for their new tasks.

240. We cannot conclude this section on the staffs of training colleges without paying a tribute to their work in the past. It must be clear to anyone who makes the kind of enquiry which we have undertaken that the colleges vary a great deal in quality and that there are weak members on the staffs of some of them. But there has been an immense improvement in the content and conduct of elementary education during the past forty years; and that improvement is largely due to the education and training given to students in training colleges. And particularly it is due to the devotion of individual men and women on the staffs of the colleges who, without an eye to financial reward and often in the face of difficulties and discouragement, have put before themselves an ideal of service which students, critical as many of them may be, have taken to heart and carried with them into the schools to the lasting benefit of the children.

Staffing of University Training Departments

241. A training department should not be a self-contained unit with a permanent body of whole-time teachers who are expected to meet all the needs of the students in training. It should consist of

(a) a permanent nucleus staff, namely, a whole-time Head and whole-time lecturers and tutors, and
(b) a considerable number of persons giving whole-time or part-time services, but drawn from outside the department.
The department must be free to make use of the resources of the university as a whole, of the training colleges associated with it in the area organisation


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and of the schools. Not even all the members of the whole-time staff should be permanent: there should be on the staff experienced teachers fresh from teaching in the schools.

242. The principles of education will usually be in the hands of the whole-time and permanent members of the staff - the professor and lecturers in education - while outside help is more likely to be available in the other subjects. For instance, instruction in hygiene might best be given by someone on the staff of the faculty of medicine, and the university department of psychology might contain some person with special knowledge of children. Again, the best available speech-therapist might be on the staff of one of the associated training colleges. The Head of the training department should in suitable cases send a student in training to any course of instruction given in any of the associated training colleges or in any other institution in the neighbourhood that can meet the student's needs.

243. More use should be made by the training department of temporary members of staff, particularly as regards practical teaching. We attach importance to the employment of the part-time services of experienced school teachers, both in the instruction in method given in the department and in the supervision of the practical education in the schools. These teachers can give instruction in the department and demonstrations in their own schools. Local education authorities should be ready to allow some of their most experienced teachers to help in this way, either for part of their time or by secondment. Both the training departments and the schools would benefit from this contact.

244. In general, there should be few formal lectures. The work should be done mainly in the way of small classes and discussion groups. We consider that every student should be allocated to a member of the staff of the training department as his tutor, using that term in the widest and in the non-technical sense - a person who would keep in touch with the student on the personal side, for it is not possible for the Head of the department to do this for all his students. It follows from what we have said that either the Head of the department (be he a professor or not) must devote a large proportion of his time to organisation or he must arrange for a competent member of his staff to do so.

245. We have considered the staffing of a training department as it would be if it continued as a separate unit in the area training service. Whether it will so continue or will be absorbed in such a service depends upon which of the two alternative forms of area organisation is adopted.

Size, Location and Amenities of Training Institutions

246. The increase in training facilities which will be required after the war will involve much new building, both by way of additions to existing colleges and the building of new ones. In 1938 more than 60 of the colleges had less than 150 students in attendance and more than a third of these had less than 100. Only 5 had over 200. All except the largest colleges now find great difficulty in organising a variety of courses sufficient to provide for the diverse needs of their students. These difficulties will become almost insuperable if the same number of students are distributed over three years with the need for an even greater variety of courses at each stage of training. Wherever space permits, therefore, and the location of the college is suitable, the possibility of extension of all but the largest colleges should be considered.

247. The questions of size and location of colleges are interdependent. Many of the existing colleges are geographically isolated from other comparable institutions. In an area scheme of training no college should be self-contained;


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but the degree of co-operation with other institutions would vary considerably from college to college. A college which had easy access to outside resources could be fairly small and yet provide efficiently for the needs of its students, especially if the scope of the professional work which it undertook was limited and fairly homogeneous, as, for example, the training of teachers for younger children. Even so, we doubt whether a college of much less than 200 is capable of being staffed, equipped and organised both efficiently and economically. A college undertaking a wide range of courses and with less easy access to its neighbours would have to be much larger. We urge that those responsible for the planning of the location of new training colleges, technical colleges and other colleges such, for instance, as those of agriculture, art or theology, should seize any reasonable opportunity that may present itself for grouping together as large a variety of such colleges as possible. Each college will benefit from the proximity of the others in that the segregation of particular kinds of students will be avoided.

248. Quite apart from any extension of premises to provide for a larger number of students, many colleges, if they are to be recognised in the future, will have to undertake substantial building operations in order to make good their deficiencies of accommodation and amenities. We have recorded some of these in Chapter 1. It is intolerable, for instance, that large numbers of students should be sleeping in cubicles, and that many colleges lack even the minimum accommodation and equipment necessary for the proper education and training of their students. One of the things a student should learn at college is the art of private study; and he cannot do this without a room of his own. Nor can students have the kind of social life which is desirable unless there are adequate common rooms and other facilities to enable them to use their leisure in a sensible way. We need not emphasise, on the more professional side, how regrettable it is that the proper development of the various subjects of the curriculum should be hampered by lack of lecture rooms, laboratories, craft rooms and so on. Finally, the irritation caused to students and staff alike from inadequate dining, kitchen and other domestic arrangements is calculated to produce discontent and to damage the reputation of a college.

249. We have more than once referred to the segregation of students in training colleges by profession and, in most cases, by sex. Our recommendations would go a long way to break down segregation college by college; and in course of time it may be that the area training services generally will provide, as some individual colleges do now, for the education and training of those who do not intend to be teachers. This process cannot be hurried, but any proposal, in response to an effective demand, to provide courses for students preparing for another profession should be encouraged. Our proposals will also help to break down segregation by sex. Our witnesses were not unanimous on the question of 'mixed' training colleges, but we have no hesitation in saying that the proportion of institutions based on the principle of co-education should be increased.

The Provision of Hostels

250. It seems likely that in the near future there will be a substantial increase in the number of students receiving higher education of one kind or another, be it in universities, university colleges, training colleges, agricultural colleges, physical education colleges or other institutions. This increase will involve the provision of increased hostel accommodation, and we urge local education authorities and others who will be responsible for making this provision to explore opportunities of providing hostels, which


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will be available to students drawn from a variety of these institutions. The adoption of this practice would help still further to mitigate the segregation which at present adversely affects students in training colleges and perhaps also those in some other colleges.

251. We wish to make it clear that we do not suggest that students of either sex should necessarily reside in college or a hostel during the whole of their course. There are advantages to be gained from some of the older students being non-resident for a period. Moreover, the fairly widespread use of approved lodgings will probably in any case be necessary if accommodation is to be found for the large number of students who may be expected after the war.

The Life of Students in Training Colleges

252. We conclude with a brief comment on the life of students in college. This depends in part upon organisation, the length of the course, the quality of the staff, the location and size of colleges and their relation to other institutions; and especially on the amenities which are provided. On all these matters we have commented or made recommendations. We do not discuss the life of students in the existing training departments because they are subject to university conditions and regulations.

253. In many colleges there is a vigorous social life, expressing itself in societies of many kinds, which gives students the opportunity for the exercise of initiative, powers of organisation and other gifts. Some of these societies bring the students of different colleges together either in term time or in vacation; and this is all to the good. Further, some colleges have close relations with educational and social work in the neighbourhood and students help in youth clubs, play-centres, clinics and other social groups. We have been impressed by the variety and amount of special work outside their normal course of training which students have undertaken in war-time, and by the valuable contacts which evacuated colleges have made with their new neighbours. We are glad to record the appreciation which some local education authorities, hitherto unfamiliar with training, have expressed of the social and educational service which staff and students have rendered in their areas. The benefit to the college has been especially great when it has moved to an area of a different type from its own. Many valuable lessons have been learned which will no doubt bear fruit in the future.

254. The charge is frequently made that training colleges impose a discipline on their students which is obsolete and wholly unsuited to young people of from 18 to 22 years of age. We know this to be true of some of them. But it is not true of all nor, we believe, of the majority of the colleges. It is one thing to say, as we do, that the majority of students are unable to live a full and natural life because of the multiplicity of things they have to do in a short time. But it is quite another thing to say that the authorities of the majority of the colleges superimpose on this crowded life a discipline designed or calculated unduly to restrict the freedom or limit the interests and activities of their students. Those who make this wholesale charge betray an ignorance of modern training colleges and the liveliness of the students who inhabit them. In some colleges the lack of study-bedrooms, of library space, of an adequate number of lecture rooms or workshop or studio accommodation, together with restricted domestic arrangements, necessitate a degree of regimentation which staff and students alike know to be undesirable but which they realise cannot be wholly avoided.


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255. But whatever the material conditions, there will be general agreement that in any residential community of young people of either sex or both sexes there must be a measure of discipline. Experience shows, however, that regulations which do not command the respect of the majority of those affected by them hinder the development of the healthy public opinion upon which the success of the community depends and fail to encourage the self-reliance and self-discipline which are essential to adult life. Students in training colleges are of about the same age as university students, and there is no reason why they should not be trusted to the same extent. As they approach the time when they are launched into the world their conduct should depend less on the discipline imposed from above and more upon the standards which they have been encouraged to create for themselves. Unless they are allowed an increasing degree of freedom in the management of their own personal and social affairs, we cannot expect them, when they enter the schools as teachers, to have acquired that degree of maturity and that sense of responsibility which teachers ought to possess.

256. The authorities of most training colleges have already realised the validity of these principles. There are, however, some that have not emancipated themselves from the narrow and inflexible traditions of the past. Their attitude results both in stunting the development of students in their charge and in deterring other young people from adopting a profession, the training for which appears to involve an amount of control and of interference with their private lives which separates them from the vast majority of their own generation.


CHAPTER 6

SCHOOL PRACTICE: THE SECONDMENT OF TEACHERS FOR SERVICE IN TRAINING INSTITUTIONS: THE PROBATIONARY YEAR

257. We now expound in some detail the two proposals to which we referred in Chapter 5, namely, an extension and modification of the existing arrangements for school practice and the secondment of teachers from schools to training institutions. The operation of these two proposals would, in course of time, result in there being a comparatively large number of teachers in the schools with experience of the training of teachers; and as such a state of affairs is extremely desirable in the interests of teachers holding their first appointment we also deal in this chapter with the probationary year.

School Practice

258. School practice is at present primarily under the direction of the staffs of the training colleges. No specific provision is made for it in the schools as regards staffing, accommodation or equipment. The work of the schools in making school practice possible is an extra task thrown upon them. They generally undertake it willingly, though arrangements can often be made only with difficulty and the help of the school staff receives no special recognition. In all courses of training not less than twelve weeks are now given to school practice which, besides actual teaching for periods of varying lengths in the schools, includes visits of observation and demonstration lessons. Although there probably is no college where a student does not get one period of at least three weeks continuously in a school, it is very seldom that arrangements are such that the student during this time is able to become a temporary member of the staff, undertaking responsible work in that capacity and sharing in the full life of the school. School practice under present conditions has been criticised, perhaps with justice, as too brief, confused in objective and somewhat artificial.


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259. We suggest that there are, or should in future be, two distinguishable types of school practice and that both should, wherever possible, be required of all students in training. We call these (a) Practical Training in Schools, and (b) Continuous Teaching Practice, and we briefly describe the two types.

(a) Practical Training in Schools

260. The first purpose of school practice is to provide the concrete evidence, illustrations and examples to supplement and give point to the theoretical part of the student's training. The schools are his laboratory and the scene of his field studies. School practice of this character should include, as now, comparatively discontinuous periods of teaching and observation in the schools, visits, minor investigations and so on. This type of practice requires variety, ease of access to schools and flexibility of organisation, and it should be an integral part of the course in education. It would necessarily be mainly local and, as now, primarily under the direction of the training college staff working in co-operation with the schools. During a three-year course of combined training and further education it might occupy the equivalent of about 12 weeks and be spread in periods of varying lengths over the first two years of the course. It should be so arranged that it enables a training institution to discover any students who are so clearly unsuited for teaching that they should be advised, and if necessary required, to abandon preparation for the profession.

(b) Continuous Teaching Practice

261. The second purpose of school practice is to provide a situation in which the student can experience what it is to be a teacher, that is, to become as far as possible a member of a school staff. To achieve this he must spend a considerable time continuously in a school, developing relationships between himself and his pupils and colleagues and being responsible to the Head Master for the work he undertakes. This kind of practice should be characterised by settled conditions and continuity. It should not be under the direct supervision of the staff of the training institution. It should normally be taken in a school at some distance away, or even in another training area, and the staff of the school should be primarily responsible for directing and supervising it, though a student's college tutors might visit him occasionally.

262. During a three-year course continuous teaching practice should occupy about a term, preferably the sixth, seventh or eighth of the course. Upon the question whether the graduate in training should spend one whole term during his training on the staff of a school we make no specific recommendation, and content ourselves with saying that some training departments send their students to schools for a continuous term and are well satisfied with the results, and that some continuous period of reasonable duration is desirable. It is essential that there should be an adequate period in college following the continuous teaching practice, for discussion of the students' experiences. This might be as stimulating to staff as to students.

263. We are not suggesting that this two-fold experience of school practice could be made forthwith operative for all students. Indeed, even when all obstacles have been overcome there may be a few students to whom it should not apply: those, for instance, who because of previous experience of teaching are taking less than a three-year course, and others whose special needs might make some other form of practical experience desirable. But in general the ideal to be aimed at is that every student who enters upon a course of training should, in addition to undertaking school practice of the


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kind now required, spend a period of about a term in a school, and that during that period his training should be primarily the responsibility of the staff of the school.

264. This will involve the local education authorities and the schools in a real responsibility for training. The plan could not be successful without their wholehearted co-operation which we have every reason to believe they would give. The arrangements for placing individual students in schools for continuous teaching practice would probably have to be made by the area training authority rather than by any individual institution. For this, among other reasons, it is very important that local education authorities should be represented on the area training authorities and take an active interest in the management of the training of teachers as a whole.

The Responsibilities of Local Education Authorities and Schools

265. As regards the first type of school practice, that is Practical Training in Schools, the relations between the schools and the training institutions would not differ in kind from what they are at present, though it is to be hoped that they would still further develop to the advantage of both parties. Some schools used for Practical Training would also be used for Continuous Teaching Practice.

266. As regards the second type of school practice, that is Continuous Teaching Practice, it would be necessary for local education authorities to accept new responsibilities. The chief thing they would have to do would be to select, in consultation with H.M. Inspector, the schools which were or could be made, suitable to accommodate one or more students for a term of training. Quality of staff and adequacy of premises and amenities would be the main considerations and much might have to be done to some schools if each authority was to provide its quota of schools suitable for training. The staffs of the selected schools would have to be prepared to receive, and admit to their common room, a young student in training, and give him teaching duties and entrust him with responsibilities which made him a real member of the staff. The student, apart from exceptional circumstances, would be supernumerary to the staff in the sense that the school would be fully staffed for ordinary purposes if he were not there. The danger would be either that the student had too little to do, in which case the period would come to be regarded as a 'soft' part of his training, or that he was overburdened with work and responsibility by being treated as someone who relieved the regular staff of some of their regular duties. The accommodation of the school would have to be such that classes could be divided if necessary, and the staff such that they welcomed the presence of a learner and put themselves out to meet his needs. It is important that Continuous Teaching Practice should be available in schools of all types and sizes, including rural schools.

267. We do not propose to examine all the detailed arrangements which this proposal would involve because obviously the scheme can be brought to fruition only by those who will manage it. Difficulties may arise which we cannot foresee and therefore any stereotyped plan is at this stage out of place. We are, however, clear about two general principles.

(a) Status of the Student

The student must during his period of Continuous Teaching Practice be regarded as a student in training. Though he will be under the control of a member of the staff of the school concerned he should receive a maintenance grant from his training college or area training authority and not a salary from the school or local education authority.

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(b) Status of the School and its Staff

It will, of course, be a distinction for a school to be selected for training purposes, and the new responsibility might prove to be a valuable stimulus, especially to those schools which hitherto have had little contact with training. There should be one member of the staff, not necessarily the Head Master, entrusted with special responsibility for supervising the student's work during his term of apprenticeship. A person, other than the Head Master, who holds this post of tutor or supervisor should be regarded as holding a post of special responsibility and be remunerated accordingly.
General

268. The plans we have barely outlined would, we are convinced, have many advantages quite apart from the direct benefit to individual students. It would bring the schools and training institutions together in a co-operative effort and would remove some of the suspicion of 'college methods' which undoubtedly exists in some of the schools. It might result in some of those who undertook the work of training in the schools discovering in themselves capacities and interests which would lead them to seek work on the staff of a training college, either permanently or in connection with the secondment arrangements we have recommended in later paragraphs. In short, it might provide a wider and improved field of recruitment for the staffs of training institutions.

269. There remains the question whether there are, or soon could be, sufficient schools of the right quality to provide school practice of both kinds for a greatly increased number of students in training. We make no pronouncement on this matter beyond recording a few of the considerations involved and saying that the opinion of those best able to judge, including some local education authorities, appears to be favourable. It must be remembered that every type of school would be brought into the scheme: infant, junior and secondary schools of all kinds; comparatively small schools in the country and large urban schools some of which might have more than one student for Continuous Teaching Practice each term. It must also be remembered that on the basis of a term for each student one school could take three a year without having more than one at a time. There are more than 30,000 separately organised schools in the country. If one in six were suitable for Practical Training in Schools or for Continuous Teaching Practice or both, it would mean that 5,000 schools were available for school practice of one type or another. If half of these were used for Continuous Teaching Practice and on an average accommodated four students in training a year, staggered throughout the year, the result would be provision for 10,000 single terms of Continuous Teaching Practice each year. This is about sufficient to meet a doubled output from the training colleges as distinct from the university training departments. These are rough calculations. They are given only to indicate the measure of the problem.

270. We said earlier that our proposal was a drastic one; and so it is, even though a term of Continuous School Practice has been in operation on a very limited scale for some time in the case of students preparing to teach in secondary schools. It is drastic because it involves local education authorities in active work in the training of teachers and because it requires all training institutions to relinquish a measure of responsibility for the training of their students. We do not wish to minimise the exacting nature of the administrative arrangements which will have to be made to give effect to it, nor do we forget that special financial arrangements will have to be made


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both for students and for schools. We realise that the scheme may take several years to come into full operation, but it will be possible to make a beginning as soon as the area training authorities get to work.

271. This scheme for giving teachers in the schools some direct responsibility for the training of students is one of the two ways in which we intend to express the principle that in the teaching as in other professions it should be a privilege and responsibility for outstanding practitioners to take a definite, and not a merely incidental and casual, share in training their successors. The other way in which this principle should be applied is by secondment of teachers from the schools to the staffs of training institutions. We describe this in the following section.

272. We recommend

that, when the course in training colleges is extended to three years, students should spend about a term in Continuous Teaching Practice as members of the staff of a school in addition to the period spent as now in Practical Training in Schools.
The Secondment of Teachers for Service in Training Institutions

273. We spoke in connection with school practice of our desire to give local education authorities and schools a fuller share in the training of teachers. Our proposal for continuous teaching practice is one way of doing this. Another and complementary way is the proposal we make in discussing the staffing of training institutions in Chapter 5, namely, that a proportion of the staff of each college should consist of teachers holding temporary appointments in the colleges. These would be teachers who, because of their distinguished service in the schools, had been offered and were willing to accept secondment for a period of service in a training college. This would not only ensure that the colleges secured the benefit of the experience of those coming fresh from the schools; but also, and equally important, that the schools were constantly replenished by the service of those recently familiar with training colleges and training methods. Secondment would, of course, include some of the most scholarly teachers in the schools and would thus strengthen the staffs of the colleges on the academic as well as on the practical teaching side. All types of school should be represented in the scheme. The duration of the period would rarely be more than five years.

274. The principle of secondment involves an undertaking by those who release a teacher to re-employ him at the end of the period of secondment. This should not present difficulties to a local education authority with a large establishment of teachers. It would be fatal, however, if the seconded teacher were under an absolute obligation to return to his former employers; and this ought not to be, and as a rule is not, a condition of secondment. If it were, it would impose a new form of immobility on teachers at a time when freedom of choice and the greatest possible degree of mobility within all branches of the profession are essential.

275. We realise that we have touched only the fringe of the matter. Secondment of a teacher by a local education authority from one of its own schools to its own training college is comparatively simple. But we want to facilitate secondment also to the service of another education authority and to the service of voluntary colleges. There should also be secondment of teachers from schools which are not provided by local education authorities. We express no firm opinion on the proportion of training staffs who should be of this non-permanent kind, but if it were one-sixth, only some 200 teachers throughout the whole country would be involved at any one time, even when


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the establishment of training college lecturers is increased by 50 per cent, as it must be. Numerically therefore the problem is small. Yet the necessary arrangements would entail so much adjustment, both in schools and colleges, that nothing short of wholesale and detailed co-operation between all those engaged in the service of education can secure what we have in mind, and what we believe to be vitally necessary to training and to a proper relationship between training institutions and the schools they are intended to serve.

276. Although we have spoken chiefly of secondment from the schools to the colleges, we hope that the proposal will lead to other developments, such as the occasional exchange of lecturers and teachers between colleges and schools. The principle of secondment, as we show later, is indispensable to the proper staffing of colonial and other overseas education services and to an effective interchange between staffs of educational institutions and services generally.

277. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should take the steps necessary to make practicable the secondment of teachers from schools for a period of service in training institutions; and
(b) that each area training authority, in supervising staffing arrangements, should aim at securing that a proportion of the staffs of training institutions are teachers seconded from the schools.
The Probationary Year

278. Following the completion of a course of training at a training institution the student, provisionally recognised as a qualified teacher, should serve a year of teaching on probation; and this should apply to all teachers taking a first appointment in the schools. Their first year's work should be under supervision and inspection of a kind which makes it impossible for them to secure permanent recognition unless they have definitely shown sufficient promise to justify the expectation that they would make at least moderately good teachers. The practice of using teachers on probation for supply work in the sense of moving them from school to school to fill temporary vacancies on the staff should be forbidden. It might well prove, however, that a teacher who was ill placed in his first appointment ought to be moved in order that he might have a better chance of showing his abilities.

279. Many young teachers will no doubt seek their first post in a school on the staff of which they hope to obtain a permanent appointment, and we see no objection to this. But it may often happen that some students fresh from college should be advised to take posts in schools specially staffed for receiving and supervising teachers on probation, or where they are likely to be able to make some use of special gifts. When our proposals for temporarily seconding teachers from the schools to training institutions, and for making the schools themselves play a more responsible part in training have been in operation for some years, there will be a comparatively large number of schools which will include on their staffs a proportion of teachers particularly well able to help young teachers on probation.

280. To make the probationary year an effective part of the training of all students will take a long time and entail considerable development of administrative machinery; but only if it is so treated can the schools be saved from the person who has somehow got through his three years' training and only at the last lap reveals his incapacity. These will be few, and the main purpose of the probationary year is not to catch them but to help the young teacher to settle into his profession with the minimum of disappointment and


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discomfort. The damage done to a young teacher by his taking a first post under a personally unsympathetic Head or one who has no understanding of what the training institutions aim at doing may be irreparable, and such tragedies can be prevented only by a properly organised system of probation which is regarded as a continuation of the teacher's training period.

281. We recommend

that the Board of Education should in the first instance grant only provisional recognition as qualified teachers to students who have satisfactorily completed a course of training, and that such teachers should be required to serve a year of probation in the schools before the question of the confirmation of that recognition is decided.



CHAPTER 7

ART AND CRAFTS, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND DOMESTIC SUBJECTS

282. We devote a separate chapter to the supply and training of teachers of art and crafts, music, physical training and domestic subjects because these subjects and those who teach them suffer from certain disabilities in the schools. We regard the training of teachers of these subjects as so important that we print in Appendix I the substance of the reports which our four sub-committees have presented to us; and we earnestly commend these reports to all concerned. Not every member of the Committee is necessarily committed to all the proposals made in these reports, particularly as some of the suggestions might be regarded as going beyond our terms of reference. We confine ourselves to broad principles and we are unanimous in making the recommendations contained in this chapter which are based on those reports. We are deeply indebted to the co-opted members of these sub-committees for their expert guidance and to H.M. Inspectors who have so freely placed their services at the disposal of the sub-committees. For convenience we have placed this chapter in that part of our Report which is concerned chiefly with primary and secondary schools, but the supply and training arrangements we propose cover also the needs of youth service, young people's colleges and technical colleges.

283. We have already indicated in an earlier chapter that we group these subjects with the more academic studies, such as history, French and science, under the heading of 'general subjects' as distinguished from 'professional subjects'; the characteristic of general subjects being that students study them not only as part of their personal education but also because they intend or may be called upon to teach them. A broad, but by no means exclusive, distinction between the two types of general subject is that those with which we are here concerned essentially involve performance. It is because these subjects give children and young people the opportunity to do, make and create that they are so important. Even so, not all of them have secured recognition throughout the whole range of primary and secondary schools as fundamental to the education of children.

284. The Code, for instance, describes teachers of handicraft and domestic subjects as 'Teachers of Special Subjects', which is an inheritance from the days when these subjects were not regarded as an integral part of the work of each school but were taught in self-contained centres to which pupils from several schools were sent in relays. Some of these centres still exist. Physical education has had to emancipate itself from a narrow regimented form of drill, and has not yet fully established itself to the extent that every teacher


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appreciates, as a result of his training, that he is intimately concerned with the posture, physical health and development of his pupils even though he may have no direct responsibility for their games, physical exercises or work in the gymnasium.

285. Again, it is common knowledge that pupils in secondary schools tend to give up art and music when the school certificate examination looms ahead, though we take pleasure in recording the evidence of one of our witnesses who said that in her school the time devoted to music was steadily increased as the examination grew nearer, with satisfactory results. As the Norwood Report points out, art, music and handicraft have not received the attention in the secondary schools which they deserve.

'They were received as late-comers, when they were taught, they occupied a place outside the regular curriculum and were taught as 'extras' or spare time activities ... And so they are often regarded as an offset or relief to other subjects, appealing to some special powers of the mind otherwise neglected; in short, emphasis has been laid on their unique and special values.'*
286. This is the crux of the matter: these subjects are too often regarded as special when the one thing required is that they should be regarded as normal subjects. The disabilities from which they and those who teach them suffer in the schools will never be remedied until, late-corners though they be, these subjects secure a recognition which does not distinguish them as some decorative addition to the curriculum but treats them as an integral part of it at all stages.

287. Another reason for dealing separately with them is that teachers seeking a qualification in these subjects at the specialist level are trained in colleges devoted more or less exclusively to them. This is a matter of convenience. Subjects such as we are now discussing require, in general, more complicated apparatus and more space than other subjects, and the organisation of the activities of students whose day is largely devoted to the practice of skills is not easily fitted in with the work of other students. The fact, however, that specialists in physical education, art or domestic subjects are trained in separate colleges does not mean that they differ in significance from specialists in any other subject.

288. A further important consideration from the point of view of organising the integrated training service which we propose is that many of these specialist colleges are not part of the grant-aided system of education. We have already mentioned the six colleges for the physical education of women which, though they provide the teachers for girls' secondary schools, are neither grant-aided nor inspected by the Board of Education. They are not, in the main, publicly provided nor publicly aided or controlled institutions. Their fees are consequently high, and though some local education authorities make grants to enable students to attend them, there is no doubt that, generally speaking, the profession of teacher of physical education in girls' schools is not freely open to talent regardless of financial circumstances. Only the domestic subjects colleges and the two specialist colleges for teachers of handicraft are part of the organised system of training coming within the Joint Board examination arrangements which embrace all the two-year training colleges. Colleges of art and music are outside the organised system of training which applies to students generally, though they render extremely valuable service to a few third year students who attend them; and both have

*Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools, page 122 and following.


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their own arrangements for the training of teachers, the examination for art teachers being conducted by the Board of Education. The fact that specialist teachers of these subjects are trained in institutions almost wholly separated from the main training service tends to emphasise what the Norwood Report describes as their 'uneasy position, lying apart from the rest' of the curriculum.

289. We recognise the necessity for making separate provision for the training of specialist teachers in all these subjects. Such provision has advantages from the point of view of the maintenance of high standards, more particularly as the universities in general do not include them in their curriculum. The colleges must not, however, be isolated from the main training service: they must be a part of it. The duty of a specialist college is not only to train highly qualified teachers but also to offer short courses to students who, during a more general training, show special gifts in the subject in question. Similarly the duties of the staff of a specialist college should not be confined to giving instruction in their own college. They should be available for teaching duties elsewhere, and particularly they should be available for advising other colleges and the area training service generally on questions involving the development of their particular subject at other than the specialist level. Reciprocal arrangements should exist whereby the colleges devoted to more general subjects should admit students from specialist colleges to appropriate courses and should place their staff at the disposal of the specialist colleges when occasion arises. In short, there is ample justification for the establishment or continuance of specialist colleges provided neither staff nor students are segregated from the main service of training. They must make their contribution to the pooling of staff and resources. A further duty of these colleges is the provision of short courses for practising teachers and the prosecution of research.

290. Such are the principles which should underlie the activities of specialist colleges. There should be a college or centre in each area for the training of specialists in each of these subjects; but it would be foolish to expect all the colleges to conform to a single pattern. The colleges for physical education are primarily devoted to the training of teachers. In the domestic subjects colleges there is a high proportion of students who do not intend to be teachers. The colleges of art and of music, both of which have hitherto undertaken the training of specialist teachers, are mainly concerned with the training of those who do not intend to teach. Certain colleges of art should in future become an integral part of the training service, working in particularly close association with selected training colleges. There are few colleges of music, and the probable line of development will be for one or more training institutions in each area to devote special attention to music and to work in as close co-operation as possible with a college of music in their area or elsewhere or with the department of music in a university. Students of outstanding ability, if deemed eligible, might be admitted to the college of music or to the university either for part of their normal course or for a special period of training after the completion of their normal course. The principle of co-operation between training institutions and other institutions should operate throughout. For instance, both the domestic subjects colleges and the colleges of physical education should be in close touch with the department of medicine in the university as well as with technical colleges and colleges of art and other institutions whose work is related to their own. In our recommendations we use the term 'colleges or centres' to denote the provision which should be made, though its shape will vary from subject to subject and perhaps from area to area.


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291. There is one matter concerned with the recruitment of teachers of these subjects which we wish to emphasise. The training provision in each area, taken as a whole, should furnish a gateway through which men and women who have acquired qualifications in various ways, or who may have been practising artists, musicians or craftsmen outside the field of education, can enter the teaching profession. The necessary training courses should be provided by specialist and general colleges co-operating to meet the needs of individual applicants.

292. We refer to the reports printed in Appendix I for further information about the present position as regards training and future needs. Before we record our own recommendations we wish to emphasise two or three points. It is vital that the compulsory part of the course in the principles of education in all colleges should cover the study and the observation of the physical growth and development of children and their need for giving constructive and creative expression to what they experience, feel and think. It is also necessary for all training colleges to realise that their own students should be given systematic opportunities during their course for enjoying activities of a like character, irrespective of whether they intend to teach these subjects in the schools. They are essential to the personal education, and often to the serenity, of many students. Finally, we draw attention to the fact that the training colleges will be set an impossible task in attempting to train teachers of these subjects in sufficient numbers and of the right quality so long as they have to deal with so many students who, on admission, are bound to confess that during their last three or four years at school they have steadily been deprived of an education in these subjects.

293. We recommend

(a) that in every area training service there should be one or more colleges or centres which devote special attention to the education and training of teachers of art and crafts, of music, of physical education, and of domestic subjects, respectively;

(b) that these colleges or centres should be closely associated with other institutions, including those not dealing primarily with the training of teachers, which provide for a high standard of achievement in these subjects, such as colleges of music or of art, technical colleges and the medical, music or other departments of universities;

(c) that the function of these colleges or centres should be (i) to train specialists in the respective subjects, (ii) to offer shorter courses to the student or practising teacher who wishes and is qualified to make a rather more special study of one of these subjects than can be provided for in the more general colleges, (iii) to offer courses of varied duration and scope to meet the needs of those men and women who, having acquired a high standard of skill outside the field of education, desire to specialise in the teaching of one of these subjects, (iv) to provide refresher courses, and (v) in association with other institutions to prosecute investigation and research; and

(d) that these specialist colleges should share in and contribute to such general pooling of staff and amenities as is practicable in each area, and that, in particular, by the loan or exchange of staff or in other ways, they should be ready to give advice about their own particular subject to other colleges.

294. The recognition and the salary arrangements of teachers of these subjects are unduly complicated and, combined with the present status of the subjects themselves, result in poorer prospects of promotion than are open


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to teachers of the more academic subjects. Our own view is that teachers of these subjects who have taken a three-year course, or a shorter course in virtue of attainments already acquired, should, like teachers in general, be recognised as 'qualified teachers' entitled to the basic scale of salary. Like other qualified teachers they would be eligible to receive additions to the basic scale to mark additional qualifications and the holding of posts of special responsibility; and they should be as eligible as others for appointment as Heads of schools.

295. We recommend

that teachers of art and crafts, music, physical education and domestic subjects should not be distinguished from teachers of other subjects in the matter of recognition, salary and eligibility for promotion to posts of special responsibility or Headships.



CHAPTER 8

THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND OF THE AREA TRAINING AUTHORITIES

Approval of Courses

296. The Board of Education recognise training institutions under their Regulations for the Training of Teachers, and originally they were responsible not only for approving courses of study and syllabuses but also for the conduct of the final examination of students in training colleges. The Joint Boards took over from the Board of Education the responsibility for the examination of students in training colleges some fifteen years ago. The subjects of the curriculum were at that time divided into two groups: professional subjects and general subjects. The professional subjects were the principles and practice of teaching, hygiene and physical training. The general subjects were further classified into Group A and Group B. The subjects in Group A were English, history, geography, mathematics, science, Welsh, French, German, Latin. Those in Group B were handwork, music, drawing, needlework, housecraft and gardening. Students were required to follow courses in all the professional and in five of the general subjects, of which English was compulsory; and at least one subject had to be taken from Group B. In order to pass the final examination a student was required (a) to obtain a sufficient aggregate of marks in the examination as a whole, (b) to pass in the principles and practice of teaching and in English, and (c) to pass in at least three of the remaining four subjects of his course. The number of general subjects required for a pass was reduced if any subject was taken to an advanced stage. No advanced course was provided in any of the professional subjects nor was an advanced course provided in all the general subjects.

297. When the Joint Boards assumed responsibility they were at liberty to suggest changes but these had to be submitted to the Central Advisory Committee for the Certification of Teachers, who advised the Board of Education about their acceptance. In fact, the scope and balance of the curriculum have remained very much what they were fifteen years ago except that there has been a tendency to reduce the number of subjects a student must study and also to develop courses in which a number of subjects are integrated in a single course. Further, in most schemes English literature has ceased to be a compulsory subject, although all students are still required to pass an examination in English language. The syllabuses in each subject are considered by the Boards of Studies set up by the Joint Boards and any change


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made in them must be approved by the Joint Boards and ultimately by the Board of Education. Syllabuses are constantly under revision, and H.M. Inspector's advice is usually sought at all stages. Common syllabuses may be adopted by many colleges, or a college may submit its own.

298. The present arrangement thus leaves the initiative for change and development with the colleges, acting through the Joint Boards and their Boards of Studies. Final approval rests with the Board of Education. With one quite clear modification we consider that the present arrangements are sound in principle. We wish the colleges, as integral parts of the area training authority, to have the maximum incentive to develop their work in response to the demands made on them. Growth is not likely to be healthy unless it is rooted in the colleges themselves. Direction from the central authority should therefore be reduced to a minimum. As, however, the Board of Education must remain responsible for recognising teachers as 'qualified teachers', and as they are in a better position than any other body to assess the probable needs of the schools, and have the machinery for knowing how the standard in one area compares with that in another, they, the Board of Education, should remain responsible for ensuring that courses of training as a whole are properly balanced as regards professional and general subjects and that the general subjects offered by students provide adequately for their personal education and for the needs of the schools. We do not, however, consider that syllabuses should be submitted to the Board of Education for approval. These should be prepared, as now, by Boards of Studies, but be subject to the approval of the area training authority. H.M. Inspectors would be available, where desired, to give advice and they would, of course, inspect the work of the colleges and report upon the effectiveness of the syllabuses.

299. We recommend

that approval of curricula and syllabuses for all types of students in training should be the responsibility of the area training authority subject to compliance with requirements made by the Board of Education as regards general adequacy.
Assessment of the work of Students

300. The final assessment of the work of training college students is made by the Joint Boards on the evidence of a final examination consisting of written and practical tests. These tests are planned and conducted with the aid of external examiners who are appointed by the Joint Boards on the recommendation of the Board of Studies. The Board of Education accept the recommendations of the Joint Board as to the eligibility of each student for recognition as a certificated teacher. But the Board of Education retain responsibility for the maintenance of standards in the assessment of practical teaching and are the final arbiters of the question whether a student shows sufficient competence as a practical teacher to justify his recognition. Some Joint Boards ask for the services of H.M. Inspectors as external examiners in handwork and needlework. It has always been understood that this was to be a temporary arrangement, and the number of Joint Boards asking for this help has declined. H.M. Inspectors also assess the standard of practical work in physical training.

301. We regard responsibility for the assessment of its students as the hallmark of a fully developed and responsible educational institution, and we therefore consider that the area training authority, possessed as it will be of all the resources of the institutions associated with it, is the proper body to


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take full responsibility for the final assessment of students, and this responsibility should include the assessment of practical teaching and physical training. The final assessment cannot be carried out without external help; and external examiners should be made available through arrangements between area training authorities. By these means each area training authority would use as an external element in examinations a member of the staff from another part of the country. We do not, of course, exclude external help from other sources. H.M. Inspectors should be available for advice and should inspect and report upon every aspect of training, including the arrangements made for the final assessment of the work of students and the evidence on which that assessment is made: but the final assessment itself should not be the concern of H.M. Inspector or require his approval.

302. The final examination in its old form, taken by all students as a kind of climax to which the whole course moves, will no longer be easy to arrange owing to the establishment of the term of Continuous School Practice which we have recommended. In any case we believe its survival to be wholly undesirable. Before the war a number of experiments in assessment of students, based on their work and progress throughout the course, had been made and the reports upon these experiments were promising. During the war the method of assessment on college record has been used on a large scale in the case of men students, and the result appears to be satisfactory. Moreover, flexible methods of assessment are very necessary for the different types of courses which are now developing, such as the grouped courses to which we have referred and courses for teachers of young children, including children in nursery schools. The technique of assessment by other means than by that of a final examination will require careful consideration in the light of experience. Whatever the exact procedure, the evidence for the final assessment should include reports from the responsible teachers in the schools where the student has taught, reports from his tutors in his own and in any other colleges where he has worked, and examples of his own work whether done during periodical tests or otherwise. All such evidence should be presented to the external examiner and should be open to inspection, when required, by H.M. Inspector.

303. We rely for the maintenance of a sufficiently uniform standard between one area and another on the inter-area provision of external examiners and on the inspection of all aspects of training by H.M. Inspectors.

304. We recommend

(a) that responsibility for the final assessment of the work of students should rest with the area training authority and that the Board of Education should accept the recommendations of that authority as to the eligibility of students for recognition as qualified teachers;
(b) that it should be the duty of the area training authority to include an external element in the arrangements made for the assessment of the work of students; and
(c) that every aspect of the work of an area training authority, including the arrangements for the final assessment of the work of students, should be open to inspection by the Board of Education.
305. The graduate's general subjects are provided by the various university faculties; his professional subjects are at present, save in special cases, the concern of the university training department. It is clear to us that in the future the professional course of the graduate, however provided, and the arrangements for the assessment of his achievement in the course must be open to inspection and report by H.M. Inspectors. This is the more


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necessary if, as we propose, the assessment of students' work, whether they be graduates or non-graduates, is to be the basis of the recognition by the Board of Education of a common professional qualification.

306. We recommend

that the powers and duties of the Board of Education as regards inspection should extend to the professional courses of graduates, however provided.
307. The changes in the responsibilities of the Board of Education which we recommend will entail a shift of emphasis in the work of H.M. Inspectors; they will not in any way reduce that work. On the contrary, inspectors' duties will be greatly increased, since not only will the volume of training be greater, but it will be much more diverse and complex in nature; and the development of fruitful relationships between various institutions of the kind we have suggested, and the maintenance of steady and comparable standards throughout the system, will place a heavy and responsible burden on the Inspectorate. We recommend these considerations to the Board of Education when they come to plan the future staffing of the Department.


CHAPTER 9

THE 'PLEDGE' AND OTHER CONDITIONS OF AID

The Declaration

308. The State has subsidised training for the profession of teaching for a hundred years. It has never subsidised training for any profession in the same way or to the same extent. The main reason for the subsidy is that the State is under an obligation to secure the number of teachers required to make effective the law of compulsory school attendance. The student who accepts the subsidy, that is, grants to cover part of the cost of his tuition and maintenance at a training college or university, is required before he enters upon his course to sign a Declaration, commonly called the 'Pledge', in which he announces his intention to complete the course of training and thereafter follow the profession of teaching, and acknowledges that he takes advantage of public funds in order to qualify himself for the profession and for no other purpose.

309. The earmarking of grants for preparation for the teaching profession combined with the Declaration has the effect of requiring young people to commit themselves to teaching as a profession while they are still at school or are just leaving school; and thereafter there is a moral obligation on them to adopt the profession. The results may be harmless in the majority of cases, for large numbers of young people choose a profession and in effect commit themselves to it at an early age. But there is no doubt that some young people accept the grants and commit themselves to teaching, because, owing to the limited resources of their families and the absence of an adequate system of general scholarships, it is the only way in which they can secure a higher education. It is common knowledge, for instance, that many students in receipt of earmarked grants for the recognised four-year course at universities are not there because they have freely chosen to be teachers but because the Declaration and its attendant grants offer them a chance which would otherwise be denied to them of obtaining a university education and particularly a university degree. The Declaration is less significant to the student of a training college because, unlike the degree course at a university, the course he follows and the qualifications he obtains on completing it relate specifically to the teaching profession and carry little weight in other spheres of activity.


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310. We could examine this situation in much greater detail and expose the patently evil consequences which grow from it in many directions. We do not, however, think this is necessary. Everyone knows that the present system brings a number of unsuitable candidates into the profession and that it involves in some cases a moral strain which ought not to be imposed on young people. The question is: could the required number of teachers be secured without earmarked grants and the Pledge? Our opinion is that, having regard to the additional teachers who will be required year by year until the full scheme of reforms outlined in the White Paper are in operation, the Declaration could not be dispensed with unless

(a) there were an adequate system of general scholarships or grants, involving no commitment to any profession or occupation, which covered both universities and training colleges, and
(b) the conditions of service, including the salaries, of teachers were substantially improved.
311. We have already made recommendations about conditions of service and salaries, As regards an adequate system of un-earmarked scholarships or maintenance allowances we must point out that, necessary as such provision is, it would, if unaccompanied by measures which made the teaching profession more attractive, result in depressing recruitment to the profession rather than improving it. Young people with several possible professions before them, for any of which they can be prepared with the aid of public grants, are not in large numbers likely to choose teaching, even if they have some inclination towards it, unless it offers them reasonably attractive prospects compared with the other professions.

Grants and Loans from Local Education Authorities

312. Local education authorities as well as the Board make earmarked grants to those who intend to be teachers; and many authorities also make loans to them, which have to be repaid during the first few years of service. Practice is variable. Some authorities require students, as a condition of aid, to serve for a period in their own schools. In some cases loans are without interest but the student is required to bear the cost of an insurance. In other cases interest is charged on the loan with or without any requirement about insurance. Loans may vary from about 30 to 60 per annum.

313. We have no doubt that all these devices have in the past been necessary to secure the teachers required by the schools. But they are not desirable in themselves. Anything which unduly encourages a student in training to return to his home town as a teacher immediately he qualifies is very undesirable. What most young teachers need is a wider experience of life, and this is not secured by requiring them to return to familiar scenes and experiences. In the future, local education authorities should regard themselves as co-operating with one another for the purpose of securing an adequate supply of teachers for the country as a whole. In any case the business of a local education authority is to see that qualified pupils from the secondary schools in its area, who are in need of assistance to enable them to secure a higher education at a university or training college, receive that assistance regardless of where they propose ultimately to seek employment. It is also extremely undesirable that young teachers should be hampered at the beginning of their professional careers by a load of debt.

314. None of these things is consistent with the spirit of the White Paper and we consider that the system of loans, where it exists, should be brought to an end. The principle of public aid should be outright aid. We also


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consider that the Board should direct local education authorities, as soon as their supply problem allows, to abandon the system of earmarking their grants for the teaching or any other profession. The abandonment of this practice would also bring to an end the requirement that a student on completion of his training as a teacher should serve for a period in a particular area.

315. We recommend

(a) that the system whereby young students are required, either by the Board of Education or by local education authorities, to sign a Declaration or other document which morally commits them to teaching in consideration of their receiving grants to enable them to prepare for the teaching profession should be abandoned as soon as possible;
(b) that in determining the date when the present system should be brought to an end the Board, in view of the present critical supply situation, should use their discretion in the light of progress made with (i) an improvement in the conditions of service and salaries of teachers and (ii) the establishment of a widespread system of un-earmarked scholarships or grants available for students at universities and training colleges; and
(c) that the Board should take steps to bring to an end the system of loans to students made by some local education authorities.
316. When the Declaration is abolished we nevertheless wish the universities to take the necessary steps to enable any student who may think it likely or possible that he may become a teacher to establish contact with the Head of the department responsible for the training of graduates as soon after his entry into the university as he chooses. By doing this he will, without interfering with his study for his degree, obtain the opportunity of attending occasional lectures and discussions upon educational topics, get to know the staff of the department, and may find it possible to spend a short experimental period in a school. We suggest to the universities that they should consider the desirability of giving to any student who is interested in the possibility of becoming a teacher the opportunity, at any time during his undergraduate career, of applying for and, if he is considered prima facie suitable, of receiving the offer of a place in the department upon graduation, subject to a decision then to be made by the Head of the department upon the basis of the student's record and personality. The acceptance of this offer would pledge neither the student nor the department but would give the student a locus standi in education which he might value, and would bring him within that atmosphere. The adoption of this practice would involve some modification of the system, if it were to continue, by which the Board of Education fixes, in advance, quotas for training institutions; but we regard that system as unnecessary and suggest that it should come to an end.


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PART II

THE SERVICE OF YOUTH AND YOUNG PEOPLE'S COLLEGES

INTRODUCTION

317. Our terms of reference require us to deal with the supply and training of Youth Leaders as well as teachers; and it seems proper to us to consider at the same time the supply and training of teachers for the new Young People's Colleges. These colleges for the compulsory part-time education of boys and girls up to 18 years of age are bound to influence the shape and the activities of the Youth Service. What the precise effect will be no one can say until there has been a fairly prolonged period of interaction between them. The two services deal with approximately the same groups of young people: the one attempting to meet their needs on the basis of compulsory and the other on the basis of voluntary attendance. It is true that the Youth Service provides for many beyond the age of 18, but its foundations must be laid during the years immediately following the cessation of full-time attendance at school.

318. We attach great importance to Young People's Colleges, but we devote comparatively little space to them because they are not yet in existence and it would, in our opinion, be quite foolish for us to treat them as though we, or indeed anyone else, had any clear and reliable picture of what they will be like. It is not our business to define the content of the education they will provide; and we hope no one will attempt to stereotype their shape and curriculum until they have emerged from that experimental period which is so essential to the growth of new and, in a sense, revolutionary institutions.

319. The position with regard to Youth Service is different because the service has a history. The new thing about it is that it is being woven into the pattern of education for which public authorities are responsible. This involves co-operation between statutory and voluntary bodies of a kind which calls for tolerance and adjustment rather than rigid rules, for the enunciation of principles rather than the elaboration of details. The service is wholly voluntary so far as young people are concerned. It will flourish and require the devotion of a large number of people if it is conducted in a way that attracts and satisfies the young. It will wilt or have a precarious existence as part of the national system of education if organisation becomes an end in itself. The country has had a hundred years of experience of teachers and schools and there are many things about them which are the fit subject for specific and drastic recommendation. It is otherwise with youth leaders and Youth Service and we make no apology for dealing with them in a more experimental way and confining ourselves, even more than in the rest of our Report, to broad principles.

CHAPTER 10

THE SERVICE OF YOUTH

320. There are those who, not unnaturally, fear the consequences of what they call the professionalisation of work among young people. They say that any systematic recruitment and training of youth leaders and any attempt to standardise types of work and conditions of service, including salaries, may result in a loss of that spontaneity and freedom which is characteristic of


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voluntary work at its best. This fear is always expressed, and not without some justification, whenever public authorities are required to assume responsibility in fields where the patient but adventurous work of pioneers has revealed the need for a comprehensive service. On the other hand, when it is shown that voluntary effort cannot by itself cover the field and that therefore the service must be broader based and become a public responsibility, there is no escaping the fact that suitable persons must be encouraged to undertake the service as a profession, and that adequate training facilities must be provided and reasonable conditions of work secured. Any fears about professionalisation will be falsified if the quality of men and women recruited to the profession is sufficiently high to maintain the best of its traditions and if statutory and voluntary bodies co-operate to put the needs of young people first and leave administration, standardisation and so on to find their proper but subsidiary place.

History

321. Provision for the leisure-time activities of young people culminated in October 1939 in the announcement of the formation of the Youth Service as an integral part of the education system. More than four-fifths of the boys and girls in this country cease full-time school attendance at the age of 14 or thereabouts. Of the remaining fifth, some are to be found in secondary schools up to the age of 16 and a few beyond that. Before the war, large numbers (a million and a quarter at the peak) continued their education after leaving school at 14 years of age, or later, by voluntary attendance at evening classes. Many of these and others joined, or continued membership of, voluntary youth organisations, such as Boys' Clubs, Girls' Clubs, the Brigades, the Scouts and Guides, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., The Welsh League of Youth and Young Farmers' Clubs, where they found wholesome and interesting occupation for their leisure time and opportunities for the exercise of responsibility and for learning something of the art of self-government. It is true, however, that before the war these voluntary leisure-time activities, whether in the form of part-time continued education in evening institutes or of training through membership of youth organisations, affected at most only some 30-40 per cent of the boys and girls who had left school and begun to earn their living.

322. This was not the position contemplated by the Fisher Act of 1918. That Act provided, in the first place, for compulsory part-time continued education during working hours for all boys and girls up to the age of 18 who had ceased full-time schooling before that age; and, in the second place, it empowered local education authorities to supply or aid the supply of facilities for social and physical training both for children at school and for young people who had left school and, if over the age of 18, were attending 'educational institutions'. The Physical Training and Recreation Act, 1937, to which reference is made below, extended this power to the provision of facilities for people of any age whether or not associated with educational institutions. Unfortunately, the provisions of the Fisher Act relating to compulsory part-time continued education suffered shipwreck in the stormy period following the end of the war in 1918. As regards facilities for social and physical training in the inter-war period, though a considerable amount of provision was made, especially in some places through the agency of the Special Commissioners for Distressed Areas, the exercise by local education authorities of their powers was somewhat sporadic and all too often least in evidence where it was most needed.


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323. The Physical Training and Recreation Act of 1937, in addition to extending the power of local education authorities to supply and aid the supply of facilities for social and physical training, also gave extended powers to other local authorities to provide such facilities; and it set up elaborate machinery through a National Advisory Council and a Central Grants Committee and 22 Area Committees covering England and Wales for the administration of grants to local authorities and voluntary organisations. This Act was, however, as its name implies, concerned primarily with the physical aspect of education, and the 'National Fitness Campaign' had scarcely begun to have any real effect when the outbreak of the war in 1939 led to its administrative machinery being placed in abeyance.

324. The disturbance of conditions caused by the outbreak of hostilities in 1939 emphasised the lack of national provision for education after the age of 14, while local education authorities were too fully occupied with evacuation, A.R.P. [Air Raid Precautions] provision and many other problems immediately to give to voluntary organisations much needed assistance or themselves to provide the facilities which were urgently required. To meet this situation the Government charged the Board of Education with a special responsibility for looking after the needs and interests of young people who had left school and begun to earn their living, that is, those between the ages of 14 and 20. A National Youth Committee (now replaced by the Youth Advisory Council) and a Welsh Youth Committee were appointed, and a special Branch was established at the Board to administer this service, including the funds which had been made available in the form of grants to voluntary organisations to enable them to weather the storm. This machinery began to operate in October, 1939.

325. The Service of Youth was in its initial stages frankly a 'first aid' service designed to absorb the shock of war. It was made clear from the beginning that this was to be regarded only as the initial phase, and in Circular 1486, issued in November 1939, a policy and procedure were announced for placing the Service of Youth on a permanent basis as one of the normal education services administered by local education authorities. The authorities for Higher Education (i.e. the authorities of counties and county boroughs) were asked to establish county and county borough youth committees designed to bring together all the interests and agencies concerned with the welfare of young people and to survey needs and plan ways and means of meeting those needs to the fullest extent possible under the inevitable restrictions of war-time.

326. The response of authorities and voluntary organisations, notwithstanding the difficulties and preoccupations of the war, has been most encouraging. Machinery for the administration of the youth service as part of the education service is now firmly established in all counties and county boroughs with, in the case of counties, local youth committees working under the county committee; and a valuable partnership is being built up between the authorities and voluntary organisations and others concerned with the training of young people and with their living and working conditions.

327. The response of the young people has also been good. Whilst no national statistics are available, there is no doubt that there is now a much higher proportion of young people associated with some form of training and service in evening institutes, voluntary organisations or in other ways than there has ever been before. It must be admitted that this result is, in a considerable measure, due to the special conditions of war-time and to the attraction of pre-Service training for both boys and girls. The Government's policy of registering young people has been made an occasion for putting


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before them the opportunities for, and the advantages of, joining some form of youth organisation. The larger numbers are, however, also partly due to the vigour and flexibility shown by the Youth Service itself.

328. The raising of the school leaving age and the establishment of a system of compulsory part-time continued education after the war will undoubtedly affect the pattern of organisation and the content and standards of the Youth Service; but the result will, in our opinion, be an emphasis on the need for this service as an integral part of the public system of education, and an increase in the variety of the demands which young people will make.

Present Position

Staffing

329. The staffing of work amongst young people involves such variety that, on paper, it will probably always appear extremely complicated. Those engaged can be classified in many ways: by the nature of their duties, that is, whether they are organisers working over a wide field or workers directly concerned with one particular group, club or institution; by the time given by the workers, that is, full-time or part-time; or by reference to the body to whom they are responsible, that is, to a local education authority or to a voluntary organisation. Further, cutting across this classification is the nature of the contribution which is made: some workers are primarily qualified to promote the general interests of young people, others are equipped with gifts in a particular field such as music, drama, handicraft or games. Finally, there is the important distinction between those who are in control and those who are assistants. We do not propose to examine staffing in detail from all these different points of view. Two broad classifications can, however, usefully be made:

(a) full-time workers, such as organisers, wardens and heads of large centres or institutions, who are almost invariably paid workers, and
(b) part-time workers, who may be paid or unpaid.
330. There are at present several hundreds of full-time workers and many thousands of part-time workers. The contribution of the voluntary or unpaid part-time worker is fundamental to youth work. The Service of Youth as it exists today owes an immense debt to the long and high tradition of voluntary effort which is so characteristic of the British way of achievement, and nothing that we propose for the recruitment of paid leaders, whether full-time or part-time, should be taken as suggesting that an adequate supply of them will in any way diminish the need for those who give their services without reward. Voluntary workers are vital for three reasons:
(a) they bring to young people a varied experience of contemporary life which full-time workers clearly cannot bring in the same measure,
(b) voluntary work carries with it the hall mark of altruistic interest and sets an example of unrewarded service which young people are quick to appreciate, and
(c) the work of volunteers is a safeguard against the over-professionalisation of the service to which we have already referred.
Qualifications

331. There is no recognised qualification for a youth leader. Only a few courses are of such length and scope that they can be regarded as offering systematic training. These have in the past been provided by a few of the voluntary organisations, and they vary in duration from a few months to


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two and a half years. One course includes a social science diploma of a university. Not more than 150 trained workers have been produced each year as a result of all these courses.

332. Other workers have diverse qualifications. Many have been trained in courses designed for other purposes such as social work or teaching. Some are graduates. Such qualifications, although relevant to youth service work, do not cover the whole ground. Whatever a man's or woman's qualifications, it is generally recognised that a substantial spell of practical work with young people who have begun to earn their own living is vitally important.

333. Since the outbreak of war the Board of Education have taken two steps in the sphere of training. First, they have themselves conducted a number of short courses lasting from one to two weeks, many of which have been residential courses. These have been of a general nature or devoted to a particular aspect of youth work. They are not training courses so much as conferences either for helping those who are inexperienced or for the pooling of experience of those who have been at work in the field for some time. Similar courses or conferences have been held by local education authorities and voluntary organisations. Second, the Board announced in 1942 (Circular 1598) their willingness to grant financial assistance on a student capitation basis to institutions and organisations which were prepared to conduct approved emergency courses, on the understanding that in war-time and in advance of our Report they would not regard the courses as more than experimental. The Board were naturally unwilling to commit themselves at this stage to the recognition of any course as providing a full qualification for Youth Service work.

334. Several universities, one training college and some voluntary organisations have taken advantage of these arrangements, and courses ranging from three months to a year and some part-time courses have been approved. More than 300 students have enrolled and there is no doubt that those who are conducting the courses are learning both what to include and what to avoid. These different types of course are serving a three-fold purpose. They are giving a number of war-time youth workers a better background of knowledge and experience; they are offering a variety of bodies the chance of experimenting in a new field of training; and they are bringing together in the work of training the Board of Education, local education authorities, the universities, training colleges and voluntary organisations. These experiments and the resulting experience are essential if future courses leading to the attainment of nationally recognised qualifications, which we regard as vital to youth service, are to be soundly constructed.

Salaries and Pensions

335. Before the war, work among young people was a little known career offering poor prospects, low salaries and no pension. There is as yet no national scale of salary for workers in the Service of Youth. Advertisements of posts show wide differences: 200 to 600 for organisers and 200 to 350 or more for leaders or wardens. There is great disparity in the salaries offered for comparable posts, and provision for pensions for youth service workers, as such, does not exist. Pension arrangements, where they do exist, have to be brought under regulations made before the Youth Service came into existence. For example, persons employed by local education authorities as full-time workers in Youth Service who are engaged on administrative duties, such as organisers, may be accepted for pension purposes under the Local Government Superannuation Acts. If the person employed as an organiser has the requisite previous service as a teacher, he may be


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eligible for pension under the Teachers (Superannuation) Act, 1925, as an educational organiser. A few voluntary organisations have pension schemes of their own, although in some circumstances the services of a person who is employed full-time by a voluntary organisation can be treated as pensionable under the Teachers (Superannuation) Acts.

Age and Field of Recruitment

336. The age of entry to work in the Youth Service varies between wide limits; but in the nature of things the paid leader entering upon his first appointment is likely to be, and should be, older than is the teacher when he begins work. Youth Service covers an age-range of young people from 14 to 20 and some corresponding maturity on the part of those who may be called upon to advise and guide them is essential.

337. Youth leaders and organisers are drawn from a very wide field and it is important, whatever may in future be done about recruitment and training, that this field should not become restricted. The voluntary organisations, especially, have attracted a great variety of people into their service, particularly those who have had experience of some profession or in industry. University men and women, public school boys, policemen, boys and girls from business and factories have all from time to time found their way through training and experience into full-time work amongst young people. The staffs of local education authorities, not unnaturally, show a high proportion of men and women who have initially been trained as teachers and amongst them are many who have specialised in physical education. Among part-time and voluntary workers there are few professions or occupations which are not somewhere represented. This variety is all to the good and whatever system of training is devised must preserve it.

The Future

Supply

338. The first question we must consider is that of supply. The Service of Youth is a growing service. Even so we do not expect every young person between the ages of 15 and 18 to be associated with some form of youth organisation. There are many boys and girls in all walks of life who prefer activities which are not of a corporate nature; and there are others whose interests, education, friends or homes are such that they have their own rather personal plans for the use of their spare time and the means for carrying them out. They might or might not contribute or receive something valuable by joining an organisation. The choice is theirs. They are neither better nor worse than other young people who welcome the advantages offered by, say, a scout troop or a guide company, a club, a young people's community centre or an evening institute. We are not therefore aiming at a 100 per cent enrolment in youth organisations. When we have excluded those who have sound reasons for not joining an organisation, we must not expect, at any rate for some time to come, that the whole of the remainder will embrace the opportunities offered to them by a service which is by its nature voluntary. In some cases, indeed, sheer physical disability, geographical location or unfortunate conditions of employment, especially hours of work, may make participation impracticable.

339. With these considerations in mind we have, with the aid of our witnesses, attempted to estimate the total number of full-time youth leaders who may be required. If we secured an average of one full-time leader to every 300 boys and girls between 15 and 18 years of age we should require between 5,000 and 6,000 full-time workers. These numbers would, of course,


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be inadequate if there were a 100 per cent enrolment but, for the reasons we have given above, this is not desirable or likely. Moreover, in rural areas particularly, the 'average' basis has little validity; and, not only in such areas but throughout the field as a whole, great reliance must continue to be placed on the part-time paid worker and particularly on the unpaid voluntary worker, to whose numbers, fortunately, no limit need be set provided those who volunteer are equipped for the work they are pleased to do.

340. We now have to consider how many full-time leaders will be required annually to maintain a permanent staff of between 5,000 and 6,000. The average active working life of some leaders, which cannot be precisely estimated, will, as we have already said, be comparatively short. We do not say this in any belief that men and women of 50 and 60 years of age have nothing to contribute to young people. Experience flatly denies any such assumption, which seems to be based on too great a pre-occupation with the physical content of youth work. It is time for men and women to give up youth leadership when it becomes apparent that they have lost touch with the outlook of young people or that their tolerance has worn thin. But some people who are suffering from actual physical disability may nevertheless amply justify full-time service with young people.

341. The fact remains, however, that since physical activities constitute a very important part of the interests of youth and since many other types of activity which young people pursue with zest make great physical demands on those older people who help to plan them, there is good reason for considering the active working life of the youth leader as less than that of the teacher. When we add to this consideration the normal depletion of the service through death, illness or premature withdrawal to other types of work, it is not unreasonable to put the average working life of the youth leader at about 15 or 20 years, thus making necessary an annual recruitment of about 300, once the full establishment is in being.

342. This flow of 300 a year will not be achieved without the establishment of a profession involving approved courses of training of a satisfactory standard which lead to a recognised qualification and of a service in which adequate salaries are paid and acceptable conditions of service are secured.

Training

General

343. Training we regard as essential, though it may not be practicable to make it compulsory in the immediate future. The youth leader works with human material, and the unguided experience through which he now has to learn his profession is only too often bought at the expense of those whom he seeks to help. Moreover, the experience of voluntary organisations over many years testifies to the value of training, while the wide and ready response which youth service workers of all kinds have made to the various short courses which have been offered shows that the leaders themselves recognise the need for some period of preparation for their work. But there is a danger of overlooking the personal education of those engaged in youth work and of concentrating solely on their professional training. It is as important for the leader as for the teacher that he should be a fully developed normal individual. Complete absorption in work with young people to the exclusion of a personal life of his own is one of the temptations which beset a leader, and his education should give him something which minimises the danger of his becoming unduly pre-occupied with youth. He has a life of his own to live, and if he neglects it he may cease to be a normal adult, with harmful results to himself and to the young people with whom he works.


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344. One way of approaching this problem of education and training is to begin at the end and to ask what, in very broad outline, are the qualifications which should be looked for in a young man or woman of about 25 years of age who was seeking his or her first post as a full-time leader? An answer to this question will reveal something of the nature and scope of the course which ought to be provided for those who desire to prepare themselves for it. Having pictured such a course, we can the more easily consider what varieties of study, instruction and practice should be available to meet the needs of those, and there will be many, whose knowledge and experience make desirable a training which is more or less personal to themselves.

Nature and Length of the Course

345. The present period of rapid development is not the time to define too closely what should be the composition of full-time courses for youth leaders. There will have to be much more experimenting in this field before schemes of training, reasonably proof against criticism, can be formulated. We suggest that the youth leader, at the time of his first appointment to a post, should

(a) have achieved, as a personal accomplishment, a fairly high standard in some field of knowledge or in some craft of his own choosing;
(b) have acquired a good working knowledge of national and local government, social and industrial conditions and the social services with some reference to their historical development;
(c) possess some understanding of the psychology of young people in relation to their personal health, their fellows of both sexes, their homes and their working conditions, and in relation to adults and society at large;
(d) have developed a genuine interest in, and enjoyment of, one or more of the many activities in which young people freely engage, such as music, drama, crafts of all kinds, gymnastics, boxing, games and so on;
(e) have had practical experience, if only as an apprentice during training, of actual work with young people, including what is involved in the organisation and business management of groups, clubs or institutions.
346. We have dealt only with those qualities or qualifications which courses of training might give: we recognise as fundamental that unless the youth leader has the right personality for the work his other gifts or attainments might be useless. He must be the kind of person who is acceptable to young people and to his colleagues in the service and he should have some genuine sense of vocation for the work.

347. It is one thing to catalogue the desirable qualifications of a youth leader: it is another to plan coherent courses of study and practice which will ensure them. We are satisfied that for the student with no substantial previous experience or attainments the course should normally extend over three years. The proper content, the balance and nature of the syllabuses and the most effective methods of training will reveal themselves more clearly as experiments proceed and experience accumulates. Meanwhile we offer the following suggestions based on the evidence which we have received.

348. At least a quarter, and in some cases a half, of the course should be devoted to practical work. The actual amount must depend upon the quickness of the response of the student to the ways and interests of young people.

349. On the theoretical side, though attendance at systematic courses of lectures and the writing of essays will be a necessary part of the course, particularly in regard to the subject which the student proposes to study more or less as his own personal interest, the method of the course as a whole


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should be less that of the lecture and more that of the tutorial group or seminar combined with directed private study. Tutors must be highly competent if intellectual disappointment and waste of time are to be avoided. While engaging in discussion themselves the students should learn the technique of conducting discussions with young people.

350. There are three matters which are of great significance for young people - religion, politics and sex. They are certain to arise, sooner or later, in any discussions with boys and girls on social conditions or their own physical, mental or spiritual problems. Leaders must therefore be prepared to face them. There is a body of knowledge on all three subjects with which leaders should be acquainted, and for this purpose well-informed lectures and courses of reading will be necessary. Moreover, religion, politics and sex are highly controversial matters upon which conflicting and divergent views are conscientiously held. We therefore regard informal discussion on these matters as indispensable to the proper understanding of them, provided, and it is a very important proviso, that the tutor in charge is qualified by his or her own knowledge, balanced outlook and stable personality to be a reasonable guide on issues some of which are personal and intimate.

351. We believe that lectures and discussions properly planned and conducted which lead to further private study and disciplined reflection may result in the discovery by each individual of a philosophy of life or, at any rate, of certain standards of thought and conduct. A well-informed philosophy of life, which may or may not be professedly religious, is most necessary to the youth leader; indeed, it is not easy to conceive of a successful youth leader without it. If the course of education and training which he undertakes in preparation for his work with young people does nothing to help him to achieve such a philosophy, it fails in one of its chief purposes.

352. The practical side of the course will not be easy to plan. In the first place, there must be amongst those responsible for conducting the course one or more persons who have had substantial practical experience of youth work; and, in the second place, selected youth leaders still in the field must be persuaded to take a responsible share in the training, and to assist in working out what is entailed in the very difficult art of practical training for youth work. Practical training should not mean merely a series of brief visits of observation to a number of institutions concerned with young people: it should include substantial periods of continuous work in one or more institutions or amongst one or more groups of young people. Residence in a settlement would be useful and some individual case work desirable. In probably every case some part of the practical work should be taken at a distance from the students' main training centre, and sometimes in rural areas. Experience of camping and other outdoor activities, extending beyond games, is an essential part of training.

353. The danger of a course such as we have indicated, but not precisely defined, is that it will lack coherence and standards. We deal with safeguarding standards later. Lack of coherence is a very real danger, the more so as in a measure each student, because of his previous knowledge and individual interests, will require something personal and adapted to his own needs. This being so, we regard it as of vital importance that the tutorial method should be pressed to the point of a particular full-time tutor being responsible for planning the study and practice of a defined and small group of students, so that the course of each is properly balanced and his reading and practice properly directed and supervised. It would be the duty of this


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tutor to ensure that students did not devote themselves wholly to lectures, book work and practice but had time to browse and reflect.

354. Students should become conversant with current affairs and have time to discuss them and other interesting things with their fellows. They should learn what it means to make informed and independent judgments and they should keep a sense of humour and proportion undistorted by 'cram' methods. It would be fatal if those attending courses for youth leadership found themselves becoming mere students of a number of subjects with essays to write and examinations to pass in all of them. Ideally, each course, because of its practical nature and because of the co-operation of active workers, should itself be a contribution to the youth work of the locality, and the training system as a whole should influence such work throughout the country.

Eligibility for Training: Methods of Selection

355. The personal suitability of applicants for entry into youth service is fundamental, and the institutions offering courses of training will keep continuously before them the need for devising the proper machinery of selection, in which the interview will find a prominent place. During the war many experiments have been made in the Services and elsewhere in the technique of selection and there are some valuable lessons to be learned from those who have been developing this technique.

356. Since it is difficult to judge a man unless he is seen in action it might prove necessary either to require that he should have been tried out in some youth service work before he makes a firm application for training, or to arrange for a preliminary interview sufficiently in advance of the beginning of the course to enable him to do some practical work prior to a final decision being reached about his suitability for training. If the applicant is judged to have a suitable personality for the service and some sense of vocation for it the only other indispensable qualification is that he should have had a good enough general education and be sufficiently intelligent to be likely to follow the course through. Even under the best conditions some mistakes in initial selection are unavoidable and the first term or two of the training course should be regarded as probationary.

Assessment of the work of the Student

357. The best methods of judging a student's achievements during training and his fitness for full-time professional work will appear as more courses are tried out. It is clear that the results of an examination at the end of the course will not suffice. Capacity, as revealed during training, to live and work with young people and, when necessary, to give them a lead must be the core of the assessment. Any special contribution, unique perhaps to the individual, must also be taken into account if variety of gifts is to be welcomed and recognised.

358. So far our suggestions are tentative because some experimental work is in progress and more is necessary. We regard it as of great importance that the Board of Education should obtain an intimate knowledge of the conduct and results of the present emergency courses which they are aiding under Circular 1598. Much guidance for the future might be available if the experience of those conducting these courses was pooled, analysed and made generally available. We doubt, however, whether the Board or any other single body has on its staff sufficient people of experience to cover the whole of what would be required for a comprehensive evaluation of these courses.


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359. We therefore recommend

that representatives of the Board of Education, accompanied by other qualified persons, should visit all the emergency courses recognised under Circular 1598 and should make available the results of those visits in so far as they offer guidance about the nature, scope and methods of assessment of the courses which should be provided after the war to enable men and women to qualify for full-time posts as youth leaders.

Minimum Age for Recognition of Full-time Leaders

360. We have already said that the course for the beginner should extend over at least three years. A related question is the minimum age at which a man or woman should in normal circumstances take up full-time work as a youth leader. It may be reasonable for young men and women to enter upon their work as teachers at 21 years of age, but we do not think this is a suitable age for youth leaders. We are not urging that the qualities required of a youth leader are either rarer or more valuable than those required of a teacher, or that there is some mystery about youth work which only the elect few can probe. It is a question of the nature of the work and the age and state of dependence or independence of the young people concerned. No exhaustive analysis is required to show that maturity is the essence of the problem when dealing with boys and girls or young men and women of 15 to 20 years of age who have reached, or are on the way to, economic and social independence. The psychological and the social problems with which a leader has to deal differ profoundly from those which face a teacher in a primary school or even a secondary school; and personal maturity, which to some extent can be measured by age, is highly relevant. We consider that as a general rule local education authorities and voluntary organisations should not appoint young men and women to full-time posts before the age of 23.

361. We do not, however, wish to be dogmatic on this question of age and particularly we do not wish to miss promising applicants by reason of too rigid requirements. If maturity rather than precise age is taken as the test there will be room for anyone whose nature, personality and experience fits him at an earlier age to be guide, philosopher and friend of young people. Mistakes will, of course, be made. But where human potentialities are involved it is better to make a mistake than stand on the letter of the law.

Shorter Training Courses

362. Shorter courses of training should be provided for those who, in one way or another, have already achieved knowledge and experience which is relevant either to their personal life or to their professional competence as youth leaders. There will be a great variety of such persons. We give a few examples:

(a) the university graduate,
(b) the holder of a social science diploma,
(c) the man or woman who has had considerable practical experience as a part-time youth leader and now wants to qualify for full-time work, and
(d) the business or professional man or woman whose maturity is not in question but who nevertheless may be ignorant of the structure of society as it affects young people or may need some stimulus to the revival of his cultural interests.
363. It is very important that the present diversity of recruitment should be preserved and that the door should be kept wide open for suitable men


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and women with experience in all walks of life to enter the service of youth. We believe that when the three-year course which we have indicated is in being and is properly staffed it should be easier to arrange training for those whose needs can be met by a shorter course. We consider, however, that, save in very exceptional circumstances, no course of training should be less than one year, and this course should be an entity in itself and not merely a condensed version of the three-year course.

Refresher Courses, and Courses for Part-time and for Voluntary Workers

364. We regard the liberal provision of refresher courses for trained leaders as essential, and courses of training for part-time workers, both paid and voluntary, are equally vital. These courses should be varied in nature and duration; some should certainly be residential, but the comparative immobility of the part-time worker must always be considered. Some courses might be intensive, others spread over a series of weeks or months.

365. We recommend

(a) that the course of training for those without any special qualifications who are seeking to prepare themselves for full time posts as youth leaders should extend over three years of combined full-time study and practice;
(b) that courses of not less than one year's duration should be available for those whose previous experience and qualifications make a three-year course unnecessary; and
(c) that the minimum age for recognition of full-time leaders should, save in exceptional cases, be 23.

Youth Leaders and Teachers

366. We have suggested a course of training for youth leaders which, although it may have in it many elements in common with training for other related professions, is yet a specific course designed for its own purposes. We do not think that training for youth leadership should be attempted within the course designed to train teachers or other kinds of social workers, although during their training youth leaders, teachers and social workers will necessarily take some account of each other's field of service.

367. We should expect that for some years after training, the youth leader or teacher would serve in the capacity for which he has been specifically trained, although we realise that some joint appointments, such as part-time teacher in a young people's college and part-time leader in the youth service might be made. If after some years of experience a youth leader or teacher seeks to transfer to another part of the educational field, and has given evidence of suitability, he should be enabled to do so. No barriers arising from his initial qualifications should stand in the way of his becoming eligible for the new post. A short reorientation course should, however, normally be required of him at the time of his transference. We very definitely do not mean that anyone should transfer to teaching because he has worked himself out in youth service. It by no means follows that the man who has been successful as a youth leader would be of value as a teacher in a school even if he did take a special course of training. In other words we believe that there will always be some persons who at the end of a substantial period as youth leaders will have to seek fields of work other than youth service or teaching. This is one of the risks attaching to work in youth service and we have no suggestions to make for minimising it.

368. The course of training which we propose for youth leaders, as might be expected from the nature of their work, is comparable in content, standards


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and length with that which we propose for teachers. This has its advantages from the point of view of the professional status of both. The possibility of transfer from one service to the other, even if only on a very small scale, is essential; but such transfer is impracticable unless salaries are comparable and superannuation arrangements are linked.

369. We recommend

(a) that the salaries of youth leaders should be comparable with those of teachers, and that service as a youth leader should be pensionable; and
(b) that transfer from one service to the other should be facilitated by the necessary linking of superannuation arrangements and the provision of suitable short courses of training.
The Provision of Courses

370. It is clear to us that no one institution is likely to be able to provide the courses of training which we have outlined. In another part of our Report we have recommended that training facilities for teachers should be organised on an area basis and that universities, training colleges, technical colleges, colleges of art, certain adult residential colleges and the schools themselves should for this purpose combine to produce the framework within which training would be undertaken. We think it extremely desirable that youth leaders should not be segregated during their training; and we are clear that the area training authority, if properly representative of the interests of youth work, is the right body to plan and provide courses of training for youth leaders. It is here that the maintenance of standards comes in. The universities, the technical colleges, schools of art and training colleges are all accustomed to the maintenance of standards in their own field and they must see that in academic subjects, in social studies, in crafts and skills, the standards of youth service training are built up and maintained at a high level. Statutory and voluntary youth organisations duly represented on the area training authority would have special regard to the standards of the practical training.

371. We do not, however, believe that these things will happen unless each area has at its service someone competent to undertake the direction both of full training for youth work (in areas where this is to be undertaken), and, in all areas, of the organisation of part-time and refresher courses and the maintenance of general contact with youth activities. It is not suggested that full courses of training should be available in each area, as the comparatively small need for fully trained youth leaders would render unnecessary the existence of more than a few training centres of economic size. In those regions, however, where these did not exist, provision would still be necessary for part-time and refresher courses, and the maintenance of area contacts. It appears likely, therefore, that persons responsible for the direction of youth training would be required for all areas, and that in certain areas, so situated as to serve most conveniently the needs of the whole country, these persons would have in effect the status and functions of heads of training institutions whose business it would be, in consultation with others, to plan and direct the full-time training.

372. We recommend

(a) that each area training authority should be adequately representative of youth organisations, and should appoint a person qualified to direct such training for leaders in the Youth Service as the area is called upon to provide and, in certain areas, to take charge of full-time training;


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(b) that training during the first five years should be regarded as experimental, and that before the end of that period the Board of Education should review the experience of each area with a view to systematising, so far as may be necessary, the qualifications required for recognition as a youth leader and outlining the nature of the courses of training which they will recognise and aid; and

(c) that for the time being the Board of Education and others should, if necessary, recognise the appointment to full-time posts of those who have not been trained but are deemed otherwise to be suitably equipped, on the understanding, however, that as soon as practicable the Board of Education will require the appointment of trained leaders to any posts in respect of the salary of which they make a grant.




CHAPTER 11

YOUNG PEOPLE'S COLLEGES

373. There are two alternative ways of assessing the period during which boys and girls will be required to attend Young People's Colleges. It can be regarded as primarily an educational period during which young people are also at work, finding their feet in industry, commerce, agriculture or domestic activities. Or it can be viewed as essentially a working period during which boys and girls are recalled to school for part of their time in order to continue their education. The latter view is comparable with that which produced the half-time system of schooling under the Factory Acts in the 19th century. The principle of that system was the interruption of the working day of children with a little schooling. We do not wish to press this analogy, or the distinction between the two views, too far. We believe, however, that the former view is the sounder of the two and must inspire the work of these colleges if they are to avoid becoming subordinated to the fluctuating needs of industry and commerce and to the frequently narrow requirements of the 'jobs' which young people are doing. Further, the view that the period is primarily educational accords with the raising of the age of full-time attendance at school from 15 to 16 and with, what the White Paper suggests may prove ultimately desirable, namely, a still more substantial part of the period up to 18 years being made available for education.

374. We are quite aware that whichever view is taken there will be a demand on the part of many young people themselves for vocational education in the form of technical instruction related to their wage earning work, and that if this demand is not adequately met the colleges will fall into disrepute. At the same time we are of opinion that only if the period is regarded as educational will the colleges develop into institutions calculated to inspire loyalty and affection from young people generally. In the long run the desires and ambitions of the pupils ought to be the biggest influence in determining the shape of young people's colleges; and a great many boys and girls between 15 and 18 years of age desire, and require for their well being, opportunities for enjoying studies and activities extending much beyond those which are directly related to their work.

375. We make these preliminary remarks because they are relevant to the staffing of young people's colleges, with which we are mainly concerned. It is estimated that the colleges will require the services of about 20,000 teachers involving, on the basis of one day's attendance a week, a replenishment rate of about 1,000 a year. At the beginning a large number of teachers will have to be recruited by means of the Board's Emergency Training Scheme for which, though it is of great interest to us, we are not responsible. Our business is the supply and training of the 1,000 teachers who will be required each year. How should they be recruited and how trained?


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376. Young People's Colleges, some of which may be residential, will be self contained institutions, each with its own staff. The colleges will be something quite new - save for a few experiments which have already been made - in that they will be full-time institutions with, for the most part, full-time staff, but providing for students who will attend only part-time, and that under compulsion. This situation will present many difficult problems of organisation and will complicate the planning of courses of study and activity. It does not, however, mean that some entirely new type of teacher, of whom we have taken no account in other parts of our Report, has to be recruited and trained.

377. The uniform characteristic of the students will be that they are at work earning their living or, if not at work, are living at home or elsewhere in a state of semi-independence compared with the restrictions imposed when they were in full-time attendance at school. This change of status must obviously be taken into account in the staffing of young people's colleges, as it must be in the staffing of technical colleges and youth service. Its significance should not however be exaggerated. A boy may change when he moves from school to work but he does not thereby become a different person. He may be glad to throw off the restraints of school but he does not suddenly cease to be interested in the things which have previously absorbed him. It is unwise to regard 'youth' as some mystery which is sandwiched between, and is unrelated to, childhood on one side and adulthood on the other. Such an attitude on the part of their elders is calculated to make young people self-conscious and to lead ultimately to their disillusionment.

378. We have already recommended that specific arrangements should be made for entry to the teaching profession of those who have had experience in some other profession or occupation; and in doing so we had in mind the needs of young people's colleges for persons with a wider experience of the world than is usual among the main body of teachers. It must not be forgotten, however, that the colleges will require teachers with good qualifications in English, history, science and other so-called academic subjects; specialist teachers of music, art and physical training; and highly skilled teachers of technical and commercial subjects. It would be very foolish to regard the colleges as institutions in which there was no place for the teacher with normal secondary or other school experience, or as institutions which required a kind of music or physical education wholly different in character from that to be found in other types of school or college. The staffing needs of young people's colleges can be met only by mobility of staff throughout the whole educational system, including youth service, the need for which we have so frequently urged.

379. We wish, however, to ensure not only mobility amongst teachers but also a common field for their education and training, and so avoid the segregation of particular groups of persons in training. We have already recommended that the area training service should undertake the training of the mature entrant to the profession of technical teachers and of youth leaders. The area training service which we have proposed brings a wide variety of educational institutions within its ambit (universities, technical colleges, colleges of art, colleges of music and all types of training college) and it will have local education authorities and representatives of industry and commerce associated with its work. We are confident that this service can also undertake the training for teachers for young people's colleges. The Board will, no doubt, watch the development of these institutions with great care and will from time to time advise training authorities about their staffing needs. We confine ourselves to a single recommendation.

380. We recommend

that the training of teachers for Young People's Colleges should be undertaken, like the training of all other teachers, by the area training services.


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PART III

TECHNICAL COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS

INTRODUCTION

381. Technical education in this country has never received the attention it deserves, and there has hitherto been no systematic provision for the recruitment or training of technical teachers. Our Report therefore opens up a comparatively new field of inquiry.

382. Before we consider the proper sources of supply and the most desirable forms of training for technical teachers, we have something to say about our conception of technical education, its purpose and significance. We do not believe that the sole object of technical education is to train the technician to perform his daily work more efficiently. No one can in these days be unaware of the immense power for good or ill which advances in technology have conferred on mankind. Technology has changed and will increasingly change the content of our thinking and, indeed, our ways of living. Almost every human activity is affected by what technicians are doing today and by what they may invent to-morrow. Our ideas of social organisation, of standards of living, of what is beautiful or desirable, of amenities, occupations, amusements and a host of other things, are affected by the day to day application of technology to human affairs. We reject any crude antithesis between technical and vocational education on the one hand and liberal education on the other. The good technical teacher is no mere technician; he is also an interpreter of the modern world.

383. The importance of technical education in our national economy cannot be exaggerated. The White Paper points out that the initial and natural advantages that gave this country its place of pre-eminence in world manufacture and world markets have long been declining, and that in the future it will more and more be necessary to rely on the capacity, adaptability and quality of those engaged in industry and commerce. The expansion of technical education is being urged on all sides. Industrial research, growing in volume year by year, and the increasing application of science to manufacture have resulted in the invention of new tools and processes, the use of new materials and the rapid appearance of entirely new industries. To meet the demands which these continuous developments make on the knowledge and skill of men and women in industry there must be an increasing number of trained technical workers of every grade, from the manual operator to the man and woman of high professional status.

384. The standard of technical training which can be offered to those already in, or about to enter, industry necessarily depends upon an adequate supply of teachers of high capacity and with personal experience of current industrial practice. This fact is basic. Technical teachers, regarded collectively, constitute a key group in industrial development, yet their importance has hitherto been scarcely recognised even by those industries which most directly depend upon them for a supply of trained workers. One reason for this is that nothing systematic has ever been done to bring home to industrialists their dependence upon the technical teacher and, perhaps even more important, to persuade them of the invaluable contribution which they themselves could make to technical education, and more particularly to the training of teachers of technical subjects.


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385. What we have said about industry applies also to commerce, though since industry makes things and commerce distributes them the nature of the relationship between commercial concerns and teachers of commercial subjects may prove to be different from the corresponding relationship in the industrial field. For convenience we shall use the words 'technical teacher' to cover teachers of subjects required in both commerce and industry. We do not deal with the recruitment and training of teachers for agriculture for the reasons given in the Introduction to our Report.

386. Technical education is not concerned, however, solely with the activities of industry and commerce. Men and boys, women and girls, quite apart from their paid occupations if they have any, need and are increasingly demanding instruction in the personal and domestic arts necessary for achieving a satisfactory private, social or family life. There are courses in such subjects as carpentry, joinery, photography, dressmaking, needlework, upholstery and cookery intended for those who seek instruction for personal reasons. Industry and commerce are not concerned directly with the quality of this non-professional training, although public taste and regard for craftsmanship might be profoundly influenced thereby. The provision of a sufficient number of well qualified teachers for these courses is a pressing need.

387. As to the students themselves, young people and grown men and women should be helped to develop their powers both for their own sakes and for the sake of society; and industry, commerce and homes are but some of the spheres in which that development takes place. Technical education is liberal when it gives a student confidence in his powers and encourages in him sound habits of learning, when it results in his experiencing satisfaction in the mastery of some craft or in personal achievement in some field of knowledge, and above all when it relates him significantly to his fellows. Whether a student finds, in fact, that his studies produce these desirable results depends largely upon the quality of his teachers as men and women and upon their skill in teaching.

CHAPTER 12

PRESENT POSITION AND FUTURE NEEDS

Students

388. In 1938 there were in England and Wales a million and a quarter students pursuing part-time education, predominantly vocational in character, of whom 41,500 were released from industry for attendance at classes during the day. In addition there were 43,000 full-time students at technical and commercial colleges and schools. In general, part-time students attend classes in the evenings having already done a full day's work. Some of the 'day-release' students also attend evening classes. Many of the students are young people earning their own living, for whom school belongs to a stage which they are very conscious of having left behind; and they rather expect to be treated as adults. There are also many adult students, particularly in the larger colleges, who attend courses with the object of acquiring professional qualifications or of bringing their knowledge and experience up to date. A smaller but important number seek instruction for personal or domestic reasons.

389. Part-time students join classes voluntarily, though attendance in the case of young students may be encouraged or even rewarded by their employers; and for the most part they have a definite object in view. They know or think they know what they want from their teachers. They are


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critical of the instruction which is offered them since much of it touches their daily experience, and many are at an age which is not distinguished for its tolerance.

390. When compulsory full-time education extends to 15 or 16 years of age and thereafter compulsory part-time education operates up to 18, it may be that there will be a reduced demand for evening instruction. We are of opinion, however, that in so far as the education offered in the compulsory part-time institutions is stimulating, the demand for further education in leisure time may increase. A considerable number of students, better informed than now and in regular contact with educational influence, may seek to extend their technical, commercial or domestic knowledge and practice beyond what is offered to them under the compulsory system; and out of such a situation may arise an increased demand for advanced courses.

Teachers

Numbers

391. The teachers with whom we are concerned are now found in technical and commercial colleges and schools, junior technical and, commercial schools, schools of nautical training, evening institutes and in the ad hoc day classes for women. The establishment of compulsory part-time education with its vocational studies, and the provision of junior technical and commercial schools as a normal part of secondary education, will change the pattern of technical education, and a much larger number of teachers of technical subjects will be required. We do not include here, save incidentally, teachers of art, domestic subjects, music or physical training since they are dealt with elsewhere in Chapter 7 of our Report and more fully in Appendix I.

392. In 1938 the number of full-time teachers in technical and commercial colleges and schools was about 4,000. Reckoning the average professional life of full-time teachers of this kind at about 25 years the number of new teachers required each year to maintain the establishment was about 160. It is impossible to estimate the number of part-time teachers or the average length of their teaching life. There were certainly tens of thousands of them and some thousands came into and went out of the service each year.

393. Any estimate of future need for full-time teachers must take into account the following considerations. Compulsory part-time education may require the services of 2,000 to 3,000 teachers of technical and commercial subjects. Some industries, such as the plastics industry, and many women's occupations, such as large scale catering, are only at the beginning of their development. Older industries, such as building, anticipate a need for some thousands of additional teachers. Some aspects of commerce, such as marketing and export, will require much more study than is given to them at present, and there is also the need for more highly trained personnel at the administrative and managerial level. Further, we hope that as a result of our recommendations there will be a lightening of the teaching load of staffs of technical and commercial colleges and schools, and that arrangements will be made for the systematic return of a large number of teachers to industry and commerce for limited periods. Both these things will mean more generous staffing and therefore more teachers. All these considerations lead us to the conclusion that more than double the number of full-time teachers will be required and that the annual replenishment rate cannot safely be put lower than 400 to 500.

394. The length of the professional teaching life of the part-time teacher varies a great deal, but in any case the average rate of turnover, as we have


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already indicated, is much greater than in the case of the full-time teacher. Evening instruction, in which part-time teachers are chiefly engaged, will, we think, increase in the future. We are convinced that in any case the employment of part-time teachers in technical subjects whenever it is practicable will always be desirable. The right type of part-time teacher is the one engaged in industry and commerce who is in touch with working conditions and current practice to a degree almost impossible to full-time teachers, and who can approach his teaching work in the evening with a degree of freshness which is often absent from those who have been teaching all day. There are many full-time teachers of primary and secondary schools engaged in technical institutes in the evening, and at present this means teaching for three sessions a day. If this practice is to cease, and it is very desirable that it should, more part-time teachers may have to be secured from industry and commerce.

395. These rough estimates show, as was to be expected, that the number of additional teachers required and the numbers necessary to maintain the establishment in the field of technical and commercial education are small compared with the number needed in the primary and secondary schools; but they also show that the problem of supply is critical.

Distribution and Type of Teacher

396. Technical teachers are widely distributed geographically; and they work in many types of institution and cover a variety of professions, trades and occupations. In 1938, senior technical and commercial colleges and schools in some areas provided training for over 150 callings, and junior institutions for more than 20; and the future is likely to see even more varied provision.

397. In general it is convenient to distinguish two types of teacher: (a) the 'technical subjects' teacher and (b) the 'general subjects' teacher.

(a) The technical subjects teacher deals with subjects or skills which are part and parcel of industry, commerce or domestic occupations and with the professions associated with industry and commerce. The instruction which these teachers give is vocational in the sense that it deals with knowledge, processes or operations with which their students are or will be concerned in their daily work or lives. These teachers may themselves be divided into two classes: those who are concerned mainly with the more theoretical aspects of the subject and those who are imparting a craft or skill.

(b) The general subjects teacher deals with studies such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, elementary science, English and so on, which are found in all types of schools, but which in a technical college or school are frequently taught with direct relevance to more strictly vocational subjects. For example, the geography taught in relation to commerce is different in approach and content from what is usual in the grammar school; nursing demands emphasis on certain aspects of science different from that in ordinary science courses; while mathematics taught in relation to an engineering course is definitely planned to meet the needs of engineering students.

398. We shall use the term 'technical teacher' to describe all types of teacher in technical or commercial institutions, but most of what we say will apply more particularly to the technical subjects teacher. The general subjects teachers are as a rule recruited from quite different sources and many, unlike the technical subjects teachers, have been trained in teaching technique. Our recommendations with regard to contacts with industry and commerce are, however, by no means irrelevant to the general subjects teacher.


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Recruitment

399. Technical teachers, full-time and part-time, are recruited from two main sources: from (a) industry, commerce and professions other than teaching; and (b) from the teaching profession itself, that is, from teachers who are or have been engaged in other types of school and college.

(a) From industry, commerce and the professions other than teaching there are
(i) men and women with academic qualifications such as a university degree in engineering or technology, commerce or law; members of professional institutions, and men and women with some other recognised qualification such as the Higher National Certificate,
(ii) artisans and craftsmen, many of whom hold some qualification in craft or trade such as the Certificate of the City and Guilds of London Institute, and
(iii) men and women who, though holding no recognised paper qualification, are by reason of their experience or skill of great value as technical teachers.
Only those teaching cookery and a few teaching millinery, dressmaking, upholstery, tailoring, needlework or handicrafts are likely to have had any training in the technique of teaching.

(b) From the teaching profession there are

(iv) university graduates, who may or may not have been trained and whose main work is or has been in universities, secondary or senior schools, and
(v) non-graduates, who are more likely to have been trained and who may have had teaching experience in almost any type of school.
Very few of these teachers have had any direct experience of industry or commerce.
400. There is no recognised method of recruitment. Men and women find their way into technical teaching by varied routes. Many full-time teachers are recruited from among part-time teachers; and this practice offers a means of apprenticeship which, wisely handled, may prove of great value. Full-time posts are usually advertised. As a rule, candidates are interviewed by an appropriate committee, but for many part-time posts the interviewing and selection are undertaken by the Head of the department or the Principal, the appointment being subject to confirmation by a committee. In a few instances there has been deliberate planning for the future supply of teachers, but such efforts are local and personal. In the main, the methods of recruitment of technical teachers have been haphazard and opportunist, and as yet nothing systematic is being done to provide for the needs of the future.

401. Before 1939 the number of applicants for most technical teaching posts was satisfactory, although the supply of technical subjects teachers ebbed and flowed with the prosperity or decline of industry. Teaching was to some extent a safe refuge from economic storms, and, conversely, recruitment declined when teachers were most in demand. In some new or rare occupations, such as the plastics industry or canteen management, there were naturally very few men or women who had any substantial relevant experience, and in such cases teachers were sought, not always unsuccessfully, who had at least that minimum background of knowledge which would enable them to begin their work.


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Quality of Entrants

402. In the technical and commercial colleges and schools are to be found some of the best teachers in the whole of the educational field. We have met a number of them in the course of our inquiry. But nevertheless, all our evidence, and not least that of the keenest and most competent teachers themselves, shows that the professional equipment of technical teachers as a whole is not satisfactory, and that the full benefits of technical education are not being realised because, for one reason or another, the teaching is not as good as it ought to be.

403. We quote a few examples. Witnesses from the chemical industries stated that many teachers of chemistry, in spite of their academic attainments, have insufficient knowledge of industry and thus are not able to adapt their knowledge and methods to the needs of their students. The building trades' representatives emphasised that many of the higher teaching posts are held by architects, many of whom may not have had much experience of practical building and of the many trades associated with it. In some industries there are, as yet, no courses available to fit men and women for the professional levels in the industry from whom those suitable for teaching appointments might be drawn. In many trades the men and women available as instructors are ill-equipped to take part in the education of adolescents. The textiles' representatives said that many graduates with degrees in technology were not well grounded in the fundamental sciences associated with their work. The engineers, while agreeing with this view, added that teachers who have lost touch with industry are not up to date in their instruction and that others suffer from a lack of any significant experience of industry before they begin teaching. There is a shortage of teachers for the women's trades who can combine professional flair with competent teaching technique. The teaching of some commercial subjects, especially typewriting and, to a less degree, shorthand, is often undertaken on old fashioned methods regardless of the results of valuable research now available in the teaching of these skills.

404. Finally, many lecturers and instructors from the beginning lack the art of teaching. Some of these, it is true, achieve it later but only at the expense of the time and efforts of many disappointed students, especially the younger ones. Others never achieve it at all. These are not unsupported views. They arise directly from the evidence of our witnesses.

Qualifications required

405. What are the qualifications required of a teacher of technical subjects? We do not discuss those elusive qualities of personality which are difficult to describe and to assess, though we emphasise our belief that desirable personal gifts and attitudes of mind are as necessary in a technical teacher as in any other.

406. Ideally every teacher should possess four qualifications, distinct but related, and the technical teacher requires a fifth. Happy the teacher who has

(a) a general education which fits him to be a teaching member of an educational institution and makes him an acceptable colleague,
(b) a high standard of knowledge of his subject, or of skill in his craft,
(c) the ability to teach: that is the ability to build up in his pupils a systematic body of knowledge or to make them skilful in a craft, and to provoke them to study for themselves and lead them to respect sound learning and fine workmanship,


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(d) an appreciation of the relation of his own subject to other realms of knowledge and of the relation of the institution which he serves to other educational institutions and to society at large.
In addition, the technical teacher, particularly the technical subjects teacher, must have
(e) an intimate acquaintance with his subject in its industrial or commercial setting, if possible through the practical experience of having played a significant part in industry or commerce.
407. It is not at present possible to ensure that every technical teacher possesses all these qualifications. Without (b) and (e), that is a high standard in his own subject or skill and an awareness of its industrial or commercial applications, a teacher has no proper place in a technical college. As regards (a) many a craftsman who holds no school certificate or whose geography for instance, or even English, is at fault, may nevertheless pass the minimum educational test by virtue of his wisdom and experience in other fields of human interest. Qualifications (c) and (d) cannot really be separated, they mean a good teacher. We have distinguished them in order to make clear that the acquisition of the technique of teaching, important as it is, is not the whole of the professional equipment of teachers. For the younger students especially, teachers with this full professional equipment are necessary.

408. We have heard it said that, since most of the teaching in technical and commercial institutions deals with fundamental principles, the value attached to practical experience in workshops and offices can be exaggerated, and that, in any case, many teachers who are familiar with modern practice seem to make no use in the classroom of this experience. If this is true the reason may well be that teachers who have had no training in the art of teaching are apt, when faced with a class, to relapse into the matter and manner of their own student days; and their practical knowledge or skill may remain inert because of their ignorance of how to make it available to their students.


CHAPTER 13

FACTORS WHICH AFFECT SUPPLY

409. The recruitment of technical teachers, like that of any other type of teacher, is largely affected by the conditions of service in the profession and by the salaries and prospects which it offers. We deal with conditions of service in the following paragraphs. The question of salaries, with which we deal in Chapter 15, is complicated by the fact that the qualifications and experience which a technical teacher must have before he can teach successfully fit him for work in industry and commerce where the rewards that may be won, though more uncertain, are greater.

410. The relationship of the technical teacher to other organisations and activities, which does not operate in regard to other teachers, is a vital factor in supply. The co-operation of industry and commerce is essential. Without it, teachers of sufficiently high quality cannot be obtained nor, when obtained, can they remain at a sufficiently high level of efficiency. We deal with this crucial matter in the second half of this chapter.

Conditions of Work and Service

Buildings and Equipment

411. Powerful factors in recruitment are, and always will be, the nature of the building in which the teacher has to work and the type of equipment which is placed at his command. We refer to these matters quite briefly


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because the White Paper has already called attention to the 'deplorably low' standards of many technical college buildings and their equipment; and it also points out that 'comparison with what can be seen in many other countries which have been our competitors in world markets can leave little cause for satisfaction'. The evidence we had from technicians from other countries emphasised the great strides which have been made abroad in the material provision for technical education. In this country, the provision for women's day classes is especially bad and was on several occasions given as a reason for poor recruitment of teachers. We look to the reforms which the White Paper foreshadows to remedy these conditions and so to remove a serious obstacle to the recruitment and efficient work of technical teachers. Among the essential requirements of a technical college in the way of equipment is a good library containing the latest technical books, current technical and commercial publications, including foreign publications, and other material which records industrial or commercial practice or recent advances in science and economics.

Research and Investigation

412. Technical teachers, above all others, should be able to keep their knowledge up to date and to pursue their own investigations. If they are unable to do this because of excessive hours of teaching they can neither satisfy themselves nor, if they are instructing those who are alive to the advances which are being made, retain the respect of their students. Teachers should, within reason, freely be granted facilities for attending meetings of scientific and learned societies, and for paying frequent visits to works and commercial undertakings to observe what is being done and to make the necessary personal contacts.

413. Not every technical teacher has the education, the capacity or the desire to undertake independent research. But to deny time and opportunity for research to those who are so qualified results in a personal frustration which damages a teacher's self respect and has bad effects on his teaching. Lack of facilities for research is a most serious factor in discouraging able men and women from becoming teachers in technical colleges. Sometimes equipment is not available; more often the teacher has no time for independent work because of the amount of class work which he is expected to undertake.

414. Many of those who have not the gifts required for pursuing research on their own account are nevertheless qualified to investigate particular problems arising out of industrial practice. These problems may present themselves to local industries which have neither laboratories nor skilled investigators. It is to the great advantage of both the technical college and the teachers concerned if such problems are investigated and solved in the college laboratories and by the college staff. Alternatively, if a teacher is invited, because of the nature of the problem, to give occasional technical service in a firm's premises, he should not be prevented from doing so because his day is too full with teaching nor because the question of payment arises. Closer relations of this kind have been established between industrial establishments and technical colleges under the stress of war conditions. With the return of peace these should be strengthened and extended.

Release from Teaching Duties

415. In addition to the week by week contacts with industry and commerce which responsible teachers must have, many should return from time to time to factories or business for a substantial period, or they should travel to see what is being done in other countries. The Regulations of the Board of Education make this possible in that grant is payable on the salary of any teacher


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who is released from teaching to attend 'an approved course of instruction', which includes a return to industry up to a period of three months in any one year. By arranging this period of release to run consecutively with the long vacation a teacher might get five continuous months away from teaching. This provision is almost never used. Teachers do not seem to know of its existence, and under present staffing conditions it would be difficult to release men or women to take advantage of it. Also, in some cases, the lack of an effective relationship between technical colleges and industry and commerce would mean that no very satisfactory arrangements for the teachers to use this time to the best advantage could be made.

416. Finally, in view of the value of overseas experience in enlarging the background and increasing the knowledge of technical as of other teachers, and in order that the technical colleges may take their share of the general responsibility for colonial educational development, the secondment of technical teachers for overseas service should be considered.

Excessive Teaching Hours

417. But however many and varied the opportunities for interesting work and experience may be in theory, teachers will not in practice take advantage of them unless the root obstacle is removed. That obstacle is that many teachers in technical and commercial colleges, and especially the more responsible members of the staff, are heavily overloaded with teaching duties. They have no time to spare. In some colleges there are better arrangements than others in this matter of teaching hours. Some local education authorities or governing bodies impose too narrow an interpretation of what constitutes a full-time appointment.

418. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should ensure that the regulations made by local education authorities do not, by reason of the amount of teaching which is required, debar technical teachers from engaging in research and investigation or securing necessary contacts with industry or commerce;
(b) that the Board of Education should encourage local education authorities and governing bodies to staff technical colleges and schools on a scale which gives qualified teachers time for activities that improve their competence and enable them to play their part in the advancement of knowledge; and
(c) that any arrangements regarding secondment should apply also to technical teachers.
The Co-operation of Industry and Commerce with Technical Education

419. We are convinced that the principle of co-operation between industry and commerce on the one hand and technical education on the other must be fully developed, and all our evidence leads us to believe that if the position is made clear to all concerned there will be no lack of goodwill on the part of those whose help is sought. The resolution passed by the Federation of British Industries and communicated to the Committee has confirmed us in this opinion.* The practical issues of co-operation, which will change from

*The resolution was: 'The Executive Committee of the Federation of British Industries, recognising the importance of enquiries at present being undertaken by Sir Arnold McNair's Committee into the supply and the training of teachers, wishes to emphasize the necessity of assuring a supply of teachers in technical schools and colleges having technical knowledge, up-to-date industrial experience and ability to teach. It assures the Committee of its most sympathetic consideration for any proposals calling for greater co-operation by industry in this matter.'


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time to time, require to be kept under constant review; and detailed arrangements, personal to each teacher, must be made to enable a proportion of teaching staff each year to bring their experience of industry or commerce up to date by spending a period away from teaching and in contact with their subject in its industrial or commercial setting.

420. It would not, in our opinion, be appropriate for the Board of Education to shoulder complete responsibility for securing this co-operation. Its officers are not actually engaged in industry or commerce, however knowledgeable they may be about industrial and commercial processes. Nor do we think that industrial or commercial concerns, as such, can be charged with the task; they are unlikely to know enough about the educational issues involved. Further, it is not a question of evoking the interest of industry and commerce at large but of securing the detailed co-operation of a number of separate industries and types of business. We do not, however, favour the idea of establishing a number of new ad hoc bodies with no previous experience of the problem and owing allegiance to no one in particular.

421. We believe that the key to the problem is to be found in the agency of the well established and highly responsible Professional Institutions. We have in mind, for example, such institutions as the Institutions of Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineers, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Institute of Bankers, the Institute of Builders, and the Institute of Naval Architects. These Institutions have practical experience of educational work conducted in co-operation with the Board of Education, and they include amongst their members not only teachers but a large number of persons who hold responsible posts in industry or commerce. They are at home with both educational standards and industrial or commercial activities. They command the respect of all parties and between them they cover a large part of the whole field divided up into its natural economic and technological units.

422. We do not suggest that these Institutions, unaided, should undertake the work we have in mind, but that the Board of Education should invite such of them as are appropriate to bring into being small bodies of persons who would act as standing committees charged with the duty of keeping constantly under review, and making practical proposals about, the co-operation of industry and commerce with technical education. In particular these standing committees would facilitate arrangements for the periodic return of technical teachers to industry and commerce.

423. We take, for example, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. We suggest that the Board of Education should invite this Institution to bring into being a small committee representative of certain major interests such as industrial associations, persons technologically engaged in industry, and teachers of mechanical engineering in technical colleges. The Board would nominate an inspector to be a member of the committee. The Institution would of course ensure not only that its own membership was adequately represented, but also that the whole field of mechanical engineering, including such specialised groups as production and automobile engineers, was represented or available for consultation. We do not pretend to define the functions of such a committee in any detail. In broad terms they would be two-fold: to make detailed plans so that individual teachers of mechanical engineering in the technical colleges may renew their contacts with industry; and to promote co-operation between the staffs of technical colleges and other institutions and organisations concerned with mechanical engineering.

424. In those industries and professions where there is as yet no appropriate professional body to undertake the work we have outlined, the Board of Education should take the steps necessary to meet the situation. In some


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professions or industries, such as mining and agriculture, government departments other than the Board of Education would be involved.

Some Suggestions

425. Before we make our recommendation on this matter in precise terms we record some of the suggestions which have been made as to the kind of help which industrial organisations, local industries, research associations and the professional institutions themselves might offer in their partnership with technical education. In some cases co-operation of the kind suggested has already been effected. Comparable arrangements should be made in the field of commerce. All these matters would properly be the subject of investigation by the bodies we have in mind.

Local Firms

426. Firms should allow the staff of the local technical college to be associated with the productive, technical and scientific sides of their organisation: and, since many new developments mature through the work of industrial research organisations, association with the research staff is particularly important. The larger firms should, from time to time, provide lecture courses and demonstrations in design and in manufacturing processes for the benefit of the local technical college staffs. A few experiments of this kind have already been tried with remarkable success; and we commend the practice, despite the fact there is sometimes a reluctance on the part of industrialists to encourage the spread of knowledge of particular industrial processes.

427. Industrial concerns might release high-grade staff, both at the professional and craftsman level, for part-time work and occasionally for full-time teaching in technical colleges for limited periods. This would improve the standing in industry of technical education, but the advantages would not all be on the one side. We may mention that already the co-operation of industry with local education authorities has proved effective in the provision of postgraduate and post-national certificate courses.

Industrial Associations

428. Industrial associations should stimulate their less progressive members to take a more active interest in providing technical teachers with opportunities for practical experience. They should also encourage larger firms to provide refresher courses for selected teachers and to contribute up-to-date equipment to colleges; and they might encourage groups of smaller firms, which individually are not large enough for the purpose, to provide facilities for training. These associations should be the medium through which the numerous component firms of each industry are made alive to the importance of the technical teacher to industry and to the responsibilities of industry for the selection and training of teachers. They would also advise individual firms about the best arrangements to make for a man sent to them for training.

Professional Institutions

429. Professional institutions, but not all, promote discussions and the reading of papers on the work of technical colleges and schools and on the teaching of technical subjects. This is a valuable form of co-operation but it is not widespread. Some institutions already encourage members with special qualifications or experience to offer to give lectures to advanced students, especially in universities. This practice should be extended and apply also to technical colleges and schools.


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Research Associations

430. Research Associations should make it possible for selected teachers in technical colleges to visit their laboratories, though we recognise that there could not be access to research which is secret or confidential.

Periods spent in Industry and Commerce

431. It should be the normal thing for a teacher of technical subjects to be given from time to time a period on full pay, extending over a term or more, to enable him to take advantage of opportunities for returning to industry or otherwise renewing his contacts with industrial processes. In the case of the technical teacher, we consider that the whole cost of this period, that is, his full salary for an approved period in respect of an approved course of experience or study, should be borne by the Board of Education. Applications for such periods would be made to the Board who would bring such as were approved before the appropriate standing committee so that the most effective arrangements for the use of the period could be made.

Travelling Fellowships

432. Travelling Fellowships for technical teachers might be provided by some of the more influential industrial associations and professional institutions.

The Technical Press

433. The technical press shows lively interest in technical education and the provision of technical teachers, and none of the schemes we have outlined could be fully successful unless the technical press continued its good offices in this respect.

434. We recommend

(a) that the Board of Education should invite suitable Professional Institutions to establish standing committees whose duty it would be to promote co-operation between industry and commerce and the technical and commercial colleges, with particular regard to enabling teachers by means of periodic returns to industry and commerce to keep abreast of their subjects; and
(b) that teachers of technical and commercial subjects should periodically spend some time away from teaching and in close contact with industry or commerce, and that the cost of approved periods for this purpose should be borne by the Board of Education.



CHAPTER 14

THE TRAINING OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS

435. The training of technical teachers has much in common with the training of other types of teacher. There are certain assumptions about education in a democracy, and some principles underlying teaching as an art, which should be understood by all teachers. But the scope of the training of individual teachers must not be limited merely to an understanding of what is the common need of all. The relationship which knowledge or training in a teacher's own particular field bears to education as a whole must be studied, and techniques peculiar to the presentation of his own subject must be discovered and practised.

436. Moreover the technical teacher has two other special needs. In the first place he is frequently teaching people who are earning their living, many of whom are attending his classes voluntarily and who have some definite purpose of their own in doing so. It is important therefore that he should


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understand the psychology both of the younger semi-independent adolescents and of the adult students, and should know something of their social background and of their working conditions. In the second place there is an economics of technology and commerce in a sense in which there is not an economics of history, geography, pure science, modern languages and the other staple subjects with which the majority of teachers are concerned. The technical teacher ought to know something of the part which his subject, in its industrial or commercial setting, plays in the national economy.

Need for a period of Further Experiment

437. The planning of suitable courses of professional training for technical teachers is no simple matter. Very limited facilities are at present available for training of the kind we have in mind, and the conditions and problems peculiar to this range of teaching have not been the subject of any systematic and comprehensive investigation. There is no generally accepted body of doctrine on the training of technical teachers, nor on the best methods of teaching some of the many subjects to the diverse types of student found in many technical colleges and schools. But some valuable experiments have been made, and the experience gained is available. The Board of Education have conducted a number of short courses for technical teachers, and so have some local education authorities, as well as a few industrial and commercial concerns which train their own apprentices. The City and Guilds of London Institute have for many years played a part in the training of teachers in a limited field. The Institute awards teachers' certificates in dressmaking, needlework, tailoring, cookery, upholstery, millinery and handicrafts. These certificates may be awarded, after examination, to those who have taken approved part-time courses of study and teaching practice, sometimes extending over two or three years, at selected technical colleges.

438. The time is now ripe for selected technical and commercial colleges and schools, in association with teacher-training institutions, to experiment with the training of technical teachers systematically and on a comprehensive scale. We suggest a framework within which experiments, and later the more permanent arrangements for training technical teachers, might take place. We have recommended in another part of our Report that training facilities for teachers generally should be organised on an area basis and that the several types of educational institution in the area which have a contribution to make to the education or training of teachers should be represented on the area training authority. It is very important that the training of technical teachers should not be isolated from that of other teachers, however necessary it may be to provide them with some instruction and experience wholly different from that required by the generality of teachers. We therefore consider that technical teacher training should be undertaken by the area training authority; and for this purpose that authority should include representatives of technical and commercial education. It should also appoint a person of sufficient standing to direct the work in its experimental stages, and later, if the scheme proves efficient, to organise it as a permanent part of training provision.

The Nature of Training Courses

439. Only experience can reveal the best methods and arrangements of training; but whatever they may prove to be, they will have to be accommodated to the extremely varied needs of the teachers for whom they are planned. Technical teachers are recruited from many sources and they have diverse experiences. As a body they are concerned with some hundreds of subjects and callings. They range from the instructor in a craft to the man of high professional status. Many teachers of general subjects have been trained but have had no experience in industry; the reverse is true of most technical subjects teachers. Despite this variety, the number requiring


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training each year will always be small compared with that of other teachers; some 400 to 500 compared with 10,000 or more. Further, the technical subjects teacher comes from industry or commerce where he is earning his living. It would probably be impracticable for him to take a continuous period of training before he begins to teach. Bearing these facts in mind, we make the following suggestions.

440. The training of the technical teacher, or at any rate the major part of it, should be undertaken after, rather than before, he has entered upon his work as a practising teacher; and generous financial provision should be made for his training. The course as a whole should be broken up into units of comparatively short duration, which could, if so desired, be taken piece-meal with an interval between them. Four units suggest themselves:

A. Education: basic general principles; organisation and administration of the system of education, and the relation of technical to other forms of education.
B. Teaching: principles of class teaching and the techniques of teaching particular groups of subjects.
C. Students: their interests, range of capacity, social environment, working conditions and general outlook.
D. Industrial and commercial contacts.
Practical experience of teaching under the guidance of a skilled practitioner will be an essential part of B. and C. The effectiveness of D. will depend on the co-operation of industrial and commercial firms. Teachers who do not lack industrial and commercial contacts might substitute for D. a course in their own subject, its history, relationship to knowledge as a whole and its economics. This is an important aspect of technology for those who have the capacity and inclination to tackle it.

441. Courses consisting of units such as these or of a comparable kind could be made sufficiently flexible to meet almost all needs, whether of the technical or of the general subjects teacher. They should be organised on a full-time basis of, say, a month to six weeks for each unit for full-time teachers; and on a part-time basis for part-time teachers. The complete course should be the equivalent of about six months' full-time study and practice. Full-time teachers should be released from their duties without loss of salary for the necessary periods spread over as much as two or three years. Part-time teachers, in the nature of things, would probably not be able to attend full-time courses even of short duration. Some of the training of a part-time teacher could be carried on concurrently with his teaching duties. Indeed, the first appointment of a part-time teacher might be as assistant to another competent teacher who is dealing with a large class or classes. In this way he would learn as he taught.

442. Much of the course would be provided in technical colleges or schools and be conducted by technical teachers; and the technical institutions concerned would thus become one of the many training institutions, and the staff concerned would be part of the training staff of an area. Some of the instruction would be the same as that provided for other teachers, and should be shared with them. Thus the segregation of technical teachers in training would be avoided. Training in the teaching of some groups of subjects, such as mining or textiles, could be offered successfully only in particular areas, and there should be inter-area facilities for transferring technical teachers in training to the most suitable centres. In any case transfer arrangements would have to be made because some students may want to take training elsewhere and because the numbers of students may not justify a fully developed training centre in each area. The variety of technical callings is so great that arrangements for very small groups, and


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sometimes for individual interests, must not be excluded. There are some trades in which comparatively few people are employed but which demand a high degree of skill, particularly in design, and for which effective training can be given only if the training institution is in the closest association with the trade houses. The case of high-class professional dressmaking has been brought to our notice, and it is clear that in this, as in some other trades, specially centralised provision for training the teachers will have to be made. Residential courses will be required for most full-time teachers and the more it is practicable to adopt the residential type of course the better. But the part-time teacher will fare badly unless special attention is paid to his comparative immobility.

443. We rely on a liberal provision of refresher courses to make up for the comparatively short duration of the initial training period. These courses should be varied in purpose, scope and duration and should be promoted by the area training authorities, though they might be conducted in any institution able to offer them.

Conclusion

444. Every teacher ought to know how to teach, and this means that for technical teachers, as for others, there must be widespread provision for training. This provision does not exist and the question of prescribing training as a condition of entering or continuing work in a technical college is not as yet a practical issue. The right kind of training, its nature and length, can be worked out only as the result of systematic experiment throughout the whole country; and this is the duty of the several area training authorities. As the results of these systematic experiments become available the Board of Education will be in a position to consider the recognition of established courses of training.

445. We recommend

(a) that each area training authority should include representatives of technical and commercial education and should appoint a director of technical training to organise courses of training and to promote systematic enquiry into the problems of training technical teachers; and
(b) that the area training authorities should report at frequent intervals to the Board of Education so that systematic courses of training for technical teachers may be provided and recognised.



CHAPTER 15

SALARIES

446. In this chapter we deal only with broad principles, and we are not concerned with those technical schools which will become part of the secondary school system. The work of technical colleges is specifically related to the needs of industry and commerce and this relationship means that a person who is qualified to teach technical subjects in a technical college is usually qualified to fill a post of responsibility elsewhere. It is necessary therefore that the salaries of teachers in technical colleges should be related to the emoluments obtainable in industry or commerce, allowance being made for the advantages which teaching offers, compared with industry and commerce as a whole, by way of vacations, security and superannuation. There are other teachers in the colleges with high scientific qualifications in such subjects as mathematics, physics and chemistry who are experienced in the application of their knowledge to technical subjects. Many of these are qualified to take scientific posts in the Services or in government departments.

447. Technical colleges are organised on a basis different from that of most other educational institutions. Their characteristic is the diversity of their


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students as regards age, interest and purpose. These range from comparatively young persons to mature adults; but age by no means determines the classification of students or the standard of instruction. In other words they are not, like schools, organised horizontally in classes consisting in the main of pupils of approximately the same age, but vertically in departments each dealing with a particular subject or a group of subjects. The department is the unit of organisation and it is the salaries of Heads of departments which are the key salaries in a graded system.

448. The departments in technical colleges vary in size and importance and there should be maximum salaries for Heads of departments to correspond with these grades of importance. The Head of a large department is doing work, and has responsibilities as regards organisation and research, comparable with those of a university professor. He is in touch with leading people (designers, technicians and others) in industry and is probably undertaking a certain amount of work as a consultant. His maximum salary should be of the order of that of a university professor. If such were the case the colleges would offer prospects sufficient to secure or retain the services of many able persons who had the alternative of work in industry. The grading of the maxima of Heads of departments according to the importance of the department would furnish a natural system of promotion.

449. The salaries of Principals of technical colleges should be determined separately from those of the rest of the staff, and must clearly depend on the size and importance of the college. It is obvious that the Principal of a college should always receive a salary higher than that of any Head of department in that college. In the case of some small colleges the Principal might combine his work in that capacity with that of Head of some department. The Principals of some colleges would receive less than the Heads of departments in other colleges; and this is obviously a justifiable arrangement.

450. The principles we have outlined should apply as much to departments staffed by women as to those staffed by men and also to women teachers in departments with a mixed staff. In this connection, however, we refer to what we have said elsewhere about it not being our business to examine, or make any recommendations about, the differential rates of pay for men and women.

451. The above paragraphs deal with full-time teachers. We do not think it is practicable to make recommendations about the remuneration of part-time teachers. This is bound to depend upon a supply and demand factor which may fluctuate over comparatively short periods of time. It is obvious, however, that any improvement in the salaries of full-time teachers is bound to be reflected in higher rates of pay for part-time teachers.

452. We recommend

(a) that the salaries of teachers in technical colleges should be related to the emoluments obtainable by persons of similar qualifications and experience in industry and commerce, in the Services and in government departments;
(b) that the general salary scales should be based on the organisation. of departments and the distribution of grades of staff within each department, and that there should be more than one grade of department;
(c) that the salaries of the Heads of the most important departments should be on the professorial level; and
(d) that the salaries of Principals should be determined independently of the scales of salaries applicable to other members of the staff and should be based on grades corresponding to the importance of the different colleges.


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PART IV

THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF WALES AND SOME OTHER IMPORTANT MATTERS

CHAPTER 16

WALES

453. In general, the observations, conclusions and recommendations of this Report apply to England and to Wales equally, but certain features of the Welsh situation require special treatment. While both countries have shared a common social life for many generations, within this wider sphere Wales has retained its own national character. The sense of a distinctive cultural heritage is deep. The Welsh language is still the mother tongue of half the population. Contemporary Welsh literature is virile and the traditional institutions of the country are strong and active. These are facts which must influence the schools and teachers of Wales profoundly. It can thus be foreseen that while most of our recommendations may be regarded as common to both countries, some of them will require a different method of application in each. We are agreed that in the proposed new plan for the training of teachers in Wales there should be a unified system. This system should operate through the four area training organisations we recommend, but should nevertheless be integrated in whatever organisation may be adopted for the country as a whole. Both distinctive and common requirements can be met in this way.

454. Education has always been held in high esteem in Wales. In the nineteenth century most of the people were identified with the popular movements that championed the establishment of the country's schools, its theological colleges, its university colleges and its university. The Evangelical Revival produced earnest social ideals and generated the necessary will and energy to strive and sacrifice for their realisation. The result was the acceptance of a traditional duty in most Welsh families that parents should win better educational opportunities for each succeeding generation. Teachers, like preachers, were therefore held in high regard. The best were originally produced in the Sunday Schools; some of them became ministers and, within the authority of their own churches, they conducted classes of all kinds for all ages throughout the week. From numerous active cultural centres such as these, men and women went out from about 1840 onwards to establish worthier and more numerous day schools. Their energies sustained the British and Foreign School Society and the National Society, and from 1870 onwards they made full use of the local School Boards. By 1889 the Government had been induced to pass the Welsh Intermediate and Technical Education Act. The denominational colleges were built, and before the close of the century Wales had its University with its three constituent colleges at Aberystwyth, Bangor and Cardiff and teachers' training colleges at Bangor, Carmarthen and Swansea. The University College of Swansea was opened in 1920; and training colleges were opened at Barry and Caerleon in 1914.

455. Such a widely diffused tradition in favour of education is a great asset to a country in its need for teachers. Their office is respected and their place in the social life of the community an honourable one. Consequently Wales has always been able to recruit for its own needs and also for service in England. There are, however, grounds for anxiety about contemporary


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trends. The needs of the rural areas - two-thirds of the geographical area of Wales - have caused concern. They have been unable to share in many of the advantages of recent educational progress. Their school buildings are old and they have been too often staffed cheaply with uncertificated and supplementary teachers, so that education and teachers no longer command that measure of public esteem which was theirs a generation ago. In recent years the quantity and quality of candidates for the profession have not been maintained, and it is to be feared that the increased demands of the future will find the country in a less favourable position than it has enjoyed for several generations.

456. Hitherto most teachers have been drawn from the homes of industrial workers, craftsmen, farmers, small shopkeepers and nonconformist ministers. Parents within these groups have been eager to improve the lot of their children, and the teaching profession has been the most accessible one. Until recently the heavy industries and the commerce and agriculture of Wales offered little scope for scientists, administrators and technicians, and the cost of training for admission to the legal and medical professions and higher civil service was beyond the means of most Welsh parents. Meanwhile, admissions to the secondary schools have grown apace (the average for Wales is roughly double that of England); local education authorities in the industrial areas have made generous loan, bursary and scholarship provision, and the number of places available in the training departments of the university colleges and in the training colleges of Wales has been considerably above the average for England and Wales together. In pre-war years the total output of trained teachers was about 800 per annum. Many untrained graduates became teachers in secondary schools. This number would be roughly equal to normal wastage in Wales, but the whole output was never assimilated because some students were drawn from outside Wales and wished to return to England, new educational developments were restricted (for instance, there was no decrease in the size of classes) and local education authorities continued to appoint untrained teachers. For some years, delayed employment, if not prolonged unemployment, was the lot of many trained teachers on the completion of their courses in Wales, and increasing numbers found employment in England. These experiences administered a shock to established custom in Wales, and its effects have been seen in a drop in the number of applicants for admission to training departments and training colleges. Meanwhile, other professional openings in the central and provincial civil service, law, medicine, local government, industry and business have gained in comparative accessibility and attractiveness. Further, the economic insecurity of pre-war years made parents anxious to see their children settled early in occupations demanding little training, so that three years' or so additional expense might be saved and three years' more income gained. Wales has therefore been slowly losing its character as an abundant source for the supply of teachers. It follows, in view of the present and post-war demands, that the number of teachers trained in its colleges may well be insufficient to meet its own needs, and for this reason it is vital to awaken Wales to a realisation that measures taken to raise the esteem of the profession in England have special significance for her too.

457. In facing this task of training more teachers, Wales has a two-fold duty. On the one hand its system of training must produce teachers with a sense of responsibility towards their country and its cultural heritage. They will in many cases be required to speak the Welsh language and teach through its medium, and they must be qualified to serve in schools which must give due prominence to the language, literature, history and traditional culture of


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the country. But this is not all, for these teachers will need to be trained so that they and their pupils will be conscious members of the British community, fully qualified and free to serve on equal terms within it. The schools of England and Wales have always shared a common pool of teachers, and it is certain that many of the products of Welsh colleges will continue to be attracted to the service of schools in other parts of the British Isles and throughout the British Empire. In performing this two-fold function, the training system in Wales will be discharging its duties towards the traditional life of the Principality and towards the wider community.

458. We have not regarded it as our task to consider this matter in detail and to submit recommendations. It is essentially the duty to be discharged by the organisation which we propose. We merely note that, particularly since the appearance in 1926 of the report of the Departmental Committee appointed 'to inquire into the position of the Welsh language and to advise as to its promotion in the educational system of Wales', the Board of Education has been identified with this two-fold aim for teacher training in Wales. Its policy has been directed to the training of suitable teachers for schools in all parts of Wales, whether they be Welsh-speaking, bilingual or English-speaking, rural or urban, and also to the maintenance of a sound general training. With this general policy we are in agreement.

459. Wales has shared in the general growth of youth activities during recent years, and a Welsh Youth Committee now exercises a general supervision over these activities. The Welsh League of Youth (Urdd Gobaith Cymru), founded in 1922, has made great strides in the rural and Welsh speaking areas although it is not confined to them. Thanks to the grants of the Carnegie and Pilgrim Trusts and of the Commissioners for Special Areas, the industrial depression in South Wales led to a considerable expansion of the work of youth organisations generally (for instance, the National Association of Boys' Clubs, the National Association of Girls' Clubs, the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A.). This work was extended by the Welsh Committee of the National Council for Physical Training and Education in 1938 and 1939. Since that time the local education authorities and voluntary organisations have followed the general pattern described in Chapter 10. There has never been an adequate supply of suitable full-time leaders. Today this is a pressing need. Courses for part-time leaders have been held by many voluntary organisations. These have generally been of short duration and independently arranged, although two residential courses on a joint basis were organised at Coleg Harlech in 1937 and 1938. More recently the Welsh Youth Advisory Committee and the local education authorities have been responsible for joint courses, while each voluntary organisation has catered for its own leaders. Our recommendations on the training of youth leaders have equal significance for Wales.

460. Wales is fortunate in the possession of a National Federal University, which is largely the outcome of the vision and efforts of its own people. The numbers of its students are not large when compared with those of other modern universities, and it has combined a special responsibility for the cultural life of Wales with those functions which it shares with other universities. The University Board of Celtic studies, the University Press Board, the University Extension Board and the University Council of Music illustrate this fact. This general trusteeship of the University of Wales has always been consistent with the active autonomy of its constituent colleges, and we believe this structure can well sustain the further duties which we now recommend should be placed upon it.


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461. The four constituent colleges of the University of Wales have training departments with an average total of 830 places. There are six training colleges with an average total of 810 places and one college of domestic arts with an average of 91 places. These colleges are situated at Bangor, Barry, Caerleon, Carmarthen, Swansea and Cardiff and are therefore within easy reach of the university colleges. At present there is no provision for the training of technical teachers, nor is there anything comparable with the provision which is available in England for the training of teachers for nursery schools or of specialist teachers of art and crafts, music or physical education.

462. The University Board for Training Colleges was constituted in 1929. The Board is an administrative body and is not directly associated with the day by day work of the training departments and the training colleges. The work of the training departments is excluded from its scope, and it administers the regulations for the examination for the teacher's certificate. It has formed Boards of Studies which have advised on the syllabuses of the courses in training colleges, and these have been approved by the Board of Education. Experiments by individual colleges have been made known to all; matters of common interest have been considered jointly and a marked improvement in training college syllabuses has been effected. The University Board for Training Colleges submits an annual report to the Court of Governors of the University of Wales, but it is mainly statistical and rarely discussed.

463. There is no organic relationship between the university colleges, or their training departments, and the training colleges, or between the training colleges themselves. The slight cross-representation on councils and committees that exists is adventitious and is unprovided for in charters and constitutions. University teachers visit training colleges occasionally for the purpose of conducting examinations or of attending meetings of Boards of Studies. Training college lecturers rarely conduct university classes. The students of the university colleges and training colleges sometimes share joint social functions.

464. The achievements of the University Board for Training Colleges should now be carried a stage further so that the training colleges, the four training departments and university colleges may be brought together to form an effective system of teacher training in Wales. We are of the opinion that the University of Wales, with its constituent colleges, is the proper body to assume responsibility for the education and professional training of teachers. The present University Board for Training Colleges should be reconstituted to form a University Education Board, and at each university college a School of Education should be established. Each university college training department should be merged in the University College School of Education, which should bring all the other institutions concerned with the education and training of teachers into an organic relationship without endangering the identity of each separate institution, except in so far as it is agreed that the union of two or more institutions is both desirable and practicable.

465. We recommend

(a) that the University of Wales and its constituent colleges should assume the future responsibility for the education and professional training of teachers in Wales;
(b) that the University Board for Training Colleges be reconstituted to form a University Education Board: and
(c) that a University College School of Education be established at each university college centre.

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466. In the federal system of the University of Wales it is understood that the functions of central university bodies are limited to broad questions of policy and co-ordination together with a greater or less measure of financial control. The onus of applying policy in free and independent ways rests with each constituent university college. We suggest that a similar broad delimitation of functions could be adopted in devising new administrative machinery for this purpose. There is no need to lay down the details of the constitutions of the proposed University Education Board and University College Schools of Education. We would, however, suggest that the University Education Board should be given statutory recognition in the university charter and should be charged (inter alia) with the following and related duties:

(a) the survey of the needs of Wales in order to direct long-term policy and to provide a comprehensive system of teacher training within the university framework. This will involve new provision for training teachers of art and crafts, music and physical education, technical teachers, nursery school teachers and youth leaders;
(b) the examination for and the award of training certificates and diplomas;
(c) the recognition, under suitable conditions, of approved university teachers on the staffs of training colleges and of specified courses provided by them;
(d) the formation and supervision of Boards of Studies;
(e) the promotion of research;
(f) such financial duties as may be required of it;
(g) general clearing-house functions.
The University Education Board (the chairman of which should be the Vice-Chancellor or his deputy) should be composed of the Heads of the University College Schools of Education and training colleges, representatives of their teaching staffs, with suitable representation of the university colleges, the Academic Board and the University Council. H.M. Inspectors should attend in an advisory capacity.

467. The varying conditions at each university college centre also preclude any rigid outline of the constitutions of the proposed University College Schools of Education. The general duties with which they might be charged may be briefly suggested. They should co-ordinate educational and training facilities available to intending teachers by, inter alia:

(a) the determination of qualifications for admission to a course of training, subject to the general approval of the University Education Board;
(b) the allocation of students for full-time or part-time courses to the most suitable training institution included within the School of Education, or to any other Welsh School of Education or corresponding area organisation in England;
(c) the exchange of teachers between colleges within each of the Schools of Education;
(d) the supervision of syllabuses and their submission for approval to the University Education Board;
(e) the arrangement and supervision of school practice;
(f) the conduct of refresher courses and other courses for serving teachers;
(g) the encouragement of joint social activities within each School of Education.


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468. The council of a University College School of Education should represent a variety of interests, namely, the university college, the training colleges in the area, local education authorities, practising teachers, independent members of the public, who should include persons connected with agriculture, industry and commerce, and persons from the social services, including youth organisations. Such a council would appoint its officers and committees to deal with the academic, administrative and financial duties of the School of Education. It would also approve the appointments of the Principals and of certain other specified teachers to the staffs of affiliated institutions. The Director of the School of Education would be the professor of education at the university college. Each university college would be represented on the governing bodies of the training colleges which are the constituent members of its School of Education.

469. Schools of Education should be housed in their own buildings so far as practicable, and these buildings could be identified with the names of prominent Welsh educationists such as Griffith Jones of Llanddowror and Owen M. Edwards. Local education authorities in rural areas might wish to have educational centres of their own affiliated to the University College School of Education. These university outposts could serve the general educational needs of their areas, for example, by housing special services in adult education, agricultural education, technical education, centres for art, drama and music, educational conferences. Such provision, whether established in the university centres only or supplemented by other outlying institutions, would provide an opportunity of associating teachers of all kinds with one another to their common advantage and the benefit of education generally.

470. Such a system as is outlined here is not intended to restrict the field of recruitment of teachers or their ultimate spheres of service to the area of any single University College School of Education. In Wales, as in England, it is in the country's best interest that the field of recruitment and potential service should be free and wide.

471. It is recommended in Chapter 4 that the responsibility for initiating the new system shall be entrusted to the Central Training Council for England and Wales. It is important that Wales should be adequately represented on this Council. One of its early duties would be the visitation of the university college centres to consider with the authorities concerned the formulation of detailed plans for giving effect to these recommendations, including the provision of the necessary finance, staff and premises.


CHAPTER 17

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT MATTERS

472. We deal in this chapter with a number of important matters to which we wish to draw special attention.

Secondment

473. We have already recommended that the principle of secondment should be adopted in connection with the staffing of training institutions. We now go further and urge that this principle should operate throughout the whole service of education in this country and that it should also be applicable to teachers and others who are appointed on a temporary basis to educational posts abroad.


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Educational Services in this Country

474. The responsibility of the Board of Education does not extend to every form of public education in this country. There are, for instance, 'Approved Schools' under the jurisdiction of the Home Office and there is widespread educational provision under the control of the Service departments. We wish to see all properly qualified teachers regarded as part of a single national education service so far as three related things are concerned: the mobility of teachers; the acquiring by them of a varied experience; and the opportunity for different branches of the public service to secure the type of teacher they require. We hope that, in the future, simple arrangements will be made between, for instance, the army authorities and the local education authorities so that they may rely on one another for the co-operation necessary to secure an effective distribution of teaching power throughout the two educational services. The importance of this co-operation can scarcely be overrated if considered in the light of the educational responsibilities which may fall on the Services in the future. Obstacles, if any, presented by the existing superannuation arrangements should be removed.

475. We do not believe that what we intend can be achieved unless there is a widespread acceptance of the principle of secondment throughout the whole field of education; and we commend this principle to the Board of Education, other government departments, local education authorities and other bodies concerned.

The Service of Teachers Abroad

476. Our main concern in the matter of supply is to ensure the recruitment of a sufficient number of teachers to staff the public system of education in this country. We cannot, however, disregard the service of teachers from this country in other countries and particularly in other parts of the British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations. It is not only that their services are needed by other countries; there is also the fact that a period of teaching abroad may very much enrich the experience and widen the outlook of a teacher and so make his subsequent teaching at home much more interesting and effective. The advantages which accrue to our own schools and children from the service of those who have had this wider experience can hardly be overestimated; and we do not limit our consideration to teachers alone, but include inspectors and administrators also. It is obviously desirable, for instance, for the Board of Education to be able to ensure that at all times some of their inspectors are working abroad.

477. There are, broadly speaking, three ways in which service abroad can be arranged for, or secured by, teachers, namely (a) by interchange of posts with teachers abroad, (b) by independent action on the part of teachers in securing posts abroad without their making any plans for re-employment on their return to this country, and (c) by the secondment of teachers for service abroad for limited periods.

478. Under interchange arrangements a teacher in this country changes places with a teacher in another country for a period of one or two years. So far as the majority of the subjects of the curriculum are concerned, interchange naturally tends, owing to language difficulties, to operate with other English-speaking countries. We hope, however, that this limitation will not be found so necessary in the future. In the case of modern languages the chief consideration must naturally be whether the language of the foreign country is taught in British schools. Interchanges with the Dominions and the United States of America have in the past been arranged chiefly by voluntary agencies with the whole-hearted support of the Board of Education, whereas interchange with other countries has been a matter of more direct


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arrangement between the Board and the appropriate authority of the foreign country. Interchange presents no particularly administrative difficulty; the need is to increase the number of interchanges and so far as possible the range of countries covered by the system. In both matters the work of voluntary agencies is invaluable.

479. Difficulties arise when it is not a question of interchange. Teachers must always be free to make independent application for any vacant post abroad, and if they choose to do so without regard to their future employment in this country, that is their affair. But, in general, teachers are naturally reluctant to take temporary posts abroad unless they feel assured that there will be a good prospect of their re-employment on their return to this country; and it must be admitted that at present this assurance is generally lacking.

480. The situation has recently become more critical because of the urgent educational needs of the colonies; and also because of the establishment of the British Council whose duty it is to present other countries with the opportunity of understanding British life and thought, which involves, among other things, the establishment of British Institutes abroad staffed by British teachers. There are also schools for British children in other countries, and these should be efficiently staffed. Finally, there is the appointment of British educational advisers and administrators, on occasions when their services are sought by foreign countries, to temporary posts abroad.

481. The responsibility of this country for helping to staff the Colonial Education Service and for finding well qualified teachers and others for service in foreign countries is very real, even though in total the numbers are comparatively small. In the past, difficulties have arisen about superannuation hut these have now been surmounted. A teacher who discontinues contributory service in England and Wales because of service abroad may have his service abroad treated as pensionable service for a period of five years (or in special circumstances for a longer period) if he is teaching in any part of the Empire or in a school in a foreign country in which the Board of Education regard it as expedient to facilitate the employment of British teachers, or if he is employed in any educational service outside the United Kingdom where his duties involve, to a substantial extent, the control or supervision of teachers. The teacher, while abroad, has to pay, or cause to be paid, 10 per cent superannuation contribution based on the salary he received immediately before going abroad.

482. If the system of education in this country and the employment of teachers were centralised, as it is in many others, the solution of the problem of re-employment would be simple. The government would send teachers abroad and be responsible for re-employing them on return. But the Board of Education do not employ teachers nor pay them; they are employed by local education authorities and governing bodies. The Board cannot therefore make themselves directly responsible for securing the re-employment of teachers on return from service abroad. But they can and ought to encourage, and give authority to, the only practice which can meet the situation, and that is a widespread system of secondment. Despite the fact that there are a multitude of employing bodies, the whole body of teachers, inspectors and administrators in this country ought, as we have already said, to be regarded as constituting a national service, a proportion of whose members are always serving abroad. Secondment should in principle be from a national service and not specifically from a particular employing authority. Such a system could not be brought into being without the closest co-operation of all types


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of employing bodies nor without each of them recognising a responsibility not only to the teachers concerned but also to the countries in which the service abroad was rendered.

General

483. We believe that the problems we have been discussing merit some special machinery and that the initiative in this matter should be taken by the Board of Education. The first step is to get the principle of secondment accepted by all the interests concerned, and the second is to ensure that adequate machinery is set up to operate secondment.

484. We recommend

that the Board of Education, in consultation with the other interests concerned, should bring into being the machinery necessary (i) to establish the principle of secondment both as regards educational institutions and services in this country and as regards the appointment of teachers and others to educational posts abroad, and (ii) to ensure efficient methods of advising and interviewing those who apply for educational posts on a secondment basis and of selecting or recommending suitable applicants for such posts.

Student Teachers and Pupil Teachers

485. We have hitherto made no reference to Student Teachers or Pupil Teachers. Our view can be stated quite simply in two or three propositions. We think there may be advantages in boys or girls of about 18 years of age securing a period of observation in schools or of teaching under supervision before they enter upon, or decide not to enter upon, a course of training for the teaching profession. We do not think it is either in their own interests or in those of the schools for young people of this age and still less of a younger age to undertake regular teaching, part-time or whole-time, paid or unpaid. We believe that boys and girls who intend to be teachers should, if possible, receive full-time education up to about 18 years of age, undisturbed by outside obligations.

Nursery Schools

486. We said in Chapter 2 that we regard nursery schools as part of the primary system. We did not, in that chapter, consider separately the training of teachers of children below compulsory school age any more than we gave special consideration to the teachers of any other age group. We are, however, very alive to the fact that the future will probably see a great increase in the number of nursery schools and nursery classes. We do not know what the demand will be, nor is it our concern except in so far as it involves the question of the supply of teachers. Nor is it our business to discuss what should be the nature of the care and training provided for these very young children.

487. We wish, however, to say quite clearly that those who are seeking to become qualified teachers of children of nursery school age should on no account be segregated during training from those who are being prepared to teach older children. We recognise that there is a body of special knowledge and that there are special practices which teachers of very young children must acquire during training. But there is also a type of knowledge and a range of experience which are the common need of all teachers, and these should be obtained in common. Any tendency to segregate those intended for a particular type of school does no good to the children concerned and is definitely harmful to students while they are training and to teachers


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when they are qualified. If women seeking work in nursery schools receive their training in isolation they will in the long run lose rather than gain status.

488. The qualifications of the staff, the nature of the equipment and the type of outside contact, including school practice, required for those intending to qualify themselves for the nursery stage of school work will make it desirable that one or more colleges in each area should be devoted particularly to the training of teachers of younger children. This does not mean, however, that a large college accommodating as many as, say, 400 students should not, if the demand for extra provision makes it necessary, staff and equip itself to deal with a group of such teachers. What is to be condemned is the idea that a college undertaking training of a more general character can admit a group of students desiring to undertake nursery school work and meet their needs by mere improvisation. The colleges or departments of colleges devoted to the training of teachers of children of nursery school age have as much to give to other colleges, and are in as much need of receiving help from other colleges, as any other training institutions in the area training service. We therefore reject any suggestion that provision for those preparing to become qualified teachers in nursery schools or their equivalent should be made other than as part of the area training services.

Special Schools

489. In 1938 there were 611 Special Schools, that is Schools recognised under the Board of Education (Special Services) Regulations, which severally made provision for the education of some 59,500 children who were disabled in mind or body, that is who were blind, deaf, mentally or physically defective or epileptic. There were 2,786 teachers employed in these schools, and of these 2,063 were certificated teachers, 312 were uncertificated teachers and the remaining 411 included instructors in particular crafts. Service in Special Schools is rewarded by one additional increment to the normal salary for teachers in elementary schools.

490. Every full-time member of the teaching staff in a Special School must be recognised by the Board of Education for service in these schools, one condition of this recognition being that the teacher must be satisfactory as regards age, health and physical capacity. Head Teachers must be trained certificated teachers or, in the case of schools for defective and epileptic children, hold the higher certificate of the National Froebel Foundation. Candidates for headships in schools for the blind and deaf must also have completed satisfactorily an approved course of training for the particular type of Special School or have passed an approved examination; that is, they must have obtained either the Diploma of the National College of Teachers of the Deaf or the School Teacher's Certificate of the College of Teachers of the Blind. The Board of Education are associated with these examinations through the appointment of an assessor. In schools for defective and epileptic children, previous experience of the work is accepted instead of an approved course of training. The assistant teachers in schools for the blind or the deaf, whether they are certificated or uncertificated, are also required to have completed satisfactorily an approved course of training or to have passed an approved examination. The Board of Education have powers to recognise men and women without these qualifications if they nevertheless are personally suitable for service in these schools. Temporary recognition for two or three years can be given while the teacher is obtaining the requisite qualification.


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Training

491. Despite the reference in official regulations to an approved course of training, only one full-time course of training was available in 1938, namely, that for teachers of the deaf in the Education Department of Manchester University, through which about eight teachers were trained each year. This course provides a year's specialised training for graduates and for certificated teachers. It includes some study of general educational principles as well as a study of the special needs of the deaf and the technique of teaching them.

492. There was no special provision for training teachers of the blind, nor for the full-time training of teachers of defective or epileptic children. Short courses were, however, provided for teachers of mentally defective and retarded children by the Central Council for Mental Welfare, and for teachers of physically defective children by the Central Council for the Care of Crippled Children. These courses were conducted under the auspices of the Board of Education, and in 1938 they were attended by some 250 teachers.

493. Provision for the future training of teachers of children disabled in mind or body must have regard to the fact that, even if all the additional teachers who will be required received special training, it would probably not be necessary to train more than 300 to 400 teachers a year, and these would fall into four or five groups, each with special needs. The duration of the special training might vary very much from group to group. This training should be provided within the general training scheme, but it is clear that only a few of the area training services would be involved since it is probable that there should be only one centre for each kind of training, that is one for teachers of the deaf, another for teachers of the blind and so on. The training, except in special circumstances, should be undertaken subsequent to a completed course of normal training and, in general, teachers should have had some experience of teaching normal children before taking a course to prepare them for work in Special Schools.

494. The inclusion of this specialised training within the general training arrangements should ensure that what is learnt from experience with both normal and abnormal children will be available in the training of teachers generally. Except in the case of deafness and blindness, the border-line between the normal and the abnormal in both the physical and mental spheres is so undefined that good practice in teaching children on one side of the line cannot without loss be neglected in the teaching of children on the other. Further, it is important that teachers in Special Schools should not feel themselves to be segregated from teachers in ordinary schools, and they should participate fully in the arrangements which area training authorities may make for the benefit of practising teachers generally. The colleges or centres devoted especially to such subjects as art and crafts, music, physical education and domestic subjects should concern themselves with the needs of abnormal children and should contribute to the training of teachers for service in Special Schools. A liberal provision of refresher courses should also be made for teachers in Special Schools.

495. We recommend

(a) that courses of training to prepare teachers for work in Special Schools should be provided within the area training services and should normally be available only for persons who have previously completed an ordinary course of training;

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(b) that the Board of Education should consult the bodies most intimately concerned in order to determine the nature and duration of the courses of training which should be provided and the conditions, including any condition about previous teaching experience, under which persons should be admitted to these courses; and
(c) that the Central Training Council should make proposals to the Board of Education to ensure that adequate provision is made within the area training services for the training of teachers for work in Special Schools.
Education and the Countryside

496. We have not dealt separately, in the body of our Report, with rural education except in the chapter devoted to salaries and recognition. The reason for this is that we are convinced that the key problem, though not the only one, which has to be solved in order that justice shall be done to parents and children in the rural areas is that of the status of rural schools and of the teachers in those schools. There are, however, one or two matters to which we ought to refer and there is one recommendation we have to make.

497. We are opposed to a specialised training, during their student years, of those who may teach in rural schools. The object of the education and training of students is to ensure that at the end of their course they shall be educated men and women who have been trained to initiative and adaptability and thus are able to relate their teaching to the physical and human environment of the children in their charge. Further, we doubt whether on the whole it is advantageous for students to make up their minds too early whether they will seek their first post in the country or in a town. In any case they may not succeed in obtaining the post of their choice.

498. There is a danger of encouraging a narrow view of subjects if they are considered in training institutions solely in relation to particular things or circumstances. Chemistry is chemistry though it has different applications to the soil and to, say, cookery. Similarly, rural geography is geography, and the history of any particular countryside is still history. What is required is that as many people as possible should have some acquaintance with the life and pursuits of the countryside and should appreciate the significance of its staple industry, agriculture. This is particularly important for teachers, so that children in urban areas shall receive the benefit of an education which takes account of rural life.

499. It is with these considerations in mind that we propose that there should be in every area training service one or more training institutions situated in the country. One of the purposes of these institutions would be to enable some students from other colleges to take a part of their training under conditions which related their life and their studies to rural affairs. We believe that such an arrangement, combined with short courses for practising teachers in the science of rural life, would be much more in the interests of rural schools and the countryside generally than any attempt to provide a more or less exclusively rural training for particular groups of students. These training institutions would, of course, be in close touch with farm institutes and with agricultural and horticultural advisers, and they would be the centre for short courses in rural studies and practices.

500. Gardening is usually grouped with the practical subjects with which we have dealt in Chapter 7 and in Appendix I. We took no account of it in that chapter because it has not in the past been, and probably should not in the future be, provided for in a specialist training college. Gardening, including the care of animals which usually goes with it, is of great educational


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importance. It should not, from the point of view of schools, be regarded as any more a rural than an urban pursuit. Gardening is extremely valuable for children, not only because it draws upon their aesthetic appreciation, their skill in various crafts and every branch of their scientific knowledge, but also because it results, when they are patient and painstaking, in a delighted sense of achievement. Gardening is not, however, a subject in which instruction in a training institution can be effectively given by those who are merely interested in it. It requires to be in the hands of those with special knowledge and experience; and we doubt whether there is at present a sufficient number of such people to be found on the staffs of training colleges.

501. It is therefore very important that the area training authorities should be in the closest touch with the horticultural and agricultural departments of universities, with horticultural colleges and with county or other horticultural advisers. It may well be that some special scheme of recruitment will have to be planned and put into operation before training institutions can be adequately staffed to deal with gardening. In any case every training college should have a garden, not on ornamental or aesthetic grounds alone, but for the purpose of providing the laboratory necessary for biological and other studies including particularly gardening itself.

502. We recommend

that every area training service should include at least one training institution situated in a rural area and organised in such a way that some of the students enrolled at other training institutions in the area training service could take part of their training therein.
Libraries

503. We naturally attach great importance to every training institution being provided with a good library. We wish, however, to draw attention to the desirability of students, during training, obtaining some experience and receiving instruction about the planning, the cataloguing and the function of school libraries. We are not suggesting formal lectures on these things, but we consider it important that both forms of school practice should involve a student in learning something of the technique of school libraries, and that the college librarian and teachers responsible for school libraries should be regarded as having a real contribution to make to a student's professional training. In particular, students should become acquainted with the ways in which public libraries are trying to meet the needs of children and of the possible relationships between the public library system and school libraries. These comments apply as much to those training to be youth leaders as to those training to be teachers.

Short Courses

504. We have made frequent reference to Short Courses for practising teachers and for youth leaders and have made clear that it will be the duty of the area training authorities to provide them. Short courses are of many kinds: refresher courses for those who may be getting stale or at any rate need to bring their knowledge and practice up to date; courses designed to assist new developments such as those recently conducted by the Board of Education and others on the United States of America and Russia; courses providing advanced instruction for those seeking to improve their qualifications in particular subjects; and courses on subjects which specially lend themselves to intensive study after a teacher has had some experience of teaching, such as psychology or citizenship or the special problems of rural schools.


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Comparable courses are required for youth leaders. Short courses vary in duration, ranging from courses extending over one or several weekends to full-time courses extending over a term or even a year. They are organised by various bodies: the Board of Education, training institutions, local education authorities and associations of teachers.

505. We hope that this variety will continue and that the Board of Education in staffing the Inspectorate in the future will bear in mind the importance of H.M. Inspectors being free, without overwork or neglecting their other duties, to devote a considerable amount of time to arranging short courses themselves and to taking part in courses arranged by others. The period during which courses are held should not be limited to vacations. One of the perennial difficulties, however, is that of accommodation, particularly when courses are held during term time. The premises coming within the general oversight of the area training authorities should be so planned that there will be room to house short course students during term as well as vacation. If every area training authority provided ample accommodation for residential short courses and not only used it for courses which they themselves conducted but made it available for courses conducted by others, the problem of accommodation would be largely solved. The fact that a proportion of students will normally be away on Continuous Teaching Practice will itself ease accommodation problems. Short courses should be generously aided from public funds.

506. It is not at present practicable to regard a person's preparation for a full teaching qualification as consisting of two parts: his education and training prior to entering upon professional duties and further training after a period spent as a practising teacher. But it is an ideal to be kept in mind. In any case the Board's Emergency Scheme for one-year courses of training will require the ample provision of subsequent short courses. Among teachers generally there are always some who do not appreciate the significance of their subjects until they have had some experience of teaching them under normal school conditions, and a term's course after, say, five years of teaching would be of inestimable value to them.

507. We recommend

that the Board of Education should make such provision in their staffing arrangements and in their financial estimates as will make possible both an increase in the participation of H.M. Inspectors in Short Courses and generous grants in aid of courses conducted by area training authorities and other suitable bodies.
Broadcasting, the Cinema and other Aids to Teaching

508. Teachers cannot afford to be ignorant of the influences which shape the opinions and habits of men and women at large, among which broadcasting and the cinema are two of the most powerful. Children are continuously affected by both, and for this reason alone it is essential that the teacher's training should cause him to think critically and constructively of the relationship of broadcasting and of the cinema to education. We should expect such studies to be part of an enlightened course in education or social studies, and to result in the schools doing something to influence children's taste.

509. But there is another and perhaps even more important reason why a teacher's training should take account of these things. Both radio and films are becoming more widely valued as instruments of education in all types of schools. In 1942 some 12,000 schools listened to programmes of broadcast lessons and it is estimated that some 850 schools had cinema projectors before


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the outbreak of war. The film strip is being increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method of illustration and demonstration and will undoubtedly play an important part in education in the future.

510. In many colleges there has been some attempt, with the co-operation of the B.B.C. and the Central Council of School Broadcasting, to give students some training in the technique of using school broadcasts but the instruction appears to have been somewhat haphazard, and something more systematic needs to be done. It is important also that teachers should be encouraged to exercise lively and critical judgment on broadcasts to schools, to co-operate in experiments designed to assess their effect on children and to give informed advice on possible developments and adjustments. The development of broadcasting so that it meets the needs of the schools depends on such collaboration, the foundations of which should be laid while students are undergoing their training.

511. Much less help has been available for students on the use of the film or film strip, partly because of the lack of apparatus and partly because a crowded time-table has left little opportunity for work which is regarded as still experimental. We are undoubtedly behind certain other countries in the use of the cinema for educational purposes. Training institutions must give serious thought to the uses to which sound and silent films and film strips should be put, and every training institution should have the apparatus for instructing students in the necessary techniques. We make this recommendation the more strongly because it is clear that neither films nor broadcasting have as yet been fully exploited as instruments for the education and training of students themselves. For this, as for their use in the education of children, there is need for widespread and enterprising experiment in which training institutions must necessarily be pioneers.

512. There are also other important mechanical aids to teaching, such as the epidiascope, episcope, lantern and gramophone, with which every training institution should be equipped, both as an aid to the education and training of the students and so that as future teachers they may learn the techniques of using them. Television may also play a part in education in the future.

513. It will probably prove necessary for one training institution in each training area to make a special study of the place and uses of all kinds of mechanical aids in education and to disseminate the results amongst the staff and students of other training institutions. This institution should be in a position to co-operate fully with those outside bodies whose aid is essential for experiment and to enlist the help of serving teachers, for whom it should provide special courses of instruction. These aids to education will be found in every type of educational institution ranging from infant schools to young people's colleges, youth service clubs and technical colleges; and systematic study and experiment are required to ensure adaptation to widely differing needs.

514. We recommend

that the Board of Education, in considering plans of buildings and equipment for new training institutions or the extension of existing training institutions, should satisfy themselves that provision is made as regards broadcasting, films, film strips and other special aids, so that these instruments can be used as al means for the education of students and so that students can be efficiently trained in the handling of them as part of their professional equipment as teachers.


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Special Groups of Colleges

515. There are two special groups of colleges whose position in the area training services will require particular consideration. We refer to the six colleges of physical education for women and the Froebel colleges.

Colleges of Physical Education for Women

516. It is essential that provision for the training of specialist teachers in physical education should be an integral part of the area training services; and it is desirable that at least one college devoted to this subject should be found in each area. This may well involve the establishment of new colleges. We are here concerned, however, with the six colleges for women which already exist but which are not in receipt of grant nor within the examination arrangements made by the Joint Boards.

517. One of the duties of the Central Training Council will be to discuss with the authorities of these colleges how each can be brought within an appropriate area training service. This will involve consideration of the ownership of the colleges, the constitution of their governing bodies, their financial resources and their eligibility for grant. It would also involve inspection of the work of a college by the Board of Education if such inspection were considered necessary before it was brought within the area training service.

The Froebel Colleges

518. The colleges associated with the Froebel Foundation present a different problem. Six of them are recognised by the Board of Education, and they form part of the body of colleges which, with grant aid, prepare students for recognition as certificated teachers. They do not, however, come within the Joint Board arrangements under which colleges are grouped round the universities for the purposes of examination. The Froebel Foundation performs the function of a joint examination board: that is to say the Board of Education accept success in the examination for the Froebel Certificate as justifying recognition of a student as a certificated teacher, subject to the Board's power of veto with regard to competence in practical teaching.

519. It will be necessary for the Central Council to discuss with the Froebel colleges and with the Froebel Foundation how these colleges can become an integral part of an area training service, the authorities of which would be responsible for approving courses of study and conducting the assessment and examinations of students seeking to be recognised as qualified teachers. There are other colleges associated with the Froebel Foundation and preparing for their examinations which are not recognised by the Board. The question of their future should also be considered.

Some Independent Colleges

520. There are one or two other training colleges which are not recognised by the Board of Education, such for instance as the college associated with the Parents' National Educational Union and that associated with the Montessori Society. They should be free to discuss with the Central Training Council and the appropriate area training authority any relationship which they might have with the area training service. The final decision with regard to the recognition of, and grant aid to, colleges must of course rest with the Board of Education.

Educational Research

521. Any committee dealing with the supply and training of teachers is concerned with Educational Research for at least two reasons. In the first place it is mainly to the staffs of universities and training colleges, working


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in co-operation with the schools, that we must look for research. The training of teachers is likely to be all the more vital and effective if those responsible for it are themselves actively pursuing enquiry into educational problems. In the second place the steadily accumulating results of research should serve to ensure the progressive enrichment and adaptation of training courses and so avert the ever present danger of the uninspiring repetitive routine. We use the word 'research' in its widest sense as comprising any kind of enquiry or investigation which might help to improve our educational system, whether it be experimental or not, conducted by an individual or by a group, and in this country or abroad.

522. We are of the opinion that an Educational Research Council should be established, not with the object of centralising research but of stimulating and fostering it wherever it can reasonably be undertaken. We stress in particular the opportunities created by linking up the resources of a number of university departments such as those of psychology, physiology, social science, music and fine arts, with an area training organisation. Without suggesting the Medical Research Council or the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research or the Agricultural Research Council as the administrative pattern, we draw attention to the beneficent effect of those bodies in the stimulation of research and in procuring economy of effort without destroying local and personal initiative. We must mention also the lead that has been given by the Educational Research Foundation which was recently established within the University of London with the intention that, when the right time has arrived, it shall form the nucleus of a national research organisation. We are satisfied that the organisation we have in mind must be closely connected with the Board of Education and its two Advisory Councils, and we leave it to those who are expert in the machinery of government to define its precise constitutional location.

523. We recommend

that the Board of Education should ensure the establishment of an Educational Research Council representative of (a) the Board of Education, (b) the local education authorities, (c) the universities, the training colleges, the schools and other agents of education, and (d) unofficial persons and bodies concerned with the promotion and improvement of education of all types and with the study of the problems of childhood and adolescence.



CONCLUSION

524. The question is often put to us: 'Will there be available when they are needed a sufficient number of teachers of the right quality?' In normal times, except for financial limitations which we hope will be removed in the future, the choice of an occupation is a free one, whatever the motives of the choice may be, and there is, happily, no authority possessing the power of directing anyone to become a teacher. It is thus impossible for us or the Board of Education to guarantee that on a given date there will be a given number of teachers of this or that kind. We must rely upon the greater attractiveness of teaching as a profession and upon ampler facilities for training. We have recommended several measures for the widening of the field for the recruitment of teachers. We have referred also to three necessary means of making teaching more attractive: an improved salary system affording higher remuneration; better school buildings and other school amenities; and small classes in all types of school.


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525. The first can be dealt with at once, and the President of the Board of Education has already set in motion the Burnham machinery. The second points to the need of granting the highest possible priority, in post-war planning and building schemes, to the erection of new schools, the enlargement and, where necessary, the improvement of existing schools, and the provision of adequate playgrounds and playing fields. The third involves a vicious circle. The size of classes cannot be reduced unless more teachers are available, but many persons who might become teachers are now being deterred by the knowledge that they cannot teach effectively unless classes are smaller. To these persons we can only say that the country is now pledged up to the hilt to remove this defect and that unless they have faith in that pledge and act upon it the Board of Education, local education authorities and others will find it impossible to give effect to it.

526. We have formed the opinion that if the conditions of teaching service are improved in these ways an adequate number of qualified teachers will be forthcoming. But even so there is one non-material factor which is vital to the greater effectiveness of the teaching profession. England - we do not say England and Wales - has never attached enough importance to education and has therefore never given to the teaching profession the esteem that it needs and deserves. Only if the country experiences a change of heart will teachers receive that degree of respect that is needed to secure for our children their fair share of the services of the very best of our fellow citizens.


SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS

527. We now summarise the recommendations which we have made in the body of our Report. We have arranged the recommendations under a few broad headings. There is some overlapping because we have dealt with some subjects in more than one chapter. Our recommendations are as follows:

SUPPLY OF TEACHERS

Recruitment

(Para. 66)

1. (a) that the Board of Education should ensure that maintenance allowances and other aids to pupils in grant-aided secondary schools are sufficient to prevent children from being withdrawn prematurely solely on economic grounds; and that when fees in secondary schools are abolished and when family or children's allowances are in operation, the Board should ensure some supplement to these aids if experience shows such to be necessary; and

(b) that the Board of Education should instruct H.M. Inspectors to satisfy themselves that the claims, conditions and prospects of the teaching profession are adequately presented to older children in secondary schools.

(Para. 76)

2. that every local education authority should from time to time be required to submit proposals to the Board of Education for the continued education up to 18 years of age, or older if necessary, of those boys and girls in their senior (modern) schools and junior technical schools who are willing, without commitment, to consider preparation for the teaching profession and are provisionally judged suitable for it.


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(Para. 80)

3. (a) that the Board of Education should offer a maintenance allowance (with adequate additions where appropriate for wife and children) to men and to women of maturer years who desire to be trained for the teaching profession and are judged fit for such training; and

(b) that such recruits to the profession should on appointment receive a salary which takes account of their age and experience.

(Para. 105)

4. that authorities responsible for adult education should offer to parents and others the opportunity of learning about the educational system in this country, including its history, and of discussing under skilled guidance the function of education in a community.

Conditions of Service

(Para. 88)

5. that the Board of Education should take steps to secure the relaxation of rules, prescribed or implied, which unduly limit the participation of teachers in public affairs, and to render possible the more generous staffing arrangements which such relaxation might require.

(Para. 95)

6. (a) that the Board of Education should ensure that teachers in grant-aided schools are not required to resign or otherwise to give up their appointments solely on the ground of marriage; and

(b) that the Board of Education should secure throughout the country suitable arrangements, particularly as regards motherhood, to meet the needs of married women who wish to remain in or return to the schools, including the provision of refresher courses for those returning to school after a prolonged period of absence.

(Para. 97)

7. that the Board of Education should encourage local education authorities and governing bodies to institute arrangements whereby schools, wherever it would be advantageous to do so, could make use of the part-time services of qualified persons.

Salaries

(Para. 154)

8. (a) that the salaries of teachers in primary and secondary schools should be substantially increased;

(b) that there should be a basic salary scale for qualified teachers and that additions should be made to the minimum and the maximum salaries of the scale to mark the possession of special qualifications or experience;

(c) that allowances to reward those holding posts of special responsibility should be more widely distributed and should be substantial, and not merely nominal, in amount;

(d) that the post of Deputy Head, with a suitable salary, should be established in large schools; and that two such posts should be recognised in very large schools; and

(e) that the Board of Education should recognise only one grade of teacher, namely the grade of 'qualified teacher', and that, subject to the Board having discretion to accord such recognition to persons with good academic or other attainments, a qualified teacher should be a teacher who has satisfactorily completed an approved course of education and training.


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ORGANISATION OF TRAINING

A Central Training Council

(Para. 161)

9. (a) that the President of the Board of Education should appoint a Central Training Council for England and Wales consisting of not less than three nor more than five members; that the Chairman should receive a full-time salary and that the other members should receive suitable payment; and

(b) that the Central Training Council should be charged with the duty of advising the Board of Education about bringing into being that form of area training service recommended in this Report which the Board may decide to adopt.

Area Training Authorities

(Alternative Schemes)

UNIVERSITY SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION

(Sir Fred Clarke, Sir Frederick Mander, Mr. Morris, Mr. Thomas and Mr. Wood.)

(Para. 182)

10. (a) that each university should establish a School of Education, it being understood that some universities may find it desirable to establish more than one such school;

(b) that each University School of Education should consist of an organic federation of approved training institutions working in co-operation with other approved educational institutions; and

(c) that University Schools of Education should be responsible for the training and the assessment of the work of all students who are seeking to be recognised by the Board of Education as qualified teachers.

THE JOINT BOARD SCHEME

(Dr. Fleming, Mrs. Hichens, Sir Arnold McNair (Chairman), Miss Ross and Mrs. Stocks.)

(Para. 196)

11. (a) that some or all the members of the Central Training Council should, as soon as may be practicable after its establishment, visit each Joint Board and confer with it, and with the Universities and Training Colleges represented on it, upon

(i) any modification in its area,
(ii) the acquisition of further powers,
(iii) the addition of new representatives,
(iv) the further staffing and office accommodation,
that may be required to enable it to discharge the functions assigned to it;

(b) that the Joint Board thus reconstituted should become responsible for the organisation of an area training service in which there will be a university training department and training colleges preserving their identity and being in direct relation with the Board of Education and the Central Training Council,


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and in particular should, in addition to their present duties, make or ensure the making of arrangements for

(i) Practical Training in Schools and Continuous Teaching Practice,
(ii) refresher and other courses for serving teachers,
and, so far as distance and other factors may permit,
(iii) enabling the students of one training institution to receive instruction in others,
(iv) enabling members of the staff of one training institution (more particularly specialists) to give instruction in others;
(c) that, with a view to making reciprocally available the resources of the university training department and the training colleges in each area, so far as distance and other factors may permit, the university (in respect of its training department) and the training colleges should through the instrumentality of the Joint Board develop the practice of consulting upon appointments to their staffs and the use of their staffs;

(d) that in each area the university should be invited to nominate representatives upon the governing bodies of the training colleges, and that the university, if its constitution provides for the representation of external bodies upon a Court, should invite the training colleges to appoint representatives;

(e) that the passing of the examinations in the university training departments and in the training colleges, which must necessarily differ in content, should result in obtaining a common professional qualification accepted by the Board of Education, while the term 'Diploma in Education', if retained by a university, should be reserved for rewarding more advanced studies;

(f) that the Joint Board should be responsible for the examination and assessment of students both in the university training department and in the training colleges for the purpose of the grant of the above-mentioned professional qualification; and

(g) that the Joint Board should consult with the university and the training colleges as to any steps that may be required to equip them to carry out research and investigation.

(End of Alternative Schemes)

Responsibilities of the Board of Education and the Area Training Authorities

(Para. 299)

12. that approval of curricula and syllabuses for all types of students in training should be the responsibility of the area training authority subject to compliance with requirements made by the Board of Education as regards general adequacy.

(Para. 304)

13. (a) that responsibility for the final assessment of the work of students should rest with the area training authority and that the Board of Education should accept the recommendations of that authority as to the eligibility of students for recognition as qualified teachers;

(b) that it should be the duty of the area training authority to include an external element in the arrangements made for the assessment of the work of students; and

(c) that every aspect of the work of an area training authority, including the arrangements for the final assessment of the work of students, should be open to inspection by the Board of Education.


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(Para. 306)

14. that the powers and duties of the Board of Education as regards inspection should extend to the professional courses of graduates, however provided.

The 'Pledge' and other conditions of aid

(Para. 315)

15. (a) that the system whereby young students are required, either by the Board of Education or by local education authorities, to sign a Declaration or other document which morally commits them to teaching in consideration of their receiving grants to enable them to prepare for the teaching profession should be abandoned as soon as possible;

(b) that in determining the date when the present system should be brought to an end the Board, in view of the present critical supply situation, should use their discretion in the light of progress made with (i) an improvement in the conditions of service and salaries of teachers and (ii) the establishment of a widespread system of un-earmarked scholarships or grants available for students at universities and training colleges; and

(e) that the Board should take steps to bring to an end the system of loans to students made by some local education authorities.

TRAINING

Duration of Courses and a Period of Probation

(Para. 208)

16. (a) that the normal period of education and training provided by area training authorities for those entering upon preparation for the teaching profession at about 18 years of age should be three years; and that the period of training for graduates should be one year;

(b) that suitably qualified persons other than graduates should be eligible for a one-year course of training; and

(e) that courses of training, varied in duration, should be provided to meet the needs of others whose attainments and experience, however obtained, justify their entering upon a course of training.

(Para. 281)

17. that the Board of Education should in the first instance grant only provisional recognition as qualified teachers to students who have satisfactorily completed a course of training, and that such teachers should be required to serve a year of probation in the schools before the question of the confirmation of that recognition is decided.

Content of Courses

(Para. 214)

18. (a) that the Board of Education should require every training institution to pay attention to the speech of every student, and every area training authority to include in the assessment of a student's practical teaching his ability to use the English language; and

(b) that the Board of Education should require every training institution to make arrangements for the detection of speech disabilities and for the provision of speech-therapy and training where necessary.


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(Para. 272)

19. that, when the course in training colleges is extended to three years, students should spend about a term in Continuous Teaching Practice as members of the staff of a school in addition to the period spent as now in Practical Training in Schools.

Art and Crafts, Music, Physical Education and Domestic Subjects

(Para. 293)

20. (a) that in every area training service there should be one or more colleges or centres which devote special attention to the education and training of teachers of art and crafts, of music, of physical education and of domestic subjects, respectively;

(b) that these colleges or centres should be closely associated with other institutions, including those not dealing primarily with the training of teachers, which provide for a high standard of achievement in these subjects, such as colleges of music or of art, technical colleges and the medical, music or other departments of universities;

(c) that the function of these colleges or centres should be (i) to train specialists in the respective subjects, (ii) to offer shorter courses to the student or practising teacher who wishes and is qualified to make a rather more special study of one of these subjects than can be provided for in the more general colleges, (iii) to offer courses of varied duration and scope to meet the needs of those men and women who, having acquired a high standard of skill outside the field of education, desire to specialise in the teaching of one of these subjects, (iv) to provide refresher courses, and (v) in association with other institutions to prosecute investigation and research; and

(d) that these specialist colleges should share in and contribute to such general pooling of staff and amenities as is practicable in each area, and that, in particular, by the loan or exchange of staff or in other ways, they should be ready to give advice about their own particular subject to other colleges.

(Para. 295)

21. that teachers of art and crafts, music, physical education and domestic subjects should not be distinguished from teachers of other subjects in the matter of recognition, salary and eligibility for promotion to posts of special responsibility or Headships.

STAFFING OF TRAINING INSTITUTIONS

(Para. 237)

22. that the salaries of the staffs of training colleges should be on a higher scale than that of the schools and should approximate to university levels.

(Para. 222)

23. that the Board of Education should offer a small number of valuable 'Education Fellowships' to enable highly qualified practising teachers to give up teaching for a period of one or two years in order that they may study education, its principles and practice, in this country and, where desirable, abroad.

(Para. 277)

24. (a) that the Board of Education should take the steps necessary to make practicable the secondment of teachers from schools for a period of service in training institutions; and


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(b) that each area training authority, in supervising staffing arrangements, should aim at securing that a proportion of the staffs of training institutions are teachers seconded from the schools.

YOUTH SERVICE AND YOUNG PEOPLE'S COLLEGES

Youth Service

(Para. 359)

25. that representatives of the Board of Education, accompanied by other qualified persons, should visit all the emergency courses recognised under Circular 1598 and should make available the results of those visits in so far as they offer guidance about the nature, scope and methods of assessment of the courses which should be provided after the war to enable men and women to qualify for full-time posts as youth leaders.

(Para. 365)

26. (a) that the course of training for those without any special qualifications who are seeking to prepare themselves for full-time posts as youth leaders should extend over three years of combined full-time study and practice;

(b) that courses of not less than one year's duration should be available for those whose previous experience and qualifications make a three-year course unnecessary; and

(c) that the minimum age for recognition of full-time leaders should, save in exceptional cases, be 23

(Para. 369)

27. (a) that the salaries of youth leaders should be comparable with those of teachers, and that service as a youth leader should be pensionable; and

(b) that transfer from one service to the other should be facilitated by the necessary linking of superannuation arrangements and the provision of suitable short courses of training.

(Para. 372)

28. (a) that each area training authority should be adequately representative of youth organisations, and should appoint a person qualified to direct such training for leaders in the youth service as the area is called upon to provide and, in certain areas, to take charge of full-time training;

(b) that training during the first five years should be regarded as experimental, and that before the end of that period the Board of Education should review the experience of each area with a view to systematising, so far as may be necessary, the qualifications required for recognition as a youth leader and outlining the nature of the courses of training which they will recognise and aid; and

(c) that for the time being the Board of Education and others should, if necessary, recognise the appointment to full-time posts of those who have not been trained but are deemed otherwise to be suitably equipped, on the understanding, however, that as soon as practicable the Board of Education will require the appointment of trained leaders to any posts in respect of the salary of which they make a grant.

Young People's Colleges

(Para. 380)

29. that the training of teachers for Young People's Colleges should be undertaken, like the training of all other teachers, by the area training services.


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TECHNICAL COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS

(Para. 418)

30. (a) that the Board of Education should ensure that the regulations made by local education authorities do not, by reason of the amount of teaching which is required, debar technical teachers from engaging in research and investigation or securing necessary contacts with industry or commerce;

(b) that the Board of Education should encourage local education authorities and governing bodies to staff technical colleges and schools on a scale which gives qualified teachers time for activities that improve their competence and enable them to play their part in the advancement of knowledge; and

(c) that any arrangements regarding secondment should apply also to technical teachers.

(Para. 434)

31. (a) that the Board of Education should invite suitable Professional Institutions to establish standing committees whose duty it would be to promote co-operation between industry and commerce and the technical and commercial colleges, with particular regard to enabling teachers by means of periodic returns to industry and commerce to keep abreast of their subjects; and

(b) that teachers of technical and commercial subjects should periodically spend some time away from teaching and in close contact with industry or commerce, and that the cost of approved periods for this purpose should be borne by the Board of Education.

(Para. 452)

32. (a) that the salaries of teachers in technical colleges should be related to the emoluments obtainable by persons of similar qualifications and experience in industry and commerce, in the Services and in government departments;

(b) that the general salary scales should be based on the organisation of departments and the distribution of grades of staff within each department, and that there should be more than one grade of department;

(c) that the salaries of the Heads of the most important departments should be on the professorial level; and

(d) that the salaries of Principals should be determined independently of the scales of salaries applicable to other members of the staff and should be based on grades corresponding to the importance of the different colleges.

(Para. 445)

33. (a) that each area training authority should include representatives of technical and commercial education and should appoint a director of technical training to organise courses of training and to promote systematic inquiry into the problems of training technical teachers; and

(b) that the area training authorities should report at frequent intervals to the Board of Education so that systematic courses of training for technical teachers may be provided and recognised.


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WALES

(Para. 465)

34. (a) that the University of Wales and its constituent colleges should assume the future responsibility for the education and professional training of teachers in Wales;

(b) that the University Board for Training Colleges be reconstituted to form a University Education Board; and

(c) that a University College School of Education be established at each university college centre.

OTHER IMPORTANT MATTERS

Secondment

(Para. 484)

35. that the Board of Education, in consultation with the other interests concerned, should bring into being the machinery necessary (i) to establish the principle of secondment both as regards educational institutions and services in this country and as regards the appointment of teachers and others to educational posts abroad, and (ii) to ensure efficient methods of advising and interviewing those who apply for educational posts on a secondment basis and of selecting or recommending suitable applicants for such posts.

Special Schools

(Para. 495)

36. (a) that courses of training to prepare teachers for work in Special Schools should be provided within the area training services and should normally be available only for persons who have previously completed an ordinary course of training;

(b) that the Board of Education should consult the bodies most intimately concerned in order to determine the nature and duration of the courses of training which should be provided and the conditions, including any condition about previous teaching experience, under which persons should be admitted to these courses; and

(c) that the Central Training Council should make proposals to the Board of Education to ensure that adequate provision is made within the area training services for the training of teachers for work in Special Schools.

Education and the Countryside

(Para. 502)

37. that every area training service should include at least one training institution situated in a rural area and organised in such a way that some of the students enrolled at other training institutions in the area training service could take part of their training therein.

Short Courses

(Para. 507)

38. that the Board of Education should make such provision in their staffing arrangements and in their financial estimates as will make possible both an increase in the participation of H.M. Inspectors in Short Courses and generous grants in aid of courses conducted by area training authorities and other suitable bodies.


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Broadcasting, the Cinema and other Aids to Teaching

(Para. 514)

39. that the Board of Education, in considering plans of buildings and equipment for new training institutions or the extension of existing training institutions, should satisfy themselves that provision is made as regards broadcasting, films, film-strips and other special aids, so that these instruments can be used as a means for the education of students and so that students can be efficiently trained in the handling of them as part of their professional equipment as teachers.

Educational Research

(Para. 523)

40. that the Board of Education should ensure the establishment of an Educational Research Council representative of (a) the Board of Education, (b) the local education authorities, (c) the universities, the training colleges, the schools and other agents of education, and (d) unofficial persons and bodies concerned with the promotion and improvement of education of all types, and with the study of the problems of childhood and adolescence.

We have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servants,
(Signed)

ARNOLD D. McNAIR (Chairman).
F. CLARKE.
A. P. M. FLEMING.
HERMIONE HICHENS.
F. MANDER.
P. R. MORRIS.
A. HILDEGARD ROSS.
MARY STOCKS.
B. B. THOMAS.
S. H. WOOD (also Secretary).

April, 1944.




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APPENDIX I

In this Appendix we give the substance of the Reports presented to us by the four sub-committees which we appointed to consider the supply and training of teachers of Art and Crafts, Music, Physical Education and Domestic Subjects. The names of the members co-opted to these four sub-committees are given in paragraph 2 of the Introduction. Our own recommendations are to be found in Chapter 7 of the Report.

ART AND CRAFTS

1. This report deals with the supply and training of teachers of art and crafts, including wood and metal work, in all types of schools. Before we give our views on the recruitment and training of teachers, we state what our evidence has shown to be the present practice in the schools.

Present conditions

2. For young children, the work of their hands is a way of expressing what is in their minds and imaginations. It is another language. The materials they use are many and varied, and the criterion they apply is whether they find satisfaction in what they have made. At this stage art and crafts are in most schools wisely left in the hands of the class teacher, since they may form a part of almost any of the various day to day activities and cannot be regarded as separate subjects.

3. Many teachers are at present ill-prepared for this part of their work. Some have taken the 'ordinary' art or crafts courses in college, which are optional, and we say something of the nature of these courses later. A great many of the students entering college are found to have dropped art altogether for some years before leaving the secondary school, and many of those who did not do so followed somewhat rigid courses.* It is difficult for a college course to make good the neglect of artistic education during adolescent years.

4. A few, perhaps one in ten, of the teachers followed an advanced course in college. Only a proportion of these teach in primary schools. Many are in the modern schools, where, in up-to-date buildings, there are art and craft rooms, including workshops for wood and metal work. About 10 or 12 students in the whole country follow each year a third year course which, although planned by a training college, is generally taken at a selected school of art, except that those students choosing wood and metal work attend one of the two colleges which specialise in these crafts. These third year courses have produced some admirable teachers of art and crafts for senior and central schools, and we shall refer to these courses again as useful prototypes for the future.

5. Woodwork and metalwork in the present elementary schools are usually taught by teachers who have taken an advanced course in the training college, or by teachers who have qualified by means of the City and Guilds Examinations: these last are paid on the 'certificated' scale as long as they are chiefly occupied in teaching their own subjects. In secondary schools, woodwork and metalwork are sometimes taught by part-time teachers. and these may be craftsmen who have no qualification except their craftsmanship.

6. In grammar (secondary) schools there are some 600 or 700 full-time specialist teachers of art. Another 600 full-time teachers are employed in the art schools. Most of the specialist teachers recruited to the secondary schools in recent years hold the Board of Education Art Teacher's Diploma, though a substantial number hold no recognised qualification. A large proportion of full-time teachers in art schools hold the Associateship of the Royal College of Art; others may have the Art Teacher's Diploma or its equivalent. Grammar, art and technical schools also employ visiting part-time teachers who, in art schools especially, form an important and valuable part of staff.

7. A candidate for the Board of Education Art Teacher's Diploma must possess the school certificate and have passed the Board's examination in drawing, followed either by the Board's examination in painting, modelling, pictorial design or industrial design, or by the final examination of the Royal Institute of British Architects in architecture; or instead of these examinations he may have obtained the Diploma of Associateship of the Royal College of Art or the London University Diploma in Fine Art. To prepare for these examinations usually takes five years and may take more. External candidates may enter for the Board's art examinations, but nearly all candidates who intend to be teachers will have been in attendance at an art school. The training year which leads up to the Art Teacher's Diploma must be

*Some causes of the comparative neglect of arts and crafts in secondary schools are discussed in the Report on Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools, pp. 126-130.


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spent in one of the sixteen art institutions which are recognised as centres for this training, which includes the study of principles of education and the art of teaching as well as substantial teaching practice in various types of schools. As only about 100 students take the Diploma course each year the groups of trainees are at present too small to be economically and efficiently provided for.

8. Students at colleges of art who intend to become teachers, unlike those in universities and training colleges, receive no grant for the purpose, neither are the students earmarked as teachers until the beginning of the training year. For salary and other purposes, the Art Teacher's Diploma is recognised as equivalent to a university degree.

9. The Board's art examinations are now being revised with the object of ensuring that, in the first place, each student shall have a broader foundation of general art and craft training than is required by the present system and, in the second place, that he shall have a thorough training as a specialist in one branch. The revised scheme is based on the outlook of the most progressive art schools at the present time.

Future requirements

10. The chief need of the infant and primary schools is for teachers who are able to make full use of art and crafts in the normal education of younger children. The need of the post-primary schools is not only for better trained teachers, but also for a very substantial increase in numbers. The addition of one, and later of two, extra age-groups to full-time school life and the part-time education of boys and girls up to 18 will mean that teachers of practical subjects must be not only good teachers but also skilled artists and craftsmen, since many of their pupils will themselves have reached the craftsman stage and will rightly be intolerant of poor performance. All types of post-primary school should have equal claims to the help of specialist teachers. Therefore the number of specialists in art and crafts, including wood and metal work, must be several times the present number, with a proportionately increased replenishment rate.

11. While believing that our objective should be the provision of fully trained art and crafts teachers for every post-primary school, we do not think that this can be achieved for a long time, and meanwhile the art and crafts teachers in many post-primary schools of all kinds will come from the general training colleges. Given the three-year course and the area scheme of training, the colleges will be able to arrange much better courses than those now available. The most talented of the students should be enabled by subsequent courses to develop their work further and to achieve full specialist qualifications. This should apply also to teachers of wood and metal work.

12. Outside the normal avenues to teaching it will be necessary for purposes of supply, as well as desirable for betterment of quality, to leave ample opportunity for artists and craftsmen of proved competence to enter the teaching profession by other routes. As in music, there are many men and women whose first intention may be quite properly the development of their own artistic talents, and not until they have developed these and used them in fields other than teaching do they become interested in instructing others. In some crafts a man can achieve high technical skill only after years of practical experience. Often these artists or craftsmen begin by part-time teaching, and most generally they have no training as teachers. To insist on their following a course of teacher-training before they begin to teach would prevent their entering the profession. For these men and women, whose gifts and outlook might greatly enrich art and craft teaching in post-primary schools of all kinds, there must be conditions, such as part-time work, which would enable them to make their contribution; and there must also be courses of training in the technique of teaching. We now discuss the training of those teachers who enter teaching by the more normal routes.

Training

13. Since no education can be a balanced and complete education unless art and crafts play some part in it, every intending teacher should understand this aspect of the child's development at each stage. This course of observation of children and of study might be part of the course in education, and should culminate in some appreciation of the contribution of artists and craftsmen to the conditions of everyday living. Also we believe that whether he is following a course in art and crafts or not, every student in training should have the opportunity of using his leisure in creative work of his own choosing; and that studios, workshops, equipment and sympathetic help should be available for his use. These entirely optional pursuits should not come within any examination system, but no college should be considered efficient which does not provide for them. Much more generous provision than is now usual as regards objects of good design in craft or manufacture of everyday things,


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books, pictures, equipment and space will be required, and more generous staffing will be necessary.

14. When students have decided that they wish to teach infants or younger juniors they will need a further course, based primarily on the observation of children; a study of their work and of their artistic needs, of the media that are available and useful, and of the means by which children's interests and impulses to creative work can be released and satisfied. The present 'ordinary' courses in art or crafts often do not accomplish this. They tend to be confused in aim, and attempt to give a smattering of skill in many crafts, which is unsatisfactory professionally and unsatisfying and misleading to the student.

15. Some students who intend to teach infants or juniors will want, for the sake of their own personal education, to follow an art or crafts course to an advanced stage. Intending teachers of older children may desire this also for professional reasons, hoping that they might give the greater proportion of their time to teaching art and crafts in post-primary schools. Within the three-year course which is now contemplated there should be available an advanced course which embodied the best features of the present third-year courses.

An Art and Crafts Centre in each Training Area

16. We do not wish to dogmatise about the content of the courses nor to suggest any rigid organisation; but we believe that in every training area there should be one centre which should give special attention to the education and training of teachers of art and crafts. This would not necessarily be one institution, but more usually would consist of a teacher-training institution which had developed a strong art and craft department working in close and equal partnership with a selected art school which had proved its competence in training the present specialist art teachers. There are now in existence examples of centres of this type, and a survey of existing training colleges and art schools and colleges has led us to the belief that, despite geographical difficulties in some cases, the plan we suggest is not impracticable.

17. The two colleges which now specialise in wood and metal craft, together with any others which develop similarly, should play their part in the area and in the national scheme. They may or may not continue to offer their general training; but they could properly develop advanced and specialist courses of the kind we describe with special attention to work in wood and metal. They would thus be brought into close association with the other colleges in the area and would form part of an art and crafts teacher training centre.

18. The functions of these centres should be many. Each should provide courses of suitable duration for students from the other colleges in the area who had, during the earlier part of their training, demonstrated their ability to profit from an advanced course. The advanced course we have in mind should be concerned with deepening the student's understanding of art and craft teaching as well as with the development of his own skill.

Specialist Teachers

19. The centres would be the places where the specialist teachers in art and craft were educated and trained. Ultimately the increased number of such specialists would probably justify a centre in each training area, properly equipped and staffed and with a sufficiently wide range of courses. The specialist course might develop on the lines implied in the plans for the Board's revised art examinations.

20. Although it is important that a reasonable standard of general education should be guaranteed, the possession of a school certificate is not to be regarded as the only criterion of general fitness to enter upon training as a teacher. In the majority of cases the student will have spent four years on his own post-secondary art and craft education before he becomes a candidate for a training year, and by that time his personal qualities should be well known to his tutors and his suitability or unsuitability for teaching should be fairly clear. Whether the examinations and assessment remain the Board's responsibility depends on how training is organised in the future and what degree of autonomy training authorities have. We expect that the supply of candidates for these specialist courses will be increased by a more liberal provision of financial aid for the further education of those who can profit from it. The year of training in the technique of teaching for art and crafts students should be grant-aided as is that of the graduate.

Other Functions of the Centre

21. Other functions of the centre would be the provision of post-training courses of all kinds for serving teachers, and of training courses for the artists and craftsmen who enter teaching at a later stage in their career. It would


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be the educational centre for art and crafts teachers throughout the area and be the meeting place and forum of these teachers in all types of schools. Exhibitions of work from all sources might be staged at the centre and arrangements made for circulating them. Thus, for the first time, the training of art and crafts teachers of all kinds would be brought together in one institution, and the less specialised teacher would see something of the standards and methods of the expert, while the expert would learn something of the more general background and needs of education as a whole.

22. In no subject are post-training courses more necessary than in art and crafts: for skill, interest, and taste are slow in growth and there are few men and women who can develop fully without association with their fellows of like mind. Without a centre which undertakes in every region the responsibility for the provision of courses to meet all kinds of needs, the initial training in colleges, no matter how well planned and equipped, might be to a large extent deprived of its fruits.

The Staffing of the Art and Crafts Centre and of the Art and Crafts Departments in other Training Institutions

23. The staffing of the area art and crafts teacher training centre and of the art and crafts departments of the training colleges and education departments will, of course, determine the quality and the success or failure of the whole plan we have suggested. The staffing of most of the training colleges at present is prejudiced by their small size, by their isolation and by the conditions of service which are offered to training college lecturers. We hope that the recommendations which the main Committee will make on these matters will ensure that in every college or group of colleges there will be available a team of art and crafts teachers. Some of the members of the team will no doubt share their teaching between the art school and the training college and thus strengthen the close link which should be forged between the two institutions. Amongst them they will cover a wide range of crafts and represent a wide range of experience. The senior members of the staff should regard it as part of their function to train their juniors in the somewhat difficult art of helping students not only to be creative and efficient executants themselves but also to inspire and guide children's creative efforts. A well balanced team of tutors can include, on the one hand, an artist or craftsman who might have had little or no experience of school teaching and, on the other, an experienced teacher who, though not himself outstanding as a practitioner, might have the rare power of enabling others to develop to their fullest capacity.

24. We recommend

(a) that the course in the principles of education should include a section on the place and significance of art and crafts in the education of children;
(b) that every college should offer practical opportunities for students to develop their own talents;
(c) that every teacher who intends to teach younger children should be equipped to use art and crafts in the education of these children;
(d) that there should be in every training area an art and crafts training centre in order to
(i) provide full courses for specialists in art and crafts education, shorter courses for able students from other colleges, and courses for the artists and craftsmen who may enter the teaching profession from other fields;
(ii) provide refresher courses of various types;
(iii) be a meeting place for teachers of art and crafts from all types of schools;
(iv) house and circulate exhibitions of work from all sources; and
(e) that increased financial aid should be available for post-secondary education in art and crafts, and that training in the technique of teaching should be grant-aided.
MUSIC

The Function of Music Teaching

1. The supply and the training of teachers of music in schools have in the past been uneven and of no subject in the curriculum has the treatment varied so much from school to school. It is therefore necessary to consider briefly the general function of music before we discuss how the teachers required can be found and trained.

2. Building on the spontaneous response of all young children to music, whether they respond to it in rhythmic movement or use it as a vocal outlet for simple emotions, the function of music teaching in school should be to provide for its continuous development as a means of expression and source of enjoyment throughout


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life. It should furnish all children with healthy tastes, most children with simple vocal skill and many with instrumental practice; and the exceptionally gifted should be afforded suitable facilities and teaching up to any degree of proficiency. Only so can music become a natural and welcome ingredient in adolescent and adult life and make its proper contribution to the enlightened leisure of the whole nation.

3. The attention of the nation is now, as never before, being directed to the provision of opportunities for young people to spend their leisure well, and here, especially, music has a major contribution to make. It cannot however make this contribution unless there are teachers in the schools who can give an inspiring lead, especially at that crucial period when young people are forming tastes or acquiring interests that may become the basis of their chief recreations in later years.

Present Conditions

4. Our evidence is that, at present, music tends to decline in pride of place as children pass from primary to secondary education. In good infants' and primary schools the children sing, perform rhythmic exercises and make and play pipes and simple percussion instruments; and a few exceptional schools have instrumental classes or small orchestras. Experienced teachers agree that though at this stage music need not go beyond simple melodies and rhythms, these should be understood in the ordinary notation of music, so that this 'spelling' stage may be mastered once and for all. The teaching of gifted children needs individual attention of a more specialised and advanced kind. There should also be opportunities for all children to listen to good music well performed. But the scope and quality of these activities depend too much at present on the chance appointment of a musical head teacher or a specially gifted class teacher. More often than not there is no such leader, and music may then be reduced to occasional class-singing, sometimes by two or three large classes together. Under such conditions a few songs may be learnt from memory, but there can be no easy and effective teaching of musical notation, nor any special attention to the more gifted children.

5. For the fortunate children in a few places there are admirable instrumental classes, and a few local education authorities, notably London, have begun to select gifted children for individual courses of lessons, with outstanding results. These facilities should not wait for the post-primary stage, since the foundation of executive skill can be laid in childhood with unique ease and certainty; nor, if adequate teachers can be found, is there any reason why the facilities should not be made available everywhere and dependent neither on extra fees nor on the chance of a particular locality or school. A few determined local education authorities have already shown that the problem of the provision of instruments can be overcome.

6. Modern (Senior) schools plan freely to suit their children's needs, and some have already achieved fine results; but the grammar (secondary) and independent schools are widely divergent musically. Many grammar schools appear to have no organised music at all; others have fine traditions, permanent choral and orchestral formations and scores of promising executants. Boys and girls who go to 'musical' schools find their talents fostered, their taste enriched. Boys and girls at 'unmusical' schools 'give up' music and leave the school less endowed than when they entered. Here again, fortunate traditions and exceptional staffs account for the best. The worst schools destroy potential gifts irreparably.

7. We mention two further considerations which affect secondary schools especially and thus, eventually, the supply of teachers. One is the physical 'break' in a boy's voice. If singing is the only musical activity in the school, then some boys certainly, but not all, may be for a few months outside it. But a second fact intervenes here. Boys and girls of secondary school age should be beyond the elementary stages of a singing class. They should be in choirs or playing instruments in an orchestra or listening intelligently. The best secondary schools have study groups and even arrange and create then own music. Singing is only one of many musical possibilities. We have felt justified in expressing our opinion on the present state of music in the grammar school because it is the most potent cause of the short supply of music teachers for the schools.

Teachers

8. In infants' and primary schools, music is usually taught by the class teacher. A proportion of students in college take the ordinary course in music, which is optional. A few take an advanced course, and about 12 each year take a third year in music. These are not usually found in the primary schools. We consider that class teachers in primary schools should continue to be mainly responsible for their children's music and that every intending teacher of young children should be prepared for this part of her work. There should be at least one good pianist in every school, and primary schools should not be debarred from the help of specialists.


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9. In the modern schools one or two teachers are usually in charge of music, although other members of the staff often have a share in it. These teachers may be two-year trained teachers who have followed an advanced course in music at the training college, or they may have taken an extra three months' or year's course. Some may be graduates in arts or science (practically never in music) or two-year trained teachers, who have received their musical education outside their professional training for teaching and they may have given little attention to modern methods of teaching it. Too small a proportion of the teachers of music in modern schools are sufficiently good musicians to give an adequate musical education to children, especially when those children will remain under their care up to 15 or 16 years of age.

10. In secondary schools the supply of teachers is only one problem in securing reasonably good standards of music. These schools may employ specialists, either full-time, or part-time with other subjects, or as visitors. A few have university degrees in music, with or without a professional diploma. Some have diplomas only, such as L.R.A.M. or A.R.C.M. Some are graduates of the Royal Schools (G.R.S.M.) which carries Burnham graduate status in secondary schools but not 'certificated' status in elementary schools. These specialists frequently lack adequate training in class teaching.

11. We consider that in future every large post-primary school should have at least one full-time specialist, assisted by musical members of the staff and by such part-time visiting teachers as may be needed, particularly for individual instrumental teaching. In small schools a well qualified full-time teacher, devoting part of his time to music is better than a visiting teacher only, though many small schools will need both.

Supply and Training

12. The main Committee will no doubt mention the hampering conditions of service which affect teachers of the so-called special subjects. The lack of a career, the apparent handicap of 'specialisation' with respect to promotion and the consequent scanty chances of becoming a Head Teacher, deter some of the most able teachers from using their musical abilities fully in the service of education.

13. A further difficulty in the supply of music teachers arises from the fact that young musicians of outstanding ability wish in the first place to develop their own personal artistic gifts. This is as it should be, but it means that these talented performers and interpreters do not as a rule discover the absorbing art of teaching until they have become artistically mature themselves. We should therefore leave wide open the door to music-teaching in schools, so that gifted musicians may enter at any time and obtain full recognition as qualified teachers, thus adding the invaluable example of their own executive ability to the normal methods and aims of teaching. It is by teachers of this quality that the purest appreciation of good music for its own sake can most readily be fostered.

14. Other difficulties of recruitment cannot quickly be resolved. The poor standard of music in so many secondary schools and the lack of adequate opportunities for the musical education of those with exceptional gifts means that hundreds of potential teachers of music are lost. If candidates leaving school have a solid knowledge of music, however simple in degree, then the task of the training colleges is comparatively easy. If they have not acquired, or have neglected, such knowledge, then the training colleges are compelled to teach rudiments which are musically childish and are tempted to conduct classes which are little more than community 'singsongs'. Our recommendations would, we believe, gradually and permanently improve this situation. Meanwhile, we must approach the supply and training of teachers on the basis of present facts.

15. First, there are the teachers who in all primary schools, and in some post-primary, will teach simple music as a class subject. There are few training college students who could not learn to do this with ease, and without undue demands on their time, provided the subject were taught tutorially and to reasonably small groups. Every teacher who is likely to teach music should know something of the care of the child's voice and of simple notation and sight-reading, should have a repertory of suitable songs, singing games and rhythmic exercises and some acquaintance with pipes, recorders and percussion band work. Every student who has ever played or can play or wishes to play the piano should be given facilities and lessons free of cost. Other instruments should be equally encouraged and every training college should have an adequate music-room, good pianos, a radiogram, a library of records and a music library. Concerted music of every kind should be welcomed, and intelligent listening to demonstrations and concerts, both inside and outside the college, should be encouraged.


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16. Students with special aptitudes should follow an advanced course which might be taken at the special training college for music in the area which we describe later. The training colleges which offer these advanced courses should be in close contact with those schools in the area where music is specially fostered and developed. Some of the students will be worth passing on for a period to a college of music or to the music department of a university and would probably become specialists.

17. There are some trained teachers who have acquired privately, outside their training or university course, a considerable knowledge of music. There are also musicians and music teachers of professional standing who might teach in schools on a part-time basis. These two types of teachers or potential teachers need help of different kinds. The former needs musical opportunities: the other needs teaching technique. Both groups must obtain this supplementary training, if they are to obtain it at all, without losing their earning power. Both groups need a generous provision of short courses.

Specialists

18. Full-time teachers of professional rank, who will direct the whole musical activities of a school, must be recruited from any promising source. They may come from the universities or colleges of music, they may have been training college students of special quality, they may have been gradually drawn into school music or undertaken analogous work outside. They should have professional degrees or diplomas, a fluent key-board technique, solid knowledge of voices and instruments, sound historical and theoretical equipment, powers of musical improvisation and arrangement, a convincing teaching method and a wide musical repertory.

The provision of training

19. From what we have said, it becomes evident that courses must be provided (a) for the general practitioner who will teach music as one of many class subjects; (b) for the teacher whose abilities and training give him a bias towards music, although he may not be qualified or able to take charge of it in a school; and (c) for the specialist. In addition there must be adequate courses to enable amateur musicians amongst practising teachers to widen their musical experience, for practising musicians outside the field of education to play their part in the schools, and for some of them to become full-time teachers. It will be necessary, especially with regard to the specialist teachers, to see that the needs of technical schools and young people's colleges are met, as well as those of the youth service.

20. No one type of institution could make all this provision. As we have said, universities and colleges, or colleges of music, few in number as they are, must make a major contribution to the musical education of those who will become specialist teachers of music. Some of these will decide to become teachers at once, others may pursue an independent musical career for some years before they are attracted to teaching whether full-time or part-time. The training in teaching technique of these as of other teachers should be for the most part in a training institution. Training courses, varied in duration and scope according to need, will therefore have to be provided.

21. This provision can be made if at least one training institution in every training area develops a strong and especially well staffed and equipped music department. This college should work in as close association as possible with the colleges or schools of music and music departments of universities. The most important functions of the special training college should be:

(a) the provision of advanced courses for students from other colleges whose abilities justified such courses. A few of these students might prove of such outstanding ability as to be allowed admission for a period to one of the colleges of music or to the university;
(b) the provision of courses for the training of musicians in teaching technique. In certain cases a great deal of this training might take place in a suitably selected school;
(e) the provision of courses for serving teachers seeking to extend their musical education or their knowledge of teaching technique;
(d) stimulating musical activities in other colleges in the area, and helping and advising on the music teaching there. We should expect the college which specialised in music to be the source through which choirs, orchestras and performers were made available for the other colleges in the area;
(d) undertaking research and investigation in the teaching of music to children.

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Training College Staffs

22. In every training college there should be available an adequate staff of music lecturers. The principle of the pooling of resources should enable the smaller colleges to supplement their permanent provision. The music staff of a training college should be of the rank of the best specialists described above, and they should have successfully handled most sides of the music of a large school. There should be constant contact and some interchange of function between those who work in schools and those who teach students about school work.

23. In addition to organising ordinary and advanced courses on tutorial lines, training college staffs should look for special aptitudes amongst the students and encourage instrumental practice. Above all they should see that the concerted musical talent and taste of the whole college itself is given due expression. There should be a permanent choir and orchestra, chamber music groups, study circles and a lively interest in music of all kinds.

Local Organisation in the Recruitment and Use of Music Teachers

24. Before making our recommendations we refer to one other matter, although it lies very much on the edge of our terms of reference. We wish to draw attention to the importance of local initiative and organisation in the recruitment and use of teachers of music in all kinds of schools and in the youth service. It is abundantly clear that an adequate supply and training of music teachers cannot be met by any central organisation. There must be local recruitment and also local supervision to ensure that qualified teachers are properly and economically employed. We have been given examples of schools in which two or three musically accomplished members of a permanent staff are given no chance to use their musical abilities, because the school is musically backward or lethargic. In the same locality may be schools in which not one teacher can play or teach adequately. This is sheer waste and can only be remedied locally.

25. Further, a local adviser or inspector, qualified in music, will be needed to select and distribute those local panels of approved professional musicians whose help the schools need and without which the supply of effective and skilled teaching, particularly of gifted children, is impossible on any adequate scale. Even the services of a good visiting accompanist might make all the difference between a poor school performance and a good one. These also are problems of local organisation.

26. Above all, it is important that someone is charged with the responsibility of seeing that what is gained in the schools is not lost in adolescence. School music must be linked with further education and the service of youth, and these in their turn with the many voluntary adult societies which foster and enrich the recreative leisure of the nation.

27. We recommend

(a) that in every training area there should be one training college, at least, with a specially well developed music department and that the functions of this college should be
(i) to train in the technique of teaching men and women musically qualified who seek to enter the teaching profession whether as full-time or part-time teachers;
(ii) to provide courses in music for specially gifted students from other colleges in the area, some of whom might be recommended for admission for a period to a college of music or a university;
(iii) to provide short courses of varied duration for serving teachers both in music and in teaching technique; and
(iv) to stimulate and aid music teaching in other colleges in the area, and to take part in research that had special reference to music teaching;
(b) that, as regards training,
(i) all intending teachers of younger children should be trained to teach music up to the standard of simple melodies and rhythms In ordinary notation;
(ii) lessons in some form of instrumental playing should be available without extra cost to all teachers in training; and
(iii) every training college should have an adequately equipped music room;
(c) that persons suitably equipped as regards musical and teaching ability should be eligible for recognition as qualified teachers, from whatever source they may have been recruited;

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(d) that local education authorities with the aid of H.M. Inspectors and local inspectors or advisers should make panels of musicians competent to give instruction to children in instrumental playing, and to act on occasion as class teachers and as accompanists, and should organise their services in the schools. Courses of training should be provided for them through the area training arrangements; and
(e) that every large post-primary school should have at least one music specialist, and specialist help should be available for the primary schools.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION

What is involved in Physical Education

1. No subject in the school curriculum has grown in richness of content more than has physical training. Beginning in 1870 with stereotyped military drill and dumb-bell, wand and hoop exercises, and restricted to 'not more than two hours a week' for 20 weeks in the year, physical training has steadily won recognition. Since 1915 the nation has realised, as never before, the value of health and bodily fitness. Physical education has been given constant encouragement and guidance from the Board of Education through their specialist inspectors, through the successive issues of syllabuses, and, administratively, through new powers granted to local education authorities for the provision of holiday and school camps, playing fields, swimming baths and other facilities.

2. Our views on the supply and training of teachers for physical education are based on the opinion that this subject includes all those aspects of education which influence the physical life of the child and young person, including his mental attitude to his body and its welfare. It is thus a fundamental and integral part of general education. Every teacher must know something of it, for wherever children are being educated their bodies are a factor in the process; and some teachers must know a great deal about it, for it is potent for harm as well as for good and needs informed and wise direction. To embody such a conception as we have outlined we find the term physical education preferable to physical training. We employ it, therefore, wherever the reference is obviously to the more developed conception.

Present Position

3. There is probably no school with any claims to efficiency in which physical training does not appear regularly on the timetable. In most primary schools it occurs in some form every day, and in many modern (senior) schools on at least four days in the week. It is less frequently practised in many secondary schools, a contributing factor to this unfortunate fact being the claims of examination subjects.

4. In a large number of the older elementary schools, especially in rural areas, inadequate outdoor space, unhygienic conditions and lack of halls deprive thousands of children of the benefits they should derive from physical education. There are a considerable number of secondary schools which are inadequately equipped. In all recent school buildings of any kind, a hall is a regular part of the provision, and in newly built modern (senior) schools an equipped gymnasium with shower-baths is normal. We stress these modern standards in order to emphasise the conditions that need to be present in the schools if the trained teacher is to be in a position to give full effect to his acquired knowledge and command of techniques.

Teachers

5. All teachers who have passed through the normal two-year training course have followed a compulsory course of physical training, including the technique of teaching it. Some graduates in their one-year teacher training course may also have followed a course in physical training, but this is seldom compulsory and is sometimes casual. In the infants' and junior schools, where the work is organised chiefly on a class-teaching basis, each teacher usually takes physical training with her own class. Very few of these teachers have followed the advanced courses in physical training which have been established in a number of colleges for the primary purpose of enabling intending teachers in senior schools to make use of the new and improved conditions there. Advanced courses for intending teachers of younger children have yet to be framed.

6. Advanced courses in physical education and, since 1937, additional courses lasting a term or a year have provided the majority of teachers mainly responsible for physical training in the modern (senior) schools. The term's courses for serving teachers have been available at some half-dozen training colleges. Courses lasting a year have been available for men and women. These follow immediately on the two-year training or graduate training course, or are deferred till after some years of teaching


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experience. The women so trained have not been regarded as fully qualified specialists in contrast with those trained in the three-year specialist colleges. The one-year course for men is a post-teacher-training or post-graduate course and was designed to produce specialists. Its conditions are described later.

7. The women's one-year courses are held in a few of the ordinary training colleges, and only in one case in association with a specialist college of physical training. Difficulties arise from the smallness of the one-year groups, and we suggest later that the specialist colleges should play a much larger part in the provision of these courses. Most of the one-year trained women, and a few of the men, take up work in senior schools where they teach physical training and one or more other subjects. Full-time specialisation in physical training is not encouraged in these schools.

Specialists

8. The specialists in physical education now practise almost exclusively in grammar (secondary) and in technical schools. We describe separately the training available for men and women.

9. Men specialist teachers of physical training in England and Wales fall generally into the following groups:

(a) certificated or graduate teachers who have superimposed upon their training college or university course a one-year course in physical training at Chelsea, Sheffield, Carnegie (Leeds), Loughborough or Goldsmith's Colleges, or - the minority - at physical training colleges abroad or at Dunfermline (later, at Jordanhill, Glasgow);
(b) men who have made physical training their sole teaching qualification with the intention of becoming full-time specialists. A few of these men received their training at Sheffield immediately after the last war, but most of them have been trained in Scandinavia (either for one or two years) or in Scotland (either for two or three years);
(c) ex-army and navy instructors who on the strength of their training and experience in the Services have obtained posts in independent and grammar schools and in technical colleges as well as in the youth service and evening institutes. The recruitment of men from this source has declined since physical training colleges for men have been available and special vacation courses have been arranged for grammar school masters.
In grammar and technical schools the boys' physical training is normally taken by masters who fall into one of these groups. In small mixed grammar schools, especially those in rural areas, and in the smaller technical schools, responsibility for the training is sometimes in the hands of form masters who rely upon attendance at summer vacation schools for their knowledge of modern methods of instruction.

10. The training provision for men specialists has had a chequered history. At Chelsea the one-year course begun in 1908 was discontinued in 1912. From 1919-1923 a one-year course was offered at Sheffield City Training College. Ten years later the Carnegie Trust founded the Carnegie Physical Training College at Leeds, administered by the Leeds Authority and regarded as a constituent part of the Leeds City Training College, in whose grounds it stands. Admission was limited to graduates or certificated teachers. There was an increasing demand for admission: latterly some 250 applicants were interviewed for the 60 places available. Up to 1939, nearly 350 men had gained the College Diploma. The great majority hold specialist posts as organisers, training college lecturers or gymnastic masters in grammar schools.

11. In 1936 a new one-year course was opened at Loughborough College. Admission was restricted for the first year to certificated teachers; subsequently admission was extended to graduates who held a teaching certificate or diploma in education. By 1940 about 200 men had taken the course. The great majority of the students were appointed to grammar schools as full-time specialists. In 1937 a similar course for about 30 students was set up at Goldsmith's College, London. All these courses were aided from public funds and the fees for resident students were 100 at Leeds (50 for non-trained graduates) and 40-50 at the other colleges which were grant-aided. The men so trained usually teach another subject as well as physical training. All the courses came to an end at the outbreak of the war.

12. The scarcity of men specialists has given to a physical education qualification a certain rarity value; consequently, in a few instances, men with poor degrees may have been tempted to seek a physical training qualification in order to facilitate an otherwise unlikely appointment to a grammar school staff. In recent years, however, the colleges have been able to recruit a keen and enthusiastic body of students, genuinely interested in their subject and well equipped to take advantage of the worse.


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13. Women specialists are trained at the six specialist colleges, five of which, Anstey, Bedford, Dartford, Liverpool and Nonnington, are provided by private enterprise. The sixth is part of Chelsea Polytechnic, London. All are recognised by the Board of Education for the purpose of teachers' superannuation and as 'efficient' for the work they undertake. They are not normally inspected by H.M. Inspectors. They are not grant-aided and in consequence their fees are about 100 a year higher than those at the normal training colleges. With one exception they are not connected through their work with other training colleges or with each other. Each college offers a three-year course in preparation for the college Diploma and also the Diploma in the Theory and Practice of Physical Education of London University. The majority of students also enter for the conjoint examination of the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics.

14. The students are recruited at 18 years of age or slightly over, but include a higher proportion of girls from the independent schools than do the entrants to the normal colleges. Most of the specialist colleges have more applicants than they can accept. The total number of teachers leaving the colleges each year is about 210, which is not enough to meet present demands, even though these teachers serve only in secondary (including independent) schools. Here they take an important part in the general life of the school, and Head Mistresses have spoken highly of their widespread influence and responsibility.

Requirements

15. The total number of fully trained teachers of physical education coming annually into the schools is only a little over 300. The extension of the provision of compulsory full-time and part-time education contemplated in the White Paper will greatly increase the need for men and women fully-trained in physical education, especially as all post-primary schools, and not only as now the grammar and technical schools, may claim the services of specialists. The young people's colleges might well be institutions at which a thousand or more young people attend during the week. Moreover our evidence has led us to think it probable that expert teaching should not be limited to the post-primary stage, but that, although the main bulk of the work in infants' and junior schools will remain with the class-teacher, there will be at least a scattering of specialists throughout the primary system. In short, we anticipate that in time there will be on the staff of every large school, or shared by a group of smaller ones, a man or woman thoroughly trained in all branches of physical education to plan the work generally, to give help to the general practitioner and to teachers less well qualified in physical education, and to work in close association with the school medical service, especially as regards boys and girls needing preventive or even remedial treatment. This wider use of specialists at all stages will greatly increase the number required in the schools, while the growth of the youth service will again add to the demands.

Factors influencing Recruitment

16. Any changes which add to the attractions of the teaching profession and which widen the fields of recruitment, while at the same time removing the economic hindrances to training, will improve the recruitment of teachers for physical education. We emphasise only those points which are especially important.

17. The main deterrents to students entering the recognised three-year specialist courses for women are economic. The fees are high and the remuneration of physical education specialists in secondary schools is on the non-graduate scale, and in the elementary school may be on the uncertificated scale. The recommendation which we make later to allow grant aid to the colleges would remove the first deterrent and the revision of salaries for teachers generally would remove the second. Also, and as a result of the changed status of the physical training colleges, local education authority grants to intending specialists in physical education should be as freely available as to other intending college students. At present these grants vary greatly from place to place; in some areas no help is forthcoming, in others the aid is generous.

18. Another frequent deterrent to taking up physical education as a career is the fear, especially in the case of a woman, that a teacher may not be able to pursue it after middle life. This fear might be justified if physical education meant only the teaching of physical exercises and the coaching of games; although in the course of our inquiries we have met, especially in physical training colleges themselves, some first-rate teachers of gymnastics and games over middle age. But if physical education and the work of the physical education specialist are as we have described them earlier, then a continuance of bodily youthfulness is only part of the personal equipment that is required. Granted a sound training, and a widely accepted conception of


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physical education as involving progressive experience in all that has to do with healthy living and bodily fitness, most specialists should be able to continue as such throughout their career if they choose to do so.

19. Nevertheless, there are great advantages from the personal, as well as the professional, point of view in being able to offer from the beginning more than one subject; but for the specialist we must avoid, on the one hand, any lowering of the standard of knowledge of physical education or expertness in physical training, and on the other, the inclusion of a subsidiary subject during his training, merely in order that when his nimbleness decreases he should have something left still to teach. Most of the women from the specialist colleges are qualified also to practise as remedial exercise specialists and masseuses; but if they keep this as a 'second string' for the time when they want to give up teaching they find they are out of practice and need re-training. Some doubt arises, therefore, whether this is the best subsidiary course to combine with the teachers' training course. One college is experimenting with a course in social studies as an alternative to the complete one in massage and medical gymnastics. We suggest later that a variety of alternatives might be available.

Training

Provision of Training

20. One of the roots of the supply problem is the deficiency of the training provision. For men there are only two colleges each offering a year's course, and nearly all the expert training for women is provided by private enterprise. At a time when no one has any doubts about the importance of physical education as a fundamental part of education as a whole, this position is untenable. Provision for the training of experts in physical education for both men and women should be made within the general scheme for the training of teachers, and this training should participate fully in the grants system. We have reason to believe that the existing women's colleges would welcome this suggestion, and that the necessary negotiations and changes in their constitutions and curricula would present no insuperable difficulties.

21. It has been suggested to us that certain universities which have the necessary facilities might consider the provision of a training course for specialists, and that studies in physical education might be arranged of sufficient weight to justify recognition as an optional subject for a degree course. If any such services were forthcoming from universities they would certainly assist very materially in relieving what is likely to prove a serious deficiency.

22. Within an area organisation of training, the education and training of teachers for physical education can be fully provided for, but only if the necessary expansion of provision for training is so planned that no area is without its specialist physical training college. Four of the present Joint Board areas - (Cambridge, the Northern, the Western and Wales) - are without such a college.

23. The specialist college should influence physical education in every training institution in the area. In summary, its functions should be

(a) to provide full courses of training for specialists in physical education;
(b) to provide courses, varied in duration and scope for students from other colleges in the area, including graduates who, while training for general work or specialist work in other subjects, wished to give attention also to physical education. These should not be only those who intend to teach older children, but should include intending teachers for every age-group and every type of school and college;
(c) to afford advice and some lecturing and tutorial aid in physical education for other training colleges in the area. This should ensure that those responsible for the physical education which formed part of the training of the general practitioner or of the specialist in any other subject would be in constant touch with expert knowledge and practice;
(d) to conduct research into physical education. For this purpose effective collaboration with the medical and science schools of the University would be necessary, and with all other training institutions in the area;
(e) to provide courses of various kinds for practising teachers, including courses of an advanced kind for those who wish to carry their studies further, whether in the subject itself or the means of training others in it. Some of our witnesses had realised the interest and importance of physical education only when they found themselves actually in a teaching post. Ample opportunity should be available for such men and women to fit themselves to develop their new-found professional interest. The more advanced courses should be planned to meet the needs of aspirants to more responsible work such as training college or organisating [sic: organising or organisational?] posts.

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24. We recommend

(a) that provision for the training of men and women as specialists in physical education should be made within the national training service;
(b) that the existing recognised colleges of physical education should become part of the general system of training and participate in grant-aid; and that negotiations to this end should be undertaken forthwith;
(c) that provision for the training of specialists be substantially increased; and
(d) that in planning this provision no training area should be left without an adequate centre of physical education within it.
Courses of Training

25. The details of training courses will be arranged by those properly experienced in such matters, in association with the area training authorities. From the evidence before us we make the following observations and suggestions.

The specialist

26. The initial course for those who intend to be specialists in physical education, and who begin their training at about 18 or without previous training as a teacher, should last three years; and there should be considerably enlarged opportunities for further training especially for those who seek the more responsible posts. For trained teachers (graduates and non-graduates), who have completed their ordinary training and perhaps have had some teaching experience, there should be shorter courses.

27. A specialist training in physical education should fit those students who have the interest and a suitable temperament to undertake responsibility for the physical education of young people and adults. Physical recreation is a part of physical education, and the full training of the specialist should deal adequately with it and enable him to adapt himself to the special conditions introduced by the voluntary element in the Youth Service.

28. The students, and teachers who have recently been students, find the present course very crowded and regret that during the three years of training all subjects and interests not directly associated with physical training are frequently dropped. We have already expressed some doubt as to the wisdom of the inclusion of the full massage and medical gymnastic course in women's colleges though we fully commend a course in remedial gymnastics. We suggest that the training course as a whole should be reviewed to see whether opportunities for the development of the student's personal interests from among a wide choice of studies might not be possible. The close co-operation of the college with others in the group should go far towards solving the problem of the provision of a sufficiently varied staff. A review of the contents of some of the courses might also suggest a change in emphasis, as, for example, that more attention should be paid to the more practical aspects of hygiene and to the association of movement with art and music.

29. The isolation of the specialists in the present physical training colleges from other students is regrettable, and we suggest that, wherever possible, parts of their course, such as general principles of education, some of the hygiene course, and the optional courses suggested in the previous paragraph, should be shared with students from other colleges. The increased inter-availability of members of the training college staffs and the presence in the specialists colleges of men or women with more general training should help to break down the present isolation.

Other teachers

30. For students who do not intend to be specialists in physical education but who have an unusual ability in it, there should be courses corresponding to the present advanced and extra three months' courses. Some grouping of these courses in the specialist colleges would remove difficulties arising from the present attempts to give this training to small groups in unspecialised colleges.

31. We have considered carefully whether physical training, both for the personal good of the student and as preparation for his teaching, should be compulsory during the ordinary training college course, and we think that normally it should. On the personal side, the teacher should himself be an example, as far as he can, of what he preaches, and the inculcation of the habits of healthy living are part of the general education with which he is concerned. On the professional side it has been urged that the training of a man or woman to control groups of children in movement and out of doors is of fundamental importance in modern education, and its techniques have a value in teaching generally and are by no means applicable only to physical education.


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The Staffing and Equipment of Training Colleges

32. We anticipate that an improvement in the salaries and conditions of service for training college staffs will result in men and women who seek such posts seeking also to attend the advanced and 're-orientation' courses in the specialist colleges to prepare themselves for the special work of training others to teach. It is important that such men and women should have had experience of teaching children over a wide age-range and of the varied conditions in schools and districts of many types. Teachers of high ability in the schools should play some part in training teachers within the colleges.

33. Many general training colleges are still without adequate equipment for physical education. By no means all have a gymnasium and fewer have shower baths. In many, the playing fields are at an inconvenient distance. Under such circumstances it is difficult to train teachers to make full use of the facilities now becoming available in up-to-date schools.

DOMESTIC SUBJECTS

Domestic Subjects Teachers in the Schools

1. Specialist teachers of domestic subjects are employed in all types of post-primary schools, including technical schools and colleges, and also in evening institutes. They are not found in primary schools. They seldom, in normal times, take much part in the teaching of general subjects, although they frequently share in many of the school's activities and often take a leading part in its general domestic arrangements.

2. Domestic subjects are taught to girls of 12 to 14 years of age in the present elementary schools, and exceptionally to those of 11. In technical and secondary schools and in evening institutes a proportion of the older girls, and in technical schools and evening classes women students, also follow domestic subjects courses.

3. The developments foreshadowed in the White Paper will add eventually two adolescent age-groups to the modern (senior) schools and expand the provision for technical and adult education. Compulsory part-time education to 18 will add numbers almost equal to another age-group and extend the period of educational influence for four years beyond the present school leaving age. Most teachers will welcome the opportunity which these changes will afford of reserving the teaching of domestic subjects for the higher age-groups; but even so the number of girls in school needing this teaching will be increased, and correspondingly more teachers will be wanted.

4. With regard to technical education, it is necessary to point out that subjects which might come under the heading of 'domestic' such as dressmaking, embroidery, upholstery and cookery, are, under these same titles, taught with different purposes. Some courses in technical schools and evening institutes and all those in trade schools provide vocational training for girls and women who are entering or who are already in one of the trades. But other courses, also in technical schools and evening institutes, are non-vocational and are attended by girls and women for their own personal and domestic education. The great majority of students, except those in trade schools, are part-time students, and many of the teachers are part-time. The teachers may be teaching in addition to working full-time in their trade or profession, or they may hold full-time teaching posts in secondary, technical or modern (senior) schools. Some are fully trained domestic subjects teachers, some are women with trade experience who have had part-time training as teachers in a technical school through the courses leading to the City and Guilds of London Teacher's Certificate. Some, especially those in the trade schools, have had substantial trade experience, but generally no training as teachers.

Supply

5. Domestic subjects teachers in modern (senior) and grammar (secondary) schools come from the training colleges for domestic subjects from which the yearly output is about 400. In addition there are a few graduates from the two universities which offer degree courses in household and social science. This does not meet the needs of the schools in England and Wales, and the supply is supplemented by a number of teachers each year from Scotland. The opportunities to leave teaching for other posts such as those of canteen manageresses, demonstrators, home advisers to some trades and welfare workers in industry are many. It is true that many of these opportunities have been created by war conditions, but until such time as specific courses of training for these other posts are established, the demand for domestic subjects teachers to fill them is likely to remain. Despite the drain on the profession, we believe there are great advantages in the possibility of interchange between teaching and other work; our regret is that, having once left the profession,


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the majority of teachers seem unwilling to return to it. This is partly due to the operation of the marriage bar to which we refer later, and partly to the greater variety and freedom in types of employment which are not subject to the restrictions of the teaching profession.

6. The supply of teachers for domestic subjects in technical schools and evening institutes, especially for the non-vocational classes, has for a considerable time been woefully inadequate, particularly in some areas.

7. To meet the needs of the expanded education system we estimate that the annual flow of domestic subjects teachers into the schools and adult education classes will have to be in the neighbourhood of 600-700 a year at the least, - and this is probably an under-estimate. Thus a 50 per cent increase in the provision of training will be necessary.

Means of improving the supply

8. All that the main Committee may say regarding the means of increasing the supply of teachers generally will no doubt apply fully to domestic subjects teachers. We therefore deal here only with those points which are especially relevant.

The wider sources of recruitment

9. Nearly all domestic subjects students now come from the secondary schools, and the prevalent attitude to the subject there is unfortunate. It is not infrequently a 'B' or 'C' stream subject, and regarded as fit for those who, having 'failed in Latin', are suitably 'unacademic'. Some witnesses have described the discouragement or even opposition with which a clever girl is met who wants to make domestic subjects her career. Our suggestions directed to broadening the general education of the student during her training may eventually have some effect on this attitude.

10. While hoping that more girls from the usual channel of the grammar (secondary) schools will enter domestic subjects colleges, we think it particularly important that these colleges, like the other training colleges, should recruit also from the technical schools and from the pupils of modern schools who will eventually have passed also through some form of compulsory further education. If the allocation of children between 11 and 13 to the form of post-primary education most appropriate for each is properly done, we should expect to find, in technical schools especially, girls of high ability whose interests lie mainly in the practical application of knowledge and who may have in addition more than average dexterity of hand and quickness of eye. These should find ready entrance to domestic subjects colleges. Further, a great many of our witnesses have stressed the peculiar advantage to the domestic subjects teacher of acquaintance with living conditions outside the school-college circle and the importance of the experience of earning a living and spending a wage. Thus, provided that the necessary standards of general education are safeguarded, we should look for a more varied recruitment as regards experience, education and age of entry than those usual at the present time.

The employment of married women

11. If it is unfortunate that schools generally should be deprived of the services of women with experience of homes and children of their own, it is doubly unfortunate that they should be so deprived in the teaching of those subjects which are concerned with home-making and management. In no part of school life would the presence of more married women with actual experience of home-making have a more salutary effect on the teaching itself and on the confidence which it would inspire in the pupils and their parents. Since the loss to teaching through marriage is high among domestic subjects teachers, the demands of supply will necessitate the removal of any marriage bar.

Status, salaries and prospects

12. Fully trained domestic subjects teachers, alone amongst teachers trained at specialist colleges, are found in every type of post-primary school and in adult education. The variety in their opportunities for service is therefore unique, and this is undoubtedly an attraction to this particular kind of training and work. But the fact that salary scales and chances of promotion are weighted against the 'specialist' teacher prejudices recruitment.

The Recruitment of Part-time Teachers for Non-vocational Classes

13. The demand for non-vocational classes is rapidly expanding, and the teachers are hard to find. The deterrents to recruitment are the same as those operating against the supply of good part-time teachers generally, but some are particularly


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strong in the case of women's subjects. Women's technical education is the most poorly housed and equipped section of a branch of education which is generally badly off in these respects. Also in many areas there are regulations which automatically close down a class when its numbers fall below a certain level. Women students with home responsibilities are more uncertain in their attendance than are other students, and thus many classes which, given more latitude, would revive and carry on are ended abruptly. The insecurity of tenure which results for the teacher was frequently given by witnesses as a reason why women are unwilling to undertake teaching in these classes. The comparatively low payment of part-time teachers is also a cause of difficulty in recruitment.

14. The fully qualified domestic subjects teacher is nearly always a full-time teacher in a day school. She can only teach in the evenings also if she is willing to work for three sessions of the day, and this many teachers are unwilling to do. A more flexible arrangement by which full-time teaching need not necessarily mean teaching always ten sessions a week in the same school or type of school would be particularly helpful in staffing domestic education at all levels.

Training

The present position

15. There are 11 domestic subjects colleges, of which 7 are provided by local education authorities and 4 by voluntary bodies. The training is grant-aided, as in other training colleges, and the students are examined under the same joint Board system, each craft subject being examined separately by examiners appointed by the joint Boards. Otherwise, like other training colleges, they are isolated entities and have no functional connection with each other or with other types of college. Their distribution is such that four of the present joint Board areas (Birmingham, Cambridge, Reading and Nottingham) are without any recognised domestic subjects training college. In addition to the courses offered in the colleges, two universities, London and Bristol, offer degree courses in domestic science. In London, the course for the degree in Household and Social Science lasts three years, and intending teachers spend a 4th year in a training college recognised for a post-graduate course. At Bristol, the course for the B.Sc. (domestic science) degree lasts four years of which the first three are spent in the University though in association with Gloucestershire College of Domestic Science or the London Westminster National Training College of Domestic Subjects, and the 4th year is spent at one of these colleges. Both are affiliated to the University for this purpose, and the tutors who take part in this degree course are recognised teachers of the University. Intending teachers among the graduates from Bristol take a 5th year of teacher training.

16. The domestic subjects colleges have been the source of initiative and enterprise which have established beyond question the importance of domestic education in modern (senior) and technical schools. To achieve the necessary standards of work and to establish the status of their subject, a period of specialisation and the segregation which this imposes have no doubt been necessary. But now that the importance of domestic subjects is realised by all education authorities and a high standard of craftsmanship is established, it is desirable that the domestic subjects colleges should be much more closely integrated with the training system as a whole.

17. Twelve years ago the courses were expanded with the object of giving the domestic subjects teacher the status of a certificated teacher, with the chances of promotion which this implies. In the wider course, English became compulsory and the students were required to do three weeks' general school practice as well as substantial practice as specialist teachers. But in the main the domestic subjects student remains segregated from other intending teachers, and she cannot be said to be a general subjects teacher in any real sense. It is doubtful whether she could or should be expected to be so. As it is, the full range of her subjects is rarely used: in particular, her training in needlework and hygiene enable her to make a much fuller contribution to the teaching of these subjects than she is now given the chance of doing in many schools.

18. But nevertheless we are convinced from the evidence we have heard that the broader training and education now offered in domestic subjects colleges should increase and not diminish, not so much in order that the domestic subjects specialist should be able to lend a hand in other work in school but that she should get an insight into the purposes and methods of education as a whole and see her own subject as an integral part of it. More important is the fact that her period at college, as well as being a preparation for her professional career, is a period of further personal education which is distorted if the course is so limited or so overcrowded that no interest outside the range of domestic subjects can develop. Reciprocally, it would be a great advantage if the teacher trained in the more general college had a clearer view of the objectives of her specialist colleague.


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19. During our visits to domestic subjects colleges we have been impressed by the beneficial effects of the presence in the same college of students preparing to be teachers, and other students, sometimes an equal number, preparing for other professions and taking courses such as institutional management, housekeepers' course, dieticians' preliminary training and canteen management. We hope, not only that this kind of intermingling will continue, but that even more varied courses will be offered by the colleges. We are also impressed by the high standard of craftsmanship achieved in the colleges and wish to give them opportunity to develop all their resources of skill and knowledge. There should also be provision for research.

20. If we indicate the weaknesses in the present courses and methods it is because our evidence, especially from teachers who can now judge the value of their college training in the light of experience, has emphasised the direction which developments should take; and because we wish to enable domestic subjects to play their full part and enjoy their proper status in the reorganised education system.

21. The colleges for a great number of years were exclusively concerned with one set of subjects. The basic course of training at that time lasted only two years, and, as is still the case in other training colleges, the timetable and curriculum were badly overcrowded, while inadequate staffing conditions prevented the development of tutorial methods of teaching. These and other causes led to the condition which still prevails and which in our opinion is a weakness, namely, that the training is too much centred in separate subjects, such as cookery, laundry-work, dressmaking and other somewhat isolated activities, rather than in the relation of these subjects to home-making and management. Little investigation has so far been made into the best methods of teaching skills and processes, and the methods used in domestic subjects teaching have tended to be less flexible and adaptable to the varying needs of pupils and students of different ages, types and capacities than methods in some other subjects. The criticism has also been made that many domestic subjects teachers are still somewhat out of touch with the actual social and economic conditions in which their pupils live, especially in rural areas.

22. The criticism of the teachers, which is often thoughtlessly made, that despite the universality of domestic teaching in the schools our standard of housekeeping and the household arts is still uncomfortably low is on a par with the charge of ineffectiveness sometimes brought against education generally. In as far as it is true, its cause lies only partly with the teachers, their training or their teaching. It is due far more to what has been hitherto a necessity: an attempt to teach as much as possible to the children before they leave education behind them at the modest age of 14. This early school-leaving age has been particularly damaging for domestic education, which for a child under 14 cannot be effective as a preparation for the home-making which she will not undertake till some 6 or more years later. The extension of compulsory education, either full or part-time, to 18 should enable universal domestic education to become for the first time really operative in the community if the teachers are trained to deal with it in a realistic way.

23. Our task is now two-fold: to suggest in the first place what should be the functions of the domestic subjects colleges in an integrated system of training; and secondly, how the college course might be re-organised so as to prepare teachers to make full use of the opportunities which will now await them.

The Function of the Domestic Subjects Colleges in an Area Training System

24. No college should in future continue to work as an isolated unit, but should give help to and receive help from its partners. The facilities for comprehensive education and training will not be complete unless each area has its domestic subjects college, and the very substantial increase of provision for the training of teachers of domestic subjects which will have to be made should be so distributed that no area is left without such a college.

25. The functions of the domestic subjects college should be

(i) to provide or organise the provision of a three-year course for students who will be domestic subjects specialists;
(ii) to provide courses of varying lengths for students from other colleges who as part of their general training wish to give special attention to the domestic aspects of education; for example, to nutrition or domestic hygiene.
(iii) to provide advanced courses in those subjects for which the college is especially staffed and equipped;
(iv) to advise and help all the other colleges in the area on matters on which the staff of the domestic subjects college has special knowledge, and to release members of staff for this purpose;

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(v) to provide short courses in domestic education for teachers and others;
(vi) to provide courses of varying lengths for older women entering the teaching profession after experience in other work;
(vii) to conduct research in the subjects in which the college specialises and into the methods of teaching these. This should be done in close association with any other institution in the area whose collaboration is necessary for the work.

The Training Course

26. We consider that the full course should, as now, last three years. We wish (a) to broaden the educational basis, to link it more vitally with other training courses and to enable students to associate with other kinds of student; (b) to correct the tendency to over-emphasise the separateness of the subjects which compose it, and to bring it into closer relation with the actual conditions of homes, home-making and management; and (c) to maintain, and indeed improve, the standard of craftsmanship; and we therefore suggest that the full three-year course should be re-organised as follows.

27. First, there are the subjects or activities which are necessary to all students who are training as teachers. These are, on the professional side, the general principles of education; and on the personal side, any subjects which a student may choose more for the sake of her personal as distinct from her professorial education. As far as possible, the lecturing and tutorial resources of all the colleges in an area should be pooled so that students would study these subjects in association with students from other colleges and not necessarily in their own specialised institution.

28. As an alternative to English literature, which is now a compulsory examination subject in domestic subjects colleges although not in the majority of other colleges, students should be allowed to offer any subject which is available in the area. The association of technical, art and other training colleges, as well as the closer association with the university, should make such subjects as music, economics, mathematics, history or divinity possible options for every student.

29. Secondly, all the activities and training necessary to prepare teachers to educate girls in home-making and management and the domestic arts and skills should be merged in a closely co-ordinated course which should be practical and realistic in outlook and method, and well informed on the living conditions of different sections of society. It should include the financial and social as well as other aspects of running a home. The different aspects of this course might bear homely names such as cooking, washing, sewing and housework, reserving the more technical names for the advanced courses suggested in the third section of the course which we describe later.

30. The colleges now arrange for the students to make contacts with homes of various kinds and receive useful help in this from various social and municipal agencies. During their vacations the students again come into touch with different ways of living through their participation in social service of various kinds. All this is to the good and should be encouraged.

31. It is especially important for the domestic subjects teacher to be able to make easy contact with the mothers of the girls she teaches. Domestic training is the one subject in school in which every mother is a competitor with school authority, and if she is interested in her daughter's education she is rightly critical. Her attitude might negate all that the teacher can hope to do. To give the teacher the experience which will enable her to make an easy approach to mothers, and also to give her first hand knowledge of the hourly problems of running a home, we suggest that the students might spend some time actually living in certain selected homes where the house-wife would show them domestic problems as they arise and how she copes with them. The proposal is fraught with obvious difficulties, but we believe the experiment would be well worth trying and we recommend that it be tried in at least one area. It could only be done with the co-operation of those organisations or associations in the area which are in touch with individual homes, such as, amongst others, Women's Institutes. Women's Co-operative Guilds, Townswomen's Guilds or House Property Managers. We note that considerable advances along these lines have already been made by some domestic subjects colleges, and in one case at least the study of a particular selected home required by the syllabus is very near to the experiment we have suggested. It must be emphasised that the success of any such realistically co-ordinated study of domestic life depends to a very large extent on tutorial class discussion. We refer to this need in a later paragraph.


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32. The third part of the three-year course should consist of the advanced study of subjects such as food, clothing, household management, household furnishings and equipment - subjects which are the colleges' unique contribution to training in the training area. Every student in the three-year course should take one of these advanced courses and pursue it as far as she is able, unlimited by the standard which she would require for school-teaching. These courses should be open to others besides intending teachers.

33. It should be made quite clear that the three parts of the course described above are not intended to be consecutive. They should be arranged concurrently or not according to the needs of the student and the availability of the teaching.

Assessment of the Courses

34. Under the present system the examination seems to loom too large, both in time and in its influence in dividing the course into separate subjects. Any changes which the main Committee may recommend regarding the assessment of students generally will no doubt simplify and improve the conditions of assessment in domestic subjects colleges. For the integrated home-based course a new and more elastic method of assessment would have to be devised.

School Practice

35. School practice for domestic subjects students, like that for other students, should consist of periods of Practical Training in Schools and one substantial period of Continuous Teaching Practice. Domestic subjects students should be acquainted with rural as well as with urban schools to familiarise them with the differences of habit, of equipment and of teaching conditions in country and town districts. Some domestic subjects students will teach in technical schools where the students are women; or in young people's colleges. Practical experience in handling these different groups should be available for at least some of the students in addition to the study of the peculiar problems involved in these different types of work.

Staffing of the Colleges

36. The course we have described would require generous staffing. Highly qualified experts in the various branches of the domestic arts, including some with a sound knowledge of educational principles and social conditions, would be essential. Good tutorial teaching would be especially important, for without it the course as a whole and specially the co-ordinated home-making part could not be successful. There are many anomalies in the present remuneration of members of domestic subjects college staffs. We hope that the removal of these, and better financial prospects for the staffs of training colleges generally, will enable the domestic subjects colleges to attract the women they need for their work. Outstanding teachers in the schools should from time to time take part in the teaching in college.

Residential Conditions

37. For students of domestic subjects the conditions in which they live constitute an important part of their training. Large residential units do not give them the most helpful kind of experience. Some of the colleges now have flats or small houses where the students practice housekeeping for themselves and others. Therefore, although the students would benefit from living in hostels along with university or other students during part of their course, we think that every encouragement should be given to the domestic subjects colleges to make arrangements for the type of residence most suited to the needs of their students.

38. We recommend

(a) that there should be increased provision for training domestic subjects teachers;
(b) that this provision should be so planned that no training area is without a domestic subjects college;
(c) that the domestic subjects college should receive help from and contribute help to the general training resources in the area;
(d) that the full normal course of training should remain three years in length;
(e) that consideration should be given to the desirability of re-organising the course on the lines we have suggested.


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APPENDIX II

A. LIST OF BODIES WHO HAVE GIVEN ORAL EVIDENCE OR SUBMITTED WRITTEN EVIDENCE, OR BOTH, TO THE COMMITTEE OR TO ONE OF ITS SUB-COMMITTEES

Association of British Chambers of Commerce.
Association of Directors and Secretaries for Education.
Association for Education in Citizenship.
Association of Education Committees.
Association of Municipal Corporations.
Association of Principals of Physical Training Colleges.
Association of Principals of Training Colleges of Domestic Subjects.
Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of Education.
Association of Teachers of Domestic Subjects.

Board of Supervision for Church Training Colleges.
Boy Scouts Association.
British Council.
British and Foreign School Society.

Carnegie United Kingdom Trust Bursary Committee.
Catholic Education Council.
Central Council for Health Education.
Central Council for School Broadcasting.
Central School of Speech Training and Dramatic Art.
Christian Education Movement.
City and Guilds of London Institute (Department of Technology).
Colonial Office.
Conference of Joint Boards.
Conference of Music Advisers.
Co-operative Union.
Council for Education in World Citizenship.
Council for the Promotion of Field Studies.
County Councils Association.

Dalcroze Training College.

Educational Institute of Scotland.

Federation of British Industries.
Federation of Education Committees (Wales and Monmouthshire).

Geological Society of London.

Headmasters' Conference.
Headmasters' Conference (Overseas sub-committee).
Homerton College Staff.
Horticultural Education Association.

Imperial Institute.
Incorporated Association of Assistant Mistresses in Secondary Schools.
Incorporated Society of Musicians.
Institute of Builders.
Institute of Handicraft Teachers.
Institute of Sociology.
Institution of Civil Engineers.
Institution of Electrical Engineers.
Institution of Gas Engineers.
Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Institution of Naval Architects.

Joint Committee of the Association of Technical Institutions, Association of Principals of Technical Institutions, Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions and British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education.
Joint Committee of the Four Secondary Associations.
Joint University Council for Social Studies and Public Administration.

Ling Association.
London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art Teachers' Association.
London County Council.

Mathematical Association (Technical sub-committee of the Teaching Committee).
Methodist Education Committee.
Modern Churchmen's Union.

National Association of Boys' Clubs.
National Association of Girls' Clubs.
National Association of Head Teachers.
National Association of Organisers of Physical Training.
National Association of Schoolmasters.
National Council on Commercial Education.
National Federation of Building Trades Employers.
National Federation of Women's Institutes.


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National Froebel Foundation.
National Organisation of Parent-Teacher Associations.
National Society of Art Masters.
National Special Schools Union.
National Union of Students.
National Union of Teachers.
National Union of Women Teachers.
Nottingham University College and Associated Training Colleges Delegacy.
Nursery School Association.

Parents' National Educational Union (Charlotte Mason College).
Provisional National Council for Mental Health.

Royal Empire Society.
Royal Institute of Chemistry.
Royal Society of Teachers.

School Library Association.
Scottish Education Department.
Society for Education in Art.

Textile Institute.
Trades Union Congress.
Training Group of the Standing Conference of National Juvenile Organisations.

United Nations Education Conference.
University of Birmingham and Midland Training Colleges Joint Board.
University of Birmingham Guild of Graduates.
University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (Homerton College).
University of Durham Joint Examinations Board for Training Colleges.
University of London Extension and Tutorial Classes Council.
University of London Training Colleges Delegacy.
Universities of Manchester and Liverpool Training College Examinations Board.
University of Reading and Associated Training Colleges Joint Committee.

Vice-Chancellors' Committee.

Welsh League of Youth.
Western Joint Board.
Workers' Educational Association.
Worshipful Company of Shipwrights.

Yorkshire Council for Further Education.
Yorkshire Training Colleges Examinations Board.
Young Women's Christian Association.
Youth Advisory Committee.
Youth Leaders Association.

B. LIST OF PERSONS, OTHER THAN OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, WHO HAVE GIVEN ORAL EVIDENCE OR SUBMITTED WRITTEN STATEMENTS, WHETHER AS REPRESENTATIVES OF ONE OF THE BODIES MENTIONED IN LIST A OR IN THEIR PRIVATE CAPACITY.

(The list excludes the large number of persons whom the Committee or members of the Committee met during their visits.)

Mrs. D. A. Adamson, Domestic Subjects Organiser, Gateshead.
Sir James Aitken, Lancashire Education Committee.
Miss E. Alexander, Physical Training Organiser, Northumberland.
Dr. W. P. Alexander, Director of Education, Sheffield.
Lady Allen of Hurtwood, Chairman, Nursery School Association.
Miss Agnes M. Allison, President, Educational Institute of Scotland.
Dr. D. S. Anderson, Principal, Birmingham Central Technical College.
Professor C. M. Attlee, University College of Nottingham.

Mr. R. S. Ball, Head Master, Northwood Senior School, Middlesex.
Sir Ross Barker, Chairman, Teachers' Registration Council, Royal Society of Teachers.
Miss E. I. Barnard, Salisbury Training College.
Professor H. C. Barnard, University of Reading.
Dr. Kate Barratt, Principal, Horticultural College, Swanley.
Mr. F. W. Barwick, Chamber of Commerce Testing House, Manchester.
Miss J. L. Baxter, Sprowston Senior School, Norfolk.
Mr. A. J. Baylis, London County Council.
Miss E. M. Berry, Domestic Subjects Teacher, Birmingham.
Miss A. M. Bignell, Young Women's Christian Association.
Mr. J. H. Bingham, Sheffield Education Committee
Mr. A. L. Binns, Education Officer, West Riding of Yorkshire.
Miss K. Blackwell, Southville Junior School. Bristol.
Capt. A. F. Booth, formerly Organising Secretary, Institute of the Plastics Industry.
Miss E. Borman, Co-operative Youth Movement.


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The Reverend Canon E. F. Braley, Principal, Venerable Bede Training College, Durham.
Miss H. Brand, Education Offices, Bury St. Edmunds.
Mr. W. B. Brander, Secretary, Vice-Chancellors' Committee.
Mr. W. K. Brasher, Secretary, Institution of Electrical Engineers.
Mr. W. G. Briggs, Director of Education, Derbyshire.
Mr. W. A. Brockington, Director of Education, Leicestershire.
Miss U. C. Bryan, Queen Elizabeth Girls' Grammar School, Barnet.
Miss B. M. Bryer, Bingley Training College.
MIss L. D. Buck, South Street Junior School, Bristol.
Miss H. Burgess, Arthington School, Yorkshire.
Mrs. W. A. Burke, Whitwood Mire Infants' School, Yorkshire.
Miss H. P. Burrow, Speedwell Senior School, Kingswood, Bristol.
Mr. B. F. Buttery, Ecclesfield Town Modern School, Yorkshire.

Miss M. Callis, Domestic Subjects Organiser, Manchester.
Mr. A. D. Calvert, Strawberry Hill, St. Mary's Training College, Twickenham.
Miss N. Caress, Head Mistress, Wyggeston Grammar School for Girls, Leicester.
Miss D. M. Castley, Hastings Road Infants' School, Birmingham.
Sir John Catlow, Middlesex Education Committee.
Miss A. Catnach, Vice-Chairman, Association of Head Mistresses.
Professor F. A. Cavenagh, King's College, University of London.
Miss E. B. Challinor, Bilston Secondary School, Staffs.
Mr. Kenneth M. Chance, Chairman, British Industrial Plastics Ltd.
Mrs. P. M. Chandler, Sudbury Senior School, Suffolk.
Miss L. E. Charlesworth, Head Mistress, G.P.D.S., High School for Girls, Sutton, Surrey.
Miss M. S. Chesterfield, Guildford County School for Girls.
Miss E. M. Chrystal, Newnham College, University of Cambridge.
Miss E. A. Chubb, formerly of Tottenham, St. Katherine's Training College.
The Reverend A. A. Cock, Principal, St. John's Training College, York.
The Reverend Canon F. A. Cockin, Secretary, Board of Supervision for Church Training Colleges.
Miss M. Cole, Stonebridge Lane Council School, Liverpool.
Mr. R. L. Collett, Assistant Secretary, Royal Institute of Chemistry.
Mrs. B. F. Collins, Merrywood Secondary Girls' School. Bristol.
Miss D. C. Collins, Principal, Bexley Day Technical School for Girls, Kent.
Mr. J. Compton, Director of Education, Ealing.
Mr. Willard Connely, Director, American Universities Union.
Dr. Frances Consitt, Principal, Avery Hill Training College.
Miss D. A. Counsell, Principal, Whitelands Training College.
Mr. Samuel Courtauld, Chairman, Courtaulds, Ltd.
Mr. George Cowe, Educational Institute of Scotland.
Mr. A. D. Croucher, Cranbrook Church of England School, Kent.

Mr. A. V. Davies, Wadderton Lodge Secondary School, Birmingham.
Mr. H. J. Davies, Institute of Handicraft Teachers.
Mr. A. E. Dean, Warden, Goldsmiths' College, University of London.
Dr. W. E. le B. Diamond, General Manager, British Plastics Federation.
Mr. N. A. Dölay, Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company.
Miss A. M. Donington, L.C.C. Mary Datchelor's Girls' School.
Miss C. A. Dowling, Principal, Endsleigh Training College, Hull.
Miss P. Doyle, Bishop Otter Training College, Chichester.
Dr. T. J. Drakeley, Principal, Northem Polytechnic, London.
Mr. F. E. Drury, Principal, L.C.C. School of Building.
Professor G. G. Dudley, University College of Southampton.
Dr. J. F. Duff, Pro-Vice-Chancellor, University of Durham.
Miss M. G. Duff, Principal, Norwich Training College.
Miss D. Dymond, Principal, Portsmouth Training College.

Mr. Frank Eames, Secretary, Incorporated Society of Musicians.
Mr. Ronald Ede, Secretary, University of Cambridge, School of Agriculture.
Mr. Ifan ab Owen Edwards, Chairman, Welsh League of Youth.
Miss M. H. Edwards, The Gleed Senior Girls' School, Spalding, Lincs.
Miss D. M. M. Edwards-Rees, Yorkshire West Riding Youth Committee.
Miss G. M. Eland, Principal, Westminster National Training College of Domestic Subjects.
Miss V. M. Elliott, Bingley Training College.
Miss S. E. M. Elmslie, West Suffolk County School, Bury St. Edmunds.
Mr. G. W. Ette, Youth Organiser, Middlesex County Council (Tottenham District).
Mr. A. E. Evans, Secretary, Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions.
Professor B. Ifor Evans, British Council.
Principal D. Emrys Evans, Vice-Chancellor, University of Wales.


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Miss E. Dinah Evans, Doncaster Council of Social Service.
Miss E. J. Evans, L.C.C. The Loughborough Central School.
Miss Ellen Evans, Principal, Barry Training College, Glamorgan.
Mr. H. Justin Evans, Secretary for Training, National Association of Boys' Clubs.

Miss D. M. Farrington, St. Peter's Senior School, Wolverhampton.
Professor C. B. Fawcett, University of London.
Dr. T. B. Fielden, Director of Music, Charterhouse School.
Miss M. Fieldhouse, Colwich Junior School, Stafford.
Miss D. Fleming, Gipsy Hill Training College, London.
Miss M. E. Fleming, Youth Organiser, Derbyshire County Council.
Professor B. A. Fletcher, University of Bristol.
Miss C. Fletcher, Principal, Bingley Training College.
Mr. R. J. Forbes, Principal, Manchester Royal College of Music.
Mr. P. Foster, Rothwell Council School, Yorkshire, West Riding.
Miss M. Fountain, Principal, Chelsea College of Physical Education.
Lt.-Col. W. French, Superintendent, Department of Technology, City and Guilds of London Institute.
Mr. T. Frost, Director of Education, Barking, Essex.
Sir Ralph Furse, Colonial Office.

Mrs. D. Gardiner, British and Foreign School Society.
Miss J. Gardner, Cullompton School, Devon.
Miss Evelyn Gibbs, Head of Staff Training, Peter Jones Ltd., London.
Mr. S. E. Goodall, formerly of Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Company.
Mrs. M. F. Gowring, Chairman, Berkshire Federation of Women's Institutes.
Mr. E. M. Gray, Director, Cotton Control Board (Manchester) Committee on Recruitment and Training.
Mr. D. C. Green, Kingsdown Senior School, Bristol.
Mr. Ernest Green, General Secretary, Workers' Educational Association.
Mr. J. Greenshields, Whitchurch Secondary School, Glamorgan.
Mr. P. M. Greenwood, British and Foreign School Society.
Mr. A. R. Gregory, Secretary, Institute of Handicraft Teachers.
Mr. W. Griffiths, Ex-President of the National Union of Teachers.
Mr. Trevor Grugeon, Secretary, University of London Training Colleges Delegacy.
Sir Samuel Gurney-Dixon, Chairman, Education Committee, County Councils Association.

Miss G. S. Haigh, Principal, Leicester Domestic Science Training College.
Dr. W. R. Halliday, Principal, King's College, University of London.
Dr. F. J. Harlow. Principal, Chelsea Polytechnic.
Miss O. M. Hastings, Secretary, Incorporated Association of Assistant Mistresses.
Mr. A. E. Henshall , Secretary to the Education Committees, National Union of Teachers.
Miss H. M. Hewitt, Pershore County Senior School, Worcestershire.
Mrs. S. Hicks, Barry Training College, Glamorgan.
Mr. S. Hirst, Director of Education, Swindon.
Dr. R. W. Holland, Principal, Pitman's College, London.
Dr. C. Hooper, Music Adviser, Bradford Education Committee.
Miss O. M. Hornsby, Burgess Street Girls' School, Manchester.
Mrs. Eva Hubback, Secretary, Association for Education in Citizenship.
Mr. F. A. Hughes, Director of Education, Staffordshire.
Miss E. M. Hugh-Jones, Lincoln Training College.
Mr. F. R. Hurlstone-Jones, Chairman, Incorporated Association of Head Masters.
Mr. A. W. S. Hutchings, Secretary, Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters.
Mr. W. M. Hyman, Chairman, Yorkshire West Riding Education Committee.

Professor C. E. Inglis, University of Cambridge.
Mr. Beresford Ingram, Joint Examinations Board for the Teacher's Diploma in Pitman's Shorthand.
Dr. P. D. Innes, Chief Education Officer, Birmingham.

Mr. M. L. Jacks, Department of Education, University of Oxford.
Miss M. Jackson, Brighton Training College.
Mr. Mark James, Downham Market Secondary School, Norfolk.
Dr. J. Jardine, Assistant Secretary in charge of the Training of Teachers, Scottish Education Department.
Miss E. M. Jebb, Principal, Froebel Institute.
Professor M. V. C. Jeffreys, University of Durham.
Mr. D. T. Jenkins, Wick Road Senior School, Bristol.
Miss E. H. Jennings, Principal, Hereford Training College.
Mr. B. Mouat Jones, Vice-Chancellor, University of Leeds.
Mr. G. G. F. Jones, Tutbury Senior School, Burton-on-Trent.
Miss Gwenan Jones, Vice-Chairman, Welsh League of Youth.


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Mr. T. H. Jones, Vice-Chairman, London County Council.
Miss Tegwen Jones, Whitchurch Junior Girls' School, Glarnorgan.
Miss P. S. Jordan, Connaught Road Junior Girls' School, Bristol.

Mr. W. Byng Kenrick, Birmingham Education Committee.
Dr. J. Kenyon, Head of the Chemistry Department, Battersea Polytechnic.
Mr. R. R. Kimbell, Principal, Sheffield Training College.
Mr. G. W. Knowles, Secretary, British and Foreign School Society.

Dr. Evelyn Lawrence, formerly of Westminster National Training College of Domestic Subjects.
Mr. E. G. Laws, Headmaster, Hanley High School, Stoke-on-Trent.
Professor F. C. Lea, Ex-President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
The Reverend Canon Spencer Leeson, Head Master of Winchester College.
Mr. G. S. Leonard, Rookery Road Senior School, Birmingham.
Mr. W. O. Lester-Smith, Director of Education, Manchester.
Captain Clarence Linton, United States Army Special Services.
Mrs. F. G. Long, Pershore Infants' School, Worcestershire.
Miss A. Longbottom, Otley Modern School, Yorkshire.
Dame Anne Loughlin, General Organiser, National Union of Tailors and Garment Workers.
Dr. T. Loveday, Vice-Chancellor, University of Bristol.
Lord Justice Luxmoore, Chairman, Committee on Agricultural Education.

Miss G. MacLaren, Principal, Bergman Osterberg Physical Training College.
Dr. D. MacMahon, Music Adviser, Birmingham Education Committee.
Mrs. Leah Manning, Secretary, Organisation Committee, National Union of Teachers.
Mr. W. W. McClelland, Scottish Education Department, National Committee for the Training of Teachers.
Mr. F. McKay, Head of the Labour Department, Cotton Control Board (Manchester).
Mr. J. McLean, of Messrs. George Wills and Son, Exporters.
Miss B. Markwell, Rough Hay Junior School, Darlaston, Staffs.
Miss Audrey Martin, North London Collegiate School.
Mrs. M. C. Martin, Head Mistress, Midsomer Norton Council Girls' School, Somerset.
Sir Robert Martin, Leicestershire Education Committee.
Sister Mary, Liverpool, Mount Pleasant Training College.
Dr. J. I. O. Masson, Vice-Chancellor, University of Sheffield.
Miss H. Masters, Principal, Battersea Domestic Science Training College.
Mr. J. H. Matthews, Workers' Educational Association.
Miss D. Mitchell, Hereford Training College.
Sir Walter Moberly, Chairman, Board of Supervision for Church Training Colleges.
Major S. M. Mohr, the Micanite and Insulators Company, Ltd., Walthamstow.
Miss R. L. Monkhouse, formerly Director, National Froebel Foundation.
Mr. J. E. Montgomery, Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Mr. H. Moore, Director of Education, Norfolk.
Mr. S. H. Moorfield, Examinations Board, City and Guilds of London Institute.
Professor W. E. Morton, Textile Department, Manchester College of Technology.
Dr. A. D. Munrow, University of Birmingham.
Professor A. Victor Murray, University College of Hull.
Mr. John Murray, Principal, University College of the South-West, Exeter.

Mr. G. C. L. Neville, Ramsgate County School.
Principal J. H. Nicholson, Vice-President, Workers' Educational Association.
Sir Cyril Norwood, Chairman, Committee on Curriculum and Examinations in Secondary Schools.
Mr. S. Nugent, L.C.C., The Elliott Central School.

Sir Frederick Ogilvie, British Council.
Professor R. A. C. Oliver, University of Manchester.
Mr. L. Orange, Examinations Board, City and Guilds of London Institute.
Mr. Harold Orton, British Council.

Mrs. E. V. Parker, Workers' Educational Association.
Professor S. Parker-Smith, Head of the Electrical Engineering Department, Royal Technical College. Glasgow.
Professor D. Hughes Parry, University of London.
Miss M. V. Pedder, Principal, Hockerill Training College, Bishop's Stortford.
The Right Honourable Lord Eustace Percy, Vice-Chancellor, University of Durham.
Miss I. M. Perkins, Derby Training College.
Mr. L. A. Peyman, National Federation of Building Trades Employers.
Miss M. Phillips, Bromley, Stockwell Training College.
Dr. E. C. Pickering, Head of the Chemistry Department, Borough Polytechnic.
Mr. H. S. Pickering, Leeds City Training College.
Dr. S. Pluzanski, Polish Education Board.
Professor A. J. D. Porteous, University of Liverpool.


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Mr. F. F. Potter, Director of Education, Cheshire.
Miss J. Preston, Thurrock, Grays Park Senior School, Essex,
Mr. E. Priestley, Senior Organiser of Music, Yorkshire, West Riding.
Dr. Raymond Priestley, Vice-Chancellor, University of Birmingham.

Mr. J. W. Ramsbottom, Principal, City of London College.
Dr. Herbert Read, Chairman of the Advisory Panel, Society for Education in Art.
Miss F. M. Rees, Head Mistress, Cardiff High School for Girls.
Mr. R. F. Rees, Production Manager, Debenhams, Limited.
Mr. T. J. Rees, Secretary, Federation of Education Committees (Wales and Monmouthshire).
Mr. F. H. Reid, Principal, Sunderland Technical College.
Dr. R. W. Rich, Principal, Leeds City Training College.
Dr. W. A. Richardson, Principal, Derby Technical College.
Mr. R. L. Roberts, Institute of Builders.
Mr. Charles Robertson, Chairman, London County Council Education Committee.
Mr. George S. Robertson, Educational Institute of Scotland.
Sir Malcolm Robertson, Chairman, British Council.
Mr. T. H. Robinson, Woollen Manufacturer, Bradford.
Sir David Ross, Vice-Chancellor, University of Oxford.
Mr. J. S. Ross, Principal, Westminster Training College.
Mr. T. R. Rowell, Colonial Office.

Miss M. J. Sack, Domestic Subjects Organiser, Leicestershire.
Mr. E. A. Sallis-Benney, Principal, Brighton Art School.
Miss W. V. Sanders, Chislehurst County School for Girls, Kent.
Miss E. Sanger, All Saints Infants' School, Hertford.
Mr. E. G. Savage, Education Officer, London County Council.
Miss B. Scanlon, Bungay Area School, Suffolk.
Dr. G. Schlesinger, Director of Research, Institution of Production Engineers.
Dr. Herbert Schofield, Principal, Loughborough College.
Mr. E. G. Seath, Youth Organiser, Bristol City Council.
Miss D. Seton, Head of the Women's Department, L.C.C. South East London Technical Institute.
Miss V. M. Shann, Brandon Infants' School, Suffolk.
The Reverend Dr. G. F. Shannon, Principal, Strawberry Hill, St. Mary's Training College, Twickenham.
Miss K. Sharp, Stourbridge County High School, Worcestershire.
Mr. H. C. Shearman, Education Officer, Workers' Educational Association.
Sir Franklin Sibly, Vice-Chancellor, University of Reading.
Miss M. Simms, Examinations Board, City and Guilds of London Institute.
Sir Ernest Simon, Chairman, Association for Education in Citizenship.
Mr. J. H. Simpson, Principal, Chelsea, St. Mark's and St. John's Training College.
Miss A. H. Skillicorn, Principal, Homerton College, Cambridge.
Professor Frank Smith, University of Leeds.
Mr. G. F. Smith, Department of Technology, City and Guilds of London Institute.
Miss M. Sparks, Youth Organiser, Hertfordshire County Council.
Professor J. B. Speakman, Department of Textile Industries, University of Leeds.
Mr. R. A. Spencer, Secretary, Royal Society of Teachers.
Mr. C. P. Spicer, Durrants Senior School, Rickmansworth, Herts.
Professor Brian Stanley, University of Durham.
Mr. F. Stephenson, Director of Education, Nottingham.
Miss Kit Stewart, Archers Club, Southampton.
Mr. W. R. Stoker, Industrial Research and Development Engineer.

Dr. Elfed Thomas, Director of Education, Swansea.
Miss B. W. Thompson, Carshalton Junior Mixed School, Surrey.
Dr. R. H. Thouless, University of Cambridge.
Mr. R. F. Thurman, Boy Scouts Association.
Mr. T. B. Tilley, Director of Education, County of Durham.
Dr. Greta Tomlins, Homerton College, Cambridge.
Mr. J. Topping, President, Institute of Handicraft Teachers.
Mr. D. L. P. Tovey, Colonial Office.
Miss M. Townson, Millom County Secondary School, Cumberland.
Mr. John Trevelyan, Director of Education, Westmorland.
Mr. J. Trueman, St. Paul's Training College, Cheltenham.
Professor G. H. Turnbull, University of Sheffield.

Professor C. W. Valentine, University of Birmingham.
Dr. W. M. Varley, Principal, Brighton Technical College.
Dr. J. A. Venn, Vice-Chancellor, University of Cambridge.
Mr. Kenneth Vickers, Principal, University College of Southampton.


[page 176]

Miss A. Wagg, Head Mistress, Carmountside Junior and Infants' School, Stoke-on-Trent.
Dr. E. C. Walker, Director of Education, Bedford.
Mr. J. P. Walker, Organiser of Physical Training, Middlesex.
Mr. T. W. Walker, Joe Walton Boys' Club, Middlesbrough.
Miss M. Walters, Head Mistress, Pinner Wood Junior Mixed and Infants' School, Middlesex.
Dr. A. O. Warburton, Manchester High School for Girls.
Dr. J. G. Wardale, Isleworth, Borough Road Training College.
Professor Stanley Watkins, University College of the South West, Exeter.
Miss W. Weddell, Principal, Manchester Training College of Domestic Economy.
Miss V. Welton, Secretary, Standing Conference of National Juvenile Organisations.
Mr. H. Clarence Whaite, Secretary, Society for Education in Art.
Professor Olive Wheeler, University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff.
Mr. L. W. White, Head Master, Beckenham County School for Boys, Kent.
Mr. W. M. Whitehead, Secretary, National Society of Art Masters.
Mrs. D. E. Whittingham, Cromer Infants' School, Norfolk.
Miss C. S. Whyte, Southlands Training College.
Mr. J. C. Vaughan Wilkes, Warden of Radley College.
Mr. W. Wilkinson, Principal, Blackburn Technical College.
Mr. T. Ceiriog Williams, Central School, Mold, Flintshire.
Mr. W. J. Williams, Director of Education, Cardiff.
Professor W. Moses Williams, University College of North Wales, Bangor.
Mr. Z. Willis, General Secretary, National Council of Young Men's Christian Associations.
Miss E. M. A. Wilson, Domestic Subjects Organiser, Leicester.
Mr. Herbert Wiseman, President-Elect, Incorporated Society of Musicians.
Dr. Helen Wodehouse, formerly Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge.
Miss C. L. Wood, Nantymoel Senior School, Glamorgan.
Mr. E. R. B. Wood, Director of Education, Wallasey.
Mr. L. Woollard, Assistant Director of Naval Construction, Admiralty.
Mr. H. A. S. Wortley, Principal, University College of Nottingham.
Mr. W. H. Wright, Maltby Grammar School, Yorkshire.

Dr. V. E. Yarsley, Chairman of the Education Committee, Institute of the Plastics Industry.