Summerfield (1968)

Notes on the text

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

(page numbers in brackets)

Preliminary pages
Contents, main points, recommendations and conclusions (i-xv)

Introduction (1-2)

Chapter 1 (3-10)
Influences of psychology on education today
Chapter 2 (11-24)
The basis for future developments: a survey
Chapter 3 (25-32)
Needs for psychological work in local authorities
Chapter 4 (33-40)
Academic and professional qualifications
Chapter 5 (41-56)
Future supply
Chapter 6 (57-74)
Development and organisation of work
Chapter 7 (75-92)
Training
Chapter 8 (93-95)
Observations on longer term developments

Appendix A (96-98)
List of witnesses
Appendix B (99-100)
Bibliography
Appendix 1 (101-105)
Historical background
Appendix 2 (106-115)
A The survey
B Tables
C Circular 347
Appendix 4 (119-131)
A Postgraduate training
B University departments
Appendix 5 (132-156)
A Child guidance staff
B Psychologists needed
C Training places needed
Appendix 6 (157-158)
A Educational subnormality
B Special needs in Wales
Appendix 7 (159-162)
A Demonstration service
B Psychologists in the USA
C Accelerated training

Index (163-171)

(The appendices are numbered according to the chapters to which they relate: there were no appendices for chapters 3 or 8).


The Summerfield Report (1968)
Psychologists in Education Services

London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1968
© Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[title page]

Department of Education and Science


Psychologists
in Education
Services

The Report of a working party appointed by the Secretary of State for Education and Science: the Summerfield Report






London Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1968


[page ii]

Educational psychologists have first to learn from children


SBN 11 270002 0


[page iii]

To the Right Honourable Patrick Gordon Walker, MP, Secretary of State for Education and Science

Sir,

We were appointed by your predecessor, Mr Anthony Crosland, in February 1965

'to consider the field of work of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities and the qualifications and training necessary; to estimate the number of psychologists required; and to make recommendations.'
Of those originally appointed, Dr W. Evan Thomas resigned because of pressure of work, and Dr C. J. Revington was appointed in his place.

This is the first Report commissioned by the Government on psychologists, of whom, so far, more are employed in education services than in any other field in the United Kingdom.

Our Report, which we now submit to you, is unanimous.

Arthur Summerfield
Jack H. Kahn
Percy Lord
Margaret Procter
Grace Rawlings
C. W. W. Read
C. J. Revington
Olive C. Sampson
R. V. Saunders
Elfed Thomas
Phillip Williams
Graham J. Aylett
(Secretary)
W. S. Rennie
(Assistant Secretary)
20 February 1968



[page v]

Contents

Paragraph numbers are given immediately after each heading

Page
Main points of the report
Psychologists' work 2xi
Organisation 4xi
Numbers required 6xii
Training 7xii
Co-ordination and finance of postgraduate training 15xiii
Recommendations and conclusionsxv

Introduction
Appointment and terms of reference1
Membership1
Evidence1
Investigations2
Meetings2
Acknowledgements2

Chapter 1 Influences of psychology on education today
Introduction 1.13
Opportunities for early learning and their significance for later development 1.33
Influences on the acquisition of language 1.146
Programmed instruction 1.207
New approaches to assessing intellectual development 1.227
Conclusion 1.299
Recommendation 1.309
References9

Chapter 2 The basis for future developments in England and Wales: a survey
Introduction 2.111
An educational psychologist today 2.211
Our survey 2.1113
A national review of local education authority psychological services 2.1213
The distribution of educational psychologists 2.1413
Salary scales 2.1814
Proportions of men and women 2.2016
Age structure 2.2116
Training and qualifications 2.2216
Educational psychologists' work 2.2416
Collaboration with others concerned with children 2.3118
Child guidance teams 2.3218
Collaboration outside child guidance teams 2.3620
Conclusions about educational psychologists' work 2.3820
What is expected of educational psychologists 2.3923
Educational psychologists and local authority administration
The Underwood Report 2.4023
The statutory power to employ educational psychologists 2.4223
The responsibilities of chief officers 2.4324
Summary 2.4524
Main conclusion and recommendation 2.4624

Chapter 3 Needs for psychological work in local authorities
Introduction 3.125
Present pressures indicating future lines of development for psychological work in local authorities 3.225
Careers guidance 3.626
School counselling 3.927
Children's departments 3.1327
Local health authorities
(a) Pre-school children 3.1527
(b) Training centres 3.1729
Juvenile courts 3.1829
Probation service 3.1929
Further education 3.2030
Youth service 3.2130
Other calls on educational psychologists 3.2230
Conclusions and recommendations 3.2330

Chapter 4 Academic and professional qualifications
Introduction 4.133
Preferred Qualifications 4.233
Qualifications in psychology and in educational psychology 4.934


[page vi]

Teaching experience and teacher training 4.1435
Influences of sources of support for postgraduate training 4.2336

Sources of postgraduate students:
the changing patterns of entry into educational psychology 4.27

37
Teaching experience for educational psychologists 4.3038
(a) Relationships with children 4.3238
(b) Relationships with teachers 4.3639
(c) Understanding the education system 4.3839
Teaching experience and teacher training, and alternative qualifications for educational psychologists 4.3939
Routes into educational psychology 4.4140
Conclusions and recommendations 4.4340

Chapter 5 Future supply
Introduction 5.141
The present position 5.241
The supply of child guidance staff assessed by Underwood standards
The position in 1965 5.1045
The future need: the implications of more school children 5.1746
The prospect of meeting the need for psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers 5.1847
(a) Psychiatrists 5.1947
(b) Psychiatric social workers 5.2047
The future need for educational psychologists assessed by standards other than the Underwood Report 5.2247
The supply of educational psychologists48
Estimates of need 5.2448
The future supply of honours graduates in psychology 5.3049
The competitive demand for psychologists 5.3650
Satisfactions and dissatisfactions of educational psychologists 5.3950
Graduates and the attractiveness of educational psychology 5.5052
Wasted places on postgraduate courses 5.5353
How is education to secure its share of psychology graduates? 5.5453
Future need for psychologists in the education services: implications for the provision of training places 5.5653
Conclusions and recommendations 5.6655

Chapter 6 Development and organisation of work Introduction 6.1
57
The special contribution of educational psychologists 6.257
Professional work:
A. The procedures 6.558
B. Examples:
(1) Appraisal and evaluation 6.7
59
(a) Problems of individual children 6.759
(b) Problems of groups of children 6.1359
(c) Research 6.1459
(2) Investigation 6.1560
(3) Action 6.1760
(a) Decision 6.1860
(b) Treatment 6.2162
(c) Follow-up 6.2462
(4) Communication 6.2763
Interdisciplinary work in child guidance clinics: effects of shortages in other professions 6.3163
Other interdisciplinary work 6.3964
Appropriate and inappropriate working arrangements 6.4065
(a) Administrative setting 6.4165
(b) Assessment of children's needs 6.4265
(c) Systems of referral 6.4465
(d) Administrative responsibilities 6.4766
(e) Remedial teaching 6.4867
(f) Educational inspection, organisation and advice 6.5167
(g) Office staff, equipment and other facilities 6.5367
Related work in psychology and education 6.5869
(a) Specialised clinical work in educational psychology 6.5969
(b) Educational research and development 6.6470


[page vii]

(c) Teacher training 6.6670
(d) Training other staff 6.6871
(e) University teaching 6.6971
Career patterns in educational psychology 6.7171
The impact on training 6.7672
Conclusions and recommendations 6.8173

Chapter 7 Training
Introduction
The essential elements of training 7.175
Needs for basic postgraduate training places 7.375
Present training courses
The development of the existing courses 7.576
The organisation of existing courses 7.976
Special arrangements for new graduates in psychology 7.1277
Special arrangements for graduates in subjects other than psychology 7.1378
The size of existing training departments 7.1478
Measures which might increase the output of the existing postgraduate training departments 7.1578
The desirability of a varied range of courses 7.1979
Need for more training courses 7.2079
The essential facilities for training 7.2180
New arrangements for basic training in educational psychology 7.2383
(1) A university two-year postgraduate course of basic training 7.2684
A new postgraduate training department with a demonstration service 7.3184
The title for a postgraduate qualification in educational psychology 7.3385
(2) Arrangements to meet short-term needs for basic training 7.3485
An accelerated training programme: the contribution of local education authorities 7.3786
Advanced courses and courses of specialised training 7.3886
Co-ordination of training and its financial implications 7.4186
(1) Setting up, equipping and running training departments 7.4988
(2) Financial support for students in training 7.5489
Clearing house procedures 7.5790
Support for advanced professional training 7.5890
Support for academic preparation before postgraduate training 7.5990
Summary 7.6090
Conclusions and recommendations 7.6190
Chapter 8 Psychologists in education services: observations on longer term developments 8.1-8.493

Index
163


[page viii]

Figures

2.1 Educational psychologists (filled posts and vacant posts) in relation to school population by regions on 1 May 1965 and ratios of the educational psychologists estimated to be needed14
2.2 Men and women educational psychologists in Soulbury grades, 1 May 196515
2.3 Date of postgraduate training in educational psychology: men and women employed on 1 May 196515
2.4 Educational psychologists not trained as teachers and decade of age on 1 May 196515
2.5 Proportions of educational psychologists with degrees in psychology or equivalent, 1 May196517
2.6 Proportions of educational psychologists with training in educational psychology, 1 May 196517
2.7 Length of time which educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 spent teaching during their careers17
2.8 Ratio of pupils treated at child guidance clinics during 1966 to school population by regions19
2.9 Estimates made by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 of frequency of contact with other services21
5.1 Honours graduates of universities in the United Kingdom, 1960-1967, and those intending to qualify as educational psychologists 1960-196442
5C1 Numbers of educational psychologists: projections of different values of effective annual input151

Tables

2.1 Numbers of educational psychologists working together (at 31 December 1966)14
4.1 Numbers of educational psychologists in service on 1 May 1965, with and without teacher training, in relation to the date of their honours degree or equivalent qualification in psychology37
5.1 Honours graduates in psychology in the United Kingdom 1960-1967 (including joint honours psychology)41
5.2 Number of students graduating from departments of psychology in the United Kingdom 1960- 1964, whose intention to qualify as educational psychologists was known43
5.3 Educational psychologists and other child guidance staff employed in local authority services in England and Wales by local education authorities and under arrangements with hospital authorities43
5.4 Projections of numbers of educational psychologists needed in relation to numbers of pupils in school 1955-1990 (England and Wales) on the basis of 2 : 45,000 schoolchildren (Underwood Report) and 1 : 10,000. Projections of numbers of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers needed for child guidance clinics on the basis of the Underwood recommendations are also included. The numbers of staff in post at the beginning of 1955, 1960 and 1 965 are shown for comparison46
5.5 Estimates of admissions to and graduates from departments of psychology at universities in England and Wales49
5.6 Members of the Association of Educational Psychologists who left employment as educational psychologists in local authority services in England and Wales51
7.1. Places on postgraduate training courses for educational psychologists 1966-1967: digest of information supplied by postgraduate training departments78

Tables giving further information about educational psychologists, including the principal results of the working party's survey, are in Appendix 2B. Tables of information from postgraduate training departments and from university departments of psychology are in Appendices 4A and 4B. Tables related to manpower are in Appendix 5C.


[page ix]

Photographs

Frontispiece Educational psychologists have first to learn from children
PlatePage
A Visual interest shown by a very young baby. Babies, from one week old, can be shown to 'prefer' some geometrical patterns to others by the length of time they look directly at them5
B Foremost are contacts with children5
C A teacher and an educational psychologist in in discussion. A primary emphasis of psychological work is on prevention through early detection and action: educational psychologists have exceptional opportunities to make constructive contributions as a consequence of their work in schools12
D For every child a psychologist interviews in clinics, he interviews two in schools22
E In the case of children at school, psychologists almost always meet their teachers22
F Psychologists with training and experience with very young children should be available to work with medical services concerned with pre-school children28
G An educational psychologist with a group of teenagers: advice should be available for young people on their personal relationships and on their problems28
H Investigation61
I Some educational psychologists develop special interests in particular problems or particular categories of children; a child whose sight is impaired61
J A psychologist at work with the aid of a computer: it is desirable for all psychologists to have the skills necessary for participation in research projects, although not all of them can expect to have sole responsibility for such projects68
K Travelling is a necessary feature of educational psychologists' work68
L Students study child development in contact with children81
M Students study child development at all ages and stages81
N Students study remedial techniques: a student, using a 'machine' he himself has made, helps a child with reading82
O Students discuss a child's responses to a test82

We wish to thank the following copyright holders for permission to reproduce photographs:

Mr David Linton
Mr A. I. Oldham
Mr F. J. Rees
Mr R. W. Shaw
West Sussex local education authority

We are grateful to the children, the young people, the psychologists, the students and the teachers who appear in our photographs, and to the local authorities by courtesy of whom the photographs were taken. Our thanks are also due to Dr R. L. Fantz and W. H. Freeman and Company for help in obtaining Plate A.


[page x]

Appendices

A List of witnesses96
B Bibliography99
1A Psychologists in education services: the historical background101
2A Inquiry to chief education officers and questionnaire used in the survey of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities on 1 May 1965106
2B Tables of information about educational psychologists (including the principal results of the working party's survey)108
2C Ministry of Education Circular 347 (with the associated Ministry of Health Hospital Memorandum (59) 23 and Circular 3/59)116
4A Report on memoranda from postgraduate training departments for educational psychologists119
4B Report on memoranda from university departments of psychology123
5A Local authority child guidance staff. Diagrams showing the full-time equivalent in post on 31 December 1966, by authorities, in relation to the establishment recommended by the Underwood Report. Educational psychologists are also shown in relation to the establishment recommended by this working party132
5B The number of educational psychologists estimated in 1965 to be needed by thirty of the thirty-two areas approached by the Underwood Committee and equivalent estimate by all authorities in England and Wales143
5C Manpower: calculations of the number of postgraduate training places for educational psychologists estimated to be needed to achieve a target of 1 : 10,000 schoolchildren144
6A The number of educational psychologists required if all children thought to need special educational treatment because of educational subnormality were to be psychologically examined157
6B Special needs in Wales158
7A A postgraduate training department for educational psychologists which incorporates a demonstration service159
The situation of the training department and demonstration service 7A.3159
Facilities for practical work 7A.4159
Staffing patterns 7A.5159
Premises 7.A8160
7B School psychologists in the U.S.A.161
7C Outline of professional training for educational psychologists provided by a local authority as part of an accelerated training programme162

Index
163


[page xi]

Main points of the report

1 Varied forces have shaped the empirical emphasis of psychology today. It is over a century since man's curiosity about his own behaviour became experimental, initially in the service of philosophical speculations. As in other fields, the challenge of practical problems has provoked investigations. I n particular, the needs of education, originally for methods of testing and assessing differences between individual children, and adults, have since then stimulated new lines of enquiry. They have stimulated the systematic observation and description of changes that occur in the course of growth and development and experimental studies of learning in men and animals. Systematic investigations are now made of ways in which new opportunities for learning at any point in time interact with, and depend upon, both natural processes of change in a maturing individual and what he himself has learned before, including his particular experience of the wider cultural and emotional influences of family, home and society. Concurrently, nostrums for the aid of teachers, derived from acute if uncoordinated psychological observation, have been giving way to more fundamental approaches to a science of instruction. And, under the pressure of the chronic manpower shortage resulting from the need for earlier generations to find the teachers, for, so far, the ever larger numbers of their successors, theoretical psychology is being combined with modern engineering technology to produce new aids to learning and instruction. The early emphasis was on differences in what different children could do and on what. as a consequence, they could be expected to do in different schools. The emphasis now is on harmonising educational environments so far as possible to the varying needs of individual children, in order to promote development and to enable each to benefit and progress as much as he possibly can.

Psychologists' work

2 The needs of children whose development is impeded by difficulties of adjustment or constitutional handicaps, or both, have been a more particular concern of psychologists in the field of education. Family and school are the main social environments in which a schoolchild lives. When a child has special psychological needs and problems, these involve an interaction in him of influences of both family and school, even though his difficulties may show themselves in only one setting or the other. A first priority for psychologists in education services is to contribute to the resolution of these problems (6.81)*. By so doing they have learned and will continue to learn more about children's development, their learning processes and the origins of maladaptive behaviour. This knowledge is of benefit to the child population as a whole. It enables a primary emphasis of psychologists' work to be on prevention through early detection and remedial action; the sooner help can be given to children who need it, the better for their continuing development. Psychologists have exceptional opportunities to make constructive contributions of these kinds as a consequence of their work in schools and other place where children are (6.R2). While the psychological needs of children, at school and in their families, should continue to be the focus of psychologists' work in education services, those of children before they go to school, and of young people for a year or two after they have left, should now receive increased attention in the interests of the mental health of the adult population of the future (3R.1).

3 The particular contribution of psychologists in education services derives from their specialised study of psychological science and its application to education and to other aspects of human development. It should be the main criterion in determining their work. There are 400 of them now when the school population is 8 million; if there were to be 1,200 by 1990 when the school population is expected to be 12 million they would still be neither plentiful nor readily available to teachers and schools (6.R1). Clearly their knowledge and their skills will have to be conserved. Psychologists themselves should not undertake, or be expected to undertake, work for which their qualifications are unnecessary. Inappropriate responsibilities and unsatisfactory working conditions are wasteful. Much also will depend upon continued diffusion of psychological knowledge, and more rapid dissemination of new advances as they are made, among those concerned with education (6.R3). Opportunities should be extended for some educational psychologists to undertake work in educational research and development, and to contribute to the understanding of human behaviour by other professions (S.R9).

Organisation

4 Educational psychologists should be centred administratively on the education departments of local authorities (6.R5). Their services should also be available, however, for children and young people about whom departments and organisations outside ·the education service are concerned. The organisation of psychological work within the field of education on a much larger scale than at present would nevertheless be conducive to a high standard of service, to efficiency, and to economy of manpower (6.R7). Psychologists have made major advances in diagnostic, special educational and remedial techniques for children who develop abnormally: specialised clinical work by some

*The marginal references in brackets relate to recommendations and conclusions, a complete list of which directly follows this section of the Report. Recommendations are numbered to include, before the point, the number of the chapter from which they stem. Recommendations also appear, with the same numbers, at the end of the corresponding chapter.


[page xii]

educational psychologists should be promoted (6.R8); and opportunities should be extended for some educational psychologists to undertake research work so that they may interpret their findings from clinical work with children who develop abnormally to the advantage of children generally (8.R9). Career prospects and professional satisfaction for psychologists entering education services would be greatly enhanced by developments of these kinds (8.R10).

5 The organisation of psychological services by local education authorities will have to take account of the fact that unless urgent and energetic action is taken now, psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers will not be available in sufficient numbers to enable child guidance clinic teams to be provided in accordance with the recommendations of the Underwood Committee in 1955. This shortage means that psychological work in education services is changing as a consequence, and that the functions of educational psychologists have to be reconsidered (5.R8). The implications should be examined not only by psychologists, but also by their professional colleagues, by their employers and by others concerned with recruitment to these professions (8.R4). All the bodies responsible for providing child guidance services, whether local education authorities, regional hospital boards, or voluntary bodies, should examine their policies: development should be planned and co-ordinated to make the best and most effective use of actual and potential resources of manpower for these services (6.R7).

Numbers required

6 Local authorities should plan child guidance and school psychological services on the assumption that one educational psychologist will be required for 10,000 schoolchildren (5.R1), and that staffing at this level should be achieved as soon as possible, certainly by 1990 (5.R2). Flexible methods of entry will need to be retained and methods of training to be diversified. New methods will have to recognise that graduates who have started their careers with an honours degree in psychology have already become the main source of educational psychologists; the number of such graduates each year will have increased from 200 in 1960 to 1,000 in 1973 (4.R2). Hence future demands for educational psychologists can be met from the substantial future increases in numbers of psychology graduates, if vigorous recruitment is introduced and maintained. The attractiveness of educational psychology as a career should be enhanced by facilitating postgraduate training and by further improving financial support for it; by correcting any misapprehensions about psychological work in education services; and by improving the career structure for educational psychologists in local authority services (S.R9). Plans for the future supply of educational psychologists need also to take account of those who, having worked in school psychological services and child guidance clinics, move to other kinds of psychological work in the field of education: to lectureships in colleges of education for instance. It is necessary to secure psychologists for such work in education generally, as well as for local authority child guidance and school psychological services (6.R8).

Training

7 An honours degree in psychology (or equivalent) and postgraduate training in educational psychology are indispensable qualifications for all psychologists in education services (4.R1). Postgraduate training can itself be shorter, more concentrated, more directed and no less effective. New postgraduate training departments are needed, as well as expansions of existing departments (7.R1). There should be three routes of entry: (a) the traditional route by which those who have first trained as teachers and who subsequently are attracted to becoming psychologists can become qualified in psychology and in educational psychology; (b) a route enabling graduates in psychology to become qualified in education and to teach before training specifically to become educational psychologists; (c) a route which would require the development of new courses in order to enable graduates in psychology to proceed immediately to postgraduate training and to qualify as educational psychologists in two years (4.R3).

8 Interdisciplinary collaboration with psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers is a necessary background to the work which educational psychologists undertake in child guidance clinics and school psychological services (2.R1): it is highly desirable and should be fostered wherever possible. Hence postgraduate training should itself be interdisciplinary, in view especially of shortages of psychiatrists and others, so that all concerned may fully understand both the competences of other disciplines and the limitations of their own (7.R4).

9 New postgraduate training arrangements should be planned to provide an input into the education service of 90 trained psychologists a year from 1975 - three times the present number (6.R3). There should be an immediate increase of 10 a year, i.e. from thirty to forty, which should be sustained by the present postgraduate training departments (6.R4). In addition, accelerated training programmes should be promoted now in order to provide an additional input of 20 psychologists a year from 1970 to 1974 (5.R5).

10 It would be appropriate for new departments to be established in regions where there are at present the greatest shortages of psychologists in the education services, and it would be advantageous for them to be relatively large (7.R3). Economies would result from an increase in scale; academic and professional staffs would be concentrated rather than dispersed - especially relevant now


[page xiii]

when they are in short supply and when there is competition for them. These departments could also provide a service for education authorities in their vicinities (7.R2).

11 Two new university training departments should be established by collaboration between their departments of psychology, of education and of psychiatry, and local education authorities in their vicinities, in order to provide both training in educational psychology and to contribute to the local authority school psychological and child guidance services (7.R5). These new departments should organise a two-year postgraduate course for an annual intake of twenty-five students whose qualifications should include an honours degree in psychology or its equivalent; in addition to courses in psychology and in education, there should be a variety of supervised practical work with children and their teachers in schools, and other work with children in nurseries, welfare clinics and elsewhere, as well as practical work in educational psychology (7.R6).

12 Existing postgraduate training departments: (a) should expand as quickly as possible to take as many extra students as they can without reducing the standard of training; (b) should organise and supervise the pre-training experience of graduates in psychology and, in collaboration with local education authorities, improve the relevance, variety, and effectiveness of students' practical work in education (7.R7).

13 An additional, accelerated programme of training should be put in hand immediately to meet the most urgent short-term needs. This accelerated programme should comprise (a) the expansion of existing training departments and (b) in-service arrangements set up by those local education authorities which, with help from universities and hospital psychiatric services, have adequate facilities (7.R8).

14 The advancement of psychological knowledge in the field of education should be furthered by arrangements which would enable some practising educational psychologists to devote periods of time to specialised clinical and research work, which might lead, for example, to Ph.D. degrees and other higher qualifications (7.R9). Furthermore, specialised professional work by educational psychologists would be facilitated by short courses on specific subjects (7.R10).

Co-ordination and finance of postgraduate training

15 Postgraduate training for educational psychology needs to be planned and co-ordinated on a national basis; finance both for postgraduate departments and individual students is needed and should be provided (7.R11). Central responsibility for co-ordinating the planning of training facilities should be a responsibility of the Department of Education and Science; local authority associations should be consulted; responsibility for maintaining academic and professional standards of training should continue to rest with the British Psychological Society (7.R12).

16 Within the overall plan advantage should be taken of the powers given in the Local Government Act, 1966, to pool costs of training educational psychologists among all local authorities; these new pooling arrangements might take into account all the costs connected with training to be met by local authorities - whether related to courses in universities or in other institutions, or as a result of new accelerated programmes of training which local authorities might themselves set up, or in paying special allowances to their educational psychologists to supervise trainees, or in lending staff to postgraduate training departments; Local Government Act, 1966, Schedule 1, paragraphs 13(2) and and 13(4)(e) (7.R13). Central government funds should contribute to the resources for setting up, running and extending postgraduate training departments and for student support (7.R14). Earmarked allocations from Government funds should be made in order to meet costs of extending basic postgraduate training and of establishing programmes of advanced training, insofar as they fall to be met by the Exchequer. Special arrangements are required to meet the needs of postgraduate training departments which are not parts of universities and the needs of accelerated programmes of training set up by local authorities (7.R15).

17 Support should be assured for students of all kinds who are eligible for postgraduate training. There should be three methods of financial support during training:
Method 1: postgraduate grants or studentships awarded on a national basis, perhaps directly by the Department of Education and Science;
Method 2: local authority appointments for trainee educational psychologists to be seconded straightway for professional training;
Method 3: secondment for teachers and other local government employees from their existing posts to courses of postgraduate training (7.R16).
These points will need to be considered by the University Grants Committee and by the Social Science Research Council, as well as by the Department of Education and Science and local education authorities (7.R17).


[page xv]

Recommendations and conclusions

Recommendations are numbered to include, before the point, the number of the chapter from which they stem; references to paragraphs in the Report are given in brackets. Recommendations also appear, with the same numbers, at the end of the corresponding chapter.

Chapter 1 Influences of psychology on education today

1.R1 Family and school are the two main social environments in which a schoolchild lives; it should be recognised even more widely than it is at present that when a child has special psychological needs and problems, these involve an interaction in him of influences of both family and school, even though his difficulties may show themselves in only one setting or the other. The first concern of psychologists in education services is to contribute to the resolution of these problems.

Chapter 2 The basis for future developments in England and Wales: a survey

2.R1 Interdisciplinary collaboration with psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers is a necessary background to the work which educational psychologists undertake in child guidance clinics and school psychological services: it is highly desirable and should be fostered wherever possible. (Paragraph 2.33; also paragraphs 6.78 and 7.21)

Chapter 3 Needs for psychological work in local authorities

Main conclusions and recommendations

3.R1 The psychological needs of children, at school and in their families, should continue to be the focus of psychologists' work in education services. Increasing attention to the psychological needs of children before they go to school, and of young people for a year or two after they have left, would be appropriate. (Paragraph 3.2)

3.R2 Psychologists' services should also be available for children and young people about whom departments and organisations outside the education service are concerned. (Paragraph 3.4)

3.R3 Psychological work with children should continue to be directed to bettering their development: schools, and the other services for which education authorities are responsible, make the principal public contribution to this process: it would be inappropriate for other departments of local authorities to appoint psychologists for work with children. (Paragraph 3.1)

3.R4 Psychologists should not be employed on duties in which their training and skills are underused ; there can be no case for inappropriate· use of highly trained manpower. (See also Recommendation 6.R3.) (Paragraph 3.22)

Contributory recommendations

3.R5 It is appropriate for psychologists to participate in

careers guidance for handicapped school-leavers and for their advice to be available for other young people; the work of teams concerned with entry into employment is likely to be increasingly influential. (Paragraph 3.6)

3.R6 School counsellors and staffs of child guidance and school psychological services should co-operate closely. (Paragraph 3.12)

3.R7 The staffs of children's departments and of child guidance and school psychological services should co-operate closely. (Paragraph 3.14)

3.R8 Psychologists with training and experience with very young children should be available to work with medical services concerned with pre-school children. (Paragraphs 3.15 and 3.16)

3.R9 Educational psychologists should be available for consultation by the staffs of training centres for mentally handicapped children and young people. (Paragraph 3.17)

3.R10 The growing appreciation of contributions made by child guidance clinics and school psychological services to court decisions is to be welcomed: magistrates, and others concerned with children and young people who come before the courts, are to be encouraged to make increasingly discriminating use of guidance of this kind: the Magistrates Association, the British Psychological Society and other associations concerned should consider ways in which this process might be furthered. (Paragraph 3.18)

3.R11 Psychological work for children and young people who appear before the courts is a responsibility which educational psychologists cannot and should not seek to avoid. (Paragraph 3.18)

3.R12 Educational psychologists should be available to co-operate with probation officers engaged in casework with children and young people who have been before the courts. (Paragraph 3.19)

3.R13 Psychological advice should be available for young people on their personal relationships and on their problems; educational psychologists should contribute either directly by counselling young people or by giving help through those who work with them. (Paragraphs 3.20 and 3.21)

Chapter 4 Academic and professional qualifications

4.R1 An honours degree in psychology (or equivalent) and postgraduate training in educational psychology are indispensable qualifications for all psychologists in education services. (Paragraphs 4.9 and 4.12)


[page xvi]

4R.2 Flexible methods of entry should be retained and methods of training should be extended. New methods should recognise that graduates who have started their careers with an honours degree in psychology have already become the main source of educational psychologists. The number of such graduates each year will have increased from 200 in 1960 to 1,000 in 1973. (Paragraph 4.41)

4.R3 There should be three routes:
(a) first, the traditional route by which those who have first trained as teachers and who subsequently are attracted to becoming psychologists can become qualified in psychology and in educational psychology in particular; (Paragraphs 4.39 to 4.41)
(b) secondly, a route enabling graduates in psychology to train and gain experience in teaching before training specifically to become educational psychologists; (Paragraphs 4.39 to 4.41 and 7.18)
(c) thirdly, a route which would require the development of new courses in order to enable graduates in psychology to proceed immediately to postgraduate training and to become trained educational psychologists in two years. (Paragraphs 4.39 to 4.41 and 7.26 to 7.32)

Chapter 5 Future supply

Main conclusions and recommendations

5.R1 Local authorities should plan child guidance and school psychological services on the assumption that one educational psychologist will be required for 10,000 schoolchildren. (Paragraph 5.29)

5.R2 Staffing at the level of one psychologist to 10,000 schoolchildren should be achieved as soon as possible, and certainly by 1990. (Paragraph 5.29)

5.R3 New postgraduate training arrangements should be planned to provide an input into the education service of 90 trained psychologists a year from 1975, three times the present number. (See also Appendix 5C, paragraphs 5C.49 and 5C.50.)

(Paragraphs 5.56, 5.61 and 5.62) 5.R4 There should be an immediate increase of lOa year, from thirty to forty, which should be sustained. (Paragraph 5.59) 5.R5 Accelerated training programmes should be promoted now in order to provide an additional input of 20 psychologists a year from 1970 to 1974. (Paragraphs 5.62,5.63 and 5.64)

5.R6 The organisation of psychological services by local education authorities will have to take account of the fact that, unless urgent and energetic action is taken now, psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers will not be available in sufficient numbers to enable child guidance clinic teams to be provided in accordance with the recommendations of the Underwood Committee in 1955. This shortage means that the functions of educational psychologists have to be reconsidered. (Paragraphs 5.8 and 5.9, 5.18 to 5.21 and 6.31 to 6.37)

5.R7 Bodies responsible for providing child guidance services, whether local education authorities, regional hospital boards, or voluntary bodies, should examine their policies: development should be planned and co-ordinated to make the best and most effective use of actual and potential resources of manpower for these services. (Paragraph 5.9)

5.R8 Plans for the future supply of educational psychologists need to take account of those who, having worked in school psychological services and child guidance clinics, move to other kinds of psychological work in the field of education, to lectureships in colleges of education for instance; it is necessary to secure psychologists for such work in education generally, as well as for local authority child guidance and school psychological services. (Paragraph 5.49)

5.R9 Future demands for educational psychologists can be met from the substantial future increases in numbers of psychology graduates; the attractiveness of educational psychology as a career should be enhanced by facilitating postgraduate training and by further improving financial support for it; by correcting misapprehensions, where they exist, about psychological work in education services; and by improving the career structure for educational psychologists in local authority services. (Paragraphs 5.34 and 5.50 to 5.54)

Contributory recommendations

5.R10 When planning services, account should be taken of children of all ages, wherever they may be. (Paragraph 5.27)

5.R11 Our recommendations about future developments depend on attracting sufficient well qualified staff; local education authorities and all those responsible for education at a national level should examine their policies to ensure that education services remain an attractive prospect to grad ute psychologists; methods of recruitment should also be reviewed. (Paragraphs 5.36 and 5.37)


[page xvii]

Chapter 6 Development and organisation of work

Main conclusions and recommendations

6.R1 The special contribution of psychologists in education services derives from their specialised study of psychological science and its application to education and to other aspects of human development: it should be the main criterion in determining their work. (Paragraphs 6.2 and 6.3)

6.R2 A primary emphasis of psychological work is on prevention through early detection and action: educational psychologists have exceptional opportunities to make constructive contributions as a consequence of their work in schools and other places where children are; their work is distinguished in this way from the greater emphasis on remedial and therapeutic methods in the work of psychiatrists, and of psychiatric and other social workers. (Paragraph 6.4)

6.R3 Psychologists should not undertake or be expected to undertake work for which their qualifications do not fit them. The nature of psychologists' professional work in education services is described as a guide for the discriminating selection of responsibilities. (Paragraph 6.37; and paragraphs 6.5 to 6.32)

6.R4 Psychological work in education services is changing because of continuing shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers: the implications should be considered not only by psychologists, but also by their professional colleagues, by their employers and by others concerned with recruitment to these professions. (Paragraphs 6.31 to 6.38)

6.R5 Educational psychologists should be centred administratively on the education departments of local authorities. (Paragraph 6.41 )

6.R6 Inappropriate responsibilities and unsatisfactory working conditions are wasteful of highly trained psychologists. (Paragraphs 6.40 to 6.57)

6.R7 The organisation of psychological work within the field of education on a much larger scale than at present would be conducive to a high standard of service, to efficiency, and to economy of manpower: a group of education authorities should collaborate to provide psychological services as a pilot scheme. The Association of Chief Education Officers should be asked to devise a plan under which it could be organised. (Paragraph 6.74)

6.R8 Psychologists have made major advances in diagnostic, special educational and remedial techniques for children who develop abnormally: specialised clinical work by some educational psychologists should be promoted. (Paragraphs 6.59 to 6.63)

6.R9 Opportunities should be extended for some educational psychologists to undertake work in educational research and development, and to contribute to the understanding of human behaviour by other professions. (Paragraphs 6.64 to 6.70)

6.R10 Career prospects and professional satisfaction for psychologists entering education services would be greatly enhanced by the developments recommended above. (Recommendations 6.R7, 6.R8 and 6.R9.) (Paragraph 6.72)

Contributory recommendations

6.R11 Psychologists should keep their authorities informed about services which their findings show to be needed. (Paragraph 6.36)

6.R12 Psychologists should give the support which lies within their power not only to children but to others concerned with children in need of help. (Paragraph 6.36) 6.R13 Continuing efforts should be made to develop collaboration with hospital psychiatric services. (Paragraph 6.37) 6R.14 Psychologists should be involved not only in child guidance teams but also in other interdisciplinary teams. (Paragraphs 6.38 and 6.39)

6R.15 Access to child guidance and school psychological services should be by open referral. (Paragraphs 6.44 to 6.46)

6R.16 Educational psychologists should not be required to undertake administrative duties other than those directly related to their psychological work. (Paragraph 6.47)

6.R17 Remedial education involving treatment which is primarily by psychological methods should come under the supervision of educational psychologists; in relation to other special classes it is appropriate for them to act as advisers. (Paragraphs 6.49 and 6.50; see also 6.22 and 6.23)

6.R18 The work of educational psychologists should be supported by an adequate administrative and secretarial staff. (Paragraphs 6.53 and 6.54)

6.R19 Consideration should be given to the provision of mobile units which could help child guidance teams to build up closer contacts with those they serve. (Paragraph 6.57)

6.R20 Career prospects for psychologists would be improved if they were enabled to work together in larger groups, as might be achieved by collaboration between local education authorities. (Paragraphs 6.72 to 6.75)


[page xviii]

6.R21 An increased number of higher posts with appropriately high levels of remuneration would enhance the attractiveness of work in school psychological and child guidance services to well qualified psychologists. (See Recommendation 5.R8.) (Paragraphs 6.72 and 6.74)

Chapter 7 Training

Main conclusions and recommendations

7.R1 Postgraduate training for educational psychology can be shorter, more concentrated, more directed and no less effective. (Paragraph 7.32)

7.R2 It would be advantageous for new postgraduate training departments to be relatively large. Economies would result from an increase in scale; academic and professional staffs would be concentrated rather than dispersed (as is especially relevant now when they are in short supply and when there is competition for them); the departments could provide a service for education authorities in their vicinities. (Paragraph 7.31)

7.R3 It would be appropriate for new postgraduate training departments to be established in regions where there are at present the greatest shortages of psychologists in the education services. (Paragraph 7.31)

7.R4 Postgraduate training should be interdisciplinary so that all concerned may fully understand both the competences of other disciplines and the limitations of their own. (Paragraphs 7.21 and 6.78)

7.R5 Two new university postgraduate training departments should be established by collaboration between their departments of psychology, education, and psychiatry, and local education authorities in their vicinities, in order to provide both training in educational psychology and to contribute to the local authority school psychological and child guidance services. (See Recommendations 7.R2, 7.R3 and 7.R6.) (Paragraphs 7.31 and 7.32)

7.R6 The new postgraduate training departments (Recommendation 7.R5) should organise a two-year postgraduate course for an annual intake of twenty-five students whose qualifications should include an honours degree in psychology or equivalent; in addition to courses in psychology and in education, the course should include a variety of supervised practical work with children and their teachers in schools, and other work with children in nurseries, welfare clinics and elsewhere, as well as practical work in educational psychology. (See Recommendations 7.R2, 7.R3 and 7.R5, and Appendix 7 A: 'A postgraduate training department for educational psychologists which incorporates a demonstration service'.) (Paragraphs 7.26 to 7.32)

7.R7 Existing postgraduate training departments:
(a) should expand as quickly as possible to take as many extra students as they can without reducing the standard of training; (measures for increasing productivity are recommended); (Paragraphs 7.15 to 7.17)
(b) should organise and supervise the pre-training of graduates in psychology and, in collaboration with local education authorities, improve the relevance, variety, and effectiveness of students' practical experience in education. (Paragraph 7.18)

7.R8 An additional. accelerated programme of training should be put in hand immediately to meet the most urgent short-term needs; the accelerated programme should comprise (a) the expansion of existing training departments (Recommendation 7.R7 above), and (b) in-service arrangements set up by those local education authorities which, with help from universities and hospital psychiatric services, have adequate facilities. (See Recommendation 5.R4.) (Paragraphs 7.34 to 7.36)

7.R9 The advancement of psychological knowledge in the field of education should be furthered by arrangements which would enable some practising educational psychologists to devote periods of time to specialised clinical and research work, which might. for example, lead to Ph.D. degrees and other higher qualifications. (Paragraphs 7.38 and 7.40)

7.R10 Specialised professional work by educational psychologists would be facilitated by short courses on specific subjects. (Paragraphs 7.38 and 7.39)

Co-ordination and finance of postgraduate training

7.R11 Postgraduate training for educational psychology needs to be planned and co-ordinated on a national basis; finance both for postgraduate departments and individual students is needed and should be provided. (Paragraph 7.48)

7.R12 Central responsibility for co-ordinating the planning of training facilities should be a responsibility of the Department of Education and Science; local authority associations should be consulted; responsibility for maintaining academic and professional standards of training should continue to


[page xix]

rest with the British Psychological Society. (Paragraph 7.48)

7.R13 Within the overall plan (Recommendation 7.R11) advantage should be taken of the powers given in the Local Government Act. 1966, to pool costs of training educational psychologists among all local authorities; in making pooling arrangements, all the costs connected with training that were to be met by local authorities might be taken into account whether related to courses in universities or in other institutions, or as a result of new accelerated programmes of training which local authorities might themselves set up, or in paying special allowances to their educational psychologists to supervise trainees, or in lending staff to postgraduate training departments: Local Government Act, 1966, Schedule 1, paragraphs 13(2) and 13(4)(e). (Paragraph 7.47)

7R.14 Within the overall plan (Recommendation 7.R11) central government funds should contribute to the resources for setting up, running and extending postgraduate training departments and for student support. (Paragraphs 7.51 and 7.52)

7.R15 Earmarked allocations from Government funds should be made in order to meet costs of extending basic postgraduate training and of establishing programmes of advanced training, in so far as they fall to be met by the' Exchequer. Special arrangements are required to meet the needs of postgraduate training departments which are not parts of universities and the needs of accelerated programmes of training set up by local authorities. (Paragraph 7.52)

7.R16 Support should be assured for students of all kinds who are eligible for postgraduate training. There should be three methods of financial support during training:
Method 1: postgraduate grants or studentships awarded on a national basis; perhaps directly by the Department of Education and Science; (Paragraph 7.54 (a))
Method 2: local authority appointments for trainee educational psychologists to be seconded straightway for professional training; (Paragraph 7.54 (b))
Method 3: secondment for other local government employees from their existing posts to courses of postgraduate training. (Paragraph 7.54 (c))

7.R17 Recommendations 7.R1 to 7.R16 should be considered by the University Grants Committee and by the Social Science Research Council, as well as by the Department of Education and Science and local education authorities. (Paragraphs 7.49 to 7.54)

Contributory recommendations

7.R18 A Masters degree would be a suitable qualification at the end of two years of postgraduate training of the kind we recommend (Recommendation 7.R6); the title of the qualification awarded by the present university training courses might accordingly be reconsidered. (Paragraph 7.33)

7.R19 The British Psychological Society should assist those local education authorities which contribute to an accelerated training programme to plan arrangements (see Recommendation 7.R8(b»; the Society should approve training schemes: trainees might take examinations conducted by the Society. (Paragraph 7.37)

7.R20 Postgraduate training departments should consult together over the selection of candidates for training, and should establish their own 'clearing house' procedures. (Paragraph 7.57)


[page 1]

Introduction


Appointment and terms of reference

We were appointed in February, 1965, by the Secretary of State for Education and Science with the following terms of reference:

'To consider the field of work of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities and the qualifications and training necessary; to estimate the number of psychologists required; and to make recommendations.'

We have been concerned with psychologists employed by local education authorities in England and Wales, but not in Scotland or in Northern Ireland.

Membership

The members and assessors were:

Professor Arthur Summerfield (Chairman)
Professor of Psychology in the University of London; Head of the Department of Psychology at Birkbeck College

Dr J.H. Kahn
Community Psychiatrist and Medical Director, Child Guidance Clinic, London Borough of Newham

Sir Percy Lord
Chief Education Officer, Lancashire

Miss M. Procter
Senior Educational Psychologist, Inner London Education Authority

Miss G. Rawlings
Lecturer in Psychology, University College London

Dr C.W.W. Read
Director of Education, West Sussex

Dr C.J. Revington (from October 1965)
Deputy County Medical Officer and Deputy Principal School Medical Officer, Glamorgan

Miss O.C. Sampson
Lecturer in Education, Tutor in charge of course for Diploma in Educational Psychology (Child Guidance), Department of Education, University of Manchester

Mr R.V. Saunders
Senior Educational Psychologist, Child and Family Guidance Service, Bristol

Dr Elfed Thomas
Director of Education, Leicester

Dr W. Evan Thomas (until October 1965)
County Medical Officer and Principal School Medical Officer, Glamorgan

Dr Phillip Williams
Senior Lecturer in Education, University College, Swansea

Assessors:

Mr G.W.W. Browne (until April 1966)
Assistant Secretary, Department of Education and Science

Mr D.E. Lloyd Jones, M.C. (from April 1966)
Assistant Secretary, Department of Education and Science

Dr D.M. Llewellin (until May 1967)
Senior Medical Officer, Department of Education and Science

Dr T.K. Whitmore (from July 1967)
Senior Medical Officer, Department of Education and Science

Mr R.C. Dove
H.M. Inspector, Department of Education and Science

Evidence

We called for evidence by sending a request to every chief education officer in England and Wales. We also wrote to the lecturers in charge of all the postgraduate training departments for educational psychologists in England and Wales, and to all university departments of psychology in the United Kingdom. They all responded. Requests were also sent to thirty-three institutions and societies and to thirty-three private individuals. I n response to our requests and including evidence received independently we considered a total of 276 submissions of which

162 were from chief education officers;
78 were from institutions, learned societies and professional associations;
36 were from private individuals.
Our witnesses are listed in Appendix A. In addition we received some evidence which was already published; it is included in our bibliography (Appendix B).

We invited twenty people whose views we wished to hear on particular points to join our discussions; their names are recorded in the list of witnesses.


[page 2]

Investigations

It was essential for us to know about the present work of educational psychologists in local authorities and to know the numbers needed to carry out the work both now and in the future. In order to obtain this information the letter and the questionnaire reproduced in Appendix 2A were sent to the chief education officers of all local education authorities in England and Wales, after a preliminary trial in a small sample of authorities. The results of the survey are reviewed in Chapter 2.

In order to consider qualifications and training, we collected information by means of questionnaires about qualifications awarded to educational psychologists in training, and about the numbers, in each class of honours, of degrees awarded in psychology; these questionnaires were sent, respectively, to the postgraduate training departments in England and Wales, and to all university departments of psychology in the United Kingdom.

Meetings

We met on 29 occasions covering 40 days; working groups of members met on 6 other occasions in addition.

Acknowledgements

We wish to acknowledge all the help we have received, and to record our thanks.

We are grateful to all those organisations and individuals (listed in Appendix A) who sent written evidence and answered our enquiries with patience and accuracy, and particularly to those individuals who gave up more of their time to join our discussions. Our thanks are also due to the educational psychologists and to others who assisted in our pilot survey, and to all the educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 who completed our questionnaires; to those of our witnesses in university departments of psychology and postgraduate training departments who provided additional statistical information, we repeat our thanks.

Our deliberations throughout and our report have benefited from the wise participation and the wide experience made available to us by our assessors: Mr G.W.W. Browne, HMI Mr R.C. Dove, Mr D.E. Lloyd Jones, MC, Dr Dorothy M. Llewellin and Dr T. K. Whitmore. We thank them all for the help and guidance they have given.

In the course of our work, we received practical assistance from many quarters and we are greatly indebted for it. Among many to whom our thanks are due, we mention specially Mr P.J. Mittler of Birkbeck College and members of the Staff of the Department of Education and Science: the Librarian of the Department and her staff; the staff of the automatic data processing unit and of the committee section; and the typing and duplicating teams, particularly those at the Canons Park office, whose meticulous and willing work under pressure was invaluable. Our cover design and the figures were the work of the illustrator to the Department and her staff, to whom we express our thanks.

The photographs were selected from pictures taken specially for this Report by a number of photographers, both amateur and professional; we are very grateful for their perceptive work, which complements the matter of our Report.

But for the devotion of our secretariat our task would have been impossible and for them we reserve our most especial thanks. Our Secretary, Mr G.J. Aylett, has worked beyond the call of duty throughout the three years of our meetings to manage our affairs and our enquiries, to reduce our surveys to comprehensible proportions, patiently to draft and redraft for us, to inform us, and to keep us informed and fully briefed at all times. He has been ably helped by our Assistant Secretaries, first by Miss M.J. Smith, and by Mr W.S. Rennie during the concluding half of our proceedings; and by our Clerk, Miss R.E. Collins, who, among other things, met with unfailing perseverance and painstaking care our exacting needs for preparing, classifying, coding and sorting our quantitative information. Our thanks are due to them above all others.


[page 3]

Chapter 1 Influences of psychology on education today


Outline of chapter

Page
Introduction 1.13
Opportunities for early learning and their
significance for later development 1.3
3
Influences on the acquisition of language 1.146
Programmed instruction 1.207
New approaches to assessing intellectual development 1.227
Conclusion 1.299
Recommendation 1.309
References9
Appendix 1A
Psychologists in education services: the historical background
101


Introduction

1.1 An appreciation of what psychology is about and how it influences education is essential to any study of work in educational psychology today. Psychology is concerned with finding out what affects the growth, development and organisation of individual behaviour in man and animals, and, more particularly, what affects human personality, skills and capabilities. Psychologists are not alone in this endeavour. Other biological and social scientists are also involved in finding out about human behaviour. For example, they too may be concerned with human physical growth, the organisation of nerve activity in the brain, or the physical basis of memory. They too may be concerned with disorders of speech and language that result from damage to the brain, and their effects on the development of intellectual capacities in children, and they may also be concerned with relations between physical, social and cultural environments on the development of linguistic skills and modes of thinking.

1.2 Education has for many years derived new ideas from psychology, and today psychology is one of the most potent influences on education. (1) A comparison of current interpretations of psychology for education, (2, 3, 4) with those of forty years ago, (5) or less, (6) marks the rate of change.* Four topics which are of current relevance are selected for discussion in this chapter: (a) opportunities for early learning and their significance for development; (b) influences on the acquisition of language; (c) programmed instruction, and (d) new approaches to methods of assessment. They are illustrations, not a complete account.

Opportunities for early learning and their significance for later development

1.3 The clinical work of Freud and his followers pointed to the long-term consequences of even the earliest experiences for subsequent development, especially in the sense of affecting the degree of risk that personal adjustments to stresses later in life will be difficult or abnormal. In direct line of descent have been the more recent studies of mother-child relationships and of effects of early separation and 'maternal deprivation'. These studies have also been informed by observations and controlled experiments on other animals species. (7, 8) They all sustain the importance for a child of easy and comfortable relations with his mother in infancy, if the risk of later disturbance is to be low. But they have also shown that it is a matter of varying risk; maternal deprivation does not invariably lead to later disorder in ways that are predictable. (9, 10)

1.4 Owing something of their inspiration to the same sources, but less directly related, have been other enquiries concerned with ways in which 'capacities to learn' themselves depend upon earlier opportunities for learning. (11) That there is such a dependence has of course long been supposed. The idea is embodied in so sweeping and unsupported a generalisation as 'learning Latin trains the mind'. Disentangling the actual sequence in which capacities of different kinds - perceptual, numerical, for appreciation of cause and effect, and so on - arise and attain readiness for subsequent use, has been the life work of Jean Piaget. (12, 13, 14) His findings have greatly influenced educational practice, as the text books show. (15, 16) Even so, only recently have investigations been pressed in the direction of discovering with precision what capacities a new-born baby has, and how they are organised. In 1891 William James conjectured that 'the baby, assailed by ears, nose, skin, and entrails at once, feels it all as one great blooming, buzzing confusion' (p.488) (17); and so it was believed for many years. It is now clear that this belief is wrong.

1.5 First, is the baby assailed by all at once? Experiments with animals have demonstrated that, when an animal is 'attending' to a particular kind of sensory input, other sensory inputs are 'switched off - they literally send no nerve impulses to the brain. When a cat is watching a mouse intently, its auditory nerve is switched off and it cannot 'hear'; conversely, when a cat is listening intently to a scratching sound, activity in its optic nerve is suppressed and it probably does not 'see', until it begins actively to search for the source of the sound. Man has similar in-built systems of control. (18)

1.6 Moreover, it is now clear that most new-born babies are already equipped with a range of co-ordinated patterns of activity. Within the first two weeks of life they respond

*The numbers relate to the references listed at the end of this chapter.


[page 4]

differently to simpler and to more complex visual patterns, such as a plain surface contrasted with a chequer-board. (19) They can learn - to turn their head towards a sound, especially if also rewarded with milk when they make the appropriate movement. (20) Indeed, there is evidence that some simple kinds of learning occur pre-natally. (21) Hence it is becoming clear that babies already have a well developed range of skills at birth. The foundations for future learning are already there.

1.7 There is then the question of what conditions favour subsequent learning, given that strength and powers of movement depend upon growth and maturation. Clearly an infant's own capacity for active interaction with his environment increases with increasing organisation of his movements - of his limbs and of himself. Furthermore, not only are there large differences between babies in activity, but recent findings imply that there are more subtle subdivisions of personal tempo the patterns of which remain consistent for particular children over periods of several years at least. (22)

1.8 That children's play is both an expression of activity and a means of exploring the world of things and of other people has been appreciated intuitively for a long time. It has been appreciated that spontaneous play.is powerfully motivated. Only more recently, however, have experiments extended understanding of ways in which curiosity and exploration subserve effective learning. Monkeys too, for example, will solve puzzles that have to be manipulated just for the fun of doing them, and learn to solve them faster, with no other reward. (23, 24)

1.9 Insight into environmental conditions that favour effective learning has likewise been extended recently by empirical investigations. The evidence comes mainly from observations of effects of impoverished environments on children, and on animals. It was thought that some of the consequences of maternal deprivation, suffered for example by children reared in some institutional settings, might be a consequence of lack of perceptual stimulation - and not only of emotional disturbance. In the case of young rats laboratory studies have shown that if they are given playthings in infancy, their subsequent capacity to learn to solve problems is improved by comparison with that of animals who have been deprived of 'toys'. Even a variety of things to look at, however, with no opportunity for contact and manipulation, reduces the adverse effects of such deprivation. (25) Findings like these widen the biological context within which observations made on children may be comprehended.

1.10 Babies removed to hospital for short periods when under seven months old showed abnormally large and continuous sweeping movements of their eyes when they returned home. They did not appear to focus on objects. They were otherwise inactive, did not cry or make other sounds, disregarded toys and were described as looking 'strange' in the sense of looking blank or bewildered rather than frightened. The abnormal behaviour persisted for periods ranging from an hour or so up to several days. It appeared to be a visual compensation for a period of relative perceptual deprivation. It was not observed in babies who went into the same children's hospital, for similar reasons, when over seven months old. (26)

1.11 Mentally handicapped children show substantial increments in the rate of their intellectual and educational development if their education is begun earlier rather than later; the children who gain most from early education are those who come from the most socially deprived homes. (27) Young imbecile children all showed significant improvements in verbal and social skills when removed from a hospital ward, characterised by overcrowding and shortage of staff, to a more 'child-centred' environment in which the children were looked after in 'family groups' with opportunities to play with suitable materials. (28) Continuity of development in this sense is also shown by findings that the incapacities of mentally subnormal adolescents from particularly adverse backgrounds are substantially mitigated by admission to a hospital with a stimulating regime; large increments in intelligence test performance are maintained and hence reflect a real rise in intellectual efficiency. (29)

1.12 Investigations of these kinds enlarge Piaget's findings on the interdependence of intellectual development and experience of the physical environment. Exploration of the physical properties of things is an essential basis for developing concepts of the world as composed of objects which continue to exist even though they are no longer physically present. In this sense, a baby who constantly throws things out of his pram or who delights in playing 'peep-be' is already 'experimenting' with the permanence of objects. It is impossible for an adult to remember how he learned about the properties of things, but this knowledge is the foundation of later intellectual development. To be able to think about objects that are not physically present is the start of the road that leads, via the acquisition of language and its increasingly extended use, towards abstract and symbolic thinking. Babies need things with which to stimulate 'their eyes, ears, nose and skin' - even if William James was wrong in supposing them to be 'assailed' .

1.13 I n these ways therefore the intuitions of progressive educationists from Dewey and before are not only generally confirmed; they are also informed and given new directions and new points of application.


[page 5]

Plate A
Visual interest shown by a very young baby. Babies, from one week old, can be shown to 'prefer' some geometrical patterns to others by the length of time they look directly at them.


Plate B
Foremost are contacts with children.


[page 6]

Influences on the acquisition of language

1.14 That one learns one's native language is self-evident. No one doubts what language would be spoken by a child, who, born of parents speaking one language, was reared from birth by foster-parents who spoke another. No one doubts that it depends in the first instance on interaction between a child and his parents, and especially his mother to begin with. The significance of this learning process for intellectual development and the grave consequences if it is impaired, are equally not in doubt. Efforts have of course been made to describe the sequence of speech sounds that occur during development from earliest infancy to childhood, to trace the growth of vocabularies, and to classify the content of children's utterances - not without controversy among proponents of different schemes. (30) Until recently however remarkably little attention has been given to the nature of the process by which children acquire a grammatical use of speech and language, and to what conditions control the learning process, making it more, or less, efficient.

1.15 The most general point to have been established is the nature of the end result of the process. It is not simply that meaningful sequences of sounds can be run off in speech, or sequences of words in writing. Rather is it that a set of 'rules' or 'models' must be acquired from which particular instances can be generated, and elaborated, and which also enable the meaning of someone else's utterances to be understood. (31) It is impossible that every individual sequence should be learned separately - the whole of a lifetime is far too short for this to be the case. (32)

1.16 Careful analysis of children's speech sequences, and of 'conversations' between young children and their mothers, has begun to reveal some of the factors that influence what happens during imitative and repetitive interchanges between them. (33) For instance, young children's repetitions tend to be 'telegraphese' contractions of short sentences spoken by adults: thus 'he go out' in response to 'He's going out'. The meaning is nevertheless retained because the most meaningful elements are repeated. They tend to be elements of nouns, verbs and adjectives whose meaning can be emphasised by pointing, as parents do. And they also tend to be the elements that receive most stress in adult speech: 'He's going out'. Hence degree of stress may be a significant factor. Not only do children repeat and imitate what they hear, however; in verbal families it proves even more frequently to be the case that adults reiterate, with variations, what young children say to them; e.g. 'Baby is in the highchair' in response to 'Baby highchair'. A tendency for adults to expand children's utterances in this way into short grammatical sentences clearly could be relevant to gradual acquisition of a background of grammatical rules by a child himself. The next and much more complex steps appear to be use of 'noun phrases' like 'a hand', 'my stool' including some ungrammatical combinations like 'a your car', followed by the beginnings of grammatical transformations with substitution of pronouns for noun phrases. The very intricate simultaneous differentiation and integration that constitutes the evolution of the noun phrase is more reminiscent of the biological development of an embryo than it is of the acquisition of a conditional reflex' (p.151). (34)

1.17 A main emphasis of this approach is on detailed aspects of what happens in the process of imitative exchanges between young children and adults. It implies that opportunity for these exchanges must itself be influential - as it has been shown to be for other species for whom vocalisation is biologically important. Experiment has shown, for instance, that birds hatched and reared in isolation from other members of their species produce abnormal and truncated rather than characteristic song sequences - even though in their case some form of song appears in spite of complete isolation. (35) If opportunity in this sense is of importance, it ought to be possible to demonstrate its influence indirectly by comparing linguistic capabilities of children whose opportunities have been greater with those whose have been less. This is indeed being done.

1.18 A combined psychological, linguistic and sociological approach has led, first to a distinction between relatively restricted and elaborated 'linguisitic codes' or forms of language use in a wide sense. (36) Restricted codes are characterised by a higher ratio of nouns to adjectives, and by being more predictable in the sense that the later part of a sentence or statement can be predicted with a much higher degree of assurance from knowledge of only the first few words or phrases. A restricted code user, however, is not necessarily any less fluent or more limited in vocabulary than an elaborated code user. Use of these codes has next been shown to be related reliably to social class: middle class families tend to use elaborated codes, working class families to use restricted ones; the same patterns are found in children as in the adults of their family and social environments. The logical next step has also been taken: that of devising a 'language intervention programme' designed to enrich the linguistic environment of a sample of children who were predominantly users and receivers of restricted codes, with the object of examining whether or not it would develop elaboration of their linguistic habits and whether it would prove to have beneficial effects on their intellectual attainments measured in other ways. The results are still in course of evaluation, but preliminary findings indicate that remedial programmes of this kind do stimulate development.


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1.19 These lines of enquiry therefore illustrate ways in which a child's intellectual development is the outcome of his interaction with his environment, with impoverishment of environment tending to impair development. They also illustrate in a particular way the discussion in the previous section of consequences of richer and poorer opportunities for early learning. Furthermore, they exemplify the shift of emphasis in psychology from description and classification to investigation and experiment on developmental processes, and to a search for conditions which exert causal influences upon them. They have implications for education and for remedial education.

Programmed instruction

1.20 Programmed instruction is the latest arrival in the field of aids to teaching. It owes its origins to laboratory studies of learning processes in animals and men, and it is currently the most controversial influence of psychology on education. The general principles of linear and branching programmes, the two main types, are becoming widely known. (37, 38) So too are the ideas that an objective is to keep the pupil in constant touch with his own progress, that programmes may require machines but may also be incorporated into books, and that the preparation of programmes of either kind imposes a severe discipline on the organisation and development of the subject matter whatever it may be.

1.21 Like all new methods, programmes have their enthusiastic proponents. There can already be no doubt however that they are effective for some kinds of teaching to some pupils for some of the time, and that they have added a new dimension to the variety of educational environments that can be provided for children - and others. The efforts that have been made to evaluate them so far have concentrated mainly on attempts to compare them directly with other methods. Such comparisons are always difficult. Moreover, they probably do not give the kind of evaluation that is needed in the long run. Information will be needed about ways in which they can most helpfully and appropriately be related to other methods in order to supplement them rather than supplant them. Information will likewise be needed about the learning tasks for which they prove most helpful to which children, in order to enrich their educational opportunities. As others have noted, (39) the new methods may well have a potential in the field of remedial education, and it may not be without significance thai this was indeed the field for which a teaching machine was first devised.

New approaches to assessing intellectual development

1.22 'Tests, infinitely more scientific than those set out below, can still be but the beginning, never the end; of the examination of the child.' So wrote Cyril Burt in 1920 in introducing the first edition of his Mental and Scholastic Tests (p.xv). (40) In this way he asserted that tests were not the only source of information, and that knowledge, insight and judgement were demanded in appraising their results. His book gave the results of his standardisation for use in Britain of the Binet-Simon scale (see also Appendix 1A.4). This scale had been developed in France after 1904 as part of a humanitarian approach to the study of procedures for educating handicapped children, revealed as a special problem by the approach to universal education. Burt's book started with his thesis that tests both of ability and of attainment are needed in order to judge the effectiveness of education for particular children. It includes the tests which he pioneered of educational attainment in 'the chief branches of the elementary school curriculum - reading, spelling, arithmetic, composition and the simpler manual subjects'; some of them are used today. Also to be found is his 'golden maxim' : 'promote by attainment rather than by age, and by ability rather than by attainment'. The primary objective was classification of children for education in different schools: 'I have had predominantly in mind the discrimination of ordinary from special school cases' (p. xiv). This was the main problem fifty years ago.

1.23 Burt also suggested, however: 'When the dull and backward are recognised as requiring definite educational provision, a larger proportion of the special school cases will doubtless be accommodated in the special classes of the ordinary school rather than associated with those whose future lies for ever in an institution' (p. 174); and: 'May it not in the long run prove remunerative in the fullest sense to institute for supernormal children special classes analogous and complementary to those established in many schools with much success for the backward and subnormal?' (p. 179). The conception of educational provision which underlies these suggestions has since become public policy, even if it is still far from a practical reality everywhere. The objective now is to provide educational environments which are adjusted as far as possible to the varying needs of individual children, in order to promote development and to enable each to benefit and progress as much as he possibly can. This, for example, is the essential theme of the Plowden Report (paragraphs 6, 493 to 872, and 1232). It is itself the product of increased understanding of how children develop and of conditions that affect the process, some reference to which has already been made above. It also implies a continuing need for methods which will help to distinguish what a particular child can do better from what he can do less well, so that he can be given the most appropriate opportunities. This need is possibly still at its clearest in the case of children who are


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handicapped, and who therefore need to be helped at least to compensate for their particular difficulties, if not to overcome them altogether. But, in principle, it is a completely general need extending to all children, including the ablest. It presents a challenge.

1.24 For the practical problems of half a century ago, general tests of ability and attainment sufficiently met the need for fundamental, first investigations of backwardness, maladjustment and delinquency, and for distinguishing more reliably than had been the case the 1.51 % of London children for whom there were places in special schools and who might therefore fill them. The examination of differences between children in their capabilities thus begun, led to distinctions between groups of skills or abilities - verbal and non-verbal reasoning, numerical, spatial and so on - characterised primarily by the kind of content of the test questions to which they related, and by the fact that, in varying degrees, some children did relatively better in some of these groups of tasks than in others. These findings inspired the development of tests composed of a variety of sub-tests. There are many examples. Of tests that are used for the examination of individual children, the best known is the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, published in New York in 1949. (41) It was developed as an extension for younger people from the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale which, devised for adults in 1939, (42) was revised and renamed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in 1955. (43) The form of all three versions is the same. There are two groups of sub-tests: 'verbal tests' (including sub-tests of 'comprehension', 'arithmetic' and 'vocabulary'), and 'performance tests' (for which the problems to be solved are posed in words, but the problems themselves involve shapes, pictures and designs).

1.25 Advances that have been made still more recently have been of several kinds. They include (a) advances in charting the course by which children develop concepts of varying complexity and advance towards abstract thinking and reasoning; (44) (b) advances in distinguishing shades of difference between, on the one hand, more logical, deductive, 'convergent' thinking, and more imaginative, creative, 'divergent' thinking on the other; (45, 46) (c) advances in discerning differences in the routes that may be followed, or the 'strategies' that may be adopted, even in successful processes of thought, that lead to the solution of problems; (47, 48) (d) advances in understanding that there are psychological differences between linguistic forms - active and passive, negative and affirmative, for instance - in which instructions may be framed, questions posed and answers given, even when the same information is being conveyed, and which therefore influence the difficulty of verbal problems. (49) Collectively they reflect increased attention to investigations of psychological processes, both of development generally and of perceiving, using language, thinking, reasoning, remembering and so on.

1.26 In their work with children therefore, psychologists have always relied on methods of assessment which provide information about a child's development and his intellectual skills and his attainments in relation to those that would normally be expected at his age. The object of any test, or any examination, is to obtain a sample of what a child can do - a sample of his behaviour - from which reliable inferences can be made about levels to which his capabilities have developed. A significant qualification is that one such sample, obtained at a particular point in time, may not give sufficient information about the rate at which a particular individual is developing. Hence, in recent years, efforts have been made by psychologists to supplement general types of assessment with more detailed investigations designed to throw light on the ways in which problems are solved and the kinds of difficulty that occur. While it remains invaluable to have accurate and reliable information about a child's intelligence, information is also needed about its underlying, constituent processes.

1.27 There are several reasons for this added emphasis. First many intelligence tests provide little information about the nature of problem solving activities and skills, and 'all-or-none' methods of scoring are regarded as too insensitive by many who use these tests. If a child fails a particular item, a psychologist can usually only guess at the reasons for his failure, and cannot necessarily assume that the child is incapable of solving all similar problems. Conversely, success in a particular solution does not mean that it has necessarily been arrived at by the most efficient route. Secondly, more detailed diagnostic study can lead to distinctions between a child's intellectual strengths and weaknesses, and hence to knowledge which could enable a psychologist to help a teacher to devise an appropriate remedial programme for the child. In this way, remedial methods might be planned more scientifically in order to place children who need this kind of help in environments for learning which are adapted to their needs.

1.28 Valid and reliable methods of assessment for detailed studies of cognitive processes are required if efforts are to be made in these directions. They are actively being developed, if few have so far passed beyond an experimental stage. Examples of such approaches are the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (50) concerned with five different aspects of visual organisation, and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, concerned with different representational aspects of the use of language though not with grammatical or syntactical transformations. (51) Moreover, experimental items of new and varied kinds are being subjected to evaluation in the


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development of the new British intelligence scale.* Advances in methods of investigation and assessment are likely therefore further to increase the scope for collaboration between psychologists and teachers, especially in the field of remedial education.

Conclusion

1.29 The approaches that have been outlined are part of the background that psychologists are bringing to education today, to extensions of educational opportunities for children and to evaluations of them. 52 These are general contributions. The special concern of psychologists in education services is to contribute, in collaboration with members of other helping professions, (53) to the resolution of the problems that particular children encounter along the way. This task demands not only knowledge that may be of service to them, but a wide appreciation of the social environments in which a schoolchild lives and of the varied influences that may affect his development and his progress.

Recommendation

1.30 We conclude and recommend that:

1.R1 Family and school are the two main social environments in which a schoolchild lives; it should be recognised even more widely than it is at present that when a child has special psychological needs and problems, these involve an interaction in him of both family and school, even though his difficulties may show themselves in only one setting or the other. The first concern of psychologists in education services is to contribute to the resolution of these problems.

References

1 Children and their Primary Schools (the Plowden Report). vol. 1, chapter 2. London: HMSO, 1967. Primary Education in Wales (the Gittins Report), chapter 9. London: HMSO, 1967.

2 Stones, E. An Introduction to Educational Psychology. London: Methuen, 1966.

3 Komisar, B. P. & Macmillan, C. B. J. (ed.) Psychological Concepts in Education. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967.

4 De Cecco, J. P. (ed.) The Psychology of Language, Thought and Instruction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967.

5 Fox, C. Educational Psychology: its problems and methods. London: Kegal Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1925.

6 Lovell, K. Educational Psychology and Children. London: University of London Press, 1958 (first edition), 1965 (eighth edition).

7 Foss, B. M. (ed.) Determinants of Infant Behaviour. London: Methuen, 1961.

8 Harlow, H. F. The maternal affectional system. In Determinants of Infant Behaviour II, ed. B. M. Foss. London: Methuen, 1963.

9 Bowlby, J. Maternal Care and Mental Health. Geneva: World Health Organisation Monograph, No. 2, 1951.

10 Ainsworth, M. D. (and others). Deprivation of Maternal Care: a reassessment of its effects. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1962.

11 Harlow, H. F. & Harlow, M. K. Principles of primate learning. In Lessons from Animal Behaviour for the Clinician, ed. S. A. Barnett. London: National Spastics Society and Heinemann, 1962.

12 Piaget, J. The Language and Thought of the Child. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1959 (first edition, 1926).

13 Piaget, J. The Child's Conception of Number. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1952 (first edition, 1941).

14 Inhelder, B. & Piaget, J. The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence. USA: Basic Books, 1958.

15 Sealey, L. G. W. & Gibbon, V. Communication and Learning in the Primary School. Oxford: Blackwell, 1962.

16 Lovell, K. The Growth of Mathematical and Scientific Concepts in Children. London: University of London Press, 1964.

17 James, W. The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1. London: MacMillan, 1891.

18 Hernandez-Peon, R. Physiological mechanisms in attention. In Frontiers in Physiological Psychology, ed. R. W. Russell. New York: Academic Press, 1966.

19 Fantz, R. L. & Nevis, S. Pattern preferences and perceptual-cognitive development in early infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development (1967), 13, 77 -108.

20 Siqueland, E. R. & Lipsitt, L. P. Conditioned head-turning in human newborns. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (1966), 3, 356-76.

21 Bench, R. J. & Mittler, P. J. Changes of heart rate in response to auditory stimulation in the human foetus. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1967), 20, No. 67, 14A.

22 Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H. G., Hertzig, M. E. & Korn, S. Behavioral Individuality in Early Childhood. London: University of London Press. 1963.

23 Barnett, S. A. Attitudes to childhood. Also in no. 11, above.

24 Berlyne, D. E. Conflict, Arousal and Curiosity. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1960.

25 Levine, S. Some effects of stimulation in infancy. Also in no. 11 above.

26 Schaffer, H. R. Objective observations of personality development in early infancy. British Journal of Medical Psychology (1958),31, 174-83.

27 Kirk, S. A. Early Education of the Mentally Retarded. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1958.

28 Tizard. J. Community Services for the Mentally Handicapped. London: Oxford University Press, 1964.

29 Clark, A. M. & Clarke, A. D. B. (ed.) Mental Deficiency: the changing outlook. London: Methuen. 1958.

30 Piaget, J. Chapter 6 in no. 12, above.

31 Postal, P. M. Underlying and superficial linguistic structure. In

*Being developed under the auspices of the British Psychological Society, to whom a research grant was awarded for the purpose by the Department of Education and Science in 1964, in the Department of Education of Manchester University.


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Language and Learning, Harvard Educational Review (1964), 34.246-66.

32 Miller, G. A., Galanter, E. & Pribram, K. H. Plans and the Structure of Behavior. New York: Holt, 1960.

33 Brown, R. & Bellugi, U. Three processes in the child's acquisition of syntax. Also in no. 31, above, pp. 133-51. 34 See no. 33, above.

35 Thorpe, W. H. & Zangwill, O. L. (ed.) Current Problems in Animal Behaviour. Cambridge University Press, 1961.

36 Bernstein, B. A socio-linguistic approach to social learning. In Penguin Survey of Social Sciences, 1965, ed. J. Gould. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965.

37 See Plowden Report, no. 1 above, paragraphs 728 to 733.

38 Williams, J. D. Programmed instruction not yet proven? National Foundation for Educational Research. Article in New Society, 20 January, 1966.

39 See Plowden Report, No.1 above, paragraph 730.

40 Burt, C. Mental and Scholastic Tests. London: King, 1921 (first edition); London: Staples, 1962 (fourth edition).

41 Wechsler, D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1949.

42 Wechsler, D. The Measurement of Adult Intelligence. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1939.

43 Wechsler, D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1955.

44 See no. 14, above.

45 Guilford, J. P. Creativity. American Psychologist (1950), 5, 444-54.

46 Hudson, L. Contrary Imaginations: a psychological study of the English schoolboy. London: Methuen, 1966.

47 Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J. & Austin, G. A. A Study of Thinking. New York: Wiley, 1956.

48 Bruner, J. S., Olver, R. R. & Greenfield, P. M. Studies in Cognitive Growth. New York: Wiley, 1966.

49 See no. 32, above.

50 Frostig, M. & Horne, D. The Frostig Program for the Development of Visual Perception. Chicago: Follett, 1964.

51 Kirk, S. A. & McCarthy, J. J. The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities: experimental edition. Urbana, III. Institute for Research in Exceptional Children, 1961.

52 Williams, P. & Gruber, E. Response to Special Schooling. London: Longmans, 1967.

53 Carstairs, G. M. Foreword to Human Growth and the Development of Personality by J. H. Kahn. Oxford: Pergamon, 1965.


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Chapter 2 The basis for future developments in England and Wales: a survey


Outline of chapter

Page
Introduction 2.111
An educational psychologist today 2.211
Our survey 2.1113
A national review of local education authority psychological services 2.1213
The distribution of educational psychologists 2.1413
Salary scales 2.1814
Proportions of men and women 2.2016
Age structure 2.2116
Training and qualifications 2.2216
Educational psychologists' work 2.2416
Collaboration with others concerned with children 2.3118
Child guidance teams 2.3218
Collaboration outside child guidance teams 2.3620
Conclusions about educational psychologists' work 2.3820
What is expected of educational psychologists 2.3923
Educational psychologists and local authority administration
The Underwood Report 2.4023
The statutory power to employ educational psychologists 2.4223
The responsibilities of chief officers 2.4324
Summary 2.4524
Main conclusion and recommendation 2.4624
Appendices
2A Inquiry to chief education officers and questionnaire used in the survey of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities on 1 May 1965106
2B Tables of information about educational psychologists (including the principal results of the working party's survey)108
2C Ministry of Education Circular 347 (with the associated Ministry of Health Hospital Memorandum (59) 23 and Circular 3/59)116


Introduction

2.1 At the beginning of our inquiries we set out to inform ourselves about educational psychologists: who they are, where they are, how they have become qualified, what they do, and what they are expected to do by others with whom they work. The results of our survey are reported in this chapter. It starts with a summary of what we have found to be most characteristic of an educational psychologist in the later nineteen-sixties. We emphasise that the summary is an account of what is most typical, and that it does not apply to every educational psychologist everywhere in England and Wales.

An educational psychologist today

2.2 He is a young man, under forty, who is employed by a local education authority and is earning rather more than £2,000 a year after five to ten years service.

2.3 The preparation for his job was lengthy. He entered university soon after leaving school, took a full-time course in psychology, gained a second class honours degree and went on as a graduate to teach in a primary school. Some of his contemporaries studied for a postgraduate diploma in education before entering teaching; many of his older colleagues and others of his contemporaries, however, trained for teaching before studying psychology; some, while teaching, studied psychology part-time for their degrees.

2.4 While working as a teacher he applied for admission to courses of postgraduate professional training in educational psychology. After he had taught for about three years the local education authority which employed him agreed to continue his salary for one year of full-time study and practical clinical experience under supervision. He was selected for admission to a postgraduate course. In the selection his personal qualities were assessed, especially his capabilities-for sympathetic and understanding relations with children and for collaborative work with adults. The course was intensive; it involved theoretical work in psychology and practical work with children in clinics and schools; he and his three or four fellow students had regular personal tuition and supervision from the staff of the postgraduate training department.

2.5 Having successfully completed the course, he had no difficulty in finding a post as an educational psychologist with a local education authority, where he joined the one other educational psychologist who was already employed. Some of his contemporaries became members of larger groups of psychologists, but others found themselves on their own. His opportunities for collaborative work in child guidance clinic teams are limited owing to shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers.

2.6 His own work is varied and exacting, and he frequently finds himself under pressure from the number of different demands that are made upon him. He is asked to help children with difficulties in learning, or in their behaviour, and to collaborate with others who are also involved. Foremost are his contacts with children; he frequently meets their parents; in the case of children at school, he almost always meets their teachers.

2.7 Typically, one-third or more of his time is spent in interviewing children. They may be of any age and he has to have a corresponding range of skills and to select his methods accordingly. His purpose is to find out more


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Plate C
A teacher and an educational psychologist in discussion. A primary emphasis of psychological work is on prevention through early detection and action: educational psychologists have exceptional opportunities to make constructive contributions as a consequence of their work in schools.


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about their problem. Although he often asks a child to do tests and other tasks which give evidence of what the child can do and about difficulties and disorders, he may also arrange other activities which enable him both to observe and to help the child. His objectives are to discover the psychological bases of the child's problem, the reasons for them, why they continue, and how they affect the child's life, including his school-work, so that means of offering help may be devised in consultation with others. For every child the psychologist interviews in clinics, he interviews two in schools. As a consequence, he has to do a significant amount of travelling.

2.8 Communicating his findings to others is a central part of the psychologist's work. Much of this is most appropriately done through conferences and discussions, formal and informal, which facilitates exchange of information and opinions. In addition he spends the equivalent of half a day a week recording his findings and writing psychological reports on children, quite apart from general administrative duties which he also has.

2.9 A large part of his time is directed to relieving children's difficulties. Skills and knowledge are pooled in the child guidance teams of which he is a member, and discussions with the psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers within these teams with whom he collaborates require about one-tenth of his time. He spends a similar amount of time in personally helping children, by means of psychological and special educational techniques, to overcome their troubles. Another one-tenth of his time is spent discussing with head and other teachers ways in which the problems of individual children may be ameliorated; he also discusses with teachers more general psychological matters of interest to them.

2.10 This summary omits the more unusual duties about which educational psychologists have told us; these are introduced later in this chapter or in the tables in Appendix 2B. But first we describe how we conducted our survey and give an account of the distribution of educational psychologists.

Our survey

2.11 The working party made enquiries of all chief education officers in England and Wales asking for information about the educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965. The questionnaire is reproduced in Appendix 2A. We asked: (a) for factual information about the educational psychologists themselves, including their training and experience before appointment as educational psychologists, age, salary scale, and whether the appointment was full-time or not; and (b) for information about the kind of work being done, in the form of estimates of the proportions of time spent in various activities and of the frequency with which the work involved contact with other services concerned with children and their families. The results of the enquiries are reviewed in this chapter together with other factual information which we obtained. Tables setting out the principal data are contained in Appendix 2B.

A national review of local education authority psychological services

2.12 All 162 local education authorities in England and Wales responded. Not every authority operated its own child guidance and school psychological service or even employed educational psychologists; twelve, (see paragraph 2.13) had no service and thirteen authorities collaborated in running four joint services. On 1 May 1965, 141 services covering 150 local education authorities, 93% of all authorities, had establishments for 414 educational psychologists (full-time equivalents). However only eighty-one (57%) of the services had filled their establishments and educational psychologists in post numbered only 326 (full-time equivalents). Seven services (5%) had been unable to make any appointment at all; in another the appointment had been vacant for five years. In fifty services (35%) the vacancies amounted to a quarter of the establishment or more.

2.13 Of the twelve authorities which had no establishment for educational psychologists, eight had alternative arrangements; four authorities made use of the services of educational psychologists employed by neighbouring authorities; three authorities referred children to hospital psychiatric departments or to child guidance clinics run by regional hospital boards; and one had other arrangements. Thus only four authorities gave no information about any arrangements for appointing psychologists or obtaining psychological assistance or advice.

The distribution of educational psychologists

2.14 There were 343 educational psychologists employed by local education authorities on 1 May 1965. Three of them each held split appointments, between two different authorities; there were thus 346 separate appointments. Nine out of ten psychologists worked full-time; where appointments were part-time, the majority were for halftime or less (see Table 2B.1); the full-time equivalent was 326. In terms of school population, there was one educational psychologist for 24,000 schoolchildren in England and Wales.

2.15 There was substantial variation in the number of educational psychologists employed measured in terms of school population. County boroughs had generally higher


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Figure 2.1 Educational psychologists (filled posts and vacant posts) in relation to school population by regions on 1 May 1965 and ratios of the educational psychologists estimated to be needed

levels of staff than counties; however we doubt if it is valid to compare the staffing of counties and county boroughs. The incidence of problems calling for psychological assistance may be higher in county boroughs because of social factors arising from their urban nature and services in large centres of population sometimes take in children from surrounding areas; on the other hand, staff in rural areas may need to spend a substantial amount of time in travelling. The south-west, and the south-east and east (including Greater London) were the parts of the country with the greatest relative numbers of educational psychologists (see Figure 2.1 and Table 2B.2, column 6); the smallest relative numbers were in the midlands and the north-west. The ratio of educational psychologists to schoolchildren ranged from about 1 : 17,000 to 1 : 30,000.

2.16 In the majority of services (55%), only one or two educational psychologists were employed; large teams of psychologists were uncommon. Table 2.1 shows that, even by the beginning of 1967, very few services indeed employed ten or more educational psychologists.

Table 2.1 Numbers of educational psychologists working together (at 31 December, 1966)

2.17 There were, in addition to the full-time equivalent of 326 psychologists in post, eighty-eight vacant appointments for educational psychologists giving a national establishment of 415.* The ratio of educational psychologists to schoolchildren would have been altered from about 1 : 24,000 to about 1 : 19,000 if all the vacancies had been filled. Figure 2.1 shows the improvement in staffing which filling vacancies would have achieved; the south-west and the south-east and east would still have had the largest relative numbers (ratios around 1 : 16,000) but only two regions would have had ratios appreciably worse than 1 : 20,000.

Salary scales

2.18 The service conditions and salary scales of educational psychologists are recommended by a committee first formed in 1946 under the chairmanship of Lord Soulbury; the committee is also concerned with other categories of officer employed by local authorities, namely general and specialist organisers and inspectors, youth service officers and school meals organisers. The committee comprises an authorities' panel made up of representatives of the local authority associations, and an officers' panel made up of thirteen representatives of staff associations whose members are concerned, including one representative of the Association of Educational Psychologists. The committee is not on the same formal footing as the Burnham Committee which considers the salaries of teachers; representatives of both the authorities'

*414.6 - see Table 2B.2, column 4; this is not an estimate of the number needed, which is given in column 9; see also Appendix 5B.5.


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Figure 2.2 Men and women educational psychologists in Soulbury grades, 1 May 1965

Figure 2.3 Date of postgraduate training in educational psychology: men and women employed on 1 May 1965

Figure 2.4 Educational psychologists not trained as teachers and decade of age on 1 May 1965


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and the teachers' panels of the Burnham primary and secondary committee are, however, ex-officio members.

2.19 Salaries themselves are outside our terms of reference. However, some of our recommendations about the nature of the work of educational psychologists may need to be taken into account in the description of duties to which the salary scales apply; in particular, we have noted that Grade I, intended generally to be applicable to 'assistants in the Child Guidance Service', has become obsolete in many areas and is used only for trainee educational psychologists in others. Figure 2.2 shows the psychologists in each grade; detailed figures are given in Table 2B.4. Only 9% are in Grade I; new recruits are commonly appointed in Grade II, which includes almost two-thirds of all educational psychologists. We consider the effect of the salary grades on career structure in Chapter 6 (paragraph 6.72).

Proportions of men and women educational psychologists

2.20 Rather more than half the educational psychologists in service were men (58%) and Figure 2.3 shows that men outnumbered women among those who had trained in recent years. The proportion of men students who successfully completed courses of professional training has in fact increased during the last twenty years. Although over the period men formed about half (53%) of the output of training departments, in the five years 1960-61 to 1964-65 they formed nearly three-quarters, compared with one-third in the five years 1950-51 to 1954-55 (see Table 2B.5). There has therefore been a progressive trend towards a preponderance of men educational psychologists.

Age structure

2.21 Educational psychology is a young profession, both historically and in the ages of its members. So far, only a few educational psychologists have retired, and over half of those in service on 1 May 1965 were under the age of forty (see Figure 2.4).

Training and qualifications

2.22 The pattern of training and qualifications and the circumstances in which it has evolved are considered in detail in Chapter 4. Nearly all educational psychologists had university qualifications in psychology (see Figure 2.5). Four out of five held honours degrees in psychology (including joint honours degrees in which study of psychology made up at least half the course), or other equivalent degrees. One educational psychologist in five had not studied psychology at undergraduate level, but had obtained a higher degree in the subject. Practically one-third of educational psychologists had higher degrees, and seven held more than one higher degree. Only seven educational psychologists appeared not to have studied psychology to university degree level. Over half the psychologists in service had taken a full-time postgraduate course in educational psychology at one of the departments described in Chapter 7, paragraphs 7.9 to 7.12 (see Figure 2.6; Table 2B.9 gives detailed information). Relatively small numbers (6%) had been trained under specific arrangements while working as educational psychologists, and a few had undergone training as clinical psychologists in the National Health Service. Almost 40% appeared not to have had any specific training in educational psychology; in London and the south-east a smaller proportion (15%) were without training while in the northern regions the majority had not trained (see Table 2B.10).

2.23 Two-thirds of the educational psychologists in service on 1 May 1965 had undergone teacher training (see Table 2B.7). In recent years, fewer educational psychologists have trained as teachers; increasingly often, those who have trained as teachers have obtained a degree in psychology first (see paragraph 4.27, Table 4.1 and Table 2B.11). This trend is also shown in Figure 2.4; almost all educational psychologists over the age of fifty had had teacher training but less than one-third of those under the age of thirty had trained as teachers. The length of teaching service of educational psychologists varied from none (11%) to periods of over nine years (21%); 46% had taught for less than three years in all (see Figure 2.7 and Table 2B.12).

Educational psychologists' work

2.24 The questionnaire sent to chief education officers listed seven broad functions which some local authorities had attributed to educational psychologists* and provision was made for others to be added by respondents. We asked for estimates of the proportion of time spent in the various kinds of work during a typical month.** The survey was designed to give a broad indication of the

*The covering letter made clear that it was not intended to suggest that these functions ought to be included in the duties of educational psychologists generally, nor was the list comprehensive; the provision for functions to be added to the list was pointed out. A pilot survey was conducted in four areas and the comments of the educational psychologists and others concerned were taken into account in the design of the questionnaire for the main survey (see Appendix 2A). Responses indicated that generally speaking work which most educational psychologists undertook fell within the descriptions of the categories of function; only one category received responses from less than four out of five psychologists.

**Where appointments were part-time, the estimates related to the proportion of part-time work. Some respondents performed some duties, particularly writing psychological reports and travelling. outside normal working hours.


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Figure 2.5 Proportions of educational psychologists with degrees in psychology or equivalent. 1 May 1965

Figure 2.6 Proportions of educational psychologists with training in educational psychology, 1 May 1965

Figure 2.7 Length of time which educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 spent teaching during their careers


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emphases in the work. The responses are given in Table 2B.13.

2.25 Psychological assessment received greatest emphasis; almost half of the psychologists (46%) estimated that they spent 6-16% of their time on assessment in child guidance clinics, while assessment outside the clinic, to which about one in four (28%) allocated one-third or more of their time, received stronger emphasis still. Some educational psychologists tended to do more of their assessment work in clinics, while others tended to do more of this work in schools and elsewhere (see Table 2B.14). This suggests that there are some educational psychologists whose work is centred on clinics and who spend little time discussing individual children with teachers (see Appendix 2A section 4, and Table 2B.15).

2.26 Most educational psychologists (63%) estimated that they spent 6-15% of their time in writing psychological reports (see Table 2B.13).

2.27 Educational psychologists tend to be less involved in the psychological treatment of children than in other kinds. of activity; nevertheless more than 10% spent the equivalent of one day a week treating children in clinics. Treating children elsewhere was mentioned by. four out of ten psychologists although only a few spent more than 10% of their time on it. Table 2B.16, which compares proportions of time spent treating children in clinics with treating them elsewhere, again tends to support the idea that some educational psychologists are orientated toward work in schools rather than work in clinics.

2.28 Educational psychologists stressed the importance of discussing individual children, with teachers and with others, but only 16% of them spent more than 10% of their time on it, and, as Table 2B.17 shows, about one-quarter spent less than 5% of their time in discussions of this kind. More weight was placed on discussion with teachers than with other professional workers or parents.

2.29 A minority - about one in eight - estimated that more than 15% of their time was spent in organisational and administrative duties. A few were engaged wholly or substantially on administration. The duties of 96% of educational psychologists involved them in travelling, although in most cases travelling did not exceed 10% of time.

2.30 A number of duties not covered by the seven functions on the questionnaire were added by respondents (see note to paragraph 2.24). Those principally mentioned, in descending order of frequency, were:

(a) informal talks and lectures to teachers and parents and attending professional gatherings;
(b) formal training and lecturing (including the supervision of trainee educational psychologists and participating in training teachers);
(c) investigation and research;
(d) case conferences (probably included by others under 'discussing individual children');
(e) remedial work or remedial teaching;
(f) visiting schools, hostels or hospitals;
(g) counselling parents;
(h) giving advice to other people and other departments; and
(i) work connected with secondary school selection.

Relatively few estimated that they spent more than 10% of their time on any of these categories of work.

Collaboration with others concerned with children

2.31 The Association of Educational Psychologists have told us that their members 'have been mindful of the constant need for educational psychologists to work in cooperation with other professional people concerned with children', both in relation to their present work and to their proposals for its future development. Collaboration is, in our view too, a fundamental principle of educational psychologists' work. It has two aspects, (a). collaboration with other members of child guidance teams, and (b) collaboration with other colleagues, employed in local authority service for the most part but also with some working with children under other auspices.

Child guidance teams

2.32 In October 1950 the Minister of Education appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Dr J.E.A. Underwood to 'enquire into and report upon the medical, educational and social problems relating to maladjusted children, with reference to their treatment within the educational system.' The Committee's Report, published in 1955,* has largely governed the development of the services for maladjusted children which has taken place since then. The Report was commended to local education authorities by the Minister of Education in Circulars 347 (see Appendix 2C) and 348. The Committee took the view that 'the child guidance service ... can treat most maladjusted children referred to it without the necessity of removing them from their normal environment of school or home ... .' (paragraph 204, U.R.). This involved treatment by teams consisting principally of psychiatrists, educational psychologists and psychiatric social workers. By 1966, 57,000 children were known to have received child guidance treatment during the year in England and

*Report of the Committee on Maladjusted Children (the Underwood Report). London: H.M.S.O., 1955. References to the Underwood Report in this Report are identified by the initials '(U.R.)'.


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Figure 2.8 Ratios of pupils treated at child guidance clinics during 1966 to school population by regions

Total number of pupils treated in England and Wales during 1966 was 57.061 (ratio 1 :131); regional totals are shown on the map. There are large local variations in ratios within some regions.


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Wales;* Figure 2.8 shows the regional distribution. Thus one schoolchild in every 130 was receiving help of this kind. These figures do not include other children who will have been helped in their schools by educational psychologists.

2.33 Educational psychologists' association with child guidance has substantially affected the development of their functions in local authority service, and it cannot be left out of account in plans for the future. We believe that interdisciplinary collaboration with psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers is a necessary background to the work which educational psychologists undertake in child guidance clinics and school psychological services, that it is highly desirable, and that it should be fostered wherever possible.

2.34 The Association of Psychiatric Social Workers have described interdisciplinary collaboration in their evidence to us.

'Recent years have seen a move from the close psychiatric team in the child guidance clinic into the wider context of the social and medical services particularly in the local authority community services. Psychiatric social workers, like other members of the psychiatric team, have become more flexible in their approach to families and to other services.

Psychiatric social workers work with the educational psychologist, mainly within the child guidance team, although some also work directly with the educational psychologist in the school psychological service. Here they will see the parents of children where the psychologist considers a social assessment is indicated, and will undertake regular work with the family where necessary.

The role of the educational psychologist and the psychiatric social worker will vary considerably according to the availability of other staff (particularly the child psychiatrists), the part played by other workers in the service, and the administrative setting of the service.

*    *    *

The disorders which are dealt with in child guidance clinics extend into the child's personal, family, social and educational life. No one discipline can be expert in all these aspects of the child's life and the contributions of colleagues trained in the field of psychiatry, psychology, education and the social sciences must be used effectively, each accepting the competence of his colleagues in their own field.'

2.35 As this description acknowledges, staff shortages and other circumstances sometimes circumscribe the

scope for collaboration; we make our assessment of the present situation and future prospects in Chapters 5 and 6.

Collaboration outside child guidance teams

2.36 The questionnaire sent to chief education officers listed six of the agencies and services concerned with children, and provision was made for others to be added by respondents. We asked for estimates of the frequency of contact with the services - at least once a month, at least once a year, or less often (see Appendix 2A). The results are given in Figure 2.9; Table 2B.18 gives them in detail. Contacts with children's departments were clearly closer than those with any other service; one out of every two educational psychologists (54%) worked with a children's officer at least once a month, and practically all the rest (38%) did so at least once a year. Contacts were also fairly close with probation officers; about one education psychologist in three (35%) worked with a probation officer at least once a month, and almost half (46%) once a year. The majority (64%) had direct contact with juvenile courts more often than once a year. Only 8% of educational psychologists frequently worked with youth employment officers, but over half of them (53%) worked with them less often than once a month. Relationships with community mental health services were little emphasised. There was practically no contact with the youth service; four out of five educational psychologists collaborated with the service less than once a year.

2.37 Respondents mentioned a variety of other services with which they had contacts, notably hospitals and local health authorities;** collaboration with special units for treating children with hearing or speech defects, with general practitioners, with universities and with colleges of education was also mentioned (see Table 2B.19).

Conclusions about educational psychologists' work

2.38 From our survey, three general points emerge:

(a) the psychological work which some educational psychologists undertake at present extends through all the responsibilities of local authorities for children and young people, and sometimes beyond;

(b) in some localities collaboration between educational psychologists and some other services has been established and has received special attention, the services concerned varying from locality to locality;

*Returns made to the Department of Education and Science on Forms 8M, to be published in Statistics of Education in 1965.

**18.5% mentioned the school health service; since this is part of the education service and closely associated with child guidance and school psychological services, we had not considered this to be an 'other' service. It seems to us possible that respondents who mentioned the school health service specifically may very well have had less contact with it than the majority who did not single it out.


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Figure 2.9 Estimates made by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 of frequency of contact with other services


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Plate D
For every child a psychologist interviews in clinics, he interviews two in schools.


Plate E
In the case of children at school, psychologists almost always meet their teachers.


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(c) some educational psychologists have developed specialist functions within the wider range of their duties.

Thus although psychological work with children and young people is a basic theme in the work of educational psychologists, there are many local and individual variations, so that variety rather than uniformity characterises patterns of work. The skills of educational psychologists may therefore come to be deployed in many different ways.

What is expected of educational psychologists 2.39 The diversity of the work which is considered proper for educational psychologists has been emphasised in evidence which we have received from other sources, including the professional associations of teachers and the local authority associations. As a consequence some educational psychologists may face demands which they find difficult to satisfy. Nearly all the psychologists employed by local authorities at the present time are educational psychologists. Like other psychologists, they are aware that scientific study and application of psychology are relevant to much that concerns our communities; today many non-psychologists also have expectations about contributions which they believe psychology can make, although the expectations are not always realistically based. Environment and facilities are important to us all, and because local authorities run the communities we live in they are directly responsible for many of the day-to-day matters which affect us most directly. But their business also includes some responsibility for the organisation of human beings and for the development of our immediate community structure. Authorities might well find psychological advice helpful in these aspects of their work, but it is only available to them so far in respect of some of their dealings with children and young people. To meet diverse demands psychologists trained in different skills are needed. Our terms of reference direct us to look at work in local education authorities. The special contribution of educational psychologists and their method of work is considered in Chapter 6; our recommendations are intended to facilitate the selection of work appropriate to educational psychologists. Furthermore, in Chapter 7 we look at initial training and we recommend ways in which specialised skills could be developed by advanced training.

Educational psychologists and local authority administration

The Underwood Report

2.40 There is no clearly established pattern for the organisation and administration of the services in England and Wales in which educational psychologists work. The Underwood Committee looked at the aspects of those services which were relevant to their terms of reference. The first of their recommendations was that 'there should be a comprehensive child guidance service available for the area of every local education authority', such a service comprising (a) child guidance clinics, whether provided by the local education authority or by the regional hospital board; (b) a school psychological service; and (c) aspects of the school health service.

2.41 The Report stressed that the closest co-operation between these components was essential but acknowledged that they did not form a single administrative unit (see paragraphs 161-164, U.R.). The Committee suggested that co-operation was to be secured by the sharing of staff (see paragraphs 200 and 201, U.R.) and that integration of the components of a 'comprehensive child guidance service' could be provided (a) by educational psychologists being employed both in the child guidance clinics and in the school psychological service, and (b) by psychiatrists, who were paid by regional hospital boards, working in the clinics.*

The Underwood pattern was subsequently commended to local education authorities by Circular 347 (see Appendix 2C), sent also to regional hospital boards and to local health authorities under cover of circulars from the Ministry of Health.

The statutory power to employ educational psychologists

2.42 The Education Acts make no mention of educational psychologists nor of the child guidance and school psychological services in which those employed by local authorities serve. Child guidance clinics are established

*The Underwood Committee stated their expectations in these terms: 'the usual threefold team of psychiatrist, educational psychologist and psychiatric social worker [would work] under the clinical direction of the psychiatrist. The psychiatrist himself usually works part-time in the child guidance clinic, and spends the remainder of his time in the hospital service or in private practice or in both. He is thus the main link between the clinic and the hospital and general practitioner services in the area. The educational psychologist should be the clinic's main link with the schools and the teachers ... Wherever possible a child should be seen in the clinic by the psychologist who is familiar, through the school psychological service, with the school from which the child comes. The psychiatric social worker should deal, as necessary, with the parents of both the children being treated at the clinic, under the direction of the psychiatrist, and of those receiving special help in the schools, on the advice of the psychologist. It is assumed that all three members of the clinic team will be in close touch, through the Principal School Medical Officer and (where he is not the same individual) the Medical Officer of Health, with the school health and child welfare services' (paragraphs 179-81, U.R.). The Committee had in mind psychiatrists with special training in child psychiatry (see paragraphs 393-6 and 399-400, U.R.).


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under Section 48 of the 1944 Act which lays a duty upon authorities to secure the provision of medical treatment for pupils in maintained schools; section 78(2) of the Act allows authorities to extend these powers to pupils in schools not maintained by them; section 78(1) allows them to be extended to pupils who receive education 'otherwise than at school', e.g. at home, in hospitals where there is no special school or in special classes not part of a school. There is no specific power under which school psychological services are provided; they are established under the ancillary powers which stem from the Education Acts as a whole. One of the fundamental duties of local .education authorities is to provide for children of different ages, abilities and aptitudes and to ensure that schools sufficient in number, character and equipment are available to meet the varying needs, including needs which require special assessment and provision; the employment of psychologists is relevant to the fulfilment of this duty.

The responsibilities of chief officers

2.43 The principal school medical officer is the chief officer usually responsible to a county or county borough council for child guidance clinics and other clinics forming part of the school health service which the council provide in their capacity as local education authority. He is appointed under Regulation 3(2) (a) of the School Health Service Regulations, 1959, and almost invariably holds a joint appointment as medical officer of health, and, in this other capacity, is chief officer to the health committee of the council. The chief education officer is usually responsible for the school psychological service because he is the chief officer responsible to a local education authority for the administration of education generally.

2.44 Where educational psychologists work part-time in child guidance clinics and part-time in school psychological services, as the Underwood Committee recommended (recommendation 12 and paragraph 168, U.R.), they are normally on the staffs of both chief officers. The arguments advanced by the Committee about the advantages that this arrangement affords for the work of educational psychologists have already been made clear. A possible criticism is that educational psychologists are asked to occupy a position in which, inherently, there are potential difficulties which may give rise to clashes of loyalties and misperceptions of function or other misunderstandings. These difficulties tend to be even greater in the less usual cases where different educational psychologists are working in child guidance clinics from those employed in the school psychological services in the same area. In these cases different members of the same profession are on the staffs of different chief officers, even though both services are the responsibility of the local education authority; our recommendation on the appropriate administrative setting is made in Chapter 6 (paragraph 6.41 and recommendation 6.R5).

Summary

2.45 This chapter has reviewed the statutory and administrative contexts in which educational psychologists work in local education authorities. It has presented the results of our survey of educational psychologists in employment, their numbers in different parts of England and Wales, and what they have told us about their training, the emphases of their work, and the varieties of collaboration in which it involves them. The next chapter is concerned with other evidence on the work of educational psychologists.

Main conclusion and recommendation

2.46 We conclude and recommend that:

2.R1 Interdisciplinary collaboration with psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers is a necessary background to the work which educational psychologists undertake in child guidance clinics and school psychological services: it is highly desirable and should be fostered wherever possible. (Paragraph 2.33; also paragraphs 6.78 and 7.21 )


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Chapter 3 Needs for psychological work in local authorities


Outline of chapter

Page
Introduction 3.125
Present pressures indicating future lines of development for psychological work in local authorities 3.225
Careers guidance 3.626
School counselling 3.927
Children's departments 3.1327
Local health authorities
(a) Pre-school children 3.1527
(b) Training centres 3.1729
Juvenile courts 3.1829
Probation service 3.1929
Further education 3.2030
Youth service 3.2130
Other calls on educational psychologists 3.2230
Conclusions and recommendations 3.2330


Introduction

3.1 In this chapter we consider views that have been submitted to us on demands for the services of psychologists, and especially on the demands associated less immediately with schools and with child guidance. Many of the views reflect needs for psychological services that have become apparent since the introduction of child guidance services in local education authorities. Some suggestions, which we have rejected, imply an undiscriminating use of educational psychologists and would require larger numbers of them than any that have been contemplated. In local authority services, psychological work with children should continue to be directed to bettering their development: schools, and the other services for which education authorities are responsible, make the principal public contribution to this process, and it would be inappropriate for other departments of local authorities to appoint psychologists for work with children. In Chapter 4 we consider evidence on qualifications and efficient and economical preparation for psychological work in local education authorities, and on factors that affect the recruitment of students for training. The numbers of psychologists that may be needed and that are likely to be forthcoming are considered in Chapter 5. Thereafter we give our views on productive work by educational psychologists and on its organisation in Chapter 6, and on training in Chapter 7. In the present chapter, therefore, we are mainly concerned with evidence on the extent of the field in which they ought to work.

Present pressures indicating future lines of development for psychological work in local authorities

3.2 We have received a great deal of evidence about the extent and the nature of demands for services of educational psychologists. We have been told that their services are increasingly called upon, not only by those working within the education service, but also by many others who are concerned with children and young people. Chief education officers and interested organisations have given their views on possible developments during the next ten to twenty years; most expect that calls upon psychologists will increase in range and scale; some envisage a very wide expansion. They have also emphasised to us needs for extended collaboration with other services concerned with children, whether or not these services are run by local authorities. All recognise that educational psychologists' work has been closely centred on children, at school and in their families; to an increasing extent it is also concerned with children before they go to school and after they have left. We are clear that this will continue to be the focus of their work, however widely psychological work may develop in other directions.

3.3 We asked all chief education officers for details of any duties which educational psychologists might appropriately carry out in their areas, but which could not be undertaken with their present staff (see Appendix 2A). A few replies indicated that the existing service adequately covered their requirements; the majority considered that additional staff were needed to meet them more fully. Some replies indicated that an extension of all aspects of the present work was desired, while the majority (62%) indicated specific kinds of work to which they wished more attention to be devoted. Greatest emphasis was given to the need for educational psychologists to be more available for consultation, not only by head teachers, teachers, parents and children, but also by other services concerned with children. There was a demand for more assistance, for example: (a) in alleviating learning and behaviour problems; (b) in giving special 'treatments to children, including remedial teaching; (c) in selecting children who need special educational treatment; and (d) in developing forms of special education. A substantial number of chief education officers wanted educational psychologists to organise and supervise remedial education; a few mentioned other duties such as supervising the administration of group tests and being responsible for expanding provisions for special educational treatment. There was a substantial demand for


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educational psychologists to help in the in-service and advanced training of teachers and to contribute to educational investigations. The views of chief education officers on the undesirability of help from psychologists being confined in a narrow sense to the education service were underlined by evidence from other sources.

3.4 In view of what has been said in Chapter 2 (paragraph 2.39) about educational psychologists being virtually the only psychologists employed so far by local authorities, it is understandable that requests for help with other services concerned with young people should be made; we believe that psychological advice should be available when required, and in present circumstances we accept that it is not unreasonable that educational psychologists employed by local education authorities should be able to help organisations outside the education service itself in appropriate ways. Many of the children and young people concerned are within the education system, and their interests are clearly within the responsibility of educational psychologists under a narrow definition of their duties; the interests of others, for example, children in training centres, are associated with education. There is therefore a strong tendency for the services of educational psychologists to be used more widely. When there is a shortage of educational psychologists this process adds to the difficulties of supply. We are nevertheless convinced that any alternative course would reduce close collaboration between services for children and would therefore be undesirable. It is clear that the practice of working with other services is well established (see paragraphs 2.36-2.37). Where contact is on matters appropriate to a psychologist with training and skills related to children and child development educational psychologists may properly respond whatever the service from which a call might originate. For psychologists to give advice and assistance on a wider scale than at present it would be necessary for them to do less work of other kinds or for their numbers to be increased in relation to the school population - or both; we consider the implications in Chapters 5 and 6.

3.5 For more detailed discussion in this chapter, we have selected psychological work in connection with choice of careers and other forms of counselling, and in collaboration with children's departments, local health authorities, juvenile courts and probation services; collaboration with these services was frequently mentioned in evidence to us. We also mention further education and the youth service, which did not feature strongly in evidence although they are parts of the education service for which psychological advice could be valuable.

Careers guidance

3.6 There is substantial support for the view that educational psychologists should participate in careers guidance. It is likely that proposals for this development have been stimulated by the Underwood Report which recommended that a service of personal help under the local education authority should be available to boys and girls who have left school, and that child guidance and youth employment services should co-operate in this (paragraphs 332-338, 344 and 345, and recommendation 77, U.R.). The report* of the Working Party on the Handicapped School Leaver, under the chairmanship of Dr. Elfed Thomas, similarly recommended that guidance given to a handicapped child about to leave school should follow consultation between the youth employment service and others with knowledge of the child and an interest in his welfare; a guidance team for handicapped leavers is mentioned in Careers Guidance in Schools.** Consultation should start during school life, continuing during the transition from school to work, and cover more than placement in employment. It is appropriate that educational psychologists should participate, particularly in the case of maladjusted children; but the need for psychological advice for deaf, cerebrally palsied and educationally sub-normal children, and children with other handicaps, is becoming increasingly apparent. For ordinary school leavers, educational psychologists and other specialists need to be brought in only in exceptional cases by youth employment officers, careers masters, school counsellors and others who normally give advice. The work of teams concerned with the problems of entry into employment, however, is likely to be increasingly influential.

3.7 Youth employment officers also encounter adjustment problems in young workers, e.g. those who are chronically unemployed, or who are persistent job changers, or who signs of break-down on changing from school to work; and they feel the need for psychological advice in connection with them. They are also aware of students failing on courses of higher or further education for whom help is also required.

3.8 These sorts of collaboration would enable young people to use more effectively talents which they have developed in the education system. Educational psychologists have not been able to develop collaboration in this field to any great extent hitherto, and they have looked upon it as a peripheral aspect of their work. It would be necessary for other work expected of them to be differently organised if they were to have sufficient time to give more of their attention to work with young people; and more educational psychologists would be needed. Legislation would also be needed, as the Underwood Committee

*The Handicapped School-leaver, Recommendations XVII and XXXII. London: British Council for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled, 1963.

**Careers Guidance in Schools. London: H.M.S.O., 1965.


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made clear, in respect of boys and girls who have left school (paragraph 346, U.R.).

School counselling

3.9 School counsellors are employed both in elementary and in high schools in the U.S.A.;· their function is now well established. In high schools they give guidance to students on choosing careers and on educational matters, for example in choosing between subjects; in addition, they advise on personal problems. In elementary schools their work consists almost entirely of personal counselling, and there is considerable overlap with work of school psychologists. Courses of advanced training to prepare teachers for school counselling work have been established in several universities in England. Although teachers from these courses are already employed by some local education authorities, they are as yet few in number, and no one clear function or administrative pattern has yet emerged in this country. In large schools however, in which many responsibilities must be delegated, we expect that those concerned with counselling will become the channel for communications between their schools and social services generally; we also expect them to be particularly concerned in relations with school psychological services, child guidance and other psychiatric services.

3.10 It is desirable to avoid wasteful duplication of channels through which help is given in schools, and it will therefore be an advantage to avoid confusion between the work of counsellors and of educational psychologists. Hence we have given some attention to differences between their functions.

3.11 Educational psychologists can help schoolchildren who show signs of stress or school failure, but they are not the only people who can do so. The British Psychological Society does not hold that no one but a psychologist should advise on signs of stress, and the Society would welcome a dissemination of appropriate psychological knowledge among teachers and others who might work as counsellors. We agree with the Society's view that this could do much to avoid situations likely to lead to stress. Anyone giving personal advice will encounter problems of a psychological nature; school counsellors may discover psychological problems of considerable severity which had not previously been suspected. To determine the causes is often difficult and to advise on personal relationships where disturbed personalities are involved is an especially delicate matter.

3.12 Counsellors should be able to rely on help in dealing with difficulties involving psychological disturbances; they need to know what specialised psychiatric and psychological assistance a child guidance service can provide, and also to recognise when it is indispensable. We do not think that they need be an integral part of psychological services, but psychologists and counsellors should co-operate closely.

Children's departments

3.13 Children's officers wish to be able to consult educational psychologists to a far greater extent than is at present possible. The major contribution that they seek is the assessment of children who may be at reception centres, in remand homes, living in children's homes or hostels, attending approved schools or living in their own or foster homes. The development of family services, given impetus by the Children and Young Person's Act. 1963, is expected to increase demands for psychological advice. Moreover, because educational psychologists are known to be informed about the complex system of organisations available for helping children with difficulties, there is also an expectation that they can help to secure the collaboration of these services.

3.14 The work that educational psychologists undertake in connection with children who are in care, or who are otherwise the concern of children's committees, is not separable or distinct from their work with children in other circumstances. We have been told of one or two areas where the services of educational psychologists are exclusively linked to children's departments; but we believe that it would be a retrograde step for separate arrangements of this kind to become general, since they would lead both to unnecessary duplication of services for children and to professional isolation of those concerned. We doubt whether it is necessary for all children for whom children's departments have responsibilities to be seen by psychologists, and we do not therefore recommend a referral for 'screening' in all cases. Some children coming into care will already be known to the child guidance service; children's officers themselves will generally be able to distinguish those other children for whom psychological help may be required. The needs of the children should be paramount. We believe that collaboration with educational psychologists, which we accept as desirable, will assist children's officers in assessing the needs of the children for whom they work.

Local health authorities

(a) Pre-school children

3.15 At present there is no clearly defined single source from which psychological help and advice can be

*In the United States it is assumed that every child will go to the neighbourhood public elementary school from the age of six; the upper age is fourteen or, in some schools, twelve. Nearly every child goes on to high school, generally co-educational and completely comprehensive, where they may graduate at around eighteen.


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Plate F
Psychologists with training and experience with very young children should be available to work with medical services concerned with pre-school children.


Plate G
An educational psychologist with a group of teenagers: advice should be available for young people on their personal relationships and on their problems.


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obtained for children of below school age. The years between birth and the age of five are crucial for children's development, physical, mental and emotional; the identification of difficulties and deficiencies at an early stage, followed by early remedial action, is likely to be more effective at this stage than at any other stage of development. This is becoming recognised and increasing attention is being paid to counselling parents on the handling of children whose development is anomalous. Medical officers of health and school medical officers, doctors in maternity and child welfare clinics, paediatricians in hospitals, and general practitioners are all becoming more concerned with pre-school children; we have been told, however, that there is a need for specialist assessments of kinds which are beyond the range of present medical training. Medical witnesses have suggested that psychologists with appropriate training and experience with very young children are needed to participate in this field, in whatever ways it may develop. Although the present training of educational psychologists does not normally equip them specifically for this work, and it is exceptional for them to have had extensive experience of very young children, we accept that changes could be made to enable some educational psychologists to work with them. It appears likely that clinical psychologists with appropriate training and experience could also playa part in this field.

3.16 The Plowden Report* recommended that all children should be examined before entry to school for the purpose of assessing their developmental and medical needs (recommendation 28). It is there suggested that children who need special consideration or arrangements, such as delayed entry to school or attendance part-time initially, could be identified and the information could form the basis of a record of children who might need special care during their school careers. It appears to us from the views expressed by school medical officers that they would like educational psychologists to participate if any such scheme involving pre-school developmental assessment should be evolved. It would be impossible on grounds of supply for educational psychologists to make a routine examination of all children before they start school, but there may be particular cases where they can playa part; for example, they might be concerned with special arrangements for the transition of some children into school.

(b) Training centres

3.17 Many mentally handicapped children attend training centres which are usually run by local health authorities. These children have learning and emotional difficulties and the staff of the centres face problems which are similar to those of teachers in special schools. It is difficult to identify abilities and skills which might be developed in such children and to assess their progress. Psychologists' contributions to techniques for developing the assets of mentally handicapped children and adults** reinforce the view that it would be an advantage for the staffs of all training centres to be able to consult educational psychologists. Continuity of support, both for mentally handicapped children and for their families, is socially desirable.

Juvenile courts

3.18 The growing appreciation of contributions made by child guidance clinics and school psychological services to the decisions of juvenile courts is to be welcomed. The problems that demands from the courts make upon psychologists need however to be recognised. The task of providing evidence for judicial proceedings is in itself at variance with a fundamental professional approach in which the needs of individual children come first; hence these demands are a source of conflict for psychologists, as they are for members of other professions whose main concern is to give help to individuals. When special reports are called for, the hearing of a case is frequently put back to enable them to be obtained; and there is then a measure of urgency which means that the problems of a child before a juvenile court gain attention ahead of those of other children. Court work therefore disrupts other priorities. Moreover, a report, having been asked for and obtained, may then not be considered by the court. Hence, magistrates, and others concerned with children and young people who come before the courts, are to encouraged to make increasingly discriminating use of evidence of this kind. The Magistrates Association, the British Psychological Society and other associations concerned should consider ways in which this process might be furthered.

Probation service

3.19 Probation officers may also seek consultation and advice about some of the children who have been placed under their care, and who may already be known to educational psychologists and to their child guidance colleagues. Meeting these requests can also become a cumulative commitment for educational psychologists but they ought not to be regarded as a burden extraneous to the main work. We see no acceptable alternative to regarding psychological work for children on probation as a responsibility for educational psychologists. They should

*Children and their Primary Schools, a report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (England). London: H.M.S.O., 1967.

**See Clarke, A. M. and Clarke, A. D. B. (eds.). Mental Deficiency: the changing outlook. London: Methuen, 1958;
Gunzburg, H. C. Social Rehabilitation of the Subnormal. London: Baillière. Tindall and Cox, 1960;
Tizard, J. Community Services for the Mentally Handicapped. london: Oxford University Press, 1964.


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be available to co-operate with probation officers engaged in case-work with children and young people who have been before the courts.

Further education

3.20 Under the powers which they have at present, a local education authority can provide child guidance for pupils up to the age of eighteen* for whom further education (or secondary education) is provided at such places as colleges of further education maintained by them. We received very little evidence that educational psychologists were working with this group of pupils, and none to suggest that they should. Nevertheless, some students following courses of further education require help of the kind that educational psychologists and their professional colleagues can give; this may be a point of growth in the future, and any obstacles to its development should be removed.

Youth service

3.21 A main purpose of the youth service is to help young people in their development from childhood to full adult responsibility by offering them 'leisure time' opportunities to mix socially, to enrich their interests, and to seek personal advice if they should need it. The youth service may in future be expected to become more outward-looking to the community generally, and 'more in touch with other helping agencies; youth workers, correspondingly, may be expected to assume more of a counselling role. Some developments of this kind are already taking place. For example, in one city a young people's advisory service has been established in conjunction with a marriage and family guidance council; contact with child guidance services is established. Although very few educational psychologists at present have regular contacts with the youth service, it is important that collaboration from child guidance services should be available as youth services develop a counselling function. Contacts between educational psychologists and the youth service are therefore likely to increase, and psychologists should contribute either directly by counselling young people or by giving help through those who work with them.

Other calls on educational psychologists

3.22 It has been suggested to us that educational psychologists should have a variety of other responsibilities, including some responsibilities of an educational nature, which we do not consider to be appropriate for psychologists under normal circumstances; our detailed recommendations in Chapter 6 need to be read in conjunction with this chapter. We recognise that special situations may arise, perhaps in smaller authorities, where definitions of function may be less straightforward because of smaller establishments. But, in general, there can be no case for inappropriate uses of highly trained manpower; for reasons which are explored in Chapters 5 and 6, we do not think that educational psychologists should be employed on duties in which their training and skills are underused, nor for calls to be made on them at present for a wide range of services than those we have discussed in this chapter.

Conclusions and recommendations

3.23 We conclude and recommend that:

Main conclusions and recommendations

3.R1 The psychological needs of children, at school and in their families, should continue to be the focus of psychologists' work in education services. Increasing attention to the psychological needs of children before they go to school, and of young people for a year or two after they have left, would be appropriate. (Paragraph 3.2)

3.R2 Psychologists' services should also be available for children and young people about whom departments and organisations outside the education service are concerned. (Paragraph 3.4)

3.R3 Psychological work with children should continue to be directed to bettering their development: schools, and the other services for which education authorities are responsible, make the principal public contribution to this process: it would be inappropriate for other departments of local authorities to appoint psychologists for work with children. (Paragraph 3.1 )

3R.4 Psychologists should not be employed on duties in which their training and skills are underused; there can be no case for inappropriate use of highly trained manpower. (See also Recommendation 6.R3) (Paragraph 3.22)

Contributory recommendations

3.R5 It is appropriate for psychologists to participate in careers guidance for handicapped school-leavers and for their advice to be available for other young people; the work of teams concerned with entry into employment is likely to be increasingly influential. (Paragraph 3.6)

*Teenagers nowadays object to being regarded as children; some of them resist the idea of being helped at a place called a 'Child Guidance Clinic'. This is an understandable reaction on the part of older pupils and students. In this sense the very success of child guidance has caused it to outgrow its name. Difficult though it may be to contemplate, we believe that a change of name would make the service more acceptable to young people, and therefore more effective for them. The change might simply be to 'Guidance Service' and 'Guidance Centre'.


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3.R6 School counsellors and staffs of child guidance and school psychological services should cooperate closely. (Paragraph 3.12)

3.R7 The staffs of children's departments and of child guidance and school psychological services should co-operate closely. (Paragraph 3.14)

3.R8 Psychologists with training and experience with very young children should be available to work with medical services concerned with pre-school children. (Paragraphs 3.15 and 3.16)

3.R9 Educational psychologists should be available for consultation by the staffs of training centres for mentally handicapped children and young people. (Paragraph 3.17)

3.R10 The growing appreciation of contributions made by child guidance clinics and school psychological services to court decisions is to be welcomed: magistrates, and others concerned with children and young people who come before the courts, are to be encouraged to make increasingly discriminating use of guidance of this kind: the Magistrates Association, the British Psychological Society and other associations concerned should consider ways in which this process might be furthered. (Paragraph 3.18)

3.R11 Psychological work for children and young people who appear before the courts is a responsibility which educational psychologists cannot and should not seek to avoid. (Paragraph 3.18)

3.R12 Educational psychologists should be available to co-operate with probation officers engaged in case-work with children and young people who have been before the courts. (Paragraph 3.19)

3.R13 Psychological advice should be available for young people on their personal relationships and on their problems; educational psychologists should contribute either directly by counselling young people or by giving help through those who work with them. (Paragraphs 3.20 and 3.21)




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Chapter 4 Academic and professional qualifications


Outline of chapter

Page
Introduction 4.133
Preferred Qualifications 4.233
Qualifications in psychology and in educational psychology 4.934
Teaching experience and teacher training 4.1435
Influences of sources of support for postgraduate training 4.2336

Sources of postgraduate students:
the changing patterns of entry into educational psychology 4.27

37
Teaching experience for educational psychologists 4.3038
(a) Relationships with children 4.3238
(b) Relationships with teachers 4.3639
(c) Understanding the education system 4.3839
Teaching experience and teacher training, and alternative qualifications for educational psychologists 4.3939
Routes into educational psychology 4.4140
Conclusions and recommendations 4.4340
Appendices
Report on memoranda from postgraduate training departments for educational psychologists Appendix 4A119
Report on memoranda from university departments of psychology Appendix 4B123


Introduction

4.1 In this chapter we consider the qualifications which local authorities commonly require of applicants for posts as educational psychologists. We go on to examine the background to these requirements and to assess them in relation to the evidence which we have received about the need to maintain efficient and economical methods of preparation for psychological work in education services, and about factors that affect the recruitment of students for training.

Preferred qualifications

4.2 An educational psychologist who is taking up a first appointment at the present time is commonly expected to have the following qualifications: (a) an honours degree in psychology (or an equivalent qualification in psychology); (b) postgraduate training in educational psychology; (c) experience of teaching in schools extending over three years (in which a year spent in teacher training may be included). An honours degree in psychology and some experience of teaching have been regarded as requirements for admission to postgraduate training in educational psychology.

4.3 By no means all newly appointed educational psychologists have all these qualifications. There is no statutory requirement for recognition of educational psychologists and individual education authorities are responsible for setting the standards by which they assess the qualifications of the psychologists whom they appoint. Shortage of supply in relation to demand has influenced appointments, and supply and demand, which are examined in detail in the next chapter, impose an even more stringent discipline on thinking about the future. Evidence submitted to us nevertheless implies that employers look for these qualifications in making appointments.

4.4 The Association of Educational Psychologists now require them of new members, although 'at the time of the Association's formation', (the constitution was accepted by a meeting held on 14 April 1962) membership was open to all who were already employed as local authority educational psychologists.

4.5 The British Psychological Society, in their submission to us, discussed 'training at all stages', and, in particular, the three qualifications in paragraph 4.2, above. (a) The Society made it clear that they would 'admit of no compromise' on the requirement that educational psychologists must be university graduates, with either a straight honours degree in psychology or a degree of some other kind together with evidence of having 'pursued approved academic studies in psychology to a standard qualifying them to proceed to a postgraduate qualification in psychology'; in setting their own standards for membership, the Society 'have always sought evidence of a satisfactory range and standard of work including rigorous training in scientific methods and attitudes and laid great emphasis on experimental work'. (b) In addition, the Society regarded as indispensable a postgraduate 'professional training in the applications of psychology to the cases of individuals', and they stressed the necessity for practical work, 'in a multidisciplinary setting', 'on the personal and educational problems of children'. (c) Finally, they told us in their memorandum that there were differences of opinion within the Society on whether or not experience of teaching should be required of all educational psychologists; they suggested that there were alternatives, although 'it goes without saying that [educational psychologists] must have a sound knowledge of the educational and social influences affecting children'.

4.6 The seven 'postgraduate training departments' which provide courses of postgraduate training in educational


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psychology* have given us their views on five elements which might enter into the training and qualifications of educational psychologists. The consensus of opinion puts the greatest emphasis equally on an honours degree in psychology and on postgraduate training in educational psychology; some experience of teaching comes next in the relative order, and then, with somewhat less emphasis still, teacher training; least weight is given to other experience of work with normal children (see Appendix 4A, paragraph 4A.19). The consistency of these general opinions is high with only minor variations; the background to them is considered below.

4.7 The heads of twenty university departments of psychology preparing undergraduate students for honours degrees in psychology have also given us their views on the same five points. The consensus of these views places greatest emphasis upon the scientific training for an honours degree and then upon postgraduate training in educational psychology; experience of work as a teacher and of other work with normal children follow; least weight is given to teacher training and some replies were critical of the long-term value of a year spent in this kind of training (see Appendix 4B, paragraph 4B.45). Again, the consistency of these opinions is high (see Appendix 4B, Table 4B.i; the appendix is a summary of the views of heads of university departments of psychology).

4.8 There is a general agreement among these views and others submitted to us that an honours degree or an equivalent qualification in psychology, and postgraduate training in educational psychology are essential. There is disagreement about the traditional assumption that experience of teaching, with or without teacher training, is needed by all psychologists in education services.

Qualifications in psychology and in educational psychology

4.9 We recommend that an honours degree in psychology, or study of psychology which is accepted as the equivalent, is an essential qualification for all educational psychologists.

4.10 An honours degree in psychology,** with emphasis on a good honours degree in some cases, is generally required for psychological appointments as evidence of scientific training. It is required for entry to the Psychologist Class of the Civil Service, for work in the Defence departments, Prison Service, Ministry of Labour and elsewhere; it is required for entry to postgraduate training in clinical psychology, whether in university departments or in the National Health Service, and for other specialisation in applied psychology, as well as for research and university appointments.

4.11 Alternatives to an honours degree as such include higher degrees. The great majority of students who continue to Masters or Ph.D. degrees in psychology already have a first degree in the subject, but a small proportion are graduates in other subjects who have transferred, usually by completing a qualifying course and examination. The alternatives also include some higher degrees in which psychology has been combined with another subject, for example, the postgraduate Master of Education degree of the Scottish universities,*** in which psychology is combined with education, when the student has specialised in psychology rather than in an aspect of education.

4.12 We recommend that educational psychologists should have postgraduate training; our recommendations for. maintaining variety in the methods of training and high professional standards are in Chapter 7.

4.13 The trend in other fields of applied psychology is towards courses of postgraduate professional training lasting two years and leading to Masters degrees; such courses have been established in clinical and in occupational psychology, for instance. These courses emphasise three main kinds of professional preparation: (a) an advanced and detailed specialisation in particular theoretical aspects of psychology is developed from the basis of students' first degree courses; (b) instruction and practice in relevant professional skills are introduced; and, (c) the ways in which these skills depend for their validity and their further development on continued research and investigation are not only stressed, but the methods of achieving these results are taught. Postgraduate training in educational psychology shares these features in principle. It does so in the specialised emphasis in postgraduate courses on such topics as the following, which receive due emphasis in undergraduate courses: individual human development, and developmental psychology in a wider biological context; behavioural processes in social groups; the sources of individual differences in personality and intelligence; and psychological processes involved in learning, in thinking and in the acquisition and use of language. Relevant professional skills are certainly

*The postgraduate training departments are described in Chapter 7, paragraphs 7.9 to 7.13 .

**See Chapter 2, paragraph 2.22. At some universities psychology may be studied with other subjects; joint honours degrees in which a study of psychology made up at least half the course are accepted by the British Psychological Society as the equivalent of an honours degree in psychology. We recommend the adoption of the Society's standard.

***Formerly known as Bachelor of Education; cf. Chapter 2, paragraph 2.22. and Table 2B.7; of the 101 educational psychologists with higher degrees, fifty held B.Ed. or Ed. B. degrees.


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emphasised in the postgraduate courses. It has been put to us, however, that an inquiring approach to new developments and the methods of achieving them is less commonly a feature of postgraduate training in educational psychology than it tends to be in the case of courses in clinical psychology, and that this is one factor which inclines students to choose clinical psychology; the postgraduate training departments have confirmed in their evidence to us that they lack the time in one-year courses to do what they would like to do in these directions.

Teaching experience and teacher training

4.14 Ought all educational psychologists to have taught? Unlike the other qualifications, doubt has been expressed about the necessity for this qualification in the evidence submitted to us, including evidence from some of the postgraduate training departments themselves.

4.15 Two or three years of teaching experience are at present generally required before a postgraduate training department in England or Wales will accept a candidate holding an honours degree in psychology for a one-year course leading to a postgraduate diploma in educational psychology.* Experience of teaching thus occupies a substantial proportion of the minimum time in which a student entering an honours degree course can achieve full qualifications in educational psychology. The normal minimum is seven years: 3 years for a degree + 3 years of teaching experience + 1 year for a postgraduate diploma in educational psychology; it becomes at least eight years if teacher training, for which some postgraduate training departments look, is included. An 'integrated' pattern of postgraduate training, such as that at the Tavistock Clinic and at the University College of Swansea,** takes four years, (1 year of teacher training + 2 years of teaching experience + 1 year for postgraduate diploma) and hence does not reduce the total time of seven years.

4.16 The British Psychological Society said in their evidence to us: The necessity for substantial experience in teaching as a pre-training requirement for all educational psychologists is a matter of controversy in the Society'. They continued:

'There is considerable support for the view that it has a lower priority than the scientific training and the practical and "clinical" training. Whereas in our view experience as a teacher is an asset in some aspects of the educational psychologist's work, and in some circumstances may be indispensable, we would suggest that there may be other ways in which some entrants might during training gain the requisite knowledge of the field in which they are to apply psychology'.
4.17 The heads of university departments of psychology have said emphatically that the length of training discourages undergraduates from considering educational psychology as a career, and that having to enter an intermediate career, teaching, is still more of a deterrent. Time spent on preliminary requirements shortens effective working life and hence affects supply. No other field of professional work in applied psychology has such a requirement.

4.18 What are students expected to learn from devoting some time to the practice of teaching that is essential to their becoming educational psychologists? Why should this investment of time be required? These questions seem hardly to have been examined and never to have been resolved. It seems simply to have been assumed that educational psychologists should have taught. Ministry of Education Circular 160 to local education authorities on 'Training of Staff for Child Guidance' (29 January, 1948) stated without elaboration that 'teaching experience ... should be regarded as essential for work in this field' in outlining the qualifications of candidates for one-year courses of postgraduate training in educational psychology.

4.19 The British Psychological Society stated in their evidence to the Underwood Committee in 1951 that the pre-training requirements for educational psychologists assumed by way of background: 'some knowledge of educational matters and experience of teaching children. (Preference is given to candidates with a recognised teaching qualification and three or more years' teaching experience.)' But they offered no reasons.

4.20 The Underwood Committee themselves asserted: 'Teaching experience is clearly an essential part of an educational psychologist's background' (paragraph 411, U.R.). They went on to suggest that the acceptability of psychologists to teachers depended on this background and hence, by implication, that it was not enough to be a good psychologist.

4.21 School psychological services developed as they did because psychologists were forthcoming from among teachers who went on to become graduates in psychology, although it has always been the case that some psychologists in education services have not been school teachers first.

4.22 Our own researches indicate that assumptions about the essential need for teaching experience may be very

*For the student to be accepted under the arrangements for the further training of teachers which allow a local education authority to 'pool' the cost of seconding him on salary, three years of teaching have been required, except where the employer and the training institution concerned agree that a shorter period is justified (see paragraphs 4.28 and 4.29; see also paragraph 7.47 on the new provisions of the Local Government Act 1966, Schedule 1).

**See Chapter 7, paragraph 7.12.


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largely historical in origin. Thirty to forty years ago there were few university departments of psychology with few students; a substantial proportion of these students had become teachers first, and had been led to study psychology as a consequence. In several of the ten departments that had been established by 1939, it was possible for such students to read psychology on a part-time basis, because time-tables were so arranged as to enable them to attend after school. The nineteen-thirties were also the time when it began to be apparent that there was a need for psychologists in the education services, a need which became more explicit after the Education Act of 1944 and the inclusion of 'maladjusted' pupils in the Handicapped Pupils and School Health Service Regulations, 1945, as one of six new categories. From that time onwards local education authorities became increasingly concerned to develop child guidance and school psychological services; by 1950 they had appointed about one hundred psychologists, many of whom had first been teachers.

Influences of sources of support for postgraduate training

4.23 In the later nineteen-forties financial Support of any kind for students who wished to undergo postgraduate training in any field of psychology was highly uncertain; the supply of students to departments offering specialised training for psychological work in education was therefore also small and uncertain. In the case of qualified teachers who happened to have an honours degree in psychology, or an equivalent qualification, or who contrived to obtain one, a special argument could be deployed: it could be argued that, since the object of the advanced training in psychology was specifically to supply psychologists for work in the service of education, such teachers merited financial support because of the service they had already given to education, as teachers. Hence students of psychology who were attracted to work with children and who contemplated a career in educational psychology, but who had not taught, were advised to teach for a sufficient length of time after they had graduated to make themselves eligible for this kind of financial support. But the length of teaching service required for eligibility was indefinite; less definite still was the crucial issue of whether or not financial support would be forthcoming at the end of it.

4.24 The linking of postgraduate training in educational psychology to the Ministry of Education's arrangements for courses of training for teachers emerged fortuitously out of these circumstances. Reference has already been made in paragraph 4.18 to Ministry of Education Circular 160, of 29 January 1948, on 'Training of Staff for Child Guidance'. It made suggestions to local education authorities for the first time about the training of educational psychologists. One of its objects was 'to increase the supply of suitable students' for 'the necessary specialised postgraduate training in work with children, clinical or experimental' which was then 'undertaken by a few Universities, by the Child Guidance Training Centre, by the Tavistock Clinic and other selected Child Guidance Clinics, and by a few of the Teaching Hospitals'. It extended recognition 'for grant expenditure by local Education Authorities' to 'seconding and paying the salaries of teachers, accepted by a University or Training Institution, for a period not exceeding one year ... for a course of training qualifying them for posts as educational psychologists in the Child Guidance Service and analogous work'. It allowed the year to 'count for increment and pension'. In both these ways it excepted one-year courses of postgraduate training in educational psychology from restrictions to an upper limit of three months which were imposed by Board of Education Circular 1453 (11 March 1937) on other 'Courses for Teachers'. It was hoped that 'Authorities will take full advantage of this concession'. It suggested: 'The only condition which need be attached to secondment is that the teacher intends on completing the training to return to work in the educational field: but it is, of course, open to an Authority, if they consider it necessary, to require a candidate to accept employment for a period in their service after training'. It was a step forward and it offered an initiative to local education authorities. Nevertheless: (a) 'recognition for grant' still left part of the cost of secondment to be met out of local funds by the seconding local education authority itself; (b) by so doing, it tended strongly to link decisions about secondment of possible candidates to whether or not the local education authority employing a candidate as a teacher had a vacancy for an educational psychologist, and wanted him to fill it; (c) it was a scheme for teachers; it was not a scheme for psychologists which would enable them to become specially trained for work with children in the education services.

4.25 Circular 160 did not specify any minimum period of teaching service as a qualification for its provisions and it made no suggestion to local education authorities on this point. Ministry of Education Administrative Memorandum No. 266 on 'Training of Teachers', however, was issued on 16 February 1948, at much the same time as Circular 160. The Administrative Memorandum was concerned in part with special one year courses for experienced serving teachers, but it was not concerned with the postgraduate courses in educational psychology of Circular 160 and they were not included in the list of courses to which it applied. The Administrative Memorandum outlined a


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special system of grants ('subject to a "student's contribution" based on an assessment of the teacher's own income') which were available for its courses; it did not allow secondment on salary; but it did stipulate 'not less than five years' teaching service' as the normal condition of eligibility.

4.26 Since five years' service was required for grants for one year courses paid to students by the Ministry, there can be little doubt that local education authorities would apply at least as severe a condition in considering secondments on salary which they would pay themselves, if they were willing to follow Circular 160 at all. Hence, it seems quite clear that arrangements for postgraduate training, in 1948, owed very much more to administrative arrangements that applied to teachers than they did to any analysis of what was needed to produce educational psychologists in the most effective and economical way. This state of affairs tended to establish a particular pattern and a particular tradition. It has persisted in spite of the fact that nowadays far fewer of them have had teaching experience before taking their degree in psychology; graduates who have started with an honours degree in psychology have become the main source of psychologists entering the education services.

Sources of postgraduate students: the changing pattern of entry into educational psychology

4.27 This changing pattern of qualifications is apparent among the 343 educational psychologists who were in service on 1 May 1965. Of educational psychologists who had taken their honours degrees in psychology (or equivalent) by 1954, the majority (58%) had trained as teachers first; after 1954, only 40% had trained as teachers first (see Table 4.1). Moreover, the smallest proportion of psychologists who had not trained as teachers is in the oldest age group; the proportion who had not so trained increases progressively up to date (see Table 2B.7, column 2, Appendix 2B). Furthermore, up to

Table 4.1 Numbers of educational psychologists in service on 1 May 1965, with and without teacher training, in relation to the date of their honours degree or equivalent qualification in psychology

1954 only 25% did not train as teachers at all, whereas after 1955, 45% did not train as teachers.

The trend away from teacher training as a first qualification has been a progressive one among those who were in service on 1 May 1965, as the more detailed Table 2B.11 shows; the proportion without teacher training was 57% of those who had taken a first qualification in the five years 1960-64. The trend parallels an expansion in the number of university departments of psychology and of undergraduate places in them. There were ten departments in the United Kingdom in 1939; there were 199 honours graduates from twenty departments in 1960 and 373 from twenty-four departments in 1964; by 1967, there were 667 honours graduates from thirty departments* (see Table 4B.1, Appendix 4B).

4.28 Postgraduate training in educational psychology having been set in the context of courses of advanced training for teachers twenty years ago, there it has remained. Subsequent changes have embedded it further in them. The first far reaching change occurred almost at once. The postgraduate course in the Department of Education at Birmingham which was started in 1948 was included as a one year course of advanced training for teachers from 1949; students at Birmingham therefore were supported by a Ministry of Education grant, covering the tuition fee and a contribution to maintenance, while Circular 160 continued to apply to the other courses. From 1955-56, but again only in the case of Birmingham, teachers employed by local education authorities could be seconded on full salary to the course at Birmingham and the expenditure incurred by local education authorities could be charged to the training college 'pool'; the Ministry of Education continued to pay the tuition fee, and continued to be willing to make grants to teachers who were ineligible for secondment (see footnote to p.108, U.R.). The anomalous position of the course at Birmingham in relation to the other courses was resolved in 1962 by bringing all the other courses under the umbrella of 'Special Courses of Advanced Study for Qualified Teachers' and extending the training college 'pool' to them (Administrative Memorandum No. 21/61; Addendum No.1; 14 March 1962). A concession was made at the same time; although 'Not less than five years' qualified teaching experience' continued to be a condition of eligibility for all other 'Special Courses of Advanced Study', the

*In October 1967 universities in the United Kingdom admitted 691 full-time undergraduate students to first degree or diploma courses in psychology (Fifth Report, 1966-67, Table 4, subject no. 46. London: Universities Central Council on Admissions, 1968). Of these students, 638 had applied through U.C.C.A. arrangements (ibid, Table 3, subject no. 46; this figure is not strictly comparable with the figure for October, 1966, given in paragraph 5.30 because there were changes of definition during the year; cf. footnote to paragraph 5.30).


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requirement was reduced to three years in the case of postgraduate training in educational psychology as a particular exception. It was noted that the Underwood Committee had 'expressed the hope that many applicants for training as educational psychologists would have had longer teaching experience than this' (Administrative Memorandum 21/61, Addendum 1, paragraph 6; see also paragraphs409-412, U.R.).

4.29 Some of the uncertainties inherent in Circular 160 were removed by these developments, as was no doubt the admirable intention. Bringing all the postgraduate courses of training in educational psychology within the arrangements for pooling expenditure on teacher training among all authorities meant that when a local education authority seconded a candidate for training it had no longer to bear the cost from its own resources, as it had had to do under Circular 160. Making use of the 'training college pool', however, was a device which was adopted in order to bring the costs of postgraduate training in educational psychology within the scope of pooling arrangements at all. Hence this financial expedient has had the incidental consequence of fixing the professional training of educational psychologists firmly and officially in the setting of advanced training for teachers. It has no bearing on what kind of training is essential in order to produce educational psychologists from graduates in psychology. We have therefore been led to examine the traditional requirement of teaching experience for all educational psychologists in terms of the purposes which it is supposed to fulfil, and to ask if it does so in the most effective and economical way.

Teaching experience for educational psychologists

4.30 The functions of educational psychologists have two essential aspects, unaffected by differing views on the role and extent to which diversification may be appropriate: (1) psychological, for which special skills and a particular professional approach are needed, and (2) educational, for which understanding of the educational scene and the implications of applying psychology to education in the widest sense is required. It is to prepare educational psychologists for their functions in relation to education that experience of teaching is advocated as part of their training.

4.31 Teaching experience is held to be needed by educational psychologists on the grounds that it assists them in three main ways: (a) in relationships with children, (b) in relationships with teachers, and (c) in attaining a thorough knowledge and understanding of the education system. The points are considered in the paragraphs which follow.

(a) Relationships with children

4.32 We have been told that, for their subsequent dealings with children, experience of teaching in an ordinary school can be of benefit to educational psychologists in the following ways: (i) by giving them some practical knowledge of normal ch ild development, essential to all kinds of work in educational psychology; (ii) by demonstrating the range of 'normal' behaviour, which may vary within wider limits than is commonly appreciated; this too, is essential for educational psychologists, especially so since in child guidance teams they may be the only workers with an appreciation of this range; and (iii) by giving the opportunity to observe and study interactions of children in groups, and the effect which a school community, different social situations and different teaching techniques have on children. There is agreement that this kind of opportunity is of value for educational psychologists, but that it is essential experience for all of them has been questioned.

4.33 How effective is teaching as a means of acquiring these advantages for educational psychologists? Teaching certainly offers an opportunity to observe children as they develop and also to recognise the wide range of normal child behaviour, although these observations would necessarily be very restricted in a relatively short teaching career. Moreover, it seems to us that not all new entrants would be able, within the space of two or three years, to achieve sufficient competence in the essential teaching skills, which responsibility for a class inevitably involves, for them to be able to detach themselves from the teaching role in order to observe and study, in any systematic way, social interactions among children, for instance, or the effects of alterations in teaching techniques.

4.34 Some psychologists bring valuable skills with them as a consequence of their experience as teachers. However, in evidence to us, length of time spent teaching has also been criticised from two opposed directions. It can be too short: only at the end of two or three years has the new entrant to teaching sufficiently found his feet, and mastered the techniques required in the classroom, to begin to turn the experience to account as far as his future career in educational psychology is concerned. But we have also been told that it can be too long; if teaching experience has been lengthy habits and attitudes may be acquired, and found difficult or impossible to discard, that are incompatible with learning the clinical approach to psychological work, necessary for becoming an educational psychologist. Naturally, the same length of experience can affect different people in different ways and to different extents, but some experienced people have told us of their difficulties in making a transition to clinical work. Educational psychologists have first to learn from children, rather than to teach them.


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4.35 Some kinds of experience are believed to be more valuable than others for intending educational psychologists. For example, teaching one subject to a number of classes is thought to be much less useful than teaching one group of children, The point has been made that undirected teaching experience is not likely to be very valuable, and that any teaching experience needs to be planned in association with tutors to courses in educational psychology, who would also hold seminars to help students to make the most of their experience. We support this view and also consider that educational psychologists could benefit quite as much from other kinds of supervised work with children, as we propose in Chapter 7.

(b) Relationships with teachers

4.36 Experience as a teacher is believed to be of benefit to educational psychologists in their subsequent co-operation with teachers in the following ways: (i) by ensuring that they have 'coped with a class' and appreciate what responsibility for a class entails, and that they themselves have had the opportunity of gaining some insight into the stresses involved in teaching; (ii) by enabling them to mix with teachers in schools, and to become aware to some extent of their attitudes and needs; (iii) by enabling them to make more informed and practical recommendations than they otherwise would, through being aware of what can reasonably be achieved in a classroom; (iv) by conferring a background of common experience which is sometimes held to make educational psychologists and what they do more acceptable to teachers, and which may also help some educational psychologists to feel more secure in their relationships with teachers than they would without it.

4.37 We acknowledge that educational psychologists need to have an understanding of teachers' roles and responsibilities and that some psychologists, in relation to some of their own responsibilities, are helped by having themselves taught. However, understanding of the wide range of problems, stresses and skills involved in the work of someone else depends basically on trained and sensitive perception, together with training in the evaluation of data thus provided. Personal experience may be valuable, but to overstress its importance is to infer an inappropriate role for educational psychologists. Educational psychologists are consulted by teachers for the contributions they can make that are different from those of other workers, and of head and class teachers themselves. They are consulted as psychologists, and it is for an essentially psychological role that their training needs to fit them. Their relationship with teachers is not that between members of the same profession, but depends upon a professional difference. Teachers and psychologists find common ground in their responsibilities for children's progress and welfare; they share interests in child development and learning, in fact in every aspect of behaviour. These are the bases of their collaboration and co-operation, but a common background of experience sometimes leads to confusion of professional functions, and misperception of role can hinder communication and mutual understanding. It does not therefore seem to us that experience as a teacher for all educational psychologists can be justified on the ground that it is essential to their relationships in schools.

(c) Understanding the education system

4.38 Experience of teaching is said to provide educational psychologists with general knowledge of the service within which they are to apply their science. We believe that experience as a teacher may be a way of gaining some of this knowledge. We also believe that knowledge of the scope, history, structure, methods, current problems, policies and philosophy of education is required and could be better imparted systematically as part of a postgraduate course in educational psychology.

Teaching experience and teacher training, and alternative qualifications for educational psychologists

4.39 Our examination of teaching experience for educational psychologists suggests that it can certainly be helpful, but that no aspect is essential. For this reason, we conclude that more flexibility in methods of entry is desirable. Those who are interested in being teachers and suited to the work gain knowledge and experience which can be of considerable value for some aspects of a psychologist's work, but we see no justification for continuing to regard some years of teaching as an essential part of the preparation of all educational psychologists. However, those teachers who discover in the course of their careers an aptitude for, and an interest in, psychology are a valuable source of educational psychologists. They should be encouraged to become qualified in psychology and in educational psychology.

4.40 For graduates in psychology who have not taught we recommend two methods of professional preparation which are alternative to the requirement to enter an intermediate career as a teacher. The first is postgraduate preparation consisting of a preliminary training in aspects of education, followed by a period of employment in education planned and supervised by a postgraduate training department for educational psychologists, and terminating in one year of full-time study of educational psychology. The second is a two year period of full-time postgraduate professional training which incorporates a variety of


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supervised practical work with children in different environments, including the classroom.

Routes into educational psychology

4.41 Hence we recommend that there should be three routes:

(a) first, the traditional route by which those who have first trained as teachers and who subsequently are attracted to becoming educational psychologists can become qualified in psychology and in educational psychology in particular;

(b) secondly, a route enabling graduates in psychology to become qualified in education and to teach before training specifically to become educational psychologists;

(c) thirdly, a route which would require the development of new courses of postgraduate training in educational psychology for graduates in psychology. These courses would need to include the components which we find essential. There should be opportunity for contact with and observation of the development of normal children; for supervised work with children and their teachers in schools and for other work with children; training for collaboration with other adults; .and instruction about education and the education services in which psychology is to be applied.

4.42 Graduates who have started their careers with an honours degree in psychology have already become the main source of educational psychologists. Extended methods of training to allow these three routes into educational psychology would take account of the increasing numbers of such graduates; since 1960 the number in the United Kingdom has more than trebled to over 650 and it will have increased fivefold by 1973. Our objectives have been to devise an effective and economical training programme which would make it possible to reduce the total training time below seven years, which would avoid the diseconomy involved in a simple requirement that all educational psychologists should have taught, and which would improve supply by removing the disincentive for many graduates in psychology of a longer period of postgraduate qualification than is required for any other field of applied psychology.

Conclusions and recommendations

4.43 We conclude and recommend that:

4.R1 An honours degree in psychology (or equivalent) and postgraduate training in educational psychology are indispensable qualifications for all psychologists in education services. (Paragraphs 4.9 and 4.12)

4.R2 Flexible methods of entry should be retained and methods of training should be extended. New methods should recognise that graduates who have started their careers with an honours degree in psychology have already become the main source of educational psychologists. The number of such graduates each year will have increased from 200 in 1960 to 1,000 in 1973. (Paragraph 4.41 )

4.R3 There should be three routes:

(a) first, the traditional route by which those who have first trained as teachers and who subsequently are attracted to becoming psychologists can become qualified in psychology and in educational psychology in particular; (Paragraphs 4.39 to 4.41)

(b) secondly, a route enabling graduates in psychology to train and gain experience in teaching before training specifically to become educational psychologists; (Paragraphs 4.39 to 4.41 and 7.18)

(c) thirdly, a route which would require the development of new courses in order to enable graduates in psychology to proceed immediately to postgraduate training and to become trained educational psychologists in two years. (Paragraphs 4.39 to 4.41 and 7.26 to 7.32)


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Chapter 5 Future supply


Outline of chapter

Page
Introduction 5.141
The present position 5.241
The supply of child guidance staff assessed by Underwood standards
The position in 1965 5.1045
The future need: the implications of more school children 5.1746
The prospect of meeting the need for psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers 5.1847
(a) Psychiatrists 5.1947
(b) Psychiatric social workers 5.2047
The future need for educational psychologists assessed by standards other than the Underwood Report 5.2247
The supply of educational psychologists48
Estimates of need 5.2448
The future supply of honours graduates in psychology 5.3049
The competitive demand for psychologists 5.3650
Satisfactions and dissatisfactions of educational psychologists 5.3950
Graduates and the attractiveness of educational psychology 5.5052
Wasted places on postgraduate courses 5.5353
How is education to secure its share of psychology graduates? 5.5453
Future need for psychologists in the education services: implications for the provision of training places 5.5653
Conclusions and recommendations 5.6655
Appendices 5.6655
Local authority child guidance staff. Diagrams showing the full-time equivalent in post on 31 December 1966, by authorities, in relation to the establishment recommended by the Underwood Report. Educational psychologists are also shown in relation to the establishment recommended by this working party Appendix 5A132
The number of educational psychologists estimated in 1965 to be needed by thirty of the thirty-two areas approached by the Underwood Committee and equivalent estimate by all authorities in England and Wales Appendix 5B143
Manpower: calculations of the number of postgraduate training places for educational psychologists estimated to be needed to achieve a target of 1 : 10,000 schoolchildren Appendix 5C144


Introduction

5.1 I n Chapter 3 we reviewed the evidence we received on aspects of psychologists' work which was thought to need added emphasis; we pointed out that it was impossible for all demands to be met, and we suggested criteria for selecting those most appropriate. In this

chapter we assess the number of psychologists likely to be available in future and the proportion of them which the education service may hope to secure; we also examine the supply of child guidance staff of other disciplines, and we consider the implications for the provision of training places for educational psychologists.

The present position

5.2 One of the fundamental factors governing the future supply of educational psychologists is the growth in the number of graduates in psychology: over the eight years 1960-67 the output of honours graduates increased by more than three times. Table 5.1 shows the number of graduates in each of these years; joint honours degrees, in which psychology is at least half the course, are included.

Table 5.1 Honours graduates in psychology in the United Kingdom, 1960-1967 (including joint honours psychology)

5.3 In addition to asking for the numbers of their graduates from 1960 to 1967, we asked heads of departments of psychology how many of their students in the five years 1960 to 1964 had intended to qualify as educational psychologists; Figure 5.1 and Table 5.2 indicate that between 1960 and 1'964, 189 or about 14% of graduates in psychology had some intention of becoming educational psychologists (see also Appendix 4B.8). By May 1965, sixty-six educational psychologists who had taken first degrees in psychology in 1960 or later were working as educational psychologists for local education authorities. A share of approaching' 15% of new graduates for the


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Figure 5.1 Honours graduates of universities in the United Kingdom 1960-1967 and those intending to qualify as educational psychologists, 1960-1964


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education service is satisfactory; the possible future yield, taking account of the expected growth in the number of psychology graduates, the challenges presented by other fields which are trying to attract them, and the means by which a satisfactory proportion can continue to be attracted to education, are discussed later in the chapter.

Table 5.2 Number of students graduating from departments of psychology in the United Kingdom, 1960-1964, whose intention to qualify as educational psychologists was known

5.4 Three hundred and ninety-six educational psychologists were in service on 31 December 1966 (full-time equivalent: 354'5). The way in which numbers in service have grown between 1955 and 1966 is shown in Table 5.3. Numbers of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers are also shown.

5.5 A quantitative assessment of local education authorities' need for educational psychologists is made in paragraphs 5.25 to 5.28, based on information supplied by chief education officers; these figures were supported by many expressions of concern at the shortage of supply:

'In spite of continued effort, the authority has not at any time since the war been able to make a satisfactory appointment from a field of candidates:- there is no field of candidates.'

'We have experienced tremendous difficulties in obtaining educational psychologists.'

'Difficulties experienced have been due mainly to the chronic shortage of suitably qualified and experienced applicants.'

'As vacancies have occurred we have found it exceedingly difficult to fill them and the dearth of applicants for any posts in the field of social services is becoming a matter of very considerable concern.'

The local authority associations have added their weight to the view that the number of educational psychologists is insufficient to meet the demand from local education authorities, and, with one exception, all the associations representing teachers who gave us their views stated that a substantial increase was required. Similar views were expressed by many bodies, including the Society of

Table 6.3 Educational psychologists and other child guidance staff employed in local authority services in England and Wales by local education authorities and under arrangements with hospital authorities

The table shows whole-time equivalents, with numbers of educational psychologists (all years) and other staff (selected years) shown in brackets; there will have been some double counting in the case of numbers of persons. It derives from returns made by local education authorities to the Department of Education and Science on Form 20M


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Medical Officers of Health, the Royal Medico- Psychological Association, the Association of Workers for Maladjusted Children, the Association for Special Education, the Institute of Youth Employment Officers, and the National Association of Probation Officers.

5.6 Educational psychologists have generally been expected to spend a substantial proportion of their time as members of interdisciplinary child guidance teams; indeed, much of the work they do in schools, which in some areas may be regarded as school psychological service work, is essentially 'child guidance', and carries the methods and ethos of interdisciplinary child guidance teamwork into schools. The Underwood Committee considered educational psychologists in the context of interdisciplinary child guidance staff,* and this in particular has tended to condition expectations of their work, even where interdisciplinary child guidance services are not strongly developed or do not exist at all. The interdisciplinary work of educational psychologists has been described in paragraph 2.34. An interdisciplinary team approach is a most satisfactory way to practise child guidance; we reiterate that to participate in such teams is one of the most important functions of educational psychologists. However, the proportion of educational psychologists who can work in this way depends substantially on the availability of the other team members, chiefly psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, and on the existence of interdisciplinary groups that work as teams. In many authorities no such teams exist; frequently the reason is a lack of psychiatrists and, most widespread, of psychiatric social workers. Even in a particular area where the full-time equivalent of sufficient staff is available for effective child guidance teams on the pattern recommended by the Underwood Report, such teams do not necessarily exist. Authorities may not have adopted the Underwood recommendations, part of educational psychologists' time may be spent on duties not related to child guidance, and the full-time equivalent of workers may consist of small contributions from so many individuals that 'a child guidance team' may exist in only an extremely attenuated sense. (The staffing position at the beginning of 1967 in all local authority child guidance and school psychological services is shown in graphic form in Appendix 5A).

5.7 We were appointed to suggest ways of alleviating the recognised shortage of educational psychologists; great though the need is for increased numbers of educational psychologists, shortages of the other principal members of child guidance teams, psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, are even more acute. We cannot leave these shortages out of account; they affect the function and the supply of educational psychologists and may also have a bearing on training for educational psychology. Only if they are likely to be alleviated will it be possible for the work of child guidance services to develop along the lines recommended by the Underwood Committee; if they are likely to continue or to get worse, it will be impossible for interdisciplinary work of the kind envisaged by the Committee to be followed as a general pattern everywhere. We therefore examine these shortages also in this chapter (paragraphs 5.10 to 5.21).

5.8 The number of psychology graduates is progressively increasing (see paragraph 5.2 above and paragraphs 5.30 to 5.35 below). Provided the disincentives to which we have referred are removed and a vigorous recruiting policy is adopted, sufficient psychologists could be secured not only to cope with the increasing numbers of children at school and the increasing level of demand for assistance, but also to improve the scope of the service provided. By contrast we see no prospect of sufficient psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers being available to support a scale of recruitment which would bring the level of child guidance staff up to the minimum recommended by the Underwood Committee; no matter what steps education authorities may take, this situation is out of their hands. Action on a national scale is needed now. The grounds for this opinion are given in paragraphs 5.18 to 5.21 below.

5.9 This is a critical conclusion; if we are right, it follows that the Underwood concept of interdisciplinary child guidance services will require substantial modification. We trace the implications of our conclusion for the work of educational psychologists in Chapter 6; the effect on the work of child guidance services as a whole, and of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers in particular, will require a wider consideration than we can give. We recommend that bodies responsible for providing child guidance services, whether local education authorities, regional hospital boards or voluntary bodies, should examine their policies in the light of the staff likely to be available; development should be planned and coordinated to make the best and most effective use of actual and' potential resources of manpower for these services. A lead from central government is required.

*The Underwood Committee used the term 'child guidance service' in a wide sense to include work both of child guidance clinics and of school psychological services. 'If arrangements for child guidance are to be successful, they must' fulfil a number of conditions which 'can best be met where there is a school psychological service working in association with a child guidance clinic or clinics, and where the school health service co-operates closely with both' (paragraphs 161-2, U.R.). 'Although, for the reasons given in the preceding paragraph, these various components do not form 8 single administrative unit and may even be provided by separate bodies, their closest co-operation is essential and there should normally be some sharing of staff between them. Where these conditions are fulfilled, these components form a comprehensive child guidance service. We recommend that such a service should be available for the area of every local education authority' (paragraph 164, U.R.).


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The supply of child guidance staff assessed by Underwood standards

The position in 1965

5.10 The extent of the shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers in England and Wales may be illustrated by reference to the recommendations of the Underwood Committee. In 1955 they recommended, as a modest objective for the succeeding ten years, that the total number of child guidance staff in the three main categories should be the equivalent of approximately 140 full-time psychiatrists, 280 educational psychologists and 420 psychiatric social workers (paragraphs 380-382 and recommendations 18 and 19, U.R.). This was in no sense an attempt to forecast ultimate requirements, but was the highest target considered practicable at that time in view of the small numbers of staff then available.

5.11 We have already referred to the wide sense in which the Underwood Committee used the term 'child guidance service' to cover work both of child guidance clinics and of school psychological services (see footnote to paragraph 5.6). On it they based their considerations of the staffs required and the relative proportions of psychiatrists, educational psychologists and psychiatric social workers.

5.12 The Committee first considered ratios of ½ : 1 : 2 and 1 : 1 : 2 - 'Since in the next few years an increase is likely in the proportion of children seen who are given treatment and in the average time devoted to the treatment of each child, it seems prudent to take 1 : 1 : 2 rather than ½ : 1 : 2 as a general rule. Where analytical methods are used in treatment, a further increase will be necessary in the time given by the psychiatrist' (paragraph 184, U.R.). The Committee then argued: 'A ratio of 1 : 1 : 2, however, makes no allowance for the work which the child guidance service does in the schools. Experience in a county area, which has a school psychological service working closely with child guidance clinics, suggests that for a child guidance team with one full-time psychiatrist two educational psychologists are needed, each of the latter working roughly half-time in the clinic and half-time on the work of the child guidance service in the schools' (paragraph 185, U.R.). They concluded: 'A ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 should cover the essential child guidance work of the clinic and the school psychological service, but it might need to be altered if some of the desirable work could be fitted in which often cannot at present even be attempted. We are in particular thinking of more thorough treatment of parents and the training of intending child guidance workers' (paragraph 186, U.R.). In arriving at their ten year target figures the Committee envisaged that one team 'consisting of the equivalent of one full-time psychiatrist, two educational psychologists and three psychiatric social workers' would serve 45,000 schoolchildren (paragraph 383, U.R.).

5.13 The Committee considered that workers of other kinds might usefully be associated with child guidance teams (paragraph 182, U.R.); in particular they saw a place for non-medical psychotherapists where psychiatrists were in favour of their participation. A part-time psychotherapist could permit a psychiatrist's contribution to a team to be reduced to half-time (paragraph 184, U.R.). The Committee did not specifically mention social workers other than those qualified as psychiatric social workers. However, a number have been employed in child guidance service work. In August 1965 the Department of Education and Science sent a circular letter to all local education authorities recommending that social workers, particularly those possessing the Certificate in Social Work, could appropriately be employed on certain kinds of work, under the guidance and supervision of a psychiatric social worker, in order to alleviate the shortage of psychiatric social workers.

5.14 Returns made to the Department of Education and Science at the beginning of 1965, the Underwood target year, showed that the full-time equivalent of about 110 psychiatrists and 160 psychiatric social workers were employed in England and Wales. The complement of psychiatrists was therefore 21% below the modest target of the Underwood Committee and the complement of psychiatric social workers no less than 62% below. The returns showed, in addition, twelve psychotherapists and seventy-five social workers. If the numbers are combined, the complement of psychiatrists and psychotherapists is 15% below the Underwood objective and the complement of psychiatric and other social workers is 44% below.

5.15 The figure for the full-time equivalent of educational psychologists returned to the Department of Education and Science at the beginning of 1965 was 324 compared with the Underwood objective of 280. This figure was confirmed by our own inquiries which showed that a full-time equivalent of 326·4 educational psychologists were employed in May 1965.* Thus only the staffing level of educational psychologists attained the objective over the ten years from 1955. However, while the Underwood Committee expected educational psychologists to spend half their time in work on behalf of the child guidance service in the schools (paragraph 185, U.R.) they also envisaged that educational psychologists would have other functions in school psychological services; but, since these functions were not the concern of the Committee (paragraph 166, U.R.) they did not take them into account in arriving at their target figure.

*Not all the educational psychologists had qualifications at a high level; see paragraph 2.22.


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Table 5.4 Projections of numbers of educational psychologists needed in relation to numbers of pupils in school 1965-1990 (England and Wales) on the basis of 2: 45,000 schoolchildren (Underwood Report) and 1: 10,000. Projections of numbers of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers needed for child guidance clinics on the basis of the Underwood recommendations are also included. The numbers of staff in post at the beginning of 1965,1960 and 1986 are shown for comparison

5.16 The Underwood recommendations discussed in paragraphs 5.10 to 5.13 above were based on a school population of 6,500,000 for England and Wales (see footnote to paragraph 383, U.R.); this was the approximate number of pupils in maintained primary and secondary schools in 1955. They did not attempt to base their estimates on a forecast of school population, which by 1965 had in fact increased to over seven million. On the ratios used by the Underwood Committee, a school population of this size would require 158 psychiatrists, 315 educational psychologists and 473 psychiatric social workers. Hence the shortfalls of psychiatrists (21%) and psychiatric social workers (62%) given in paragraph 5.14 above are increased to 30% and 66% respectively by taking the adjusted objective. The Underwood Report stated that a child guidance clinic should be available to all boys and girls. not only to those at maintained primary and secondary schools (paragraph 176, U.R.). If account is taken of the number of children under five and of pupils at special, direct grant, and independent schools, and possibly also of young people up to the age of eighteen, there were then not only even greater shortfalls of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, but a shortfall of educational psychologists as well.

The future need: the implications of more schoolchildren

5.17 After the second world war the high birthrates which contrasted sharply with the low rates in the thirties were followed by a steady rise from 1955; except for one short period, the rise has continued ever since and is expected to continue. We have considered the period up to 1990* in assessing future needs for educational psychologists; during the whole of this period the number of children in schools is expected to increase, and by 1990 to reach 11·2 million in maintained schools and 11·8 million in all schools. Table 5.4 shows the number of child guidance staff which would be needed for the school population forecast for maintained schools only and for all schools on the Underwood recommendations; the full-time equivalent actually in post at the beginning of 1955, 1960 and 1965 is also shown. The 261 psychiatrists needed in 1990 (children at all schools) are more than twice the full-time equivalent in service at the beginning of 1965, while the 784 psychiatric social workers are well over four times the full time equivalent employed in 1965.

*This is the period covered at the present time by forecasts of school population prepared by the Department of Education and Science (Statistics of Education 1966, Volume 1, Tables 44 (i) and 44 (ii). London: H.M.S.O., 1967.)


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The prospect of meeting the need for psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers

5.18 We have been told by the Ministry of Health that according to their information there is little prospect of meeting these figures for psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers.

(a) Psychiatrists

5.19 Seven or eight senior registrars complete their training as child psychiatrists each year and the Ministry of Health does not at present expect to increase this number. As half of those who qualify fill vacancies caused by death or retirement the annual increase can only be three or four. Between 1966 and 1990 the Ministry expects the number of consultant child psychiatrists to increase by about eighty-four to meet all needs in England and Wales, including all hospital needs and all local government needs. By the end of 1966, 122 psychiatrists (not all of whom were child psychiatrists) were employed in local education authority child guidance clinics. Even if local education authority clinics were to recruit every additional consultant child psychiatrist who became available between 1966 and 1990 and were to secure his full-time services, the total of psychiatrists in service, 206, would still be 21% short of the minimum level derived from the Underwood Report. At the beginning of 1965 the complement of psychiatrists was 21% below the number recommended by the Underwood Committee (see paragraph 5.14 above), and 30% below the number required in relation to the increased school population. Owing to the continuing rise in the school population, it seems impossible for psychiatrists' participation in local education authority child guidance services to increase above the present level;* indeed, we expect it to decrease. We deplore this prospect. The development of child guidance will be crippled; some people who are children now, and some of their children, will lead damaged lives for lack of help that our society can provide. The effects will be felt by all.

(b) Psychiatric social workers

5.20 The Ministry of Health has no reliable estimate of the total need for psychiatric social workers, who may be employed in several different social work services. The Ministry has told us that future demands are difficult to predict in the present situation of extreme shortage, but that the Underwood recommendation has been retained as a measure of the need for psychiatric social workers for child guidance. In 1966 there were ninety-six' places for training psychiatric social workers in eleven universities and the number of places is expected to increase only fractionally in the near future; additional demands spring up as the numbers trained increase.

5.21 The Younghusband Report on Social Workers in 1959** took account of the estimates made by the Mackintosh Committee on Social Workers in the Mental Health Services, whose report was published in 1951, and of those of the Underwood Committee mentioned above. The Younghusband working party had no doubt that a great increase was urgently needed in the number of psychiatric social workers trained each year, but they had to accept that even if numbers increased, a shortage would persist for some time. They were right. We see no justification for any greater optimism now.***

The future need for educational psychologists assessed by standards other than the Underwood report

5.22 In 1956 the UNESCO Institute for Education gave an estimate of the size of population to be served by educational psychologists in the following terms:

The committee does not wish to lay down hard and fast standards but experience seems to indicate that a minimum service, in an urban area presenting no special difficulties of communication or of social composition, can be assured by not fewer than two psychologists for a school population of 12,000-15,000 children. Such a minimum implies that the teaching staff of the school are sufficiently trained themselves to assure the effective educational guidance of the majority of children; that the facilities of a fully staffed child guidance centre are at their disposal; that adequate special school provision, remedial classes and the like are integrated with the
*We hope that the Royal Commission on Medical Education will have emphatic recommendations on this point. It might be possible to ease the situation if there were scope for employing in child guidance services more specialists in psychiatry below the rank of consultant. However, a substantial number of psychiatrists already employed do not hold consultant appointments. In view of this and of the general shortage of psychiatrists, it seems unlikely that any substantial improvement in psychiatric staffing of child guidance services is to be expected from this direction. In a more general context, we have noted an increased interest in psychological and psychiatric aspects of medical education and practice (e.g. 'Mental Health Services for Children', British Medical Journal (3 June 1967), 5552, 585; 'Education in Psychology and Psychiatry', Reports from General Practice VII. Dartmouth: the Council of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 1967).

**Social Workers in the Local Authority Health and Welfare Services (the Younghusband Report). London: H.M.S.O., 1959; Social Workers in the Mental Health Services (the Mackintosh Report), Cmd. 8260. London: H.M.S.O., 1951.

***We hope that the 'Committee on local authority and allied personal social services' (the Seebohm Committee) will have appropriate recommendations on this point.


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service; and finally that close liaison is maintained with a sufficient service of vocational guidance. It is reemphasised, however, that this is a minimum, and not the ideal; and that moreover, the suggestion made does not imply that it is more than an acceptable alternative to the psychologist operating within the large school unit.*
This recommendation, made over a decade ago, implied a level of staffing which has now been reached in only three local educational authorities in England and Wales.

5.23 The British Psychological Society has also made estimates of the ratio of schoolchildren to educational psychologists.

'The staffing of Child Guidance Clinics was dealt with in the Report of the Committee on Maladjusted Children (1955). The ratios proposed were one psychiatrist, two psychologists and three psychiatric social workers to 45,000 children. So far as it applied to psychologists this estimate included only their work in the Child Guidance Clinic and school work on behalf of children attending the Clinic, but not the other work of the School Psychological Service as outlined in this document. The ratio of psychologist to population to cover both clinical work and a full psychological service to schools should be much higher than that just quoted. The following ratios would be in keeping with present day needs, namely, one psychologist to 10,000 children in urban areas, and one psychologist to 6,000 in country areas. In Scotland the ratio is already one psychologist to 8,000 children for the country as a whole.'**
A ratio of 1 : 10,000 more than doubles the number of educational psychologists required as calculated on the Underwood basis. Table 5.4 compares the need on ratios of 2 : 45,000 and 1 : 10,000 for populations of schoolchildren in maintained and in all schools.

The supply of educational psychologists

Estimates of need

5.24 The Underwood Committee carried out a special survey of thirty-two local education authorities, a one in three sample of the ninety-six local education authorities which, in 1952, had child guidance services (paragraph 379, U.R.). The outcome of this survey was the basis for their recommendation that two educational psychologists to 45,000 schoolchildren would be a conservative target for the ten years to 1965. By 1965 the number of educational psychologists in post averaged two per 45,000 of the maintained school population in spite of the increase of the school population from 6! million in 1955 to over 7 million in 1965.*** Meanwhile the demands being made on child guidance services with which educational psychologists are associated were increasing faster than the growth of the school population. In 1955, four children per thousand of the school population (all schools) were reported as receiving 'child guidance treatment'; by 1965 the figure was seven per thousand.**** These figures certainly imply that use was being made of the increases in provision between 1955 and 1965; moreover, they do not include records of all the children seen by psychologists in schools: hence, indirectly, they reflect both increased demands on child guidance and school psychological services and unmet needs.

5.25 We have made our own enquiries. The chief education officers of the same authorities as those approached by the Underwood Committee told us about the work in their areas requiring educational psychologists, and estimated how many would be needed to carry it out. When related to their maintained school populations. these figures gave a ratio for educational psychologists of 1 : 10,000 school children in 1965, compared with 2 : 45,000 in 1955. (Our enquiry is described in Appendix 5B. Ratios for a substantial proportion of both urban and country areas ranged up to 1 : 6,000.)

5.26 Our enquiry also went further than that of the Underwood Committee; we sought the opinion of every local education authority. The average establishment for England and Wales as a whole that chief education officers considered necessary in 1965 was one educational psychologist for every 12,500 of the total school population, or, in relation to maintained primary and secondary school population only, one to 11,450. This figure embraces a wide variation in expectations and standards of provision for child guidance and school psychological services .*****

*Wall, W. D. (ed.) Psychological Services for Schools. Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education, 1956.

**The School Psychological Service. London: The British Psychological Society, 1962.

***Statistics of Education 1966, Volume 1, Table 44 (i). London: H.M.S.O.,1967.

****Derived from Statistics of Education 1962, Part 2, Table 51, and 1965, Table 85. London: H.M.S.O., 1963 and 1966. 0.43% in 1955 and 0.69% in 1965.

*****Figure 2.1 shows chief education officers' estimates of need; details are given in Table 2B.2, part B. See also Appendix 2A, paragraph 2 of letter.


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5.27 We agree with the view that the Underwood Committee expressed (paragraph 1:76, U.R.) that child guidance 'should be available to all boys and girls'; they had in mind 'children under five and pupils at independent schools' and, in addition. some young people who had left school. It would therefore be reasonable to take account at least of children at all schools in assessing establishments for psychologists in the education services.

5.28 We have considered the ratios for education psychologists to schoolchildren of 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 11,450 produced by our enquiries in relation to estimates made by others. Those published in 1956 by the UNESCO Institute of Education were 1 : 6,000 or 1 : 7,500; in 1962 the British Psychological Society suggested 1 : 10,000 in urban areas and 1 : 6,000 in county areas (paragraphs 5.22 and 5.23); and we have noted that in Scotland the ratio is already between 1 : 8,000 and 1: 9,000.* Needs for educational psychologists reported in our own enquiries ranged up to 1 : 6,000 for both urban and county areas. In Chapter 6 we have considered ways of ensuring that their skills are used effectively and economically to provide a good standard of service for the greatest number of children, whether in towns or in counties. We have not ourselves found a sufficiently clear basis for recommending different ratios for areas of different kinds (see paragraph 2.15).

5.29 In the light of all these considerations, we recommend that local authorities should plan child guidance and school psychological services on the assumption that one educational psychologist will be required for 10,000 schoolchildren. Staffing to this level is a target which should be reached as soon as possible, certainly by 1990.

The future supply of honours graduates in psychology

5.30 The numbers of graduates in psychology increased rapidly in the eight years up to 1967 (see paragraph 5.2 above); this increase is expected to continue at least for the next few years. I n October 1966, 594 candidates who had applied through University Central Council on Admissions arrangements were accepted for degree courses in psychology.** By 1969 about 510 of these candidates can be expected to have gained degrees in psychology.

5.31 In order to obtain more complete information, we have asked the heads of all university departments of psychology in the United Kingdom directly for the number of students they were admitting to honours degree courses in 1965, and the number they expected to admit in 1970. Estimates based on replies from universities in England and Wales indicate that the number of graduates in 1968 is likely to be about 620, rising to about 820 in 1973.

Table 5.5 Estimates of admissions to and graduates from departments of psychology at universities in England and Wales

5.32 Estimates of psychology graduates from universities in Scotland and Northern Ireland cannot be made on an exactly comparable basis because courses last four years and because in some universities it is normal for a proportion of students admitted to honours courses to achieve ordinary rather than honours degrees. Departments in Scotland and Northern Ireland were admitting about 160 students in 1965 and expected to admit between 210 and 240 students in 1970.

5.33 Increases in respect of graduates from Scotland and Northern Ireland give probable totals of honours graduates in psychology in the United Kingdom of 740 in 1968 and 980 in 1973. A manpower enquiry conducted by Mr

*103 full-time educational psychologists were employed in Scotland in 1962-63; the school population (all schools, including occupation centres and approved schools) was 910,062 (Education in Scotland in 1962, Table 2. Edinburgh: H.M.S.O., 1963) giving ratio of about 1: 8,800. For children in primary and secondary schools only, the ratio was about 1: 8,500. Although no figure is available for the number of educational psychologists employed in 1966, it has not changed substantially; the school population (all schools, etc.) has, however, risen and the ratio may now approach 1: 9,000.

**Fourth Report, 1965-66, Table 3, subject no. 44. London: Universities Central Council on Admissions. 1967. These U.C.C.A. statistics do not include the numbers of all applicants to honours degree courses in psychology in the U.K .. nor of all students admitted to such courses; e.g. (a) for England, they do not include particulars of part-time internal students of the University of London at Birkbeck College, nor of external students of the University of London. numbers of whom are full-time students at colleges of technology for instance; (b) for Scotland, they do not include particulars of all applicants to 'the Universities of Aberdeen, Dundee and Glasgow, who [have received and] will continue to receive direct applications from candidates resident in Scotland', in addition to applications through U.C.C.A., nor for the new University of Stirling which joined the central admissions scheme from 1 October 1966; (c) for Northern Ireland, they do not include any particulars for the Queen's University of Belfast and the New University of Ulster at Coleraine which also joined the scheme from 1 October 1966.


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Dermot Straker* provides broad confirmation of these figures when allowance is made for unfilled places and 'drop-out' which entered into our calculations.

5.34 Over 100 of the 1968 graduates and more than 135 of the 1973 graduates may be expected to intend to become educational psychologists. After due allowance has been made for the needs of Scotland and of Northern Ireland themselves, it is clear that only a proportion of well-qualified graduates could be accepted for the increased number of training places that we recommend in paragraph 5.56 below, though the margin for selection would be small.

5.35 The position may however change swiftly if demands from other fields rise sharply, as they are likely to do, and steps are taken to enhance the attractions of the posts in them; the competitive demand for psychologists is reviewed in paragraph 5.36 below. There is a strong interest in the study of psychology and a pressure for places on degree courses; the number of applicants who gave psychology as their first preference in 1966 exceeded the number who were finally accepted by 920 or 155%.** One professor of psychology received more than twenty applications for each place available; the quality of applicants was high, those possessing qualifications in science subjects at scholarship level totalling more than three times the available places. To consider further increases in places on honours courses in psychology is justified in these circumstances.

The competitive demand for psychologists

5.36 Education faces growing competition from other organisations seeking psychologists. This has concerned us because education needs not only to attract a sufficient number of the available graduates but also because it needs to attract a sufficient proportion of the most able graduates. Our recommendations about future developments depend on the quality of the staff.

5.37 Competing demands are made by hospital services, government departments, government research organisations and the universities themselves, among others. In addition, there is a tendency for increasing use to be made of psychology and of psychologists in commerce and industry; and the development of undergraduate courses orientated particularly towards applications of psychology in these fields may also be expected to stimulate demands from them. We have been told that one department of psychology annually receives individual approaches from organisations seeking to appoint psychologists which average five times the output of graduates from the department; in some cases the organisations devote considerable time and expense to presenting the work and the post as attractively as possible. Posts in education services have not been canvassed in this aggressive way.

5.38 We have attempted to assess the future demands for psychologists in national organisations' and services. Numbers needed depend on many factors and may vary substantially with changes in policy; figures must therefore be treated with reserve. An average of about twenty-five psychologists a year are expected to be needed in the Civil Service*** over the next five years. As far as the National Health Service is concerned. it is accepted that there is a general need for more clinical psychologists than will make up losses caused by death and retirement, but no figures of need are available centrally.

Satisfactions and dissatisfactions of educational psychologists

5.39 From the outset of our enquiries, we have been aware of the fact that appreciable numbers of educational psychologists 'migrated' into other kinds of educational or psychological work, after a longer or shorter period of local authority service. This has been confirmed by the Association of Educational Psychologists, who have told us about their members who have migrated.

5.40 Moreover, our own enquiries show that a substantial proportion of trained educational psychologists did not enter local education authority service as educational psychologists on completing their training (28,6% of those trained between 1945 and 1965); they went at once into other kinds of work, and can thus be regarded as 'early migrants'.

5.41 Our enquiries about the employment histories of those trained educational psychologists who had migrated between 1945 and 1965, and whose employment in 1965 was known, show that at least 15% held posts in colleges of education or university departments of education. The Association of Educational Psychologists have also told us about migration to lectureships in education; 37% of their members who had migrated from posts as educational psychologists in recent years had moved to colleges of education or university departments of education

*'How many psychology graduates?' Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1967), 20, 68, pages 15-19.

**Fourth Report, 1965-66, Tables 2 and 3, category 44. London: University Central Council for Admissions. 1967.

***Psychologists are employed in the Civil Service Commission, the Defence Departments, the Home Office, the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Transport, and the Scottish Home and Health Departments. There are no posts in the Psychologist Class in the Department of Education and Science; some psychologists who were formerly educational psychologists are appointed as H.M. Inspectors of Schools.


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Such posts will be a continuing attraction. There will be a need for continuous expansion in teacher training capacity into the foreseeable future for precisely the same reason that there will be a continuing need for more educational psychologists: the continuing rise in the number of children at school. It is appropriate for educational psychologists to participate in training teachers: our view is given in detail in paragraphs 6.66 and 6.67.

Table 5.6 Members of the Association of Educational Psychologists who left employment as educational psychologists in local authority services in England and Wales

5.42 We ourselves wrote to twenty-nine of the migrants whose employment in other fields was known, and invited them to give us their views (a) on the value in their current work of training and experience in educational psychology and (b) on the factors which affected their own decision to change, together with (c) general comments on the process of movement from educational psychology into posts in the wider field of education. Twenty-six replied. All had found their training and experience relevant to work in wider fields of education, particularly in training teachers.* They believed that migration was positively desirable and should be allowed for in calculating the supply of educational psychologists. This also is our view.

5.43 Those migrants who told us about unsatisfactory aspects of work in educational psychology mentioned feelings of isolation, the pressure of the work load, shortages of staff and unfavourable working conditions. Lack of opportunities for research or for reflection on the nature of the work being undertaken, together with doubts about the quality and usefulness of some of it, were particularly mentioned. Some migrants expressed the view that the work became a routine after about five years; a need for fresh developments was then experienced. Others had encountered difficulties of collaboration, and mentioned misperceptions of role and problems of communication with medical and administrative colleagues.

5.44 For most migrants, a move to other work had advantages, many of which were of a personal nature. To teach students of more than average ability was attractive, and opportunities for research, for reflection, and for more leisure were appreciated. A number found work in teacher training satisfying because they had wished to contribute to the psychological insight of teachers. Some migrants said that their new work was a challenge and intellectually stimulating. Most thought that career prospects had been improved by the change of post.

5.45 However, a proportion of migrants expressed regret at leaving educational psychology; some who had not been satisfied with the work had nevertheless been happy in it. Migrants missed principally the clinical aspects of educational psychology, the contact with individual children, particularly the rewards of helping them to overcome difficulties, and the satisfaction of collaborating in interdisciplinary teams.

5.46 The view that dissatisfactions affected staffing was received from several quarters. The British Psychological Society mentioned particularly lack of facilities for investigation and for following up action taken; the fact that educational psychologists were not regarded as professional workers in some authorities where they were expected merely to carry out tests at the request of others; and scanty opportunities for advanced study and for keeping up to date with new developments. The Society considered that the public image of educational psychology, especially in the minds of university staff and undergraduates, required improvement.

5.47 The Association of Educational Psychologists also put forward a range of similar dissatisfactions. The pressure of long waiting lists has resulted in psychologists seeing excessively large numbers of children in difficulty, which has made it the harder to help any of them effectively; furthermore, this practice has prevented psychologists from giving attention to other aspects of their work which the Association consider also to be important. A diminution of job-satisfaction has resulted. The Association urged strongly that educational psychologists should have adequate facilities and working accommodation. They were of the opinion that educational psychologists' conditions of service, including hours, leave and time allowed for study, compared unfavourably with those in other kinds of work open to them, and that the longterm career prospects were less good.

5.48 The argument has been put to us that on balance dissatisfactions with work in educational psychology substantially outweigh the satisfactions, and that the result is wastage of staff. The views of migrants suggest that while

*See Chapter 6, particularly paragraphs 6.63, 6.67, 6.69 and 6.71.


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dissatisfactions play some part, their decisions to change work are usually reached after considering many factors. Dissatisfaction with particular aspects of educational psychology is unlikely to have a decisive effect in more than a few cases.

5.49 Career prospects, in the widest sense of the term' lead to decisions to change posts. I n particular, psychologists who have mastered the demands of a local education authority appointment wish to have prospects of developing further their professional skills and interests. If work as a local authority educational psychologist does not offer prospects for developing more intensive or more specialised psychological practice or outlets in other directions, for example in the administration and improvement of psychological services, some energetic psychologists will seek to develop careers in the wider field of education; in evidence we have collected there are indications that it is after about five years that educational psychologists tend to look for changes of these kinds in their work. We believe it to be as important to secure good psychologists for work in education generally as for local authority child guidance and school psychological services. We cannot therefore accept the view that educational psychologists who migrate are necessarily a Joss; in our opinion, it would be neither desirable not possible to seek to eliminate migration by so enhancing prospects in local authority services that they outshone all alternatives; but the prospects need to be better than they are. In Chapter 6 we recommend substantial improvements in career prospects for psychologists in local education authority service.

Graduates and the attractiveness of educational psychology

5.50 Attractiveness of educational psychology to a sufficient proportion of the best graduates is likely to affect future supply more decisively than migration. The critical factor in attracting good entrants is the 'image' of the work. This point was also of concern to the Underwood Committee who gave 'ignorance and misunderstanding of the nature of the work' as their third reason for the shortage of supply in 1955. to Our evidence suggests that a radical change has still to be brought about, although there are now some signs of improvement.

5.51 The concern of some of those responsible for postgraduate training in educational psychology may be summed up in one question: 'Do professors of psychology think of the field of educational psychology as a vocational solution for their less able students?' We asked professors of psychology for their views on the attractiveness of work in educational psychology. The replies gave the impression that it was not, in general, the most attractive prospect for their graduates. Four main reasons for the lack of appeal were put forward:

(a) long training and experience was expected for full professional qualification; furthermore, the work was thought to involve (b) a limited field of work and professional responsibility and (c) a lack of opportunity for original individual work; finally, (d) it compared unfavourably with the many careers which were counter attractions. It seemed that a number of professors were themselves of the opinion that the work was unattractive, or at least that it offered poor opportunities for their most able graduates; this situation must inevitably colour the view which undergraduates form of educational psychology. It seemed equally clear that other professors held educational psychology in high regard and were convinced of the worth-while nature of the work, but found it impossible to deny the adverse aspects which students discovered in their enquiries about future careers. In one way or another, it was clear that most professors of psychology thought that a lack of career appeal was the chief reason why educational psychologists are in short supply.

5.52 Because psychology graduates are the only source from which there is a prospect of obtaining the number of high quality recruits needed for the development we envisage, what lies behind an unfavourable image in the minds of undergraduates is important.

(a) The impression that is most damaging is that educational psychologists are harassed, under constant pressure to deal with excessive numbers of cases
*'Many serving teachers have never thought of educational psychology as a career. Even among psychologists in training misunderstandings arise. The tutor at one of the training centres has said that frequently students have an entirely false impression of the work done by an educational psychologist in the schools; they believe it will involve "a lot of routine I.Q.ing". It is often not understood that the psychologist in a school psychological service has the very responsible task of helping children with disabilities of any kind to make the best use of their faculties, and that as a result a wide variety of work comes his way. It is also not realised that an educational psychologist may maintain contact with individual children over a long period. Similar misunderstandings arise about the nature of work in a child guidance clinic: (Paragraph 425, (iii), U.R.). 'We recommend that, in relation to educational psychologists and psychiatric social workers, (9) knowledge about educational psychology and psychiatric social work as careers, and about work in a child guidance service, should be spread both in the field from which recruits are at present drawn, including the centres where basic qualifications are obtained, and further afield.' (Chapter XIV, recommendation 9, p.121, U.R.)


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which they have no time to help intensively, and that they are primarily concerned with the administration of tests. This impression has not been dissipated when undergraduates have discussed careers with serving educational psychologists; in some cases it seems to have been intensified.

(b) Students on graduation are reluctant to contemplate some years spent in training to teach and in teaching before they can train as educational psychologists (see paragraph 4.17). The total length of preparation makes educational psychology uncompetitive with other fields referred to in paragraph 5.37. For example, the fact that trainee or probationary appointments as psychologists are generally available in the health services tends to attract new graduates; the traditional pattern of training for educational psychology outlined in Chapter 4 tends to deter them. New patterns on the lines indicated in paragraph 4.41 (b) and (c) need to be designed to appeal to them.

Wasted places on postgraduate courses

5.53 There have been vacant places on postgraduate courses of professional training in educational psychology in spite of the fact that in recent years the number of applicants has greatly exceeded the number of places available. Vacancies have often occurred because candidates to whom places had been allocated have failed to gain financial support for training and withdrew at a late stage when it was difficult to find alternative candidates. Although we have been told that the problem has been substantially reduced by new arrangements introduced in 1962, some difficulties remain. The total number of training places is small; none should be wasted because of any failure in financial support for good students. Recommendations on financial support for students in training are contained in Chapter 7.

How is education to secure its share of psychology graduates?

5.54 In order to improve the supply of psychologists in education services in quality as well as in quantity, three measures are needed to increase the attractiveness of the career.

(a) Training should be facilitated: (i) the length of training should be reduced to the essential minimum, and the interval between graduation in psychology and appointment as an educational psychologist should be made as short as possible; (ii) arrangements for financial support should be further improved and modified where necessary to match new training arrangements; in particular, finance needs to be assured so that students can plan their training.

(b) The image of educational psychology should be improved. Insofar as the present image is misconceived, an accurate image needs to be publicised; in so far as the present image is right. conditions need to be changed for the better and the improvements made known. Since however staff shortages themselves contribute to some of the problems which give rise to a poor image, the ultimate improvement can be achieved only in the longer term.

(c) The career structure for educational psychologists should be improved. Although prospects within the education service generally are good there are defects in the structure for those who spend a whole career as local authority educational psychologists.

Our recommendations concerning these three measures are given in detail in Chapters 6 and 7.

5.55 To improve the attractiveness of the profession in these ways will not by itself provide enough additional psychologists qualified for work in the education services; more training places are needed.

Future need for psychologists in the education services: implications for the provision of training places

5.56 We believe that there should be three times the present number of training places no later than 1975; the number now is thirty six (see also Appendix 5C, paragraphs 5C.49 and 5C.50).

5.57 The numbers of educational psychologists needed have been assessed by applying to the figures for the school population, forecast by the Department of Education and Science,* the ratio of one educational psychologist to 10,000 schoolchildren which we recommend (paragraph 5.29);. the projections up to 1990 are included in Table 5.4 (see paragraph 5.17). Our calculations of the training places required to meet this need have assumed that trained psychologists who are continuously employed in education services will work for 35 years on the average from the end of their training until they retire; and that, apart from normal retirement, losses for all other reasons will amount to 4% of the number in service each year. (These calculations and the evidence and assumptions on which they have been based are described in

*Statistics of Education 1966, Volume 1, tables 44 (i) and (ii). London: H.M.S.O., 1967.


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detail in Appendix 5C. We have been as thorough as possible, and we have had access to information of kinds which were not available to the Underwood Committee;* but we nevertheless regard it as essential that the calculations we have made should be repeated not later than 1978.**)

5.58 If the 'effective annual input*** of 30 trained psychologists into local education authority service which has now been achieved were simply to be sustained up to 1990, the ratio of educational psychologists to the population of children in all schools then would be 1 : 23,000, compared with 1 : 24,000 in 1965.**** The present position would just about be held; any improvement would be marginal indeed.

5.59 If there were to be an additional effective annual input of ten trained psychologists from 1970, bringing the total up to 40, the ratio of psychologists to children in all schools would be 1 : 18,000 in 1990. The ratio for established posts (filled posts plus vacancies) in 1965 was 1 : 18,700; hence 1 : 18,000 in 1990 would merely be approximately equivalent in its effect to filling the posts that were vacant in 1965. It would be a very modest gain; moreover, the ratio would remain at 1 : 18,000 even in the longer term.

5.60 If the effective annual input were to be further increased by twenty to a total of 60 from 1975, the ratio in 1990 would be 1 : 13,300. This input if sustained might lead eventually to a ratio of 1 : 12,700. Hence doubling the number of training places to produce an effective annual input of 60 from 1975 would not enable the target of 1 : 10,000 to be reached, even in the very long term.

5.61 If, instead of by twenty, the effective annual input were to be further increased by fifty to a total of 90 from 1975, a ratio of 1 : 10,000 would be reached between 1987 and 1990. The ratio in 1990 would be 1 : 9,600.***** The consequences in the even longer term, forty to fifty years hence, might be one educational psychologist to about 8,500 schoolchildren. Even if this distant and uncertain result were to come about. there would still be no more psychologists in relation to the school population than there are in Scotland today; there would still be relatively fewer than were recommended by UNESCO in 1956; and there would also be relatively fewer than some chief education officers have told us that they need now (see paragraphs 5.25 and 5.28).

5.62 Trebling the present training capacity by 1975 would therefore enable the target of 1 : 10,000 to be reached eventually. But the date by which it would be achieved is sufficiently remote for this programme by itself to be of small consolation to those who have to provide the services now. Chief education officers have a responsibility for planning developments in the more immediate future, and wish to see more rapid results. We have therefore also considered what interim measures can be devised to accelerate the final result.

5.63 We have in particular considered the additional effects if accelerated programmes of training were to produce an extra effective annual input of twenty psychologists in each of the five years 1970-1974, before the output from trebling the present training capacity became available. The accelerated programmes might be of various kinds, and possibilities are considered in Chapter 7: some might become absorbed into the regular arrangements that we envisage from 1975 onwards; others might be more temporary schemes which could be wound up as the need for them receded. These additional arrangements would enable the target of 1 : 10,000 to be achieved in about 1985; the ratio in 1990 would be 1 : 9,200; the remote consequences would be no different from those described in paragraph 5.61, above.

5.64 Hence, our principal recommendations on supply are that training capacity should be trebled by 1975, and, in addition, that every effort should be made to promote accelerated programmes which would produce about twenty extra psychologists for the education services each year from 1970 to 1974. We are quite certain that, in the context of the developing social services and the long time scale we have used, our proposals in no sense imply an over-production.

5.65 We consider ways and means of implementing these recommendations in Chapter 7.

*Statistics of Education, for example, which were published for the first time in 1962 (with reference to 1961).

**We sound this note of caution because some of our calculations have of necessity been based on the comparatively small numbers of educational psychologists so far; we have had insufficient data on which to base differential rates for men and women leaving service, for instance; and we have no evidence of any differential tendency to 'migrate' on the part of men and women. The annual rate of 4% for men and women combined has been arrived at from the data available to us; different- annual rates, however, have a substantial effect on the calculations of numbers required. It is very unlikely that the annual rate will fall below 4%; it may well be higher; our data in Appendix 5C show that it has exceeded 8% at times.

***By effective annual input we mean the proportion of students successfully completing training who take up posts in local education authority service; it is less than the total output from training courses because a proportion of successful students go at once into other posts at home or abroad (see Appendix 5C.4(9)).

****At 1 January 1965; hence see Table 5.3 for number of educational psychologists (full-time equivalent) at 31 December 1964, rather than Table 2B.2 giving number for 1 May 1965.

*****This is the ratio based on an annual rate of 4% of psychologists leaving education services for all reasons other than normal retirement; if, however, the annual rate were to be as high as 8% from now until 1990, this ratio, of psychologists to schoolchildren in 1990, would be only 1; 12,700 (see third footnote to paragraph 5.57).


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Conclusions and recommendations

5.66 We conclude and recommend that:

Main conclusions and recommendations

5.R1 Local authorities should plan child guidance and school psychological services on the assumption that one educational psychologist will be required for 10,000 schoolchildren. (Paragraph 5.29)

5.R2 Staffing at the level of one psychologist to 10,000 schoolchildren should be achieved as soon as possible, and certainly by 1990. (Paragraph 5.29)

5.R3 New postgraduate training arrangements should be planned to provide an input into the education service of 90 trained psychologists a year from 1975, three times the present number. (See Appendix 5C, paragraphs 5C.49 and 5C.50.) (Paragraphs 5.56, 5.61 and 5.62)

5.R4 There should be an immediate increase of 10 a year, from thirty to forty, which should be sustained. (Paragraph 5.59)

5.R5 Accelerated training programmes should be promoted now in order to provide an additional input of 20 psychologists a year from 1970 to 1974. (Paragraphs 5.62, 5.63 and 5.64)

5.R6 The organisation of psychological services by local education authorities will have to take account of the fact that, unless urgent and energetic action is taken now, psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers will not be available in sufficient numbers to enable child guidance clinic teams to be provided in accordance with the recommendations of the Underwood Committee in 1955. This shortage means that the functions of educational psychologists have to be reconsidered. (Paragraphs 5.8 and 5.9,5.18 to 5.21 and 6.31 to 6.37)

5.R7 Bodies responsible for providing child guidance services, whether local education authorities, regional hospital boards, or voluntary bodies, should examine their policies; development should be planned and co-ordinated to make the best and most effective use of actual and potential resources of manpower for these services. (Paragraph 5.9)

5.R8 Plans for the future supply of educational psychologists need to take account of those who, having worked in school psychological services and child guidance clinics move to other kinds of psychological work in the field of education, to lectureships in colleges of education for instance; it is necessary to secure psychologists for such work in education generally, as well as for local authority child guidance and school psychological services. (Paragraph 5.49)

5.R9 Future demands for educational psychologists can be met from the substantial future increases in numbers of psychology graduates; the attractiveness of educational psychology as a career should be enhanced by facilitating postgraduate training and by further improving financial support for it; by correcting misapprehensions, where they exist, about psychological work in education services; and by improving the career structure for educational psychologists in local authority services. (Paragraphs 5.34 and 5.50 to 5.54)

Contributory recommendations

5.R10 When planning services, account should be taken of children of all ages, wherever they may be. (Paragraph 5.27)

5. R11 Our recommendations about future developments depend on attracting sufficient well qualified staff; local education authorities and all those responsible for education at a national level should examine their policies to ensure that education services remain an attractive prospect to graduate psychologists; methods of recruitment should also be reviewed. (Paragraphs 5.36 and 5.37)


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Chapter 6 Development and organisation of work


Outline of chapter

Page
The special contribution of educational psychologists 6.257
Professional work:
A. The procedures 6.558
B. Examples:
(1) Appraisal and evaluation 6.7
59
(a) Problems of individual children 6.759
(b) Problems of groups of children 6.1359
(c) Research 6.1459
(2) Investigation 6.1560
(3) Action 6.1760
(a) Decision 6.1860
(b) Treatment 6.2162
(c) Follow-up 6.2462
(4) Communication 6.2763
Interdisciplinary work in child guidance clinics: effects of shortages in other professions 6.3163
Other interdisciplinary work 6.3964
Appropriate and inappropriate working arrangements 6.4065
(a) Administrative setting 6.4165
(b) Assessment of children's needs 6.4265
(c) Systems of referral 6.4465
(d) Administrative responsibilities 6.4766
(e) Remedial teaching 6.4867
(f) Educational inspection, organisation and advice 6.5167
(g) Office staff, equipment and other facilities 6.5367
Related work in psychology and education 6.5869
(a) Specialised clinical work in educational psychology 6.5969
(b) Educational research and development 6.6470
(c) Teacher training 6.6670
(d) Training other staff 6.6871
(e) University teaching 6.6971
Career patterns in educational psychology 6.7171
The impact on training 6.7672
Conclusions and recommendations 6.8173
Appendices
6A The number of educational psychologists required if all children thought to need special educational treatment because of educational subnormality were to be psychologically examined157
6B Special needs in Wales158


Introduction

6.1 In this chapter we seek to define the essential nature of the work of educational psychologists, and to examine the most productive methods of employing the services of the psychologists who are likely to be available. Chapter 2 has described the work which educational psychologists do at present, and the ways in which they work with other members of child guidance teams, in spite of chronic shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, discussed in Chapter 5, which are tending to break down the traditional team approach; the implications which shortages may have in future are considered in paragraphs 6.31 to 6.38 below. Chapter 3 has examined opportunities for increased collaboration which educational psychologists and the colleagues with whom they work would like to see, and in Chapter 5 we have quantified the need for educational psychologists in relation to the forecast increase of school population by 1990, when the 1965 school population is expected to have grown by 51%.* In view of the desirability of a wide field of work and the difficulties of securing fully adequate numbers in the remainder of this century, it is clear that they should not be deployed indiscriminately; for those available to be used most effectively and economically, a rigorous selection in their work will have to be exercised by individual psychologists themselves, by those seeking their collaboration and by those responsible for the general administration of the education service.

The special contribution of educational psychologists

6.2 We have been told by the Association of Educational Psychologists that they consider the unique contribution of educational psychologists to be threefold: the assess-

*Statistics of Education 1966. Volume 1, table 44. London: H.M.S.O., 1967.


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ment of the psychological and educational development and needs of children; work as psychologist members of child guidance clinic teams; and as contributing to those discussions of educational policy where a specialist contribution from the academic and clinical psychological point of view could be useful. We accept this as a basis for examining the most effective way of guiding the future work of educational psychologists.

6.3 The British Psychological Society discern one main thread which distinguishes the contributions of psychologists from those of all other workers in the education service, from those of teachers, inspectors, administrators, organisers, doctors, remedial teachers, educational welfare officers, or social workers: the specialised study of psychological science and its application to education and to other aspects of human development. This too we accept, and on this we concentrate attention in considering their functions in the future.

6.4 We now discuss the central aspects of the work which every educational psychologist can be expected to do. A primary emphasis is on prevention through early detection and action; educational psychologists have exceptional opportunities to make constructive contributions as a consequence of their work in schools and other places where children are; their work is distinguished in this way from the greater emphasis on remedial and therapeutic methods in the work of psychiatrists, and of psychiatric and other social workers. We also discuss conditions which affect psychologists' work and related work in psychology and education for which they are qualified and which are desirable or necessary.

Professional work

A. The procedures

6.5 Four procedures form the core of the method used by educational psychologists:

(1) Appraisal and evaluation. They have first to consider problems posed to them, or which they themselves identify, in the context in which the problems arise usually the school or the home of the child concerned, or both. Appraisal precedes selection; some problems fall within the competence of educational psychologists; others need to be brought to the attention of colleagues in the child guidance service, or of workers in other services that are likely to be able to assist.

(2) Investigation is a psychologist's next task, once a problem has been accepted as falling within his competence. The whole of the relevant information is seldom given; some has to be acquired before even a start can be made. Inferences about the psychological nature of the problem can then be made and hypotheses tested by techniques chosen for their suitability to the particular case.

(3) Action. (a) Decision. Following investigation, a psychologist has to make decisions on which action can be based. He may recommend the specific steps to be taken, or the problem may be referred elsewhere at this stage, after discussion with those concerned. When a problem is referred elsewhere, as a result either of the evaluation made initially or of further investigation, educational psychologists may still be required to participate.

(b) Treatment. Some decisions will result in educational psychologists carrying out the kind of treatment which they themselves can undertake effectively. This might involve either working directly with the child or, for example, seeking to modify his environment through discussing his difficulties, and the way in which they might be handled, with his parents or his teachers.

(c) Follow-up. Most problems need to be followed up in order to determine progress after some action has been taken. Whenever a psychologist does not intend to follow up, he needs to make it clear to parents or teachers that they can ask for help again in case of need. Follow-up is also of importance for psychologists' own professional development, since, by seeing what progress is made, they confront the results of their own decisions and are enabled to give help which is the more effective in the future.

(4) Communication. Communication is not a procedure which is subsidiary to those mentioned above; it is an essential feature of the way in which educational psychologists work. An awareness of the need for effective communication is a quality which should distinguish all that they do and is of paramount importance. Educational psychologists must be able to communicate clearly and effectively, not only with children, but with parents and colleagues in a variety of professions. The data on which a psychologist's conclusions are based will be very restricted or invalid if interpersonal communication is poor. When it is good, children understand better what is required of them and are motivated to respond to the best of their ability; and adults, whether parents or professional workers, supply more relevant information or gain better insight or support. In the light of such discussions, an educational psychologist's views may be modified and developed; communication is thus a continuous process. Additionally, communication may be regarded as describing those stages in the handling of a problem at which an educational psychologist lets others who are involved know of his conclusions as he reaches them, what action he may propose, and, through discussion, brings them to appreciate the relevance of his findings.


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B. Examples

6.6 Many people, even those in the education service, are not sure what educational psychologists do and how they set about their work. Perhaps because of this uncertainty, any popular concept of educational psychologists is likely to be tinged with mystery or even fear. Children come to their own conclusions. One small boy jumped from behind the door, delighted to ambush an educational psychologist: 'I know who you are - the games and puzzles lady!' But another said the first time: 'Are you the child guidance? I thought it would be a policeman !' A clear appreciation of what educational psychologists can and should do would certainly go a long way toward ensuring that their work is developed and organised to the maximum benefit of the education service and the community. We give a guide to the future method of work by examples illustrating the procedures briefly outlined in paragraph 6.5. The work varies considerably from area to area and between individuals, but the examples which follow are typical of good practice in educational psychology.

Examples: (1) Appraisal and evaluation

6.7 Those problems which educational psychologists can help to resolve have first to be distinguished from those that are better dealt with by colleagues in other professions. It is possible to divide the matters which are the concern of educational psychologists into three main areas: (a) problems of individual children, (b) problems of groups of children, and (c) research.

(a) Problems of individual children

6.8 The problems of individual children form the greatest part of educational psychologists' work at present and can conveniently be grouped into three main categories, given below in an approximate order of frequency. The types of problem are listed but they are not considered in detail; a full discussion of their range would require a text-book treatment.

6.9 Development and progress. Children who seem to be falling behind in their development and progress present problems of one kind. Some gifted children may also raise problems of other kinds, as may children with special disabilities. Whenever demands and opportunities are not related to a child's individual talents and temperament, problems are likely to arise.

6.10 Behaviour and adjustment. This is an extremely wide category. Difficulties in social interaction between children, or between children and adults - most commonly parents or teachers - lie behind a substantial proportion of the cases in which help is sought. A child's behaviour may be disturbed in one or other of a variety of ways. For example, he may be unwilling to go to school, all the efforts of his parents, of the school and of educational welfare officers having been of no avail. His behaviour may be unduly aggressive; the aggressiveness may be expressed physically in attacks directed against other people, or in damaging or destroying vulnerable objects ranging from toys to telephone boxes, but it may equally be expressed in other ways such as offensive language. He may show behaviour which may be described as 'obsessional' or 'bizarre'. There is also a range of problems on which a psychologist may be the first person who is asked for advice: for example, children who show symptoms of fear for which there seems no rational cause; severely withdrawn children, or elective mutes, who do not respond to social situations in a normal way; and some children with physical symptoms or signs such as persistent headaches or vomiting in school, which may be psychosomatic in origin. Educational psychologists have a contribution to make to such problems in collaboration with their medical and other colleagues.

6.11 The education and guidance of children. Educational psychologists are often asked to participate in the education and guidance both of individual normal children and of handicapped children of all kinds. The question of a suitable placement in school may arise in the case of children moving from one part of the country to another; and, where different forms of secondary education entail a selection process, 'borderline' children are sometimes referred for advice.

6.12 Some children, notably those leaving special schools, require especially careful vocational guidance, calling for the psychological contribution of a thorough evaluation of the abilities and personality of the children. Often this can be based on knowledge of the children's development and progress during their school careers as well as on assessments which are made when they are ready to leave.

(b) Problems of groups of children

6.13 Psychologists in education services are also consulted about problems relating to the educational guidance of groups of children, for instance children who are maladjusted or poor readers. They may be called upon to design part of the educational programme for special educational treatment which is used by an education authority; this may include the design and use of record cards. Work in connection with surveys is mentioned in the following paragraphs; frequently they will be a preliminary to work with groups of children who need compensatory and remedial education.

(c) Research

6.14 The problems even of an individual child are an occasion for research in the sense that investigation is


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required before methods of alleviation can be proposed, and follow-up is needed to determine their success. But other problems may involve research in the more usually accepted sense of the term; and it is desirable for all psychologists to have the skills necessary for participation in research projects, although not all of them can expect to have sole responsibility for such projects. They may, however, be required to devise and plan surveys of the child population in an area in order to establish patterns of ability and achievement on which to base estimates of special educational provisions which may be required; moreover, different localities within an education authority may have different needs, and decisions may hinge on the findings of a local survey. They may also contribute scientifically when an education authority decides to try a new teaching technique or a new method of organisation, since well designed experiments are required if meaningful evaluations are to be made.

Examples: (2) Investigation

6.15 The ability to distinguish information which is essential to the understanding of a problem rests on skills developed by training, supplemented by personal experience. Educational psychologists may obtain much of the information they need from their own investigations, but they also rely on the collaboration of professional colleagues; for example, a social worker would usually, though not necessarily, discuss a child's early development and upbringing with his mother.

6.16 The formulation of possible solutions to a problem follows from the gathering of basic information. Skill and clinical insight in selecting hypotheses to consider and to pursue again depend upon training and experience; so too does a choice of methods that will enable hypotheses which must be rejected to be distinguished from those which can continue to be entertained. The methods include many procedures in addition to the standardised tests of ability and attainment that psychologists are conventionally believed to use. Most of them require the background of knowledge and training with which only psychologists are equipped, although there are some that can be used more widely, for example, by teachers who have acquired the necessary skills through special training. An interview is almost always the context in which children are introduced to any special methods - or a series of interviews. In the most difficult investigations the first objective may simply be to decide between lines of further enquiry; several periods of observation may be needed; and the solutions that emerge may be very different from those which at first seemed probable.

Examples: (3) Action

6.17 Investigation of the problem of individual children or of groups of children is a prelude to action of three main kinds: decision, treatment, and follow-up.

(a) Decision

6.18 In the light of his findings a psychologist has to decide what, in his opinion, is the most appropriate action in the interests of the child and in relation to all the circumstances. He might decide to do some things himself which, without interfering radically with existing educational arrangements, would benefit the child; thus he might recommend the provision of treatment of the kind discussed in paragraphs 6.22 and 6.23 below, for a child attending an ordinary school but encountering difficulties. For another child, he might decide that a different kind of education was more appropriate, and recommend attendance at a day school for maladjusted children.

6.19 The range of decisions available varies considerably from place to place and in individual circumstances. Parental attitudes may influence a decision; so may the lack of a special school of a particular kind within reasonable reach. Where parental consent to a placement is withheld, or anything else prevents a preferred course being taken, it is desirable for educational psychologists to record the best conceivable recommendations before giving the best practical solution. In this way they may gather useful evidence of the need to establish or to increase a particular kind of therapeutic provision, such as schools for maladjusted children. More immediately, this practice gives a point of reference against which possible alternative solutions may be measured.

6.20 The following are examples of children for whom alternative provision has to be made, which falls short of the best, because the course of action thought most likely to succeed cannot be adopted.

(i) A timid child who is one of a disturbed family is considered by the child guidance team to be in need of residential placement. This is not practicable perhaps because the parents refuse boarding education or because the child has too short a period of schooling left for a residential place to be offered or worthwhile. The child therefore remains at home attending a day school whose teachers consult the educational psychologist for advice about the education and management of the child.

(ii) A less usual type of case: a child with a serious language defect is likely to have a long wait for a place in a school which caters specifically for her condition. She attends an ordinary school meanwhile and a speech therapist is giving treatment. Her teachers are very concerned because they find her speech virtually incomprehensible; the educational psychologist is asked for advice in order to help them to meet her need for special educational treatment as effectively as they can.


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Plate H
Investigation


Plate I
Some educational psychologists develop special interests in particular problems or particular categories of children; a child whose sight is impaired.


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(b) Treatment

6.21 The two main foci of a child's life are home and school, and for this reason most difficulties arise in the context of one or other - or both. An educational psychologist may be asked to help in resolving difficulties which arise in any aspect of a child's life. The special contribution that he can make derives from the emphasis of his postgraduate studies on child development and on learning processes. His knowledge, experience, skills and competence apply in both these main aspects of a child's life and he has a unique potential for operating in either field, or in both simultaneously, as needs dictate. The steps that he can take actively to further the wellbeing of a child are of two main kinds: (i) direct - where he himself works with children, either individually or in groups; and (ii) indirect - where someone else, such as the school and its teachers, manages the child with his guidance.

6.22 Direct treatment may take several forms. An educational psychologist who deals directly with a child having a severe learning problem might find that the essential prerequisite to progress of any kind was to establish a positive relationship with the child. Such a relationship may be evolved in a variety of ways. A psychologist, having no fixed educational role, is free to seek and discover the most promising approaches, even when they fall outside an educational setting. When a relationship with a child is sufficiently established, a psychologist can direct his approach by seeking some interest or characteristic of the child which is strong enough to provide an incentive to learning or which urges the child towards learning. He need not relinquish his direct treatment of a child when he achieves this, but may pursue what is really a form of extended investigation; he may himself try out with the child a remedial method which he considers may be helpful, in order to establish whether it is effective and how best it can' be applied. When he is satisfied that the child can learn and that the method is appropriate the continuation of the educational process can be undertaken by a teacher after the necessary discussion, provided that she is assured that further advice and guidance will be available. Remedial teachers and teachers of handicapped children, particularly those who have received a specialised training, are qualified to take responsibility for remedial and special education as such and should be able to recognise when other factors outside their educational competence become apparent and require attention. It is, therefore, essential that remedial teachers and teachers of handicapped pupils have the opportunity to confer with educational psychologists and that there should be cordial working relations between them.

6.23 Similarly, a child guidance team may agree that remedial education by a psychologist in the team is most likely to help a child with school adjustment problems. Not infrequently, however, the psychologist may then find that the child is so anxious or so aggressive that he is unable to learn. Before any progress can be made, the psychologist may have to find out about the psychological barriers to learning which may lie behind more immediately obvious educational difficulties. In these circumstances, he would need to explore and clarify the feelings and attitudes of a child to other people and his relationships with them. For this, a well founded knowledge of interpersonal relations and the psychodynamics of families and school groups would be called upon. Thus educational psychologists have their part in psychotherapeutic relationships; their role in treatment is determined by the nature of their training and differs from that of psychiatrists and analytical psychotherapists.

(c) Follow-up

6.24 Whenever an educational psychologist is asked for help, his psychological and educational skills are employed most extensively in investigations, in making recommendations about ways of improving matters, in implementing these and perhaps other recommendations. He has a continuing responsibility to keep progress under review until a sustained level of improvement has been reached; this calls for a systematic and purposeful followup in order: (i) to ensure that recommendations have been understood and implemented where possible; where implementation has not been possible for any reason alternative recommendations are needed; (ii) to ensure that the effectiveness of recommendations is critically studied, so that they can be reconsidered if necessary-for instance, to ensure that the action recommended has not become inappropriate.

6.25 When a child is referred to another agency an educational psychologist may have a continuing responsibility to maintain contact. even though he himself does not regularly see the child. Where residential education, for instance, is judged to be the best solution, the responsibility extends beyond establishing that the school and the special educational treatment to be provided there is suited to the particular needs of the child. In the desirable circumstances where the school is within a reasonable distance of the child's home, the follow-up of all the children from the area can be achieved by regular visits. Where for some reason this is not attainable (owing, for example, to poor facilities for residential education within the region) other methods may have to be used, including written enquiries, occasional visits, arrangements for visits by colleagues in the locality of the school. and interviews with the child during holiday periods. Although some educational psychologists make all follow-up enquiries themselves, to delegate them appropriately may economise in psychologists' time.


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6.26 Another form of follow-up takes on the character of research work. The follow-up of samples of children treated in the same way yields useful information about recommendations and forms of therapeutic provision. This type of study may well involve the appraisal of remedial environments, whether in schools or classes; reappraisal may be needed to assess progress, and it may then be found that particular children require further investigation. The importance of follow-up in enabling psychologists themselves to evaluate the recommendations they have made has already been mentioned in paragraph 6.5 above, and to know the effectiveness of their work is a source of professional satisfaction.

Examples: (4) Communication

6.27 Effective work by educational psychologists depends on effective communication: first it is the means by which they collect data upon which to base decisions and recommendations, and secondly it is the channel through which their decisions and recommendations may be implemented or reframed. Psychologists have to communicate with adults at different levels. Often parents may be unfamiliar with psychological terms and these will have to be expressed in clear concise language, Teachers, doctors and children's officers may have some background knowledge of psychology which facilitates communication in technical terms, although even here psychologists have to be careful about the use of terms which are ambiguous. Quite apart from the actual language employed, psychologists often have to communicate findings which may initially be unacceptable. It may be necessary to unfold the implications gradually in order to help the people concerned to accept them.

6.28 Spoken or written language may be used, informally or formally. When psychologists are seeking information about a child, they may do so by means of informal discussions with a parent or teacher. This enables them to clarify any point when there are doubts about precisely what is meant. The information may be supplemented by written reports from teachers either using a prescribed form or giving a descriptive account of a child's progress and behaviour. In seeking the cooperation of other colleagues concerned with a child, psychologists often wish to discuss the case before making a recommendation. They may wish to communicate findings orally, since this enables doubts to be cleared up immediately. When cases are referred elsewhere a written report is needed. Personal interviews may not be practicable and the implementation of recommendations will depend upon psychologists' ability to state them in a form which is both lucid and convincing.

6.29 In the course of his work, a psychologist may well find that he is repeatedly communicating the same concepts to different teachers individually. He can save time by group discussions with teachers on such matters as the mental health of children or the educational implications of psychological research.

6.30 In the performance of his daily work every educational psychologist communicates to others something of the aims and functions of child guidance and school psychological services. He must be prepared for requests, including those from his employers, to explain and justify what he does; and he may need to employ more formal methods of disseminating information, for instance, giving lectures, holding discussion groups and preparing pamphlets.

Interdisciplinary work in child guidance clinics: effects of shortages in other professions.

6.31 The assessment of future supply of staff for child guidance clinics in Chapter 5 led with regret to the critical conclusion that the opportunities for educational psychologists to work in interdisciplinary child guidance teams will, in general, decrease (paragraphs 5.18-5.20 and Appendix 5A). It is to be hoped that this will not happen everywhere. Sufficient psychiatric social workers and psychiatrists are likely to be available to permit fully interdisciplinary child guidance work to continue in some areas. They will probably be areas which have already developed a tradition of interdisciplinary team-work, or which are otherwise attractive to staff. Typically, they are the larger urban areas and compact county areas in the southern half of the country. Vigorous attempts to attract staff into child guidance work should not be abandoned. Child guidance should be run on an interdisciplinary basis wherever it is possible to obtain the necessary staff.

6.32 In paragraph 2.33 we endorsed the view that an interdisciplinary team should be the background against which all educational psychologists work. However, they have often been required to do child guidance work in situations where assistance from other disciplines was attenuated or lacking altogether. These situations may arise when the contribution from other disciplines is made by a number of different people each of whom gives only a small amount of time (see paragraph 5.6 and Appendix 5A), or when it is provided separately at a hospital, or when a problem is accessible only within a school because parents have refused the help of a child guidance clinic. The development of services cannot be held back until full staffing in all disciplines is achieved, and it would not be reasonable to suggest that educational psychologists should not be appointed where participation by psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers is attenuated.

6.33 We have affirmed the benefits which stem from


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collaboration between disciplines; the conclusion reached in Chapter 5 about the poor prospects of any increase in the supply of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers for child guidance services has implications for the concept of a child guidance team of a full-time psychiatrist, two educational psychologists and three psychiatric social workers. The concept of the team becomes attenuated when part-time participation by some members is small. In the foreseeable future, where there are teams at all, it is clear that most will be incomplete in some respect. Clearly,an improved supply of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers would resolve the problem, but fundamental changes will be needed to increase the supply of trained staff, as we have said in Chapter 5.

6.34 While a trend towards larger education authorities may afford advantages (see paragraph 6.74), and while groups of authorities may also combine to organise their services, it is likely that for some time to come a number of authorities too small to be able easily to provide a range of facilities will continue to operate their own services; they will inevitably experience increasing difficulties. Not only will it tend to be more difficult to attract staff for interdisciplinary teams, but a level of staffing sufficient to permit specialisation in particular aspects of educational psychology would be extravagant even if it could be obtained. Furthermore, the psychologists themselves may find it the more difficult to undertake any kind of specialised work because shortages in other disciplines will increase the demands made on them.

6.35 We have been told by the professional associations of psychiatrists and of psychiatric social workers that the role of educational psychologists already varies considerably according to the availability of other staff, and that their work has been affected particularly by the extreme shortage of child psychiatrists. In order to meet this situation, a therapeutic role wider than remedial teaching had devolved upon educational psychologists in many clinics. The associations have suggested in their evidence to us that educational psychologists could be equipped by their training to undertake an extended range of treatment.

6.36 Many of the problems with which child guidance is concerned respond in some way to intervention through anyone of a variety of approaches; some of the problems which can be improved by psychiatric treatment. though not all, can also benefit from procedures which psychologists can carry out. We expect that the general increase in numbers of psychologists will lead to more attention being given to research and development on psychological techniques which have applications in the field of child psychology. Improvements in the supply of psychologists should allow a greater proportion of their time to be spent seeking to alleviate problems and difficulties disclosed by psychological assessment, including those disclosed at observation groups which psychologists might themselves establish in consultation with their colleagues and for which they might be responsible. They have a continuing responsibility to keep their authorities informed about services which their findings show to be needed and which they themselves are unable to provide. They also have a responsibility to offer the support which lies within their power, not only to children, but also to parents, teachers and others concerned with children in need of help, both in particular cases and more generally through talks, discussions and lectures.

6.37 Where educational psychologists have been the only people effectively on the spot some have been tempted to overdiversify their functions. Others, equally inappropriately, have tried to be one-man child guidance teams. Still others have tended to become encapsulated within education; in such circumstances the possibilities of psychiatric treatment may come to be overlooked altogether and, at the extreme, the illusion may develop that everything can be dealt with by psychological testing and remedial teaching. Collaboration with hospital psychiatric services may help to counteract these difficulties, but this has seldom taken place; we recommend that continuing efforts should be made to develop collaboration with these services. Collaboration may be facilitated where observation or other assessment groups have been established. An acceptable arrangement may then be for a psychiatrist to be available for consultation on an ad hoc basis when a number of children have been identified for whom psychiatric advice is needed and who may require psychiatric treatment. In this way some degree of interdisciplinary collaboration and professional contact between members of different services may gradually be established and developed.

6.38 The emphasis of this section of this chapter has been on child guidance clinic teams. They remain the primary example of professional teamwork, but there are others.

Other interdisciplinary work

6.39 Educational psychologists are increasingly involved in interdisciplinary teams for the identification, care and education of handicapped children* and slow learning

*Interdisciplinary teamwork was advocated over twenty years ago: 'How are the children who require special educational treatment to be selected? 21. Under the 1944 Act the authority should also seek and consider all further information supplied by a number of other interested persons able to add to the knowledge of the particular child who may be needing special educational treatment. For instance, doctor, teacher, educational psychologist and perhaps others who really know the child well, will, it is hoped, put their heads together in his interest ... It is particularly valuable in border-line cases.' (p.10) Special Educational Treatment, Ministry of Education Pamphlet No.5. London: H.M.S.O.,1946.
More recently: 'In the long established and well staffed clinic the usual procedure of investigations by psychologists and psychiatric social workers, the diagnostic interview by the psychiatrist and the case conference, is still followed.' The Health of the School Child 1960 and 1961. London: H.M.S.O., 1962.


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pupils; and in conferences concerned with careers guidance, child care, and with other social aspects of education. Interdisciplinary work of these kinds brings them into professional contact with school medical officers in a context different from that of child guidance, and with youth employment officers, children's officers and the social workers of other departments of a local authority.

Appropriate and inappropriate working arrangements

6.40 We now turn our attention to circumstances which affect the productive employment of psychologists working for local education authorities. We have borne in mind the nature and scope of the work we consider appropriate and the number of psychologists likely to be available. Some further developments of professional work in relation to education more generally are considered later in this chapter (paragraph 6.60).

(a) Administrative setting

6.41 The division of administrative responsibility for the work of educational psychologists in some authorities between chief education officer and principal school medical officer impairs the effectiveness of services, makes for difficulties of communication and of personal relations, and hinders career development in education psychology (see paragraphs 2.43 and 2.44). Since responsibility both for education and for school health ultimately rests with the education authority we are strongly of the opinion that it would be logical for all educational psychologists to be centred administratively on the education departments of local authorities.

(b) Assessment of children's needs

6.42 Psychologists have a relevant point of view on procedures for assessing children's needs. It is therefore appropriate for educational psychologists to participate whenever new arrangements are being considered. Furthermore, it is usual for their reports to be taken into account by an authority, together with those of school medical officers, teachers and others, in reaching decisions about some kinds of special educational treatment; and they are often members of reviewing panels for special educational treatment. In particular, as members of child guidance teams, they participate in the ascertainment and diagnosis of maladjusted children, and may have a continuing responsibility for following up their progress. They should be increasingly available for consultation about handicapped children of other kinds who present particular psychological problems. We do not believe it to be economical, however, either for educational psychologists to be expected to report on all children thought to need special educational treatment, or for them to be administratively responsible for referral procedures in these cases.

6.43 It would be unrealistic to suggest, for example, that educational psychologists themselves could make psychological examinations of all handicapped children or even of a substantial proportion of them at the present time. The number of children who might be examined each year as possibly needing special education as educationally sub-normal pupils would alone occupy the time of between 200 and 400 educational psychologists if each child were to have an individual psychological examination; thus this work by itself could occupy all the educational psychologists who are at present employed in England and Wales (see Appendix 6A). Hence school medical officers,* for the time being at least, will need to continue to include psychological assessments in their own examinations of many such children. We have learned, however, of authorities in which it is the rule for school medical officers to repeat psychological assessments which have just been made by an educational psychologist, and which are available to the medical officer. To do so is akin to making it a rule to repeat all the tests and observations on children that might be available from a neurologist in the same or other cases. We hope that such repetitions will be abandoned as unnecessary, and be replaced by an appreciation of professional interdependence which is more directly addressed to children's needs.

(c) Systems of referral

6.44 A system of closed referral may be regarded as a device for reducing pressure on child guidance services by screening cases to make sure they are concerned only with those for whom the help they can provide is appropriate. In some areas referral is allowed only through a school medical officer; in other cases all referrals are centralised in some other way. Screened referrals may give rise to a feeling of frustration on the part of would-be users, and can be cumbersome or waste time. Furthermore, if the screening is to be effective, if children requiring child guidance help are not to be turned away and if those needing other sorts of help are to be referred appropriately, the process must take place at a high level; it will therefore

*It is mandatory for school medical officers to attend special approved courses before undertaking these examinations, and many of them in addition attend refresher courses. Approved three-week courses are arranged by the Universities of Bristol, Leeds, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Glasgow. The University of London, in collaboration with the National Association for Mental Health, organises two four-week courses a year. A three-month sandwich course in developmental paediatrics has just been started by the University of London Institute of Child Health (in 1967).


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probably involve officers with professional skills which, like those of members of the child guidance service, are in great demand, and may not be an appropriate charge on their time.

6.45 The Underwood Report was unreservedly in favour of systems of open referral* to This policy was endorsed by the Ministries of Education and Health (paragraph 18 of Circular 347, Ministry of Education, and paragraph 5 of H.M.(59)23, Ministry of Health) (contained in Appendix 2C). It is clearly impossible for child guidance services to respond to all requests from all sources, even if it were appropriate for them to do so, and the implication of screened referral is that someone must protect the services by saying 'no' on their behalf. This may be regarded as an erosion of the professional responsibilities of the child guidance service workers and a reflection on their powers of discrimination; it may also preclude a valid and constructive 'educational' function of the service. A good relationship built up with teachers and others who make referrals can lead naturally to an effective system of referrals as there develops an appreciation of the kinds of problem for which referral is most appropriate. Out of this can grow an increased confidence on the part of those making referrals that they themselves can manage certain kinds of problems with the reassurance that they can have recourse to specialist advice whenever they feel the need of it. Hence good working relationships with teachers, children's officers, youth employment officers, probation officers and others are the key to an effective system of referrals.

6.46 We endorse the views expressed in the Underwood Report and recommend that referral to child guidance and school psychological services should be open.

(d) Administrative responsibilities

6.47 Larger numbers of schoolchildren imply larger establishments of psychologists. Inevitably, there will be a tendency for senior psychologists to become more involved in the administration of psychological services, and less in psychological work. This a familiar process but it is difficult to countenance a diminished professional contribution from the most experienced and able practitioners at a time when there is a growing demand for their professional skills and an acute shortage of staff for new appointments. Other calls on senior psychologists' time are made by consultations and committees into which they are drawn because they are psychologists working in education services, and indeed, because they are the only psychologists employed by local authorities at all, apart from one or two rare exceptions. Undoubtedly they have contributions to make in the development of new policies. We do not suggest that educational psychologists ought to eschew all administrative functions; nevertheless, we recommend that administrative duties which do not call for their specialised psychological training should be reduced to a minimum, and that, although it is appropriate for them to be consulted, they should not undertake general responsibilities for educational policy or administration, which are more appropriately undertaken by organisers or by other officers in education departments.

6.48 We have also been told that educational psycho-

*Paragraphs 167-169, 196 and 197, U.R.:
'The school psychological service
... First, the educational psychologist is called upon to give advice on individual children with learning difficulties; behind these often lies an emotional trouble. Secondly, individual children are referred because their behaviour is causing annoyance or anxiety in ways which baffle teachers. For example, they may be truants for no obvious reason, they may be cruel to younger children, or they may be so nervous and timid that it interferes with their happiness and development. Teachers may refer children whose behaviour at home parents have come to discuss with them; or parents may come to the school themselves to consult the psychologist ...
The psychologist working in conjunction with the teachers can help many children in the context of their school. If a child is helped to overcome a learning difficulty, such as inability to read, about which he is sensitive, the resulting access of satisfaction and self-confidence may cause his emotional troubles to disappear. In seeing children with learning or behaviour difficulties, however, the psychologist must know the limitations of what he can do unaided and the contribution-which each of the other members of the child guidance team can make ...
It is important that troubles which require investigation by the whole team should be recognised and that children who need to be dealt with at the clinic should be referred there as soon as possible. Discussion has sometimes ranged round the question whether it is right for somebody who is not medically qualified to select children for reference to a clinic. If the child guidance service is a broadly-based and comprehensive service such as we recommend, this question should not need to be asked or answered. Everybody who has contact with children - not least the parents - inevitably carries out some child guidance in the wider sense and some selection; and, if the dual role of the educational psychologist in schools and clinics is accepted, we can see no objection to his taking the responsibility for deciding for many of the children whose troubles come to light in and through schools whether they need to be investigated by the whole clinic team ...
Access to clinics
Maladjustment in children may come to light in a variety of ways - a matter which we shall discuss in more detail in Chapter XVI, in which we deal with the discovery as well as the prevention of maladjustment. A variety of people may therefore be instrumental in bringing children to a child guidance clinic, such as health visitors. teachers. family doctors or social workers, in addition to educational psychologists and the staff of the school health service whose r61e has been discussed earlier in this chapter. Probably the majority of children who reach the clinic will have been sent there on expert advice.
We regard it as of fundamental importance, however, that parents should themselves have direct access to the clinic, without their children having first been seen and recommended by some intermediary. A child guidance clinic depends for its successful working on the co-operation and confidence of parents; and it must therefore be something to which parents can feel that they have access, not something which seems remote, alien and occult. We are glad to know that most clinics do offer parents the right of direct access.'


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logists should have formal administrative responsibilities for liaison between special schools and classes and local education authorities. Educational psychologists naturally have liaison functions with special schools and classes, for example with those for maladjusted children, but general responsibilities would also seem to us again to fall within the province of educational administrators and organisers, rather than of psychologists.

(e) Remedial teaching

6.49 It is not easy to distinguish the work appropriate to educational psychologists in remedial teaching services. At one extreme, the remedial measure may be of extra coaching; it is then a matter wholly appropriate for teachers to undertake and to organise. Indeed, an experienced teacher with a small class in which one or two children were backward would take work of this kind in her stride.

6.50 At the other extreme, special classes or units for observation and diagnosis run in association with school psychological services or child guidance clinics are certainly the concern of educational psychologists, and they may themselves take part in remedial education when it is closely associated with child guidance clinic treatment (see paragraphs 6.22 and 6.23). I n our view educational psychologists should not be responsible for remedial education except where the primary purpose of classes is treatment by psychological methods. In relation to other special classes it is appropriate for them to act as advisers.

(f) Educational inspection, organisation and advice

6.51 A number of educational psychologists have duties as educational organisers or advisers, particularly for special educational treatment. Although some educational psychologists are exceptionally well qualified for work of this kind, we do not think that it requires a specialised qualification in psychology; teachers with qualifications and experience in special educational treatment are well able to undertake work of this kind. Similarly, inspectoral duties are not among those we consider appropriate to educational psychologists; the nature of the relationship between teachers and inspectors is different, and not necessarily compatible with that between teachers and psychologists. Children are sensitive to qualities in relationships, and their attitudes to educational psychologists will tend to be influenced by those of teachers.

6.52 Psychological advice should nevertheless be available to those responsible for inspecting, organising and advising on education and on special education.

(g) Office staff, equipment and other facilities

6.53 The Underwood Report contained the following passages about office staff and facilities:

'183. It is essential that the professional staff in a clinic should have adequate secretarial and clerical assistance. There should be a secretary who is competent to handle the office routine of the clinic, and who has the right personality to enable her to act as receptionist to parents and other visitors to it. Often there has been little or no clerical or secretarial assistance or it has been of poor quality, with the result that psychiatric social workers have had to carry out the bulk of the clerical and secretarial work. In view of the careful way in which they are selected and the elaborate nature of their specialised training, this represents a waste of skilled manpower which could not be justified even if there were not a serious shortage of psychiatric social workers.'

'186 ... it is desirable that clinics should have the staff to enable them to follow up their cases and carry out research into the efficacy of different methods of treatment.'

'195 ... A full range should be supplied of the equipment needed to run an office efficiently, including filing and card index cabinets.'

6.54 We have been told that these conditions, considered essential in 1955, have by no means been attained everywhere even now. We endorse the Committee's views on unjustifiable waste of skilled manpower; it is imperative that such measures as effective office management are fully explored before establishments for professional posts are increased. Larger services need higher levels of provision than those envisaged in 1955; more than 'a secretary' is needed to staff the office in a full scale child guidance clinic. The professional staff should have the support of an adequate administrative and secretarial staff; recent developments in office techniques should be exploited to save labour.

6.55 Facilities of this nature are also essential for the operation of school psychological services. It is uneconomical if facilities are duplicated, but shared facilities need to be adequate for all the services for which they are required.

6.56 Travelling is a necessary feature of educational psychologists' work. They see many children in schools and in other places too. To see children in their familiar settings may be essential to securing good results and to building up desirable contacts with teachers and other colleagues. Psychologists should certainly plan their visits economically, but equally they need the support of their employers. A car is essential to their work.

6.57 Consideration should be given to mobile units which could help child guidance teams to build up closer contacts with those they serve. In areas where, for


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Plate J
A psychologist at work with the aid of a computer: it is desirable for all psychologists to have the skills necessary for participation in research projects, although not all of them can expect to have sole responsibility for such projects.


Plate K
Travelling is a necessary feature of educational psychologists' work.


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example, the centres of population are dispersed, or where there are very large schools, or where a number of special schools require intensive help, a mobile unit might be preferable to branch establishments.

Related work in psychology and education

6.58 We now consider further ways in which psychologists should be able to contribute to the effectiveness of the education system as a whole. Some of the contributions which ought to be made may mean that some educational psychologists may not work for local education authorities full-time for the whole of their careers. We recommend that it should be made possible, for example, for some psychologists to hold joint appointments with universities or colleges of education, to enable the best use to be made of the psychologists in the education services and to enable psychologists themselves to vary the patterns of their careers.

(a) Specialised clinical work in educational psychology

6.59 Some educational psychologists develop special interests in particular problems or particular categories of children, and explore in greater depth aspects of, for example, the psychological implications of deficiencies in perception of a category of handicapped children (see also Appendix 6B). This may lead them to further study or research, or to specialised training, or to concentrate on work connected with their particular interest. The need for this sort of specialised psychological knowledge has been expressed to us by a number of organisations; a degree of specialisation of function is a promising way of enhancing the scope and quality of the services provided. In some of the very largest authorities there have already been developments in this direction. In the Inner London Education Authority, for example, two educational psychologists devote a specified proportion of their time to deaf and partially hearing children; where such services exist. requests from other local authorities indicate the need for such services. One difficulty in the way of development in this direction is the comparatively small size of most local authorities; there is little scope for the development of specialisation when the establishment is for only one or two educational psychologists for all the work in a local authority area. However, where authorities are large enough to have a somewhat higher level of staffing, some degree of specialisation can be attained by a broad definition of a group of difficulties; for example, in Bristol there are two specializations at present: learning difficulties, with particular reference to 'brain damage'; and communication difficulties, especially defects of hearing and speech. The educational psychologists concerned have more general responsibilities in addition.

6.60 In parts of the country where this is not possible, other arrangements for making available specialised psychological advice should be examined. If individual educational psychologists make known in neighbouring authorities any special training, experience or interests they may have, their specialised knowledge could be called on more widely. However, we consider that a range of specialised psychological staff can most satisfactorily be planned on a regional basis, and ways in which in future a larger basis might be achieved are indicated in paragraphs 6.73 and 6.74 below.

6.61 An approach to specialised psychological services on a national scale has been suggested by the College of Teachers of the Blind, which is proposing to keep a register of psychologists who have acquired special knowledge of the problems of blind children to make it easier for schools for blind children to have access to psychological advice. We think this approach could be developed by special schools and associations concerned with particular handicaps; 'specialised' psychologists are best approached through or after consultation with the educational psychologists usually concerned with a particular school in order to avoid misunderstandings.

6.62 Some psychologists engaged in specialised work are not employed by local authorities but, for example, by voluntary bodies. The Spastics Society has its own establishment of psychologists; their work is largely concerned with assessment and guidance on behalf of the Society's own members and schools, and there is no intention of providing a general advisory service to local education authorities for cerebrally palsied children. However, courses are run for teachers, therapists and educational psychologists, and a substantial proportion of the time of the Society's psychologists is spent on surveys and research work.

6.63 Other educational psychologists have progressed to specialised work concerned with handicapped children and the advanced training of their teachers. One who is doing work of this nature has suggested that it 'can legitimately be considered one of the openings which a career in educational psychology can offer in the same way that a medical qualification opens up a variety of fields of work. While it is unfortunate that such a movement has the effect of depleting the ranks of local education authority psychologists at present. in the long term I think it should be recognised as a good thing and planned for accordingly'. Another has put it even more strongly: 'My own experience is that the switch is a satisfactory development in a career in educational


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psychology and I would support the view that not only will there continue to be a loss of this kind from the ranks of educational psychologists in local education authorities but that the movement should be recognised, encouraged and increased'.

(b) Educational research and development

6.64 Among the most beneficial influences on the education system are developments in knowledge (a) about learning processes, (b) about techniques for transmitting information, and (c) about educational organisation. We have been told that opportunities for conducting or for participating in research projects on such problems would be attractive to many psychologists who might enter education services. Moreover, the National Union of Teachers in their evidence to us envisaged that some psychologists would be able to offer advice that many teachers would welcome 'on the underlying assumptions and possible applications of the newer teaching aids', at a time when 'we are just at the beginning of a period of great expansion in the use of audio-visual and other technical aids to learning'. Programmed instruction owes its origins to laboratory experiments with animals by psychologists;* it is to be expected that some educational psychologists could make substantial contributions to further research and development in this field, and on the other problems we have mentioned. It is also to be expected that a small proportion of such psychologists, whose experience and interests developed strongly in these directions would, in the normal course of their careers, progress to posts outside local authority service, for example, in the Schools Council or the National Foundation for Educational Research.

6.65 An initial interest in educational administration may derive from an awareness of unmet needs while working as an educational psychologist; for example, in work with handicapped children 'educational psychologists trained to assess individual problems in a detailed way realise after experience that the sensitivity of their discrimination is not matched by the range of possible courses of action, and hence put their efforts into special education rather than individual treatment'. Such considerations had led the educational psychologist whose comment is quoted to a post in which he was not directly concerned with individual children but had an influential voice in stimulating the provision of special educational treatment for a region. Hence some educational psychologists may take administrative posts or become inspectors.

(c) Teacher training

6.66 Even with duties at their present level. there could be no conceivable establishment of educational psychologists sufficient to meet all the demands. Some educational psychologists give help and advice to services to which education is complementary or in some other close relationship; we have accepted the view that this process should continue and should extend in appropriate ways to permit psychological advice to be accessible to services related to children throughout the country. Teachers are becoming more able to accept within their own orbit some of the problems which hitherto have commonly been separated off and referred to school psychological and child guidance services. Largely on account of this trend, we have found it possible to envisage that psychological advice should be more available. Educational psychologists themselves can contribute to this development and it is in the interests of the education service that they should do so. We have been told by teachers' associations of courses, seminars and less formal contacts in which educational psychologists make their specialised knowledge available to teachers. The National Union of Teachers told us :

'Facing a future of increasing complexity and increasing 'rate of change it is obvious that members of most professions will stand in considerable need of periodic refreshment and instruction. Teachers themselves ... have always pressed for the provision of more and more courses of further training . . . Educational psychologists already make a valuable contribution by taking part in these courses, which provide opportunities for the exchange of ideas and information .... from the point of view of the teachers ... [we] ... urge that the extended provision of courses should include ample opportunities for contact at all levels of formality and informality between teachers and educational psychologists .:.',

Fruitful contact of this sort is an essential prerequisite for the future development of a broader based psychological service for education. We recommend that educational psychologists with an inclination for work of this kind should give it some priority.

6.67 Some educational psychologists who have worked successfully in this field and have developed constructive contacts with teachers, have carried the process forward a logical stage by taking appointments in colleges of education and university departments of education where, as psychologists, they play a part in the professional training of teachers. A number of them have told us of the regret that they felt on leaving work as practising educational psychologists, but there is a general consensus of opinion that some movement of educational psychologists

*For an account of early work and its implications, see 'The science of learning and the art of teaching' by B. F. Skinner, Harvard Educational Review (1954), 24, 4, pp. 86-97; also in Psychology and the Behavioral Sciences (Pittsburgh: Pittsburg University Press, 1955) and Cumulative Record, by B. F. Skinner (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1959).


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into institutions providing professional training for teachers is a healthy and desirable development. We are in agreement with this view, and regard progression to such posts as a proper course for some educational psychologists, and a necessary step in the direction of a broader conception of teaching in relation to child development. However, it is possible that continued contact with practical work would increase the chance of a return to full-time work as educational psychologists. A system of some joint appointments as local authority educational psychologists and lecturers in departments or colleges of education has been suggested to us. We recommend that this should be considered for the future, as it would have considerable advantages. The individuals concerned would be able to maintain direct contact with children, which some of them have told us that they value greatly; continuing work as a practising psychologist could refresh and enliven lecturing duties; links between students and the education authority could be fostered; and the career prospects of the individual might be considerably enhanced by the opportunity of senior posts in either kind of work. Alternatively, lecturers in education who had been educational psychologists might work in child guidance services on a sessional basis.

(d) Training other staff

6.68 Educational psychologists can appropriately contribute to the training of other local authority staff on both a national and a local level. Knowledge of the psychology and development of children is. important to speech therapists, to nursery nurses, to health visitors, to child care staff and to social workers. Not all educational psychologists will be suited to work of this kind; some may not themselves have had training or the experience of work with very young children, for instance. There are also contributions to be made to the training of other staff, for example medical officers, nurses and probation officers. Some educational psychologists have developed work of this kind, but we have received no evidence on which to base detailed recommendations. The participation of educational psychologists should be confined to psychological aspects which cannot be covered by other people; psychologists of other kinds may also have contributions to make.

(e) University teaching

6.69 A number of psychologists have moved from 10ca.1 authorities to lecturing posts at university departments of psychology or for postgraduate courses of professional training in educational psychology. Movements in this direction are an advantage: they promote the relevance of undergraduate and postgraduate training to practice; and academic standards are maintained if the field of

recruitment for lecturing posts includes some of the practising educational psychologists most suited to academic work. Here also we consider that there would be advantages if some joint posts in the academic and applied fields were available

6.70 Appointments to university posts may result in incidental advantages for recruitment if educational psychologists responsible for undergraduate training in psychology impart to students an interest in educational applications; they are well placed to advise those inclined to work of this kind and can arrange contacts in local authority services.

Career patterns in educational psychology

6.71 All the examples mentioned above are appropriate ways of deploying a proportion of the psychologically trained manpower available to the education service. Even where psychologists are not themselves immediately involved in the service of a local education authority, many are making a direct contribution to undergraduate or postgraduate training or to the supply of educational psychologists. Others contribute to developments which improve the effectiveness of education services as a whole. It is not justifiable to regard the movement of those who relinquish posts as educational psychologists for work of these kinds as 'wastage'. It is not 'wastage' from the education service as a whole, and this we believe to be the appropriate criterion. Moreover, there is the possibility that some who 'migrate' in this way may subsequently return to senior posts as educational psychologists.

6.72 Decisions about the development of individual careers are influenced by many complex factors; it seems likely, however, that one of the most potent forces bearing on choices open to educational psychologists is the sequence of their professional training and experience. Psychologists with a background in education, who have first studied to become teachers, worked in schools and taken up a study of psychology after they have become well established as teachers, may as psychologists like to continue to work in schools, but might also be attracted to work in colleges of education or to administrative roles in education; for example they might migrate to posts as education officers or inspectors. On the other hand educational psychologists who have started by studying psychology as undergraduates might be particularly attracted to specialised clinical work (especially if extended regional arrangements of the kind mentioned in the next paragraph facilitated developments in this direction), but they might also be attracted to the applica-


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tion of psychological research to education. The education service needs psychologists with backgrounds of both kinds, and needs to oHer career prospects which will attract them. We have received a number of adverse criticisms of the career structure offered by psychology in local education authority service. It does not offer attractive prospects for advancement to posts which are highly paid in relation to salary on entry because the scale is of only three grades; the lowest is never used in some areas and is reserved for trainees in others (see paragraph 2.19). We acknowledge that the present grading of posts for educational psychologists in local authority service could be improved. Nevertheless, so far as career prospects generally are concerned, we doubt if sufficient weight has been accorded to careers in the wider field of education for which they are eligible; in our view it is valid to regard such posts as extending their career opportunities. However, an increased number of higher posts in school psychological and child guidance services is merited; with appropriately high levels of remuneration, they would enhance the attractiveness of the profession to well qualified psychologists.

6.73 If in the future larger education authorities come into being, or groups of authorities collaborate, larger numbers of staff would be working in one administration and the establishment of more senior posts of all kinds in the education service would result. For instance, the memorandum of evidence presented to the Royal Commission on Local Government in England (the Maud Commission) by the Department of Education and Science suggested that. outside Greater London, England should be covered by only about forty local education authorities*. Assuming the scale of provision recommended by the Underwood Committee in 1955 as a modest objective, authorities of this size could each be expected to employ about ten educational psychologists; at the level recommended in Chapter 5 (paragraph 5.29) twenty-five would be employed. Of the 134 areas employing educational psychologists in December 1966, only six had ten psychologists or more working for them.**

6.74 Developments toward larger authorities would have many advantages for specialist services of all kinds: in general, it would be far easier to organise them effectively. The services with which we are particularly concerned could be transformed: not only could they offer a range and quality of help impossible at present. but they could be made much more attractive to staff. As members of a group of psychologists working together, individuals would have prospects (a) of specialising in the psychological aspects of particular problems, or, (b) of organising a moderately large professional staff to provide a wide range of psychological services. The rewards that both kinds of posts could be expected to give are twofold: the professional satisfactions of doing work at higher levels, and the important career incentives offered by the higher status and greater remuneration justified by the extra responsibilities of both kinds of posts. At present there are almost no senior posts for specialist psychologists and very few services large enough to justify posts for 'top grade' psychologists*** at the high level we envisage. The existence of posts at these levels would provide a substantial incentive to the most able psychology graduates to make a whole career as psychologists in local education authority service. If more authorities joined together in regional groups to plan and to administer their services, they could achieve some, but perhaps not all, of these advantages; there is at present no administrative framework which could readily serve. We recommend nevertheless that a group of authorities should work together to establish a pilot joint service on a wide basis.

6.75 In the longer term, we hope that a pilot scheme would indicate possible ways of providing an organisation for child guidance and school psychological services in all parts of the country on a much broader basis than at present. The need to collaborate with psychiatric services already provided on a regional basis by regional hospital boards should be kept in mind when considering future organisation. A pilot scheme would provide valuable experience, regardless of the nature of changes in the structure of local government which may follow the report of the Maud Commission.

The impact on training

6.76 The work of psychologists in education services is at a critical stage of development; its future will largely be determined by what is done now about training.

6.77 Several general influences which affect developments in training can be discerned:

(a) knowledge in relevant fields of psychology is being extended continually and rapidly;

*The memorandum carries the implication that the average school population for the recommended local education authorities would approach 250,000 children in 1990. Today, only two local education authorities outside Greater London have school populations over 200,000 (Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire).

**Local education authorities with shared establishments counted as one area; 50 areas (33%) were staffed by one educational psychologist working alone, and a further 33 (22%) were staffed by only two psychologists (see paragraph 2.16).

***In the National Health Service, the term 'top grade' is applied 'to a psychologist occupying a post of exceptional responsibility'; the minimum salary scale is £2,914. by four steps, to £3,338 (in 1968).


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(b) the demand for psychological services is steadily increasing, and itself stems from an awakening appreciation by the community of what is possible, both in education and in social services more generally;

(c) the size of the services is growing rapidly in absolute terms: there are more families, more children, larger schools and larger administrations;

(d) the framework of government within which services for the community are organised and managed is subject to these population pressures; as the framework is adjusted in response, changes in the responsibilities of professional workers are being brought about, new professions are appearing and there is increasing diversification of professional functions.

We believe that plans for training must take these influences into account. If they do not, we doubt whether the contribution which psychology can make to the effectiveness of education and of other social services concerned with children will be brought about.

6.78 More specifically, shortages of the other members of child guidance teams with whom psychologists work are likely to continue; we see little prospect of the situation improving, and fear that it may grow worse. Many psychologists are going to be working under conditions in which immediate and continuing reference to colleagues in child guidance teams will not be part of the background of their work. There will therefore need to be particular emphases in training on the problems of reaching decisions and on the implications of any kind of intervention. There are two clear implications for training: first, that it is not sufficient for training to be based on the assumption that educational psychologists will necessarily have the opportunity to work in child guidance teams; secondly, that their training should for that very reason be strongly interdisciplinary so that all concerned may fully understand both the competences of other disciplines and the limitations of their own.

6.79 The high cost of training in educational psychology and the need to secure the longest and most effective possible working life during which that training is employed make it necessary to examine the purposes and content of training procedures to ensure:

(a) that only training most directly relevant to the duties that educational psychologists have to carry out is included; and

(b) that an unduly large proportion of an educational psychologist's potential working life is not taken up by his training.

6.80 We examine new approaches to postgraduate training in the next chapter.

Conclusions and recommendations

6.81 We conclude and recommend that:

Main conclusions and recommendations

6.R1 The special contribution of psychologists in education services derives from their specialised study of psychological science and its application to education and to other aspects of human development: it should be the main criterion in determining their work. (Paragraphs 6.2 and 6.3)

6.R2 A primary emphasis of psychological work is on prevention through early detection and action: educational psychologists have exceptional opportunities to make constructive contributions as a consequence of their work in schools and other places where children are; their work is distinguished in this way from the greater emphasis on remedial and therapeutic methods in the work of psychiatrists, and of psychiatric and other social workers. (Paragraph 6.4)

6.R3 Psychologists should not undertake or be expected to undertake work for which their qualifications do not fit them. The nature of psychologists' professional work in education services is described as a guide for the discriminating selection of responsibilities. (Paragraph 6.37; and paragraphs 6.5 to 6.32)

6.R4 Psychological work in education services is changing because of continuing shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers: the implications should be considered not only by psychologists, but also by their professional colleagues, by their employers and by others concerned with recruitment to these professions. (Paragraphs 6.31 to 6.38)

6.R5 Educational psychologists should be centred administratively on the education departments of local authorities. (Paragraph 6.41 )

6.R6 Inappropriate responsibilities and unsatisfactory working conditions are wasteful of highly trained psychologists. (Paragraphs 6.40 to 6.57)

6.R7 The organisation of psychological work within the field of education on a much larger scale than at present would be conducive to a high standard of service, to efficiency, and to economy of manpower: a group of education authorities should collaborate to provide psychological services as a pilot scheme. The Association of Chief Education Officers should be asked to devise a plan under which it could be organised. (Paragraph 6.74)


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6.R8 Psychologists have made major advances in diagnostic, special educational and remedial techniques for children who develop abnormally: specialised clinical work by some educational psychologists should be promoted. (Paragraphs 6.59 to 6.63)

6.R9 Opportunities should be extended for some educational psychologists to undertake work in educational research and development, and to contribute to the understanding of human behaviour by other professions. (Paragraphs 6.64 to 6.70)

6.R10 Career prospects and professional satisfaction for psychologists entering education services would be greatly enhanced by the developments recommended above. (Recommendations 6.R7, 6.R8 and 6.R9) (Paragraph 6.72)

Contributory recommendations

6.R11 Psychologists should keep their authorities informed about services which their findings show to be needed. (Paragraph 6.36)

6.R12 Psychologists should give the support which lies within their power not only to children but to others concerned with children in need of help. (Paragraph 6.36)

6.R13 Continuing efforts should be made to develop collaboration with hospital psychiatric services. (Paragraph 6.37)

6.R14 Psychologists should be involved not only in child guidance teams but also in other interdisciplinary teams. (Paragraphs 6.38 and 6.39)

6.R15 Access to child guidance and school psychological services should be by open referral. (Paragraphs 6.44 to 6.46)

6.R16 Educational psychologists should not be required to undertake administrative duties other than those directly related to their psychological work. (Paragraph 6.47)

6.R17 Remedial education involving treatment which is primarily by psychological methods should come under the supervision of educational psychologists; in relation to other special classes it is appropriate for them to act as advisers. (Paragraphs 6.49 and 6.50; see also 6.22 and 6.23)

6.R18 The work of educational psychologists should be supported by an adequate administrative and secretarial staff. (Paragraphs 6.53 and 6.54)

6.R19 Consideration should be given to the provision of mobile units which could help child guidance teams to build up closer contacts with those they serve. (Paragraph 6.57)

6.R20 Career prospects for psychologists would be improved if they were enabled to work together in larger groups, as might be achieved by collaboration between local education authorities. (Paragraphs 6.72 to 6.75)

6.R21 An increased number of higher posts with appropriately high levels of remuneration would enhance the attractiveness of work in school psychological and child guidance services to well qualified psychologists. (See Recommendation 5.R8) (Paragraphs 6.72 and 6.74)


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Chapter 7 Training


Outline of the chapter

Page
Introduction
The essential elements of training 7.175
Needs for basic postgraduate training places 7.375
Present training courses
The development of the existing courses 7.576
The organisation of existing courses 7.976
Special arrangements for new graduates in psychology 7.1277
Special arrangements for graduates in subjects other than psychology 7.1378
The size of existing training departments 7.1478
Measures which might increase the output of the existing postgraduate training departments 7.1578
The desirability of a varied range of courses 7.1979
Need for more training courses 7.2079
The essential facilities for training 7.2180
New arrangements for basic training in educational psychology 7.2383
(1) A university two-year postgraduate course of basic training 7.2684
A new postgraduate training department with a demonstration service 7.3184
The title for a postgraduate qualification in educational psychology 7.3385
(2) Arrangements to meet short-term needs for basic training 7.3485
An accelerated training programme: the contribution of local education authorities 7.3786
Advanced courses and courses of specialised training 7.3886
Co-ordination of training and its financial implications 7.4186
(1) Setting up, equipping and running training departments 7.4988
(2) Financial support for students in training 7.5489
Clearing house procedures 7.5790
Support for advanced professional training 7.5890
Support for academic preparation before postgraduate training 7.5990
Summary 7.6090
Conclusions and recommendations 7.6190
Appendices
A postgraduate training department for educational psychologists which incorporates a demonstration service Appendix 7A159
School psychologists in the U.S.A. Appendix 7B161
Outline of professional training for educational psychologists provided by a local authority as part of an accelerated training programme Appendix 7C162


Introduction

The essential elements of training

7.1 Training for educational psychology requires basic postgraduate professional preparation, extended by programmes of advanced and specialised psychological studies for experienced psychologists.

7.2 Until now training has not gone beyond ' basic professional preparation, which may take up to eight years in all (paragraph 4.15) and which culminates in one year of full-time postgraduate study. The constituent parts of this preparation, which were described in Chapter 4 (paragraphs 4.2 to 4.20), do not, however, equip students for every aspect of psychological work in education services .throughout their careers. Those responsible for postgraduate training have told us that some aspects of the work which are relevant for all educational psychologists have to be excluded because one year of full-time postgraduate study is not long enough. In paragraphs 7.15 to 7.1 B and 7.26 to 7.33 we recommend new arrangements to enable the content of basic training to be extended. Beyond this, however, it is clearly impossible to include in basic training everything which every psychologist may need to know in the course of his career; preparation for the more senior posts carrying special responsibilities of the kinds outlined in Chapter 6 (especially paragraphs 6.59 to 6.63 and 6.74) has normally been undertaken during full-time employment. The annual, five-day courses pioneered by the British Psychological Society have been a valuable contribution to advanced studies. But in view of new knowledge, and the increasing pressure and complexity of the work, it is no longer reasonable to rely entirely on in-service preparation. A new element of professional training leading to qualification for advanced and specialised work is now also required; as the pace of change quickens, the need for advanced training will increase. Our recommendations are given in paragraph 7.38.

Needs for basic postgraduate training places

7.3 The number of trained educational psychologists entering local education authority service in future will depend on the output from basic professional preparation.


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In order to reach our target of one educational psychologist to 10,000 children by the end of the century, three times the present basic training capacity will be needed by 1975 (paragraph 5.56). Our proposals for professional training would generate this capacity and achieve the long-term target. We also believe that the present training capacity can be increased by one-third by 1970 (paragraph 5.59). However, increasing the regular input from basic training raises numbers in services only slowly. Understandably, there is considerable concern about shortages in the more immediate future, and measures to meet shorter-term needs are examined in paragraphs 7.34 and 7.35.

7.4 Increased recruitment from the increasing numbers of graduates in psychology has been discussed in paragraphs 5.30 to 5.35; but the demands for psychologists in other fields are also growing quickly, and we have evidence that educational psychology is no longer one of the most attractive choices (paragraphs 5.36 to 5.51). Educational psychology needs to continue to attract a substantial proportion of future graduates, at whatever stage they are recruited; but it is highly desirable that interest in and commitment to educational psychology should be secured before or soon after psychologists graduate. The route into educational psychology via teaching will continue to be chosen by many graduates, but the education service will also have to enter into direct competition for new psychology graduates with other employers. Recruiting new graduates offers greater scope for securing the educational psychologists needed to meet our manpower projections than recruiting from any other source. One or two training departments have already made special arrangements to admit new graduates in psychology. A further development of arrangements for graduates who are not teachers is needed as a major contribution to the measures for improving supply outlined in paragraph 5.54.

Present training courses

The development of the existing courses

7.5 The growth of facilities for postgraduate training in educational psychology has been conditioned not only by financial considerations but by the time taken to recognise the form and extent of training thought to be most beneficial. The interdisciplinary nature of the training stemmed originally from the experience gained of child guidance clinics in the U.S.A. This important development in the clinical study of children with behaviour disturbances or symptoms of disorder had been accepted here by the Child Guidance Council which had received financial support for the purpose from the Commonwealth Fund of America.

7.6 Difficulty in financing students has been a persistent problem for the postgraduate training departments. Where secondment was not possible, resources from the Commonwealth Fund, and more recently, from the Exchequer through the National Association for Mental Health have been used; but these awards for the training of educational psychologists and others in the mental health field have been limited, and there is no doubt that this has been a restricting influence, not only on the numbers wishing to train, but on awareness of the need for more provision. Our proposals for the future co-ordination and financing of postgraduate training are given at the end of this chapter.

7.7 In 1929, the Child Guidance Training Centre opened as a clinic in Islington. In 1930, for the first time within the concept of child guidance, it provided a training in the three disciplines of psychology, psychiatry and psychiatric social work. This provision followed the multi-disciplinary approach of the Tavistock Clinic, founded earlier in 1920, whose primary role was, and still is, the treatment of outpatients suffering . from psycho-neurosis and allied personality disorders. By 1923, the Maudsley Hospital was providing clinic services and, while its courses were directed mainly to the preparation of students of medicine, a training in educational psychology has been provided for some students since 1947.

7.8 The earliest courses were of six months duration, but, in 1946, University College London inaugurated a course extending over one year, although for some students a preliminary qualifying year of academic study in psychology was deemed necessary before they were allowed to proceed to their diploma year (see paragraph 7.13). The first training outside London became available in 1948 when the Department of Education, Birmingham University, started its Diploma course. A feature of this development is that it is based in the Department of Child Study which earlier had served as a model training centre for remedial education services. Manchester University and the University College of Swansea through their departments of education began training courses in 1961 and 1963 respectively. Since then the University College of Swansea has introduced an integrated four year course which is described in paragraph 7.12 (a).*

The organisation of the existing courses

7.9 The varied origins of the courses providing professional training for educational psychologists understandably give rise to different approaches to their

*The Department of Psychology of Nottingham University, in collaboration with the Department of Education, has now also started new Masters degree courses in child psychology and in educational psychology; the first students were admitted in October 1967.


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function and to differences in organisation and emphasis. The Child Guidance Training Centre and the Tavistock Clinic in north-west London are both part of the National Health Service. In addition to providing courses for educational psychologists, they both provide advanced professional training in psychiatry and psychiatric social work, and the Tavistock Clinic also trains clinical psychologists. Where relevant, seminars and lectures are attended by all. There is considerable collaboration between the two Centres, particularly since they have moved into adjacent premises; some lectures also include students from the course at University College London. Both the Child Guidance Training Centre and the Tavistock Clinic provide a clinical service for disturbed children who are referred to them; staff work in interdisciplinary teams, and trainees in the three disciplines participate in this service. The work of Freud and post- Freudian psychiatrists forms the psychotherapeutic background to the courses at the Tavistock Clinic. The teams at the Child Guidance Training Centre have varied psychotherapeutic approaches, including those of Freud and Jung. Practical work is arranged outside the centres in a variety of settings including local education authority child guidance and school psychological services. Diplomas are not at present awarded for either of these courses.*

7.10 Educational psychologists occasionally are trained at the Maudsley Hospital in south-east London by the Psychology Department of the University of London Institute of Psychiatry. The course however is primarily intended for psychologists wishing to work as clinical psychologists in the National Health Service. The Academic Postgraduate Diploma in Abnormal Psychology of the University of London was awarded until recently; the course now leads to an M.Sc. degree. Arrangements for training were also made at Guy's Hospital, London, but these arrangements were terminated in 1961.

7.11 The other four training departments are in universities. The course at University College London is in the Department of Psychology; the courses at Birmingham University, Manchester University and the University College of Swansea (University of Wales) are within the Departments of Education; all four lead to postgraduate Diplomas in Educational Psychology. Practical work for students is arranged in child guidance clinics and schools; placement may be for a short period full-time, particularly where clinics are at a distance from the university, or on a daily basis over longer periods, or both. In addition University College London arranges some practical work in hospitals, and the Birmingham course is based on the University's Department of Child Study which has a 'psychological clinic' undertaking diagnosis, observations and treatment of children referred by doctors and teachers. Some of the courses in departments of education place particular emphasis on remedial education; links with schools and school psychological services tend to be strongly developed. Psychiatric and other medical participation in training varies in its extent and is arranged by each of the four courses in a variety of ways: by links with the university medical departments, by visiting lecturers, and by practical work in local· authority child guidance clinics specially selected (or their psychiatric staffing. Joint sessions with training courses for social workers and teachers of handicapped children are also part of the programme.

Special arrangements for new graduates in psychology

7.12 Three of the seven courses have experimented with special arrangements to provide a link between undergraduate study and postgraduate training. These arrangements continue at two courses, although they have been modified to meet difficulties, but they had to be abandoned at the third. Some years of full-time paid employment as a teacher has usually been involved.

(a) At Swansea, an 'integrated' course of training has been developed. Graduates in psychology follow a four year course. The scheme was inaugurated with financial assistance from the Gulbenkian Foundation. The first stage is the Diploma in Education course for graduates, modified to take account of work in psychology that students have already done as undergraduates and the needs of the postgraduate work to follow. For the second stage students are employed as teachers for two years by local education authorities, which collaborate with the university wherever possible in selecting suitable posts, and may take special care to give a variety of experience. Contact with students during teaching service is maintained through periodical seminars, discussions with tutors and a short vacation course. At the final stage students join the Diploma in Educational Psychology course.

(b) A somewhat similar arrangement is operated by the Tavistock Clinic; this course extends over three years and does not include a diploma in education; students are expected to obtain this qualification before they begin the course. Students are appointed as teachers by local education authorities in the London area for the first two years; they attend a two week preliminary course at the

*The British Psychological Society has become an examining body since it became incorporated by Royal Charter in 1965, and a Diploma in Clinical Psychology by examination has already been instituted. It would be possible for the Society to institute a similar Diploma in Educational Psychology by examination and we suggest that this arrangement should be considered.


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Clinic, followed by regular seminars while they are teaching; they then take the one year full-time course in their third and final year. Difficulties have been encountered, particularly in financing the course and in securing places at appropriate schools within travelling distance of the Clinic; authorities sometimes find it difficult to place intending educational psychologists within their quota arrangements for teachers.

(c) The Tavistock Clinic had earlier inaugurated a different three year scheme with financial assistance from the Grant Foundation. The first year comprised a diploma in education course at a teacher training college, augmented by preparatory work at the clinic; the postgraduate course in educational psychology was taken in the second year, and was continued at an advanced level in the third year. The scheme had to be discontinued because of financial difficulties after two intakes.

(d) A one year pre-diploma course was arranged by University College London, in order to give students contact with the Department during their first year of teaching, to help them with their teaching problems and to bridge this gap between their undergraduate and postgraduate studies. Although successful in orientating students' teaching experience toward their postgraduate studies, it has had to be discontinued owing to the extra demands it made on the time of the academic staff concerned with the Diploma course itself.

Special arrangements for graduates In subjects other than psychology

7.13 The regulations of the University of London permit graduates in other subjects to reach the level of an honours degree in psychology by studying for a qualifying examination consisting of papers from the honours degree examination; the number of papers and the length of study required vary according to the qualifications and experience of the student, but at least one year of full-time study is necessary. University College London accepts some students for a two-year course leading to the Academic Postgraduate Diploma in Psychology (Educational) of the University of London; the first year of the course prepares them for the qualifying examination.

The size of existing training departments

7.14 The present training .departments have small numbers of students: the approximate capacity of the courses in 1966-1967 was thirty-five places, the distribution of which is given in Table 7.1; in addition a place at the Maudsley Hospital is allocated to an educational psychologist in some years.

Table 7.1 Places on postgraduate training courses for educational psychologists 1966-67: digest of information supplied by heads of postgraduate training departments

Only one course has places for as many as ten students and the average is five or six. The maximum possible number of students on courses of this kind, organised on the present pattern, is probably about twelve. Within the limits of their present resources and organisations, the seven training departments consider that only a very small expansion is feasible, perhaps by four to six places to a total of forty. Hence because the scale on which each department operates is small and the ratio of tutorial staff to students is necessarily high, training is expensive, particularly in terms of manpower.

Measures which might increase the output of the existing postgraduate training departments

7.15 Limits on the size of existing postgraduate training departments are imposed (a) by the large amount of individual tutoring that is necessary, and (b) by the need for facilities for practical work. We examine below measures which might permit these limits to be extended, so that the departments could increase the scale of their activities, especially in the short term. Expansion beyond a certain point, if sustained, would however impose a burden which the departments could not carry; in any event, the numbers of students that collectively they might train would not meet our long-term objective, even with radical changes in their arrangements which we invited them to consider in advising us. Hence, in general, we recommend that expansions of existing departments should be planned as interim measures which could be reviewed as longer-term policies came fully into effect.

7.16 To expand the existing courses substantially would involve not only additional staff, but also some alterations in the nature of the courses. The need for more psychologists, especially in the shorter term, is so acute that we recommend that existing departments should nevertheless expand as quickly as possible; we hope that many more than six extra places can be provided, at least for a few


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years, until the programme of expansion which we recommend in Chapter 5 can be implemented. We recognise that this will present problems. To increase the number of students in relation to tutorial staff would, for example, alter the basis of the present training. The cost of producing larger numbers will be some sacrifices, but their impact could be reduced in various ways, for instance by the extensive use of audio-visual aids to provide students with demonstrations of techniques. Use of such methods would have a number of advantages: clear illustrations could always be presented; more students could participate than at 'live' sessions; introductory comments and immediate follow-up by question, answer and discussion would add to the effectiveness of demonstrations and substantial economies of time could be achieved. We recommend that financial resources should be allocated to allow such techniques to be exploited.

7.17 Each student needs to participate regularly in the practice of educational psychology under good conditions; clinics and school psychological services which are easily accessible to a training department are required, but not all are sufficiently well staffed to discharge a training function in addition to their regular work. The training capacity of the services accessible to a postgraduate training department tends rapidly to be saturated. The existing courses already make use of most of the well-staffed services and there are few areas where a new training department could be established without coming into competition with them. However, provided that adequate supervision could be arranged, we see no reason why understaffed services should not be used to give students practical experience. Training departments might employ additional tutors in fieldwork for the purpose; we recommend that some local authorities should enable some members of their senior staff, great though the need is in their own services, to contribute to furthering future supply by seconding them to postgraduate training departments as fieldwork tutors for three years. The salary could be paid by the university, or by the employing authority; in addition, training allowances could be paid to other staff who undertook field work supervision.* Beyond this, we recommend that additional efforts should be made to encourage local authority services to take increased numbers of trainees from postgraduate training departments for practical work wherever possible. Some training departments organise their .courses so that practical work in local authority services is concentrated into a relatively short period; if arrangements could be changed to spread practical work more evenly throughout the year, greater numbers could be accommodated without undue overloading. Local authorities should be encouraged in planning their services to take account of the training function they perform, and it would be easier to adjust the level of staff establishments to meet a regular commitment.

7.18 Postgraduate training departments which recruit their students from psychology graduates who are serving teachers, or from teachers who become graduates in psychology, might re-examine the question of pre-training preparation. Psychology graduates who have an interest in teaching, and who wish to acquire classroom experience before training as educational psychologists, ought to be helped to benefit from the time they spend. We suggest that they might consider (a) encouraging intending students to consult them in advance; (b) advising such students about the training for educational work most likely to meet their needs; (c) advising on programmes of experience related to postgraduate training in educational psychology and putting new students into touch with local education authorities able and willing to collaborate; and (d) maintaining regular contact with actual or potential students working in education, in order to help them to orientate their experiences towards psychological work.

The desirability of a varied range of courses

7.19 Different approaches to educational psychology and to methods of training are desirable. Variety in training contributes to new ideas, new approaches and new developments. Excessive uniformity among courses would therefore be disadvantageous; but so too would any marked variation in the standards of successful students. These were among the reasons for the recommendation which the British Psychological Society made to the Underwood Committee that a 'training council for educational psychologists' should be set up (paragraph 408 and recommendation 30, U.R.). Standards of training are at present assured by the British Psychological Society which approves courses, successful completion of which is accepted for professional membership of the Society. We recommend that the Society should continue to approve the academic and professional standards of courses of postgraduate training.

Need for more training courses

7.20 Yet more variety in training arrangements is now needed to open up new routes into educational psychology and to achieve the means of staffing services in the longer

*The salary paid to local authority staff engaged in training might be included in the arrangements to be made for 'pooling' the cost of training educational psychologists among all authorities (see paragraph 7.47).


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term. The present courses cannot readily be expanded fully to meet the need, and, although varied in nature, are arranged to suit only one route into educational psychology - that via teaching; the arrangements which survive of those outlined in paragraphs 7.12 and 7.13 above have not substantially modified this route, which, as we suggested in Chapter 4 (paragraph 4.21 to 4.26) has been influenced by sources of financial support and by the background of the early students. Schemes for training in clinical psychology have tended to condition students' expectations of training arrangements. Graduates in psychology may be appointed, without any requirement as to previous experience, as 'probationer clinical psychologists' in the National Health Service and receive their training while in salaried employment as psychologists.* These appointments are attractive, not only because they can be taken up directly on graduation, but also because the organisation interested in the trainee's subsequent professional career in applied psychology makes itself responsible for financial support during training and there is no uncertainty about it. Arrangements equally direct and certain are needed for the routes into educational psychology, including the new routes which we recommend later in this chapter for ,graduates in psychology.

The essential facilities for training

7.21 We outline the essential facilities which a postgraduate training department for educational psychologists needs, before we consider new arrangements. The needs are:

(1) Staff from a number of disciplines: (a) psychologists whose special field of study and inquiry is child and developmental psychology, and psychologists who have knowledge and experience of work as psychologists for local education authorities, (b) participation by child psychiatrists and by psychiatric and other social workers (see paragraph 6.78).

(2) Premises which are so located (a) that the attendance of children and parents in informal circumstances is facilitated, while (b) necessary and desirable contacts with other parts of the university can be maintained and do not become attenuated.

(3) Its own equipment of apparatus and test materials for teaching and research; access, for example, to a psychological laboratory, its equipment, its workshop and its computational facilities; access to a library with comprehensive psychological, educational and sociological sections.

(4) Facilities for practical work and its supervision by tutors: (a) clinical: an organisation into which students can be fitted, which helps children and their families in a variety of psychological, emotional and educational problems; students should be able to work within the context of a fully staffed child guidance team, so that they may: (i) observe children and their behaviour and, in particular, observe interviews by psychologists (including psychological testing), psychiatrists and others; (ii) observe and participate in the discussion of findings and hypotheses; (iii) themselves conduct psychological interviews and investigations including psychological testing, under the guidance of experienced psychologists, and gain experience of the results which can be achieved by psychological methods; (b) educational: access to a range of educational facilities, including special schools and classes for maladjusted children and for other handicapped children, in order to enable students to understand the variety of educational provision, to gain experience of contact and collaboration with the teaching and other staffs concerned, and to observe the behaviour of children in different educational settings; (c) experience of work as an educational psychologist in settings which exemplify conditions under which they may be required to serve, including services where participation by other disciplines is attenuated (see paragraph 6.32), by means of placements lasting a week to a month (hence services close to a training department need not be chosen); (d) access to a range of other places where students can widen their experience of children, of contact with staff of different kinds and of standards of provision: examples include residential schools and treatment units for disturbed children and young people (especially for maladjusted children), training centres for severely subnormal children, children's homes, reception centres and approved schools.

7.22 We have already emphasised the value of interdisciplinary participation in training. Only in basic training can an adequate grounding in these aspects of the work be ensured. Although ad hoc or occasional participation by members of other disciplines goes some way in this

*There are three methods of professional training for probationer clinical psychologists: (a) they may be seconded for a two-year university course which includes practical training; or (b) they may be seconded for a concentrated one-year university course; or (c) they may undertake a three-year scheme of supervised in-service training. The first two methods lead to university postgraduate qualifications; probationers training in-service may now (since October 1967) take the examination for the Diploma in Clinical Psychology awarded by the British Psychological Society. Although probationer psychologists receive salary during training, they have to meet their own fees and other expenses. Psychologists not employed in the National Health Service may obtain financial support through a Medical Research Council studentship if they intend to undertake research in a medical field; some local education authorities have also continued financial support for postgraduate study.


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Plate L
Students study child development in contact with children.


Plate M
Students study child development at all ages and stages.


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Plate N
Students study remedial techniques: a student using a 'machine' he himself has made, helps a child with reading.


Plate O
Students discuss a child's responses to a test.


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direction, regular participation is more likely to result in the thorough exchange of ideas which is the desirable basis for mutual understanding. Where it is possible, a close association between professional training for psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers and educational psychologists may develop the interdisciplinary character of the courses in a satisfactory way; furthermore, scarce staff are then used to the best advantage. Joint training of clinical and educational psychologists has also been suggested to us, and the Underwood Committee saw no reason why parts of the postgraduate training for psychologists intending to work in either service should not be the same.* Clinical and educational psychologists already share the undergraduate stage of professional preparation, common postgraduate training already exists in some places, and to extend the joint training could be an advantage provided that the more specialised requirements of training in either case could also be met.

New arrangements for basic training in educational psychology

7.23 We recommended in paragraph 7.16 that the present courses of training which we have discussed in paragraphs 7.9 to 7.14 should train as many students as they can and that this present route should be used as intensively as reasonably possible; but it is clear that new courses are also needed (see paragraphs 4.42, 5.54 to 5.64, 6.78, 7.20). We have considered four ways of increasing both training capacity and recruitment into educational psychology: (1) a specialised undergraduate course in educational psychology; (2) for graduates in psychology, a two-year postgraduate course which would meet the points that have been made in Chapters 4, 5 and 6; (3) for those who wish to gain experience of education through teaching, a systematic extension of arrangements to maximise the benefits gained by teaching, while reducing the period between graduation in psychology and training in educational psychology; and (4) an accelerated programme to meet short-term needs.

7.24 We have considered the possibility of a specialised undergraduate 'course of training leading to a degree in educational psychology. A feature of the present system for training educational psychologists is that each stage opens up possible careers. At graduation in psychology the degree holder may find anyone of a variety of careers which utilise and develop his psychological knowledge; entry into teaching may become the basis of a career; and qualification as an educational psychologist may lead to a particular career or may be an entry into related kinds of work. It can be thought to be an advantage that these options exist. A disadvantage is that a career in educational psychology may be less likely to be envisaged by sixth-formers who are considering their choice of university course. There may be scope for developments analogous to those envisaged by recent proposals for new approaches to medical education and to the education of social workers.

7.25 There may also be scope for altering the emphasis of undergraduate courses in psychology, in order to devote more attention to aspects of particular value as preparation for work in the applied fields; it is doubtful, however, whether it would be an advantage to restrict the scope of the psychological studies to those which could be included within the curriculum of a course leading to a first degree in educational psychology. In psychology, as in other fields, the trend is to widen first degree courses to embrace a number of career opportunities rather than just one. Furthermore, a career decision for a very specific kind of employment would have to be made by the age of eighteen; although some students at this age may be sufficiently clear about their vocational aims, they are likely to be rare exceptions. Finally, there is the possibility that a degree narrowly aimed at a field of applied psychology would not be accepted by other psychologists as a sufficiently fundamental study of psychology. A specialised degree course would clearly have advantages in reducing the length of professional preparation and, even though the number of school leavers who might choose this route is uncertain, it could secure young entrants to the work who might progress through advanced training to specialist posts in maturity. We know, however, that greatly increased numbers of graduate psychologists are. coming forward, (see paragraphs 5.30 - 5.34), and it is less speculative to concentrate on this source of supply. Therefore, on balance, we do not recommend that professional training for educational psychology should be given at undergraduate level.

*A training course giving adequate training for work in either the educational or the health services would widen the field of opportunity and so make the career of a psychologist more attractive; and the fact that some psychologists in the two services have had a common basic training should promote understanding and co-operation between them. The difference in the work of the two services need be no obstacle to the provision of a common basic training. Although psychologists in the health service deal mainly with adults and psychologists in the educational service mainly with children, it is important that psychologists in either service should know about both adults and children. In fact, some of the educational psychologists trained at nearly all the courses except the Birmingham course have taken posts in the health service. There thus seems to be no reason why the basic training of psychologists intending to work in either service should not be the same; and we hope that, when changes in the training of either educational or clinical psychologists are under consideration. this point will be borne in mind. Towards the end of courses a certain amount of specialisation, mainly in the practical work undertaken, could be introduced: (Paragraph 421, U.R.)


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(1) A university two-year postgraduate course of basic training

7.26 The two new postgraduate university courses which we envisage would require two academic years. They would include all the practical and other preparation needed by an educational psychologist taking up a first appointment. Applicants would be required to have an honours degree in psychology (or accepted equivalent) as a minimum qualification; the course would be open to new graduates in psychology immediately on graduation.

7.27 The course would include the content of the present one-year courses. Its academic programme would include appropriate courses on the, organisation, history and philosophy of education and on educational policies, in addition to advanced studies in psychology. Practical work, especially during the first year, would be orientated to systematic study of child development, while the emphasis of practical work in the second year, as in the present courses, would be on the development of professional skills and their exercise in the context of child guidance clinics and school psychological services.

7.28 An intensive programme for contact with children of different ages could be arranged through planned and supervised placements in some of the following settings, especially during the first year: as assistants in maternity and child welfare clinics,. day nurseries and nursery schools; as ancillary helpers in-infant and junior schools; and as assistants in youth clubs. A period in a progressive infant school would be particularly valuable - seeing normal children and observing their learning readiness, as well as the learning difficulties of more deviant children. The course should include supervised practical work with children and their teachers in schools. There should also be opportunities for students to see and understand the settings in which teachers are themselves trained. We believe that students could also participate constructively in the work of special developmental clinics and assessment units, children'S hospitals, junior training centres, including residential units, children's homes, remand homes and classifying schools. It would be desirable for the students that these periods should extend over some weeks at a time; by arranging a rotation of students, it ought also to be possible to provide a service for the host institutions.

7.29 Since the advanced theoretical courses in psychology could be planned to 'extend over two years, it should be possible to give a more comprehensive treatment to the basic courses on normal and abnormal human development, parent-child relationships, learning problems and methods of instruction, and the psychology of social groups including schools and classes. It should be possible to give an appropriate coverage to aspects of the subject matter such as infant development, adolescence and vocational guidance, to which our witnesses from the postgraduate training departments believe they are able to give too little attention in a one-year course. There would also be opportunities for improving the balance and the range of skills in observing, in interviewing children, their parents and other adults, and in making investigations and assessments by tests and other means.

7.30 A programme of practical placements 0"1 the kinds' mentioned in paragraph 7.27 should not present great difficulties in the many parts of the country where educational and other social services have been extensively developed. It would be difficult, however, to arrange training programmes of the present kind so that a substantial number of students could undertake practical child guidance clinic and school psychological service work in order to develop their professional skills. Such arrangements would be needed during the second year of the course. By dint of the measures exemplified in paragraph 7.17, we expect the services to be able to provide adequate practical experience for increased numbers of students at existing departments, but it is certain that they would be embarrassed by the additional expansion of training capacity needed to meet our target. In other words, although it would probably be possible to provide practical second-year placements for twenty or so more students a year from 1970, an additional fifty students a year from 1975 would be a serious burden on any likely expansion of local educational authority services by that time.

A new postgraduate training department with a demonstration service

7.31 In view of the general shortage of well qualified staff at the present time, and of competition for their services, it would be preferable to use staff economically in a large new training department rather than to spread them over a number of smaller ones. Furthermore, a large training department could establish facilities of its own to provide practical experience for students. Without increasing the training burden on services in other areas, it could both provide an additional service in an area where one was needed, and be largely self-sufficient in the matter of practical placements for its students in their second year. In order to achieve the target outlined in paragraph 5.56, we have therefore considered the establishment of two new training departments, each with an annual intake of twenty-five students; they would themselves contribute to local authority school psychological and child guidance services in their vicinities. Our


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suggestions about the ways in which such a training department and demonstration service might be organised are contained in Appendix 7A.

7.32 Training for educational psychology can be shorter, more concentrated, more directed, and no less effective than the professional preparation accepted at present. There would be no reduction in professional standards. The two-year postgraduate course which we recommend, and which incorporates wide and substantial practical experience, is a practical and economic pattern of training: we recommend that it should be adopted for the increase in regular basic training facilities required to meet the target we have set (paragraph 5.56). One educational psychologist to 10,000 schoolchildren could be achieved if two large new training departments which collaborated with local education authorities to provide a demonstration child guidance and school psychological service, were to be set up in suitably situated universities.

The title for a postgraduate qualification in educational psychology

7.33 It has been suggested to us that it would be appropriate for postgraduate training to lead to a Masters degree rather than to a postgraduate diploma. Although the title of the qualification awarded by the present university training courses should not necessarily be changed, a Masters degree would be a suitable qualification at the end of two years training of the kind we recommend.*

(2) Arrangements to meet short-term needs for basic training

7.34 The concern of those responsible for planning services faced with the chronic shortage of educational psychologists in the more immediate future has already been stressed in paragraphs 5.61 and 5.62. We have considered ways of boosting the number of educational psychologists at present in service in order to secure a bigger improvement in the next decade than our longterm plan allows. It is, in general, extremely difficult to go beyond the arrangements to expand existing departments, recommended in paragraphs 7.15 to 7.18, but we are sure that something can be done.

7.35 We begin, however, by excluding some possibilities that we have considered. One such possibility is that an increase in numbers might be gained by lowering the standards of qualification for educational psychology; for example, special forms of training might be provided for teachers without degrees in psychology, and graduates in psychology might be appointed without additional training or accepted for new one-year courses of professional training without any requirement as to practical experience. Any measure of this kind which lowers the standard of professional preparation for educational psychology is unacceptable because the work is already sufficiently complex and exacting fully to exercise the skills of psychologists trained to existing high standards. In future, the demands will increase rather than decrease. To establish a lower level of educational psychologist who would not have access to the full range of professional posts and duties would be an adverse development; Appendix 7B describes the situation in the United States, where 'school psychologists' are supported by 'psychological examiners' who are trained to undertake only some aspects of the work and are not eligible for posts at the basic level without additional training and study.

7.36 Arrangements for basic, professional preparation without any lowering of standards could not be made by postgraduate training departments to produce new educational psychologists before 1970 or 1971, at the very earliest. The number of students who could be prepared by interim arrangements is restricted by shortages of senior staff and of practical facilities, If twenty a year could be produced between 1970 and 1974, the total effective input from this source would not exceed 100 educational psychologists. In 1974 the effect would be to increase the number of educational psychologists in service from about 470 to about 560; by 1990 the long-term effect of this crash programme would be to raise by about fifty the number of educational psychologists then expected to be in service. To produce this number would impose additional pressures on services already hard-pressed and on whom part of the burden of increased numbers at existing training departments will fall, but it has also seemed to us that arrangements aimed at producing smaller numbers would be uneconomical and would involve a disproportionately large expenditure of time and effort. Authorities' demands for more rapid increases than our manpower projections and our other recommendations can achieve have impelled us to re-examine training schemes by which the input of educational psychologists might be accelerated; we recommend below the measures which will produce greater numbers in the shorter term with the minimum disruptive effect on existing services. The other principles by which we have been guided are that the standard of training should be comparable to that of postgraduate training departments, and that the accelerated training programme should be so devised that it can be phased out (or put to other uses) as regular training capacity takes its place. The accelerated programme is intended only to bring forward the attainment of our manpower objectives stated in Chapter 4; it is not intended in any way to replace the programme to expand regular training arrangements.

*See also footnote to paragraph 7.8


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An accelerated training programme: the contribution of local education authorities

7.37 The larger local authority child guidance and school psychological services might be willing to make a contribution to an accelerated training programme, and might be prepared to undertake the extra burden which setting up special training arrangements would impose. We recommend that services willing to playa part, and with adequate staff and facilities, should be encouraged to proceed with training arrangements. The outline of a suitable scheme is given in Appendix 7C. We suggest that the British Psychological Society should assist authorities to plan their arrangements by providing the outline of a syllabus and notes for the guidance of tutors and students; schemes should be approved by the Society; at the conclusion of training, it would be appropriate for students to take a theoretical and practical examination conducted by the Society (see note to paragraph 7.9). In general, a tutorial system would be appropriate for the necessarily small scale of schemes in an accelerated programme; the disproportionate effort, which adequate preparation in the theoretical aspects of the work would otherwise demand, might be avoided by links with one of the existing postgraduate training departments; or with accessible university departments of psychology, of education and of psychiatry; or by short intensive theoretical courses, which might be arranged by the British Psychological Society, for the students at a number of schemes in an accelerated programme. It should be possible for expenses which fall on local authorities participating in the programme to be 'pooled' (see paragraph 7.47).

Advanced courses and courses of specialised training

7.38 In common with most professional people, educational psychologists have a continuing need for 'education' - a need for training in advanced skills and an opportunity to refresh their basic professional training by learning about new developments which are taking place. Because the pace of change is rapid, the pioneering measures of specialised training ought now to be put on a regular basis and developed into a comprehensive and coherent scheme for training educational psychologists for senior and specialised appointments. The British Psychological Society should consider extending the contribution they have already made to-advanced studies by planning and co-ordinating future developments; the Society might appropriately institute a 'system of higher qualifications. The Society themselves, training departments, and bodies with specialised resources in particular fields might all consider participating in advanced training programmes. The staff of the Tavistock Clinic are already preparing plans for some advanced courses for educational psychologists. If graduate students, who might include post-doctoral students, were following advanced courses in training departments, they would be available to make a teaching contribution to short courses of specialised training. The Spastics Society has already organised specialised courses on psychological topics; other voluntary bodies with special resources might do likewise. A programme of advanced specialised study might comprise the courses outlined below.

7.39 Short courses, the duration of which might be two or three days or as long as one term, might cover: (a) particular developments, for example, new diagnostic techniques; the new British intelligence scale; (b) the study of specific problems, for example, the effect of auditory or visual defects, or of both, on learning abilities and learning patterns; (c) specialised techniques, for example, advanced study of statistics; computer techniques; programmed learning; (d) the administration and organisation of psychological services in education authorities; (e) special aspects of educational psychologists' work, for example, delinquency; vocational guidance.

7.40 There should also be arrangements which would both help to advance psychological knowledge in the field of education and enable some practising educational psychologists to devote periods of time to specialised clinical and research work; such work might lead to Ph.D. and other higher degrees. Advanced training programmes might therefore also comprise university courses lasting at least one year.

Co-ordination of training and its financial implications

7.41 None of our recommendations can be implemented unless training for educational psychology is placed on a satisfactory financial basis. Decisions about how much to spend on training psychologists for the education service should be made in the light of (1) the extent and nature of the need, (2) the priority accorded to meeting the need and (3) the resources available. The scale of expenditure should not be set, as tends to happen at present, by the random interaction of diverse factors generally unrelated to one another and, frequently, not directly related to the professional training of educational psychologists at all.

7.42 The expenses involved are of two main kinds: (a) the costs involved in setting up, equipping and running institutions to provide the professional training and (b) the support of individual students while they train. The two


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kinds of expenses are linked and cannot be considered separately. We have considered the varied natures of the training departments and have indicated the varied backgrounds from which educational psychologists may appropriately come. It is not therefore surprising that funds both for running the training departments and for supporting students have been provided in a variety of ways: there have been drawbacks in both aspects of the financial provision at one time or another, and in some cases chronic problems which new arrangements need to avoid.

7.43 We have had to consider the financial aspects of training educational psychologists at a time when there is an atmosphere of uncertainty and impending change surrounding some of the related financial arrangements. We are aware that, in terms of numbers of people and scale of cost the field with which we are concerned is small by comparison, for example, with the training and supply of doctors or of teachers, and that general arrangements cannot be conditioned solely by the needs which we identify. However, the development of training for educational psychologists has been severely hampered by awkward difficulties of finance.

7.44 Difficulties of financing students have hitherto gained more attention than difficulties which have hindered the general development of training; as a result, there has been no strong impetus to develop a central co-ordination and planning of training facilities. The Underwood Committee was aware of the connection between the problems; they recommended 'that the Minister of Education should have powers to arrange for the training of educational psychologists ... sufficient to enable him, so far as possible, to relate the supply to the probable demand and to secure that adequate facilities and financial assistance are available for candidates in training' (paragraph 4.16(i), sub-paragraph 2, U.R.). This recommendation has not yet been fully implemented.

7.45 There have been at least three consequences:

(a) The number of training places has been acknowledged to be too small but increases have been inhibited by the vacancies* on existing courses which have arisen because too few suitable candidates with financial support have come forward.

(b) Those concerned with postgraduate training in educational psychology have reached the conclusion that one year is not long enough, but courses have not been extended (except by part-time study and by the special arrangements described in paragraph 7.12) because it has been almost impossible for students to secure support for postgraduate courses lasting more than one year.

(c) Consideration of the suitability of candidates for training who were not serving teachers has been prevented because there was no assurance that they would obtain adequate financial support.

7.46 We set out below in general terms the results that improved financial arrangements for both the institutional and the student aspects of training need to achieve. It would be inappropriate for us to try to be prescriptive about the means to these ends.

7.47 Some improvements have already been made. A major development has occurred since we were appointed. Power has been given in the Local Government Act, 1966** to establish arrangements to allow the cost of training educational psychologists incurred by individual local authorities to be pooled among all local authorities. At present it is possible for such expenses to be shared in only a very limited way,*** but the new power would enable virtually any kind of local authority expense in training educational psychologists to be covered. Thus, not only could the cost of sending people to train be covered (including the costs of salaries for those seconded and of other kinds of financial support during training), but so might the expenses of training arrangements falling upon local authorities, whether in universities or in other institutions, or as a result of new, accelerated programmes of training which local authorities might themselves set up, or in paying special allowances to their educational psychologists to supervise trainees, or in lending their staff to training departments. The benefits which would accrue to the training arrangements for educational psychologists from this new power will depend on the exact nature of the arrangements negotiated from time to time by local authorities with the Department of Education and Science.

*Of the total training places available in the 20 years 1945-46 to 1964-65, about one in eight was vacant: although we have been told that the new arrangements introduced in 1962-63 for serving teachers have improved matters, the rate of vacancies for the three years 1962-63 to 1964-65 was more than one in four of the training places available. However, in this period two new training departments were coming into operation.

**Schedule 1: paragraph 13(2) 'The appropriate Minister may by regulations provide for ascertaining the aggregate of the expenditure to which this paragraph applies of all local authorities, for apportioning the aggregate among the authorities and for ascertaining the amount by which the needs element payable to each authority ought to be increased or decreased.'
        paragraph 13(4) 'Subject to the next following subparagraph, this paragraph applies to expenditure incurred (e) in the training of persons to undertake educational research or to become educational psychologists, health visitors or midwives or in respect of persons who are being so trained.'

***By regarding postgraduate courses in educational psychology as advanced training for teachers (see paragraphs 4.28 and 4.29). At the time the Underwood Report was published only the course at Birmingham University was treated in this way (see note to paragraph 425(i)(a), U.R.). Other one year courses were brought under this arrangement from 1962-1963. but the two-year course at University College London, for graduates in subjects other than psychology, was excluded (Administrative Memorandum No. 21/61 (Addendum No.1) 14th March, 1962).


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The power is potentially a solution to many of the difficulties of financing training for educational psychologists in so far as this is appropriately a local government function. We recommend that it should be used.

7.48 Local authorities are, almost exclusively, the employers of educational psychologists, and hence it is not inappropriate that authorities should have the power to contribute collectively to the costs of training them. However, central government funds also have a part to play in financing the training of educational psychologists because of the ways in which universities and other institutions producing highly trained manpower are financed in this country. Adequate resources for setting up, running and extending training departments, and for student support, are required. In order to achieve the right priorities some form of central co-ordination is necessary. We recommend that responsibility for co-ordinating the planning of training facilities, both at basic and advanced levels, should rest with the Department of Education and Science; in fulfilling these functions, we envisage that there will be recourse to the advice of, among others, members of H.M. Inspectorate with qualifications in psychology. We also recommend that central responsibility for maintaining academic and professional standards of training should continue to rest primarily with the British Psychological Society, that there should be close contact between the Society and the Department, and that the Society should be consulted before new courses of basic professional training are included in arrangements for pooling costs of training and support for students.

(1) Setting up, equipping and running postgraduate training departments

7.49 We have made it clear that the scale of training should be determined by manpower needs; finance should be forthcoming to meet these needs. No simple and uniform method of financing postgraduate training departments is possible because training is given in institutions of different kinds, and because the ways by which public funds are channelled into them are diverse.

7.50 Funds for the following purposes are involved:

(a) Capital expenditure on buildings and equipment.
(b) Maintenance expenditure (i) on rents, rates, services, and other overheads; (ii) on salaries; and (iii) on materials and other day to day needs.

7.51 For training departments which are part of universities, the annual income per head which is needed could be provided in at least four different ways, or by combinations of them:

(a) by existing arrangements for university finance through the University Grants Committee;
(b) by increasing the fees charged*;
(c) by contributions from local authority funds to individual universities; and
(d) by an earmarked Exchequer grant for administration by the University Grants Committee.

7.52 We recommend that the costs of establishing new university training departments with demonstration services, of other major expansions of basic training, and of developing facilities for advanced training in universities leading to .higher qualifications, should if practicable be met by earmarked Exchequer grant. For training departments which are not part of universities the annual income per head should equally be adequate. This result could be achieved most easily through adjustments' to the level of fees, with direct grant from the Department of Education and Science to meet the capital costs of any major expansion which cannot otherwise be covered. Accelerated programmes of training set up by local authorities may also involve expenditure which might properly be met by earmarked grant.

7.53 We have made a rough estimate of the present cost of postgraduate training in educational psychology. We. have arrived at a cost of about £3,000** per educational psychologist, excluding capital costs and the cost of rents, rates and services, but including the cost of maintenance support for students.*** £3,000 is a maximum figure****

*In common with fees for other postgraduate courses, present fees are only a minute contribution to the actual cost; see Higher Education (the Robbins Report) paragraphs 648 and 649, Cmnd. 2154. London: H.M.S.O., 1963.

**The difference in cost to the community of educating a typical Ph.D. in physics and a typical B.Sc. in science and engineering is £10,000 (The Brain Drain, Report of the Working Group on Migration, (the Jones Report), paragraph 41, Cmnd. 3417. London: H.M.S.O., 1967). The Robbins Committee estimated that the average annual cost per university student of teaching, research, etc., was £660; they were not able to make a distinction between postgraduate and undergraduate students (Robbins Report, Appendix 4, Section 3, Table17).

***Our upper limit for the cost of training the present annual total of thirty-five educational psychologists has been calculated as follows:

****£1,657 excluding the cost of student support. The estimated cost of one year of postgraduate study varies widely between fields of study. The average of the costs of all fields of study is £1 ,682. This is the average of the figures of cost supplied by the University Grants Committee. These figures were based on universities' estimates for 1966-67 submitted for the purposes of the 1967-72 quinquennial settlement; they exclude non-academic expenditure on, for example, central services and administration, the provision of buildings, and student support.


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which has not been reduced to allow either for the teaching which staff provide for the benefit of other students taking other courses, or for services which the training departments provide for the benefit of local authorities. We are of the opinion that the cost of the two year courses of training which we propose would also be about £3,000 per student, bearing in mind that most students would be supported by grant for the two years, rather than by secondment on salary, and that the number of students at a training department on the new pattern would be greater. Thus the maximum extra cost, excluding capital costs, if the existing number of training places were to be trebled in the way that we propose would probably nOt exceed £200,000 per annum.

(2) Financial support for students in training

7.54 It is essential for arrangements for financing students during professional training not only to be adequate but to be assured. Support should be available for every student to whom a place is allocated if, as we have recommended, the number of places is to reflect the manpower need. As we have seen, the Underwood Committee gave priority to improved financial assistance for candidates in training; since they had in mind teachers with some years experience, the needs of candidates of other kinds, particularly new graduates in psychology, entering by the other routes we have recommended (paragraphs 4.41 (b) and (c) ) were not covered by their recommendations. Assured support is needed for suitable candidates of all kinds. We recommend three methods:

(a) Method 1: Postgraduate grants or studentships. It would be satisfactory for training departments to be given an allocation of postgraduate studentships on a quota basis determined by reference to manpower needs (on the pattern of advanced course studentships awarded by research councils). We recommend that these awards should be administered centrally; the Social Science Research Council would be the most appropriate of the existing councils to administer the scheme, although the Department of Education and Science could do so directly, especially in view of the particular application of psychology to education.*

(b) Method 2: Secondment as trainee educational psychologists. Local authorities could appoint trainee educational psychologists and second them straightway on salary for training; the continuation of their appointments would naturally be subject to satisfactory completion of training. It would be necessary for a training department to collaborate with the local authority making the appointment; candidates could then be notified of acceptance for training at the same time as they were notified of the appointment. This procedure would avoid the difficulties of student selection which have sometimes arisen where local authorities have engaged psychologists before professional training. When considering a candidate who is already employed in educational psychology a training department is in a difficult position if he does not measure up to their criteria for admission; in order to admit him, they may have to turn away a better candidate and abandon their selection standard.

(c) Method 3: Secondment from existing post. Candidates who are accepted by a training department and who are already employed in some other capacity by a local authority, for example as teachers, could be seconded as at present.

7.55 Method 3 has been the commonest form of support for candidates; but there have been difficulties which need to be avoided in future (paragraphs 5.53, 7.6, 7.20, 7.42, 7.44 and 7.45; see also paragraphs 4.21 to 4.29). 'We recommend that prospective candidates for training in educational psychology should discuss their plans with employing authorities at the earliest possible moment. A graduate psychologist who takes up teaching only as a preliminary to one year postgraduate training ought, in fairness, to make this clear to the employing authority before he is appointed. The authority should then warn the candidate if they are not likely to be prepared at the end of, say, two years to continue salary during training (the cost to be met from the educational psychologists training pool). Similar safeguards have been made for students taking advantage of the special arrangements for new graduates at University College, Swansea and at the Tavistock Clinic. It would also avoid later misunderstandings if teachers who wished to take degrees in psychology (e.g. by part-time study) with a view to becoming educational psychologists were to discuss with their employers eventual secondment before embarking on the course. Agreement in principle to secondment would prevent the costly waste caused by vacancies on training courses.**

7.56 It is inappropriate for local authorities to determine whether to second a teacher for training in educational psychology by reference to criteria which relate to advanced training for teachers. The new pooling arrangements for training educational psychologists,*** distinct

*On 2 February 1968 the Secretary of State for Education and Science announced that he was considering the transfer of responsibility for postgraduate awards from local education authorities in England and Wales to the central Government (Hansard, written answers, cols. 427 -428).

**See paragraphs 5.53 and 7.45(a).

***See paragraph 7.47 and footnotes.


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from those for training teachers, should make it easier to. treat each category independently. One of the criteria to which an authority ought to attach importance is the opinion of a training department on the suitability of the applicant for training in educational psychology. If our recommendations are adopted, no employee wishing to be seconded for training need be without assurance of financial support from his employing authority when he applies to train. We recommend that training departments should offer places to candidates in employment only when they have been assured of secondment. Candidates in employment who, for exceptional reasons, cannot be seconded (e.g. because they are employed only on a short contract, or are employed for a small proportion of time, or are not employed by a local education authority) could be supported by methods 1 or 2 above.

Clearing house procedures

7.57 The total number of training departments we envisage would be so small that a separate 'clearing house' would not be needed. We recommend that the postgraduate training departments should consult together over the selection of candidates for training, and should establish their own 'clearing house' procedures, including students taking part in the accelerated programme based on local education authorities that we recommend.

Support for advanced professional training

7.58 Local education authorities should take advantage of advanced training as it becomes available. Suitable educational psychologists should be seconded to the courses. the cost being met through the training of educational psychologists pool.

Support for academic preparation before postgraduate training

7.59 It would be possible for local education authorities to charge to the training of educational psychologists pool the cost of enabling suitable candidates to take undergraduate courses in psychology as a preliminary to postgraduate training. Such candidates might be found among a local authority's own staff. Arrangements of this kind may be particularly appropriate if) areas where it has been difficult to fill vacancies for educational psychologists; but in general the increasing number of psychology graduates together with the pressure for places on undergraduate courses suggests that it is not at this level that shortages will be most acute.

Summary

7.60 Hence, we recommend for education services that finance should be provided: (a) for a threefold increase in the output of psychologists from basic postgraduate training; (b) for an accelerated programme from 1970 to 1974, (or until the need for it is overtaken by more permanent arrangements); (c) for academic preparation before basic postgraduate training for some potential students; and (d) in the longer term for still more advanced forms of study and research for psychologists in education services.

Conclusions and recommendations

7.61 We conclude and recommend that:

Main conclusions and recommendations

7.R1 Postgraduate training for educational psychology can be shorter, more concentrated, more directed and no less effective. (Paragraph 7.32)

7.R2 It would be advantageous for new postgraduate training departments to be relatively large. Economies would result from an increase in scale; academic and professional staffs would be concentrated rather than dispersed (as is especially relevant now when they are in short supply and when there is competition for them); the departments could provide a service for education authorities in their vicinities. (Paragraph 7.31)

7.R3 It would be appropriate for new postgraduate training departments to be established in regions where there are at present the greatest shortages of psychologists in the education services. (Paragraph 7.31 )

7.R4 Postgraduate training should be interdisciplinary so that all concerned may fully understand both the competences of other disciplines and the limitations of their own. (Paragraphs 7.21 and 6.78)

7.R5 Two new university postgraduate training departments should be established by collaboration between their departments of psychology, of education and of psychiatry, and local education authorities in their vicinities, in order to provide both training in educational psychology and to contribute to the local authority school psychological and child guidance services. (See Recommendations 7.R2, 7.R3 and 7.R6). (Paragraphs 7.31 and 7.32)

7.R6 The new postgraduate training departments (Recommendation 7.R5) should organise a two-year postgraduate course for an annual intake of twenty-five students whose qualifications should


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include an honours degree in psychology or equivalent; in addition to courses in psychology and in education, the course should include a variety of supervised practical work with children and their teachers in schools, and other work with children in nurseries, welfare clinics and elsewhere, as well as practical work in educational psychology. (See Recommendations 7.R2, 7.R3 and 7.R5, and Appendix 7 A : 'A postgraduate training department for educational psychologists which incorporates a demonstration service'.) (Paragraphs 7.26 and 7.32)

7.R7 Existing postgraduate training departments:
(a) should expand as quickly as possible to take as many extra students as they can without reducing the standard of training (measures for increasing productivity are recommended); (Paragraphs 7.15 to 7.17)
(b) should organise and supervise the pre-training of graduates in psychology and, in collaboration with local education authorities, improve the relevance, variety, and effectiveness of students' practical experience in education. (Paragraph 7.18)

7.R8 An additional, accelerated programme of training should be put in hand immediately to meet the most urgent short-term needs; the accelerated programme should comprise (a) the expansion of existing training departments (Recommendation 7.R7 above), and (b) in-service arrangements set up by those local education authorities which, with help from universities and hospital psychiatric services, have adequate facilities. (See Recommendation 5.R4.) (Paragraphs 7.34 to 7.36)

7.R9 The advancement of psychological knowledge in the field of education should be furthered by arrangements which would enable some practising educational psychologists to devote periods of time to specialised clinical and research work, which might. for example, lead to Ph.D. degrees and other higher qualifications. (Paragraphs 7.38 and 7.40)

7.R10 Specialised professional work by educational psychologists would be facilitated by short courses on specific subjects. (Paragraphs 7.38 and 7.39)

Co-ordination and finance of postgraduate training

7.R11 Postgraduate training for educational psychology needs to be planned and co-ordinated on a national basis; finance both for postgraduate departments and individual students is needed and should be provided. (Paragraph 7.48)

7.R12 Central responsibility for co-ordinating the planning of training facilities should be a responsibility of the Department of Education and Science; local authority associations should be consulted; responsibility for maintaining academic and professional standards of training should continue to rest with the British Psychological Society. (Paragraph 7.48)

7.R13 Within the overall plan (Recommendation 7.R11) advantage should be taken of the powers given in the Local Government Act, 1966, to pool costs of training educational psychologists among all local authorities; in making pooling arrangements, all the costs connected with training that were to be met by local authorities might be taken into account - whether related to courses in universities or in other institutions, or as a result of new accelerated programmes of training which local authorities might themselves set up, or in paying special allowances to their educational psychologists to supervise trainees, or in lending staff to postgraduate training departments: Local Government Act, 1966, Schedule 1, paragraphs 13(2) and 13(4) (e). (Paragraph 7.47)

7.R14 Within the overall plan (Recommendation 7.R11) central government funds should contribute to the resources for setting up, running and extending postgraduate training departments and for student support. (Paragraphs 7.51 and 7.52)

7.R15 Earmarked allocations from Government funds should be made in order to meet costs of extending basic postgraduate training and of establishing programmes of advanced training, in so far as they fall to be met by the Exchequer. Special arrangements are required to meet the needs of postgraduate training departments which are not parts of universities and the needs of accelerated programmes of training set up by local authorities. (Paragraph 7.52)

7.R16 Support should be assured for students of all kinds who are eligible for postgraduate training. There should be three methods of financial support during training:

Method 1: postgraduate grants or studentships awarded on a national basis; perhaps directly by the Department of Education and Science. (Paragraph 7.54(a))


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Method 2: local authority appointments for trainee educational psychologists to be seconded straightway for professional training. (Paragraph 7.54(b))

Method 3: secondment for other local government employees from their existing posts to courses of postgraduate training. (Paragraph 7.54(c))

7.R17 Recommendations 7.R1 to 7.R16 should be considered by the University Grants Committee and by the Social Science Research Council, as well as by the Department of Education and Science and local education authorities. (Paragraphs 7.49 to 7.54)

Contributory recommendations

7.R18 A Masters degree would be a suitable qualification at the end of two years of postgraduate training of the kind we recommend (Recommendation 7.R6); the title of the qualification awarded by-the present university training courses might accordingly be reconsidered. (Paragraph 7.33)

7.R19 The British Psychological Society should assist those local education authorities which contribute to an accelerated training programme to plan arrangements (see Recommendation 7.R8(b»; the Society should approve training schemes: trainees might take examinations conducted by the Society. (Paragraph 7.37)

7.R20 Postgraduate training departments should consult together over the selection of candidates for training, and should establish their own 'clearing house' procedures. (Paragraph 7.57)




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Chapter 8 Psychologists in education services: observations on longer term developments


8.1 By 1990, the school population is expected to be at least half as big again as it is now. Accordingly there will be many more people, more crowded together, and public services will have to bear new and much heavier loads. In order to counteract the adverse effects of this population pressure on the community, it will be necessary to devote even more attention and resources to education and to the welfare of children and young people. We believe that technological developments which are already within our power will enable the necessary human investment to be made as present economic difficulties are overcome. Increasing prosperity means that human beings will be able to work for each other's well-being as they have never been able to work before; they will indeed need to do so.* Many new opportunities are already being opened up. In particular, psychological work should continue to be directed to bettering the development of children and young people; schools, and the other services for which education authorities are responsible, make the principle public contribution to this process. It will continue to gather momentum.

8.2 To achieve the benefits of new developments as quickly and economically as possible, the organisation, scale and administration of our communities will need to accommodate to changing circumstances. This is the background, for example, to the work of the Maud Commission** which may recommend changes in the wider structure of local government in England; and reorganisation of local government in Wales may result from the government proposals*** which are at present being discussed with the Welsh local authorities. Hence, our Report has been written at a time when attention is being given to many matters which may affect, amongst other things, psychological work in local authorities. The Seebohm Committee has been considering local authority and allied personal social services; a great deal of discussion has been centred upon the Home Office white paper The Child, the Family and the Young Offender.**** The recent report on Management of Local Government (The Maud Report)***** recommended that local authorities should review their internal organisation, including committee structure; the report suggests, reasonably enough, that there should be as few committees as possible and that each committee should concern itself with a group of subjects. But it also suggests that child care, personal health and welfare might be the concern of a single 'social work' committee.

8.3 We are of the opinion that the education service should continue to be the context for the work in local authorities, however large they may become, of all psychologists concerned with children and young people. Education for children and young people must comprise not only their instruction in schools and elsewhere, but also their well-being, and that of their families in relation to them, so that they may benefit, in the widest sense, to the greatest possible extent. Moreover, we are clear that the kind of integration suggested in the Maud Report would be integrative in one sense only; the very act of integrating social work services in this way would create a rift in education services. It could destroy another necessary kind of interdisciplinary integration in which the social work component should be an indivisible aspect of the relation between education, and the children and their families whom it serves. This wider conception of education bears crucially on the ways in which earlier stages of development and of learning are related to later stages, both for particular children and for groups of children.

8.4 The consequences of education are not immediate. They do not have the seemingly dramatic 'qualities of, for example, rehousing a family or clearing a slum. But it has been demonstrated beyond doubt by now that people have to have opportunities to become educated, and reeducated, if they are to benefit from changes in their social and physical environments, whether in new towns, or renewed towns, or elsewhere; moreover, society needs to

*'In my mind, any use of a human being in which less is demanded of him and less is attributed to him than his full status is a degradation and a waste. It is a degradation of a human being to chain him to an oar and use him as a source of power; but it is an almost equal degradation to assign him a purely repetitive task in a factory, which demands less than a millionth of his brain capacity' (p.16); and The hour is very late, and the choice of good and evil knocks at our door' (p.213) : so wrote one of the great minds of our age nearly twenty years ago, at the dawn of what he called 'the second industrial revolution' (Norbert Wiener. The Human Use of Human beings. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1950).
'Some 80 to 90 per cent of all scientists that have ever been, are alive now' (p.107). D. J. de S. Price. Science since Babylon. New Haven, Conn. and London: Yale University Press, 1961.
'Without making firm commitments about the growth of the student body, it is almost certain that as many students will pass through our Universities between now and 1980 as have graduated from them since the first scholars fled from Paris and settled in Oxford 700 years ago: (Lord Bowden. The Functions of Universities in Modern Society: the Foundation Oration, 1964, delivered at Birkbeck College, London in celebration of the 141st anniversary of the foundation of the College. London: Birkbeck College. 1964).
'We are now over the threshold of the second industrial revolution. It is a revolution which can unleash unthought of potential for improved living standards and a better quality of life. But it can also bring social misery and dislocation on a frightening scale. Automation and modernisation could lead to widespread unemployment. ... There is not much time left' (Skills for a new world: leader in The Guardian, 6 February 1968).

**The Royal Commission on Local Government in England.

***Local Government in Wales, Cmnd. 3340. London: H.M.S.O., 1967.

****The Child, the Family and the Young Offender, Cmnd. 2742 . London: H.M.S.O., 1965.

*****Management of Local Government (the Maud Report). London: H.M.S.O., 1967.


[page 94]

ensure that they have the best possible opportunities in order to ensure that its own priorities and objectives continue to be ordered according to human needs. Education for the children and young people of tomorrow, and after, is the fundamental social service directed to the future.





[page 95]

Appendix A List of witnesses


A.1 The following bodies submitted written evidence: oral evidence was also given through the representatives named and marked with an asterisk.

American Psychological Association

(through Dr Sherman Ross, Executive Secretary, Education and Training Board, in the form of memoranda from the following members of the Association:
Professor S.W. Gray, George Peabody College for Teachers;
Dr F.F. Lighthall, Department of Education, University of Chicago;
Dr T.E. Newland, College of Education, University of Illinois;
Dr G.M. Trachtman, School of Education, New York University;
Dr M.A. White, Teachers' College, Columbia University.)

Association of Chief Education Officers

Association of Children's Officers

Association of Child Psychotherapists

Association of Education Committees:
Sir William Alexander*

Association of Educational Psychologists:
Mr W.J. Bannon*
Mr H.J. Wright*

Association of Municipal Corporations:
Alderman A. Ballard*
Mr L.J. Drew*
Mr K.P. Poole*

Association of Psychiatric Social Workers

Association for Special Education

Association of Workers for Maladjusted Children

British Psychological Society

British Medical Association

Corporation of Glasgow Education Department

County Councils Association:
Mr L.W.K. Brown*
Mr W.J. Deacon*

College of Teachers of the Blind

Inner London Education Authority:
Councillor Mrs L. Campbell*
Councillor Mr K. Young*
Dr L.W.H. Payling*

Institute of Youth Employment Officers

The Joint Four: memoranda were received from each of the Constituent Associations, viz:
Associations of Headmasters
Association of Headmistresses
Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools
Association of Assistant Mistresses in Secondary Schools

National Association for Mental Health

National Association of Probation Officers

National Association of Schoolmasters

National College of Teachers of the Deaf

National Union of Teachers

Royal Medico-Psychological Association:
Dr L.A. Hersov*
Professor D.A. Pond*

Society of Medical Officers of Health:
Dr J. D. Kershaw*
Dr H. Mair*

Spastics Society

Welsh Joint Education Committee

A.2 Evidence was submitted by all local education authorities in England and Wales through their chief education officers; in addition to tables of factual information, memoranda were received in most cases.

A.3 Evidence was submitted by all training departments for educational psychologists in England and Wales at the time of our enquiries; in addition to memoranda and tables of factual information, oral evidence was given by those marked with an asterisk.

Child Guidance Training Centre, London:
Miss N. Gibbs*
Mr T. Moore

University College London:
Miss G.H. Keir*

The Tavistock Clinic, London:
Miss I.E. Caspari*

Department of Child Study, University of Birmingham:
Mr C.J. Phillips*

University of Manchester:
Miss O.C. Sampson

University College of Swansea:
Professor C.E. Gittins

The Maudsley Hospital, Psychology Department University of London Institute of Psychiatry:
Dr M.B. Shapiro


[page 96]

A.4 Evidence was submitted by all university departments of psychology in the United Kingdom at the time of our enquiries; in addition to tables of factual information, memoranda were received from the professors of psychology and other staff named.

University of Birmingham:
Professor P.L. Broadhurst

University of Bristol:
Professor K.R.L. Hall

Brunel College (now University):
Professor Marie Jahoda

University of Cambridge:
Professor O.L. Zangwill

University of Durham:
Professor F.V. Smith

University of Exeter:
Professor R.L. Reid

University of Hull:
Professor A.D.B. Clarke

University of Keele:
Professor I.M.L. Hunter

University of Leeds:
Professor G.P. Meredith

University of Leicester:
Professor S.G.M. Lee

University of Liverpool:
Dr A. Crawford (on behalf of Professor L.S. Hearnshaw)

University of London
Bedford College: Professor D.W. Harding
Birkbeck College: Professor A. Summerfield
University College: Professor G.C. Drew*

University of Manchester:
Professor J. Cohen
Dr R.R. Skemp

University of Newcastle-upon- Tyne:
Dr G.H. Fisher

University of Nottingham:
Dr L.J. Newson (on behalf of Professor C.I. Howarth)

University of Oxford:
Professor R.C. Oldfield

University of Reading:
Professor M.D. Vernon

University of Sheffield:
Professor H. Kay

University of Southampton:
Professor G. Trasler

University of Sussex

University College of North Wale.:
Professor T.R. Miles

University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire:
Professor G. Westby

University of Aberdeen:
Professor E. D. Fraser

University of Edinburgh:
Professor J. Drever

University of Glasgow:
Professor R.W. Pickford

University of Strathclyde:
Professor Gustav Jahoda

University of St. Andrews, Queen's College, Dundee:
Mr A.J. Flook

Queen's University of Belfast:
Professor G. Seth

The University Grants Committee and the Universities Central Council on Admissions provided information at our request.

A.5 The Department of Education and Science and other Government departments, notably the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Education, Northern Ireland, the Ministry of Health, the Scottish Education Department, and HM Treasury, provided information at our request.

A.6 The following individuals submitted written evidence:

Mr G. Alison, Lecturer in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Jordanhill College of Education, Glasgow
Mr N.J. Bradley, Lecturer in Education, School of Education, University of Leicester
Mr A. Cashdan, Lecturer in the Education of Handicapped Children, Department of Education, University of Manchester
Dr W.E. Cavenagh, JP, SeniorLecturer in Social Study & Criminology, University of Birmingham
Mr A.F. Dixon, a Teacher
Mr R.C. Dove, HM Inspector of Schools
Mr D. Evans, Lecturer in Educational Psychology, Department of Education, University of Exeter
Mr J.R. Fish, HM Inspector of Schools
Dr B.P. Frost, Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Canada
Mr R. Gulliford, Lecturer in Education, Education Department. and Educational Psychologist, Department of Child Study, University of Birmingham


[page 97]

Mr S. Haskell, Lecturer in the Education of Physically Handicapped Children, Institute of Education, University of London
Mrs P.E. Hedges, Senior Lecturer in Education, City of Coventry College of Education
Mr H. Heginbotham, Organizer of Youth Employment, Birmingham
Miss E.M. Hitchfield, Froebel Institute College of Education, London
Miss J. Honey, Senior Lecturer in Education, Newton Park College of Education, Bath
Mr V.P. Houghton, Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Nottingham
Mr N.H. Isaac, Senior Psychologist, Leicester Education Authority
Mr H. Karle, Educational Psychologist, East Sussex Education Authority
Dr I.W. Langan, Senior Educational Psychologist, Manchester Education Authority (formerly Lecturer, Cheshire County College of Education)
Mr H. Lytton, Lecturer in Educational Psychology, Institute of Education, University of Exeter
Mr J. McGibbon, Principal Lecturer in Education, St. Mary's Training College, Strawberry Hill, Middlesex
Mr C.K. Mackay, Lecturer in Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Aberdeen
Mr J.E. Merritt, Lecturer in Education, Institute of Education, University of Durham
Miss E.M. Moore, Lecturer in Educational Psychology, Department of Education, Queen's University, Belfast
Mr W.E. Moore, Principal Psychologist, North Wales Child Guidance Service
Dr G.A.V. Morgan, HM Inspector of Schools
Mr J. Pearce, a Teacher
Mr R. Percival, Principal, The Royal Philanthropic Society's School, Redhill, Surrey
Mr P. Ransome, Educational Psychologist, East Sussex Education Authority
Mr G.F. Reed, Lecturer in Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, University of Manchester
Mr H.J. Sants, Lecturer in Education, Department of Education, University College of North Wales
Mr D. Straker, Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool
Mr A.A.G. Walbridge, Lecturer, Psychology Division, West Ham College of Technology
Dr M.D. Wilson, Inspector of Special Education, Inner London Education Authority
Mr P.F. Woodman, Senior Lecturer in Education, College of St. Matthias, Bristol


[page 99]

Appendix B Bibliography

See also the list of references which follows Chapter 1


Government publications

Department of Education and Science (including publications of the Ministry of Education and Board of Education)

Additional Courses: Special Courses of Advanced Study. Administrative Memorandum no. 21/61 Addendum no. 1. London: 1962

Careers Guidance in Schools London: HMSO, 1965. 6s 6d

Child Guidance, Circular 347 (see also Ministry of Health Circular 3/59 and H.M. (59)23). London: 1959

Children and their Primary Schools (the Plowden Report). London: HMSO, 1967. Vol. 1, 25s 0d, Vol, 2, 32s 6d

Courses for Teachers, Circular 1453. London: 1937

Education Act, 1944. London: HMSO, 1944. 9s 0d

Half Our Future (the Newsom Report). London: HMSO, 1963. 8s 6d

Handicapped Pupils and School Health Service Regulations, 1945, S.1. no. 1076. London: HMSO, 1945. Out of print

Handicapped Pupils and Special Schools Regulations, 1959, S.1. no. 365. London: HMSO, 1959. 4d

One Year and One Term Courses of Further Training for Qualified Teachers 1965-66, Administrative Memorandum no. 12/64. London: 1964

One Year and One Term Courses of Further Training for Qualified Teachers 1966-67, Administrative Memorandum no. 15/65. London: 1965

One Year and One Term Courses of Further Training for Qualified Teachers 1967-68, Administrative Memorandum no. 15/66. London: 1966

Organisation of Secondary Education, Circular 10/65. London: 1965

Primary Education in Wales (the Gittins Report). London: HMSO, 1967. 32s 6d

Report of the Committee on Maladjusted Children (the Underwood Report). London: HMSO, 1955. 12s 6d

School Health Service Regulations, 1959, S.1. no. 363. London: HMSO, 1959. 3d

Special Educational Treatment Ministry of Education Pamphlet no. 5. London: HMSO, 1946. Out of print

Special Education Today, Report on Education no. 23. London: 1965. Free

Special Educational Treatment for Maladjusted Children. Circular 348. London: 1959

Statistics of Education 1962, Part 2. London: HMSO. 1963. 20s 0d

Statistics of Education 1965, Parts 1 and 2. London: HMSO, 1966. Part 1, 19s 0d. Part 2, 35s 0d

Statistics of Education 1966, Volume 1. London: HMSO, 1967. 27s 6d

The Health of the School Child, Reports of the Chief Medical Officer of the Department of Education and Science: London, HMSO. For the years 1958 and 1959 (chapter 10), 1960, 10s 6d. Also for 1960 and 1961 (chapters 9, 13 and 14), 1962, 15s 6d and for 1964 and 1965 (chapter 4), 1966, 12s 6d

Training of Staff for Child Guidance, Circular 160. London: 1948 Training of Teachers, Administrative Memorandum no. 266. London: 1948

Department of Education and Science with Ministry of Health

Co-ordination of Education, Health and Welfare Services for Handicapped Children and Young People, DES Circular 9/66, MOH Circular 7/66. London: 1966

Department of Education and Science with Ministry of Technology

The Brain Drain. Report of the Working Group on Migration (the Jones Report), Cmnd. 3417. London: HMSO, 1967. 11s 0d

Home Office

Children and Young Persons Act, 1963. London: HMSO, 1963. 4s 6d

The Child, The Family and The Young Offender, Cmnd. 2742. London: HMSO, 1965. 1s 6d

Children in Trouble. Cmnd. 3601. London: HMSO, 1968. 2s 0d

Ministry of Health

Child Guidance, Circular 3/59 (see also Ministry of Education Circular 347). London: 1959

Child Guidance, Hospital Memorandum (59)23 (see also Ministry of Education Circular 347). London: 1959

Social Workers in the Mental Health Services, (the Mackintosh Report), Cmd. 8260. London: HMSO, 1951. 1s 6d

Ministry of Health with Department of Health for Scotland

Social Workers in the Local Authority Health and Welfare Services (the Younghusband Report). London: HMSO, 1959. 15s 0d

Ministry of Housing and Local Government

Local Government Act, 1966. London: HMSO, 1966. 5s 0d

Management of Local Government (the Maud Report), Vol. 1, Report of the Committee. London: HMSO, 1967. 15s 0d

Scottish Education Department

Ascertainment of Maladjusted Children, Report of the Working Party appointed by the Secretary of State for Scotland. Edinburgh: HMSO, 1964. 3s 6d

Education in Scotland in 1962. Edinburgh: HMSO, 1963. 8s 6d

Welsh Office

Local Government in Wales, Cmnd. 3340, London: HMSO, 1967. 4s 0d

University Grants Committee

First Employment of University Graduates 1961-62. London: HMSO, 1963. 2s 0d

First Employment of University Graduates 1962-63. London: HMSO, 1965. 3s 6d

First Employment of University Graduates 1963-64. London: HMSO, 1965. 3s 6d

First Employment of University Graudates 1964-65. London: HMSO, 1966. 5s 6d

First Employment of University Graduates 1965-66. London: HMSO, 1967. 5s 9d

Returns from Universities and University Colleges 1961-62. London: HMSO, 1963. 6s 0d

Returns from Universities and University Colleges 1962-63. London: HMSO, 1964. 5s 6d


[page 100]

Returns from Universities and University Colleges 1963-64. London: HMSO, 1965. 6s 6d

Returns from Universities and University Colleges 1964-65. London: HMSO, 1966. 8s 6d

Committee on Higher Education

Higher Education (the Robbins Report), Report of the Committee, Cmnd. 2154. London: HMSO, 1963. 15s 0d

Royal Commission on Local Government in England

Written Evidence of the Department of Education and Science. London: HMSO, 1967. 5s 0d

Royal Commission on Medical Education

Report (the Todd Report), Cmnd. 3569. London: HMSO, 1968. 28s 6d


Other publications

Blacker, C.P. Neurosis and the Mental Health Services. London: Oxford University Press, 1946

Bowden, The Lord. The Functions of Universities in Modern Society. London: Birkbeck College, 1964

British Council for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled. The Handicapped School-Ieaver. London: British Council for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled, 1963

British Medical Journal. Mental health services for children. British Medical Journal (1967), no. 5552, p. 585

British Psychological Society. Teaching Educational Psychology in Training Colleges. London: British Psychological Society, 1962

British Psychological Society. The School Psychological Service (England and Wales). London: British Psychological Society, 1962

Burt, C. Mental and Scholastic Tests. London: King, 1921 (first edition); London: Staples, 1962 (fourth edition)

Burt, C. The Young Delinquent. London: University of London Press, 1925 (first edition); 1927 (second edition, revised)

Clarke, A.M. and A.D.B. Mental Deficiency: the changing outlook. London: Methuen, 1958

Committee on Salary Scales and Service conditions of Inspectors, Organisers, and Advisory Officers of Local Education Authorities. Eighth Report. London: Councils and Education Press Ltd., 1965

City of Leicester Education Committee. The Leicester School Psychological Service Today. Leicester: City of Leicester, 1964

Council of the Royal College of General Practitioners. Education in Psychology and Psychiatry, Reports from General Practice VII. Dartmouth: Council of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 1967

Cutts, N.E. (ed.) School Psychologists at Mid-Century. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1955

Feversham Committee, The. The Voluntary Mental Health Services. London: The Feversham Committee. 1939

Flugel, J.C. A Hundred Years of Psychology. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd, 1951

Gunzburg, H.C. Social Rehabilitation of the Subnormal. London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox, 1960

Healy, W. The Individual Delinquent, Boston, Mass: Little, Brown & Cc., 1915 (first edition); 1925 (second edition)

Himmelweit, H.T. A social psychologist's view of the school psychological service of the future. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 52

Hopkins, E. The school psychological service. Where? (1966), no. 23, p. 24-25

Hoxter, H.Z. The school psychological service and vocational guidance. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 51

Jackson, S. Special Education in England and Wales. London: Oxford University Press, 1966

Kahn, J.H. A psychiatrist's observations on the school psychological service. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 51

Lee, D.M. The school psychological service-an educational viewpoint. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 53

Miles, M. The school psychological service-a headmistress's view. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 52

National Association for Mental Health. Child Guidance and Child Psychiatry as an Integral Part of Community Services. London: National Association for Mental Health, 1965

Price, D.J, de S. Science since Babylon. New Haven, Conn. and London: Yale University Press, 1961

Pritchard, D.G. Education and the Handicapped. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1963

Ravenette, A.T. The psychologist in child guidance: what is his role? Inter-Clinic Conference Report. London: National Association for Mental Health, 1965

Rawlings, G. The school psychological service-final comments. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1964), 17, 54

Sampson, D.C. How many educational psychologists? Education (1965), 125, 3242

Skinner, B.F. Cumulative Record. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1959

Skinner, B.F. Psychology and the Behavioural Sciences. Pittsburg: Pittsburg University Press, 1955

Skinner, B.F. The science of learning and the art of teaching. Harvard Educational Review (1954),24, 4

Steinberg, H. The British Psychological Society 1901-1961. London: British Psychological Society, 1961

Straker, D. How many psychology graduates? A manpower enquiry. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1967), 20, 68

Tizard. J. Community Services for the Mentally Handicapped. London: Oxford University Press, 1964

Universities Central Council for Admissions. Fourth Report, 1965-66. London: Universities Central Council for Admissions, 1967

Universities Central Council for Admissions. Fifth Report, 1966-67. London: Universities Central Council for Admissions, 1968

Wall, W.D. (ed.) Psychological Services for Schools. Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education, 1956

Wiener, N. The Human Use of Human Beings. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1950

Williams. P. The school psychological service-implications for training educational psychologists. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 53

Wright, H.J. The school psychological service. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society (1963), 16, 50


[page 101]

Appendix 1A Psychologists in education services: the historical background


1A.1 The first steps by which educational psychology moved from the philosophic to the scientific field were the interpretation of school records and the use of testing techniques. Acceptance of this new psychology by the administration and the community gave credence to the possibility of measuring intelligence to obtain a useful indicator of intellectual growth in young people. The current practice of educational psychology in this country represents a search for means of identifying those factors which ideally facilitate normal development in young people, and those factors which cause or aggravate young people's difficulties, and a fusion of the remedial or educational aspect of learning with the medical or psychiatric aspect of treatment.

1A.2 Francis Galton laid the foundations not only of mental testing, but also of measuring other aspects of human functioning when his anthropometric laboratory opened in 1884. H is emphasis on the need to study the genetic and environmental factors in individual differences between children in order to advise about their treatment, their education at school and their subsequent vocation was enthusiastically taken up by many members of the British Child-Study Association, formed in 1893, who became convinced of the need for psychology in education.

1A.3 This conviction, reinforced by the distinction drawn by James Sully between medical science and mental science in the treatment of mental subnormality, gave support to local education authorities when, in 1907, they began to carry out new duties assigned to them by the recently formed medical department of the Board of Education. These requirements to secure ' ... the mental and moral improvement of coming generations' as well as their physical well-being, represented a significant step forward in providing more effectively for the handicapped, but the difficulties met in selecting children for the new schools for the sub- normal gave a much clearer awareness of the need for improved methods by which intelligence might be assessed.

1A.4 After serving on a committee in Paris which had studied methods of dealing with the 'backward' child, Binet, together with Simon, devised in 1905 a series of tests, arranged in order of increasing difficulty, which aimed at distinguishing lack of ability from laziness or lack of interest in learning. Revisions of these tests provided a means of 'measuring' intelligence by comparing quantified findings regarding a child's ability with the 'norm' established for his age. The 'mental age' of the child could in this way be established in terms of normal. above normal or below normal; in the two latter cases it could be stated more precisely in the terms of years or months in advance or behind his chronological age.

1A.5 Diverse factors influenced the spread of mental testing. Many children living in unfavourable circumstances were brought within the educational system as a result of compulsory education which had been fully introduced by 1880. In 1909, soon after the formation of a medical branch within the Board of Education, the Chief Medical Officer noted 'a spurious form of mental deficiency which is not infrequently associated with bad home conditions'. The setting up of juvenile courts following the Children Act of 1908 presented problems for magistrates which led to their asking for the psychological assessment of young offenders. At that time, revolutionary attitudes in psychiatry, engendered mainly by the influence of dynamic psychology, were also in evidence and an increasing number of teachers, school inspectors, medical officers and administrators were convinced of the practical part psychology could play within the educational system. As early as 1908, Dr G.A. Auden, the school medical officer for Birmingham, in arguing the case for a psychological service for schoolchildren, wrote: 'It is perhaps here that the most valuable effects of a medical department may be found, i.e. in the closer correlation of applied psychology and scientific investigation to the problems which present themselves in adapting their education to the individual needs and capacities of children ... The establishment of a practical Psychology Department in a University in close connection with the schools of the town would be of the greatest possible value towards the elucidation of the many problems which beset educational effort.'

1A.6 Developments in psychiatry especially of psychoanalysis, following the study of the unconscious mind by Freud and others, led to the wide recognition that neurotic symptoms could only be properly treated by investigating their causes. This changed outlook on the treatment of patients with psycho- neurotic symptoms led to the opening of the Tavistock Clinic in 1920, and to the opening there of a special children's department in 1926.

1A.7 Influenced largely by the publication of a series of books on crime by William Healy, including The Individual Delinquent in 1915, and by the publication of Burt's book The Young Delinquent in 1925, some schools were allowing greater freedom to their pupils. Reliance upon legal codes or moral principles was being replaced by further knowledge of the roots of behaviour and a psychological approach to special re-educative measures to help the young offender.

1A.8 These developments in mental testing and in psychiatry, together with recognition of the importance of social factors, paved the way for the modern interdisciplinary approach in child guidance. The significance of the effects of social handicap on schoolchildren,


[page 102]

argued by public spirited writers following the industrial revolution, has influenced psychology in this country, and, as a consequence both of this and of the English educational tradition, emphasis has been placed on the remedial or preventive aspect of guidance rather than on treatment-an approach via the science of educational and social psychology rather than via medical psychology.

1A.9 It was the medical aspect of the science, however, which stimulated the foundation of the Chicago Juvenile Psychopathic Institute by Healy in 1908. With the cooperation of social agencies, a detailed study of 800 cases was made. As a result attention was focussed on the need for special clinics to treat delinquents. With the additional appointment to these clinics of a social worker to co-operate with psychiatrist and psychologist in treatment, the American pattern of child guidance clinic had taken shape.

1A.10 The American idea of a team approach had in fact been anticipated by Sante de Sanctis in Italy. Recognising that psychiatry was not the only discipline involved in the guidance of abnormal children, he initiated, in 1899, a consultancy with the cross-discipline approach of a psychiatrist, a specialised teacher, a psychologist and a social worker. Unfortunately, despite efforts which were made to sustain it. this initiative remained. without sequel in Italy.

1A.11 In the United States, the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, with aid from the Commonwealth Fund of America, opened in 1920 the first demonstration clinic 'to develop the psychiatric study of difficult pre-delinquent and delinquent children in schools and juvenile courts and to develop sound methods of treatment based on such study.' Publicity accorded this and similar clinics led to the establishment of a clinic with a team of workers in this country; in 1927 the East London Child Guidance Clinic under Dr Emanuel Miller was opened by the Jewish Health Organisation. The Child Guidance Training Centre, also with financial aid from the Commonwealth Fund of America, opened as a clinic in 1929. Administered initially by the Child Guidance Council, it was the first centre to provide a training for psychiatric social workers as well as a training for psychiatrists and psychologists.

1A.12 The first child guidance clinic to be opened in London as part of a voluntary teaching hospital started on 13 January 1930 at Guy's Hospital. The Governors had appointed a full-time psychiatric social worker, and a part-time psychologist was appointed by the Child Guidance Council; other assistants, technical and lay, gave their services voluntarily.

1A.13 The more efficient adaptation of education to match the rhythms of child growth received attention and scientific support from Mr (now Sir) Cyril Burt's researches into the practical problems of the schools and into the psychology of individual differences among children. In 1903, he began to devise measures of higher cognitive processes through tests of opposites, of analogies, and of syllogistic and other types of reasoning - tests of these kinds are still regarded as the best measures of verbal intelligence - and in 1911 he advocated their combination into a group test of general intelligence. He also devised individual and group tests of educational attainment, and investigated the distribution and correlation of educational abilities among schoolchildren with a view to concerning himself with their educational and vocational guidance. Burt had carried Galton's work further and had introduced mental measurement to education.

1A.14 On the initiative of school inspectors and of the Child-Study Society, (formed by the amalgamation in 1907 of the Childhood Society and the London Branch of the British Child-Study Association) the London County Council set up in 1913, within its Education Department, the first official psychologist's office and Burt was appointed psychologist. Amongst other duties, he was commissioned 'to investigate cases of individual children who present problems of special difficulty and who might be referred for examination by teachers, school medical officers, or care committee workers, magistrates or parents, and to carry out, or make recommendations for, suitable treatment or training of such children'. The 'Reports of the Psychologist to the London Council' covered all the practical aspects of a functioning service as we have now come to know them.

1A.15 As the understanding of handicapped children's difficulties improved, so the provisions of more appropriate remedial conditions in different kinds of schools evolved. The needs of the blind and the deaf, quite naturally, had long been recognised. (It is recorded that two members of the Royal Society, both born in 1616, each made 'the same claim of being the first English teacher to describe a successful method of teaching the deaf'.) Following the setting up in the nineteenth century of a number of public institutions for blind and deaf children, an Act of 1893 laid the duty squarely on local education authorities to provide schools for them. The first schools for the physically handicapped opened in London in 1865; as soon as 'the lower standards of elementary education' had been mastered, the children concentrated on learning a trade. The need for special education for slow learning children was not fully revealed until compulsory education was introduced nationally in 1880. The Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act of 1899 empowered local authorities to provide for the training of physically and mentally defective and epileptic children; these


[page 103]

The first: the announcement of the appointment in 1913 of Mr (now Sir) Cyril Burt to the L.C.C. in the editorial notes of the journal of the Child-Study Society
(Reproduced by kind permission of Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd, 4, Maddox Street, London, W.1.)



[page 104]

powers were made a duty in respect of mentally defective children in 1914 and in respect of physically defective and epileptic children in 1918.

1A.16 The legislative provisions covering the education of handicapped children were first consolidated in the Education Act, of 1921 when they were placed in an entirely separate part of the Act dealing with 'blind, deaf, defective and epileptic children'. The barriers dividing handicapped children from their fellows were finally broken down by the Education Act of 1944, which, with its criteria of age, ability and aptitude, has ensured that the needs of handicapped children shall be considered alongside others within the normal educational system.

1A.17 Towards the end of the nineteen-twenties, boarding education was being provided for nervous and difficult children by a few independent schools. The Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education, commenting in 1932 on an application for grant to support a home in Northampton for twenty-five maladjusted girls, wrote: There can I think be no doubt at all that in the future the maladjusted child will more and more call for consideration by Local Education Authorities and the Board. The right line seems to me to be to respond to such a call with sympathy, knowledge and circumspection.'

1A.18 In 1931, the Leicester Education Authority initiated its School Psychological Service by appointing a psychologist; and in 1932, the Authority opened the first maintained day school for maladjusted children. With the further appointment of a psychiatric social worker, a team service, offering diagnosis and placement of children, including those whose difficulties had roots outside school, was being provided.

1A.19 The first local education authority child guidance clinic was set up in Birmingham in 1932, although for the first three years the cost was met wholly from a private donation. When the financial assistance came to an end, the Birmingham local education authority decided that the clinic had proved its worth and the Board of Education agreed that· public funds could be used to enable the clinic to continue. Shortly afterwards, the Board also agreed that local education authorities could pay for services provided by voluntary child guidance clinics to which schoolchildren were referred by medical officers.

1A.20 Under Section 34 of the Education Act. 1944, each local education authority has the duty of ascertaining what children in its area require special educational treatment. For that purpose, parents may be required to bring their child to be examined by a medical officer of the authority. Assessments may include tests of intelligence, and these tests may be made by an educational psychologist. The reports, findings and recommendations are submitted to the local education authority, which is required to consider the medical officer's advice, together with any reports and information which are obtainable from teachers or other persons with respect to the ability and aptitude of the child, before making a decision about the needs for special educational treatment. If the authority decides that the child is in need of special educational treatment or that, under Section 57 of the Act (as amended by the Mental Health Act 1959) the child is unsuitable for education at school, parents have the right of appeal to the Minister. The Handicapped Pupils and School Health Service Regulations, 1945, defined the categories of handicapped pupils requiring special educational treatment as: blind, educationally subnormal, partially sighted, deaf, partially deaf, delicate, diabetic, epileptic, maladjusted, physically handicapped and those with speech defects. In the Handicapped Pupils and Special School Regulations, 1959, the category of 'diabetic' was omitted; the Amending Regulations of 1962 substituted 'partially hearing' for the term 'partially deaf.

1A.21 By 1939, there were twenty-two clinics either wholly or partly maintained by local education authorities and the Board of Education was dealing with many applications from authorities for sanction to board out maladjusted children. The war had a considerable impact on developments. Clinics lost valuable staff and the training of personnel was disrupted. Furthermore behaviour problems occurred in a large number of evacuated children who had not previously shown symptoms of maladjustment in their normal school and home surroundings. The more difficult of these children who were not billetable were placed in hostels provided as part of the Government evacuation scheme; local education authorities' were able to take up any vacant places after the needs of the evacuated children had been met. The advantages of co-operation were demonstrated where hostels were able to function closely with child guidance clinics in the reception areas; but the strain on inadequate and depleted clinic services was great. The urgent need for more facilities for treating maladjusted children nevertheless came to be recognised in this way. By 1945 the total number of clinics had risen to seventy-nine.

1A.22 Developments in psychology and child study which lent support to further diversification of special schools, also provided cogent reasons for differentiation in other schools. Although a trend towards a varied provision had been apparent since before the 1914-18 war, the Education Act of 1944, in laying upon local education authorities the duty of providing a sufficient number of primary and secondary schools, continued ' ... and the schools available for an area shall not be deemed to be sufficient unless they are sufficient in number, character and equipment to afford


[page 105]

for all pupils opportunities for education offering such variety of instruction and training as may be desirable in view of their ages, abilities and aptitudes .. .' The selection of pupils for secondary schools appropriate to their needs became a problem and educational psychologists were concerned in devising standardised tests of ability, of English and arithmetic, which were applied to almost all children aged ten or eleven in local education authority primary schools. The allocation of places in grammar, technical and secondary modern schools was based, in varying degrees, on the results of such tests.

1A.23 However, many educationists and others considered that this examination, even with the use of improved testing techniques and with added information from pupils' school records, was unsatisfactory owing to the different rates at which children develop. Further, the examination had tended to become a competition for grammar school places. As a result, the introduction of comprehensive schools, dispensing with the need for formal selection, and of other types of secondary school which require selection only at a later age, was favoured by an increasing number of local education authorities. In July, 1965, the Department of Education and Science, in an effort to end the separation of children in different types of secondary schools, asked all local education authorities to submit plans for the reorganisation, on comprehensive lines, of the secondary schools in their areas.

1A.24 Educationists have long believed that a stimulating environment promotes the intellectual development of children. In the eighteenth century, Rousseau first attempted to design teaching methods based on what he considered to be 'the nature of the child'; he drew attention to the importance of the early years of childhood, of play, and of considering child development. Froebel took up these ideas in the first half of the nineteenth century to work out a practical system for the kindergarten. However, until Galton's work on the individual child appeared, there had been a basic assumption that all children were more or less equally endowed if they were normal. so that. if they were properly taught, they could reach a certain standard by a given age.

1A.25 The new developments were slow in spreading to the training colleges, partly because of the remoteness of many colleges from the universities. Sully's influence, both as psychologist and lecturer, coupled with the publication of Burt's Mental and Scholastic Tests in 1921, helped to get the ideas accepted. By 1923, most of the colleges provided courses in psychology which included educational statistics, testing and a study of individual variations. There was general agreement that knowledge of psychology was useful to teachers.

1A.26 University education departments were first established towards the end of the nineteenth century for the training and further training particularly of secondary school teachers; they have been increasingly concerned

with educational research including applications of psychology to education and studies of child development.

1A.27 The British Psychological Society, incorporated under the Companies Act in 1941, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1965, was formed in 1901. Its formation was supported by philosophers, physicians and physiologists with the aim of advancing scientific research in psychology and furthering the co-operation of investigators in its different branches. At that time, awareness of a need for more knowledge had been aroused by developments in physiology and by the opening of psychological laboratories at University College London and at Cambridge. On its inception, membership of the Society was limited to recognised teachers in a branch of psychology. As interest widened, the rule was amended to allow membership to all those interested in various branches of psychology. The primary requirement for membership now is an honours degree for which psychology has been taken as main subject.

1A.28 In 1919, the Society's organisation was altered to give a better representation of members' interests; educational. medical and industrial sections were formed. A committee for psychological research in education was active in 1923. In 1943, a committee of psychologists working in the field of mental health was formed. At first it was mainly concerned with psychological work in education services, but it subsequently came also to be concerned with work in the national health services. Interest in these fields is now sustained by three divisions of members working in educational and child psychology (English and Scottish Divisions), and in clinical psychology. Psychology has also been supported in Australia and in New Zealand, where overseas branches were formed in 1943 and in 1947; the growth in membership of these branches has recently led to the development of both into independent national societies.

1A.29 The Society arranges scientific conferences, promotes research projects, publishes or sponsors the publication of journals, conducts examinations, keeps a register of psychologists and advises on undergraduate and postgraduate training in psychology. In 1967 the Society had 3,142 members.

1A.30 By its constitution the Society could not undertake to speak for educational psychologists on matters relating to salary or conditions of service. In 1962, the Association of Educational Psychologists was formed to promote the professional standards and interests of its members; membership initially was open to practising educational psychologists in local education authorities and has since been more specifically defined. The Association meets regularly to discuss psychological papers, is concerned with the salary and status of its members, and appoints a representative to the Committee on Salary Scales and Service Conditions of Inspectors, Organisers and Advisory Officers (the Soulbury Committee). In 1967 the Association had 238 members.


[page 106]

Appendix 2A Inquiry to chief education officers and questionnaire used in the survey of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities on 1 May 1965


2A.1 A questionnaire was sent to the chief education officers of all local authorities in England and Wales under cover of a letter dated 23 July 1965. The text of the letter and the form of the questionnaire are included in this appendix.

2A.2 The results of the survey, including the duties which educational psychologists were carrying out, are considered in Chapter 2; tables of principal data are included in Appendix 2B.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
Richmond Terrace,
Whitehall,
LONDON, SW.1.
23rd July, 1965

Ref: E.PSY (65) 2

Dear Chief Education Officer,

As you will probably have seen from the educational press, the Secretary of State has set up a working party under the Chairmanship of Professor A. Summerfield, Professor of Psychology, Birkbeck College, University of London, to consider the field of work of educational psychologists in local authority service, all the complex factors which have led to the present shortage and the number who are required; the exact terms of reference and composition of the working party are given on the attached sheet (Appendix A1 ).

1. The Department has very little systematic information about the duties of educational psychologists working for local authorities. The return which your authority makes annually to the Department on Form 20M gives the number employed, and shows the proportion working in the child guidance service and in the school psychological service, but does not give details of duties. One of the first tasks of the working party is, therefore, to obtain an accurate account of the work which educational psychologists at present do. To assist in this, will you please arrange to have one of the attached sheets marked Appendix A2 completed in respect of each educational psychologist in service on 1st May 1965, and in respect of each vacant post in your establishment. The functions listed are those which some authorities have attributed to educational psychologists in their service. They are not intended in any way to suggest that they ought to be included in the duties of educational psychologists generally, nor is the list comprehensive; there is provision to add functions which are not covered. Further copies of Appendix A2 are available on request.

2. As an extension of this information, we should be glad to have details of the duties you think educational psychologists employed by your local authority might at present be carrying out in your area, not necessarily under the local education authority, and a rough estimate of the staff which would be needed.

3. It is realised that authorities administer and organise the work of educational psychologists in child guidance and school psychological services in various ways; a brief outline of the administration in your area will be welcome.

4. The later stages of the working party's scheme of work will involve estimating the future demand for educational psychologists. It will be of assistance therefore to know what development in the field of work of educational psychologists you envisage in the next twenty years, and the working party would welcome a statement of your views.

5. The working party would be interested to know of any particular difficulties related to their terms of reference which your authority has encountered concerning educational psychologists (e.g. difficulties in releasing or seconding suitable teachers for professional training, or unusual difficulties in filling vacancies). They will be pleased to consider a paper giving a short statement of any problems of these kinds if you wish to submit one.

6. It would be helpful to the working party to know of any educational psychologists who may have left your service for other work, outside the local education authority field, and to have particulars of the kind of work to which they went.

7. A number of authorities compile reports on the services in which educational psychologists are employed. A copy of any recent report of this kind would be a valuable addition to your contribution.

8. You will be consulted if any information you give about your authority's services or your plans for the future should be mentioned in the working party's draft report in a way which identifies it with your authority. 9. I hope that the completion of your authority's submission will not prove excessively onerous. I shall be pleased to do anything I can to help with any queries which arise. The Working Party is anxious to make its recommendations to the Secretary of State as soon as possible to allow the best chance of improving the supply of educational psychologists quickly. We hope to have complete returns from authorities before the middle of September, 1965; I should be grateful, therefore, if you can help by returning the sheets Appendix A2 as soon as they can all be completed and your other contributions by 15th September if it is possible to do so.

Yours sincerely,
(G. J. Aylett)
Secretary

To all Chief Education Officers,
Directors of Education and Secretaries of Education.


[page 107]

Form of questionnaire sent to all chief education officers of all local authorities in England and Wales


[page 108]

Appendix 2B Tables of information about educational psychologists (including the principal results of the working party's survey)

Note: other information which was collected and processed, but which is too detailed and bulky to append to the Report, remains part of the records of the working party.


List of tables

Table 2B.1 Full-time and part-time appointments of educational psychologists on 1 May 1965

Table 2B.2 Regional distribution of educational psychologists (full-time equivalent) in relation to school population (all schools)

Table 2B.3 Numbers of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities (differentiated by school populations) in England and Wales, 31 December 1966

Table 2B.4 Men and women educational psychologists and salary grades (1 May 1965)

Table 2B.5 Date of postgraduate training in educational psychology: men and women employed on 1 May 1965

Table 2B.6 Men and women successfully completing postgraduate training in educational psychology 1945-46 to 1964-65

Table 2B.7 Age of educational psychologists on 1 May 1965 and teacher training

Table 2B.8 Degrees in psychology (or equivalent) held by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965

Table 2B.9 Training in educational psychology and university at which first degree in psychology (or equivalent) was taken (educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965)

Table 2B.10 Proportions of educational psychologists with and without training in educational psychology, by regions (1 May 1965)

Table 2B.11 Dates of teacher training and dates of degrees in psychology (or equivalent, including higher degrees): educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 for whom a degree in psychology was a first qualification, in relation to those for whom teacher training was a first qualification

Table 2B.12 Length of time educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 spent teaching (a) in all, and (b) at various stages of their careers

Comparisons of emphases given by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 to different aspects of their work

Table 2B.13 Educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 estimating varying proportions of an average working month spent in various kinds of work

Table 2B.14 Psychological assessment in child guidance clinics and elsewhere than in child guidance clinics

Table 2B.15 Psychological assessment in child guidance clinics and discussing individual children with teachers

Table 2B.16 Treating children in child guidance clinics and treating children elsewhere

Table 2B.17 Discussing individual children with teachers and discussing individual children with others

Table 2B.18 Estimates by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 of frequency of contact with other services

Table 2B.19 Services of kinds other than those specified in the questionnaire with which educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 were shown to work and the frequency of contact


[page 109]

Tables

Table 2B.1 Full-time and part-time appointments of educational psychologists on 1 May 1965

Table 2B.2 Regional distribution of educational psychologists (full-time equivalent) in relation to school population (all schools)


[page 110]

Table 2B.3 Numbers of educational psychologists employed by local education authorities (differentiated by school populations) in England and Wales, 31 December 1966


[page 111]

Table 2B.4 Men and women educational psychologists and salary grades (1 May 1965)

Table 2B.5 Date of postgraduate training in educational psychology: men and women employed on 1 May 1965

Table 2B.6 Men and women successfully completing postgraduate training in educational psychology 1945-46 to 1964-65

Table 2B.7 Age of educational psychologists on 1 May 1965 and teacher training

Table 2B.8 Degrees in psychology (or equivalent) held by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965


[page 112]

Table 2B.9 Training in educational psychology and university at which first degree in psychology (or equivalent) was taken (educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965)


[page 113]

Table 2B.10 Proportions of educational psychologists with and without training in educational psychology, by regions (1 May 1965)

Table 2B.11 Dates of teacher training and dates of degrees in psychology (or equivalent, including higher degrees): educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 for whom a degree in psychology was a first qualification, in relation to those for whom teacher training was a first qualification


[page 114]

Table 2B.12 Length of time educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 spent teaching (a) in all, and (b) at various stages of their careers

Table 2B.13 Educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 estimating varying proportions of an average working month spent in various kinds of work

Tables 2B.14 to 2B.17 Comparisons of emphases given by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 to different aspects of their work


[page 115]

Table 2B.18 Estimates by educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 of frequency of contact with other services

Table 2B.19 Services of kinds other than those specified in the questionnaire with which educational psychologists employed on 1 May 1965 were shown to work and the frequency of contact


[page 116]

Appendix 2C Ministry of Education Circular 347
(with the associated Ministry of Health Hospital Memorandum (59)23 and Circular 3/59)



Circular 347
(10th March, 1959)

To Local Education Authorities
All communications should be
addressed to THE SECRETARY.

Ministry of Education

Curzon Street,
London, W.1.

Child Guidance

1. The report of the Committee on Maladjusted Children, published in November, 1955, contained a number of recommendations on Child Guidance, with which the Minister is in general agreement.

2. The rate at which the Committee's recommendations can be carried out depends on the availability of trained staff and on the extent to which the necessary finance is provided by public authorities. The Minister will continue to keep in touch with the Minister of Health about measures to improve the recruitment and training of child guidance staff. The object of issuing this circular now is to lay a sound basis for the present organisation of the service and for the planning of future developments as and when it is possible for them to take place.

3. Close co-operation with the hospital service and the local health authority is essential. The Minister of Health is concurrently issuing a circular to regional hospital boards and boards of governors of teaching hospitals, and one to local health authorities. Copies of both these circulars are attached.

Child Guidance and the Schools

4. As the Committee said, the term 'child guidance' in the broadest sense is synonymous with education itself and is a process in which both parents and teachers are constantly engaged. Within the schools, teachers have an important part to play in child guidance in its more specialised sense of promoting the healthy emotional development of individual children.

5. An essential component of any child guidance service is an efficient school psychological service. By advising teachers or parents about learning and behaviour difficulties or by himself giving remedial teaching, the psychologist may help to resolve any underlying emotional troubles in children which might, if neglected, lead to greater difficulties and perhaps necessitate a long course of treatment. But it is important that the psychologist, in addition to his work in the schools, should work in closest touch with the child guidance clinic. This can be best achieved if, as the Committee recommend, the psychologist is also a member of the child guidance clinic team; it will be desirable for him to work in the same premises as the clinic, if practicable. In this way the link between the school psychological service and the child guidance clinic is directly maintained, thus ensuring efficient liaison with the schools and the teachers. The psychologist is able, at the same time, to keep in touch in the schools with any children who may be receiving treatment at the clinic.

6. The Minister agrees with the Committee that the school health service is also an essential component of a child guidance service. As they have said, it has always been part of the duties of the service to care for the emotional as well as the physical well-being of children; and the staff of the school health service can, like those of the school psychological service, do much to reduce the need for reference to child guidance clinics whilst ensuring that those who require treatment at a clinic are referred as early as possible. The Minister hopes that school medical officers will increasingly make it their practice to pay frequent visits to the schools and discuss with the teachers and school nurses any children whose behaviour or emotional development is causing concern. In this work the school nurse can help with her personal knowledge of the children's home background.

7. By these means the teachers, the school medical officer, the school nurse and the educational psychologist can deal with many of the emotional difficulties of children which arise or show themselves at school. It is important, however, that those working in the schools should be in close touch with the child guidance clinic, to which the children with more serious emotional difficulties will need to be referred. The object of such a referral is not simply to enable a child to see a psychiatrist, but rather to give him the benefit of a team specially trained to assess and to take a comprehensive view of his emotional difficulties, intellectual capacity and home background, and specially trained to help him and his family to reach a better understanding of themselves and to deal with their problems.

8. The remainder of this circular deals with the more specialised problem of child guidance clinics, and the ways of securing their close co-operation with the education and health services.

Child Guidance Clinics

9. The Minister accepts the Committee's recommendations that 'there should be a comprehensive child guidance service available for the area of every local education authority, involving a school psychological service, the school health service and child guidance clinic(s), all of which should work in close co-operation',* and that 'local education authorities and regional hospital boards should plan their provision of child guidance clinics in consultation'**. Authorities are therefore asked to prepared plans now to give effect to these recommendations as and when the necessary staff can be obtained; the Minister of Health in his circular is making a similar request to hospital authorities. As the Committee pointed out, it would not be in the interests of the children, nor conducive to efficiency or economy, for either a local education authority or a hospital board to plan its child guidance arrangements in isolation. The Minister hopes that the suggested discussions may lead to satisfactory planning.

10. Both local education authorities and hospital authorities have power to provide child guidance clinics. The Committee recommended a pattern of provision whereby the local education authority provide the premises and employ the psychologists and psychiatric social workers, and the regional hospital board provide the services of the psychiatrist. The Minister agrees that this pattern, which has has been adopted in a number of areas, is the most likely to secure the necessary co-operation with the health and education services, and hopes that it will be generally followed.*** Where it is, arrangements should be made for consultation, as appropriate, between the local education and hospital authorities when staff is appointed. Local circumstances, however, may call for different patterns of provision. Where a clinic and all its staff are separately provided by a hospital authority or local education authority, it is important that arrangements should be made which make co-operation possible and effective.

*Chapter XVII, recommendation 1.

**Chapter XVII, recommendation 2.

***Some advice on child guidance was given in the Ministry's Circular 179, dated the 4th August, 1948, paragraph 18 of which read as follows:
'Child Guidance work of the type at present undertaken by Local Education Authorities is in the main an educational service closely linked with the school and home. Thus the needs of most of the children who are maladjusted. whether to a degree which calls for the ascertainment as handicapped pupils or to a lesser degree, can be met by social and educational adjustments. Much of the work is carried out at the schools in co-operation with the parents and teachers by the educational psychologists and specially qualified social workers appointed by Authorities. The educational (continued overleaf)


[page 117]

11. A child guidance clinic provided by the local education authority, whether the psychiatrist is employed by them or by the hospital service, will, like other school clinics, be part of the school health service and will therefore form part of the general responsibility of the principal school medical officer. It will be under the medical direction of the psychiatrist. The hospital authorities concerned and the psychiatrist himself should be consulted about the general arrangements to be made for the day-to-day running of the clinic.

12. The Committee did not suggest any change in the present practice, whereby the basis of the team for a child guidance clinic is usually formed by psychiatrist, psychologist and psychiatric social worker. A ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 as between psychiatrist, psychologists and psychiatric social workers was suggested in the report, but this is not a matter about which it is possible to be dogmatic. For some years to come availability of staff must in practice be a determining factor, and each clinic's needs should be considered in consultation with the members of the team. Staffing should be such as to enable the psychologists to spend sufficient time in the schools, and the psychiatric social worker to visit the homes, not only of those children who are being treated in the clinic, but also, where appropriate and practicable, of those who are being given special help in the schools.

13. A school medical officer should be associated with the team. Paediatric and other specialist services should be available, as necessary, through the regional hospital board or the school health service. Some clinic teams include a non-medical child psychotherapist working under the psychiatrist.

14. Each clinic should have adequate secretarial and clerical assistance. The lack of this in some clinics, as the Committee pointed out, has led to psychiatric social workers having to spend much of their time in typing and routine office work; this is a waste of highly trained professional staff.

15. The clinic staff should enlist the co-operation of teachers. One of the best ways of increasing teachers' confidence in the clinic is to ensure that they are kept informed of the progress being made by any of their pupils who may be receiving treatment there and of any factors relating to the treatment which they ought to have in mind in their dealings with particular pupils.

16. General practitioners too have a valuable part to play. They are taking an increasing interest in problems of mental health and emotional development as part of the medical care of their patients. Not only may parents turn to them for advice or help, but they may themselves detect the onset of some emotional trouble. The general practitioners in the area served by a clinic should be advised of its functions and purpose, and should be encouraged to refer children to it as and when desirable. Where children are referred to a clinic from any other source, the general practitioner, with his interest in the family as a whole, has useful knowledge to contribute. He should be consulted about the children referred from other sources at the earliest opportunity and should be provided with reports on all cases.

17. Child guidance clinics should be open to all children, including those below school age and those who are pupils at schools not maintained by the local education authority. Among boys and girls who have left school there will also be some who can appropriately be dealt with at these clinics, especially if they have attended the clinic during their schooldays. Where the hospital authority provide either the whole clinic or the service of the psychiatrist, there is no difficulty in this. At clinics provided wholly by a local education authority any children who cannot be treated as part of the school health service could, by agreement with the local health authority, be regarded as the responsibility of that authority under their arrangements for the care of young children or the prevention of illness under the National Health Service Acts.

18. Although most children may be expected to reach the clinic on the recommendation of a head teacher, and educational psychologist, a school medical officer, a general practitioner or a hospital, it is important that it should be directly accessible to parents. Parents should not be made to feel that the clinic is something remote, to which they can refer their children only through intermediaries, even though they may usually prefer'- and this in general seems the preferable course _ to consult other people first about any problems affecting their children. Parents should always be consulted before a child is referred through an intermediary.

Children below school age

19. Close co-operation with the local health authority is particularly necessary in the interest of children below school age. The view is widely held that the causes of much emotional disturbance and maladjustment date back to these early years in a child's life. It is important that those who work in the maternity and child welfare services should be familiar with the child guidance service and prompt to call on its help in cases of possible emotional difficulty. The staff of child guidance clinics should give advice and guidance to the medical and nursing staff of child welfare clinics on subjects such as emotional development and the recognition and treatment of early behaviour difficulties, and should be ready to discuss cases with them. The staff of child welfare clinics will thus be helped to deal themselves with more of the behaviour difficulties and other problems that they encounter. Sometimes, however, it will be necessary to refer a child to a child guidance clinic; and the staff of the maternity and child welfare services, as well as general practitioners, will then be able to provide the clinic with valuable information about the child's family background and' his physical and emotional development.

20. Co-operation on these lines between the staffs of child guidance clinics and of nursery schools and classes could also be very fruitful.

Report to Minister

21. The Minister wishes to be kept in touch with the progress of the consultations between local education authorities and hospital authorities suggested in paragraph 9 above. He would be glad, therefore, to have a progress report from each authority by the 30th June,1960.

G.N. Flemming

[continued from previous page] physical and psychiatric aspects of the work are, however. inseparable and at the Child Guidance Centres established by Authorities the team of workers includes a psychiatrist and also. as a rule a paediatrician. Some of the children may be found to heed psychiatric treatment; the Minister, in agreement with the Minister of Health, considers that these children should normally be referred by the Authority to the clinics which will be provided in due course by the Regional Hospital Boards and which in some instances are already available; similarly, these clinics will refer appropriate cases to the Child Guidance Centres.'
As the Committee mentioned, this paragraph has caused confusion since it appeared to advocate the establishment everywhere of two separate clinics - one by the local education authorities and one by the regional hospital boards - each type having a different bias and referring some children to the other. The Committee went on to point out that the clinic service in this country has not in fact developed along these lines since 1948 and did not recommend that it should do so.
This paragraph is now superseded by what is said in the present Circular.


[page 118]

National Health Service

H.M. (59)23

Child Guidance

Summary. A copy is enclosed of a circular about the provision of child guidance clinics which the Minister of Education has sent to all local education authorities after consultation with the Minister of Health. It envisages close co-operation between the hospital and specialist service and the education service, in particular the school health and psychological services. A copy is also enclosed of a circular which the Minister of Health has sent to local health authorities.

1. As will be seen from his circular, the Minister of Education has asked local education authorities to prepare plans in consultation with Regional Hospital Boards (and with those Boards of Governors administering children's hospitals or hospitals with children's departments) for the development of a comprehensive child guidance service when the necessary staff can be obtained,

2. In RHB (47) 13 and in paragraph 18 of Ministry of Education circular 179 which was enclosed with RHB (48) 48, it was envisaged that the child guidance service would take two forms - child guidance clinics provided by the hospital authority and child guidance centres provided by the local education authority, each having a different bias and referring some children to the other. But the service has not developed along these lines and this conception of child guidance is now formally abandoned by the cancellation of paragraph 18 of the Ministry of Education circular 179.

3. Clinics have been provided separately by hospital or local education authorities in some areas but in many areas joint clinics have been provided. The Minister agrees with the view of the Committee on Maladjusted Children that for a satisfactory child guidance service the hospital and specialist service and the school health and psychological services should work in close co-operation and that the joint clinic is normally not only the most economical in use of available staff but also the most likely way of ensuring this co-operation. He therefore commends to Boards the extension of joint clinic arrangements in the development of the child guidance service. The most satisfactory arrangement may often be for the clinic building and its services and staff, other than the psychiatrist. to be provided by the local education authority and for the Regional Hospital Board to provide the psychiatrist. Where a joint clinic is provided in this way, mainly by the local education authority, the Minister agrees that the general responsibility should rest with the Principal School Medical Office but, as suggested by the Minister of Education, there should be the closest co-operation between the hospital authorities and the local education authority and joint consultation in regard to the appointment of staff. The clinic will be under the medical direction of the psychiatrist, and he and the Hospital Management Committee or Committees concerned should be consulted on the arrangements for the day to day running of the clinic.

4. There will, however, be cases, for example at teaching hospitals or at other hospitals with in-patient psychiatric accommodation for children, where it is found to be desirable for a child guidance clinic to continue to be provided entirely by the hospital authority. Where this method is followed there should still be close co-operation at all levels with the school health and psychological services. Where local education authorities provide their own clinics it will rest with Boards, after consultation with the local education authorities, to decide whether hospital provision is also needed. It will be noted that in paragraph 17 of the enclosed circular local education authorities are advised that where they provide clinics themselves the clinics should be open to all children.

5. The Minister endorses- what is said in paragraphs 14, 16, 18 and 19 of the enclosed circular about the need for adequate secretarial and clerical assistance at child guidance clinics and for close cooperation with the local health authority and general practitioner services and about the importance of a child guidance clinic being directly accessible to parents.

6. The further development of the child guidance service must largely depend on the availability of staff. Boards will necessarily also have regard to the priority of this compared with other demands on the financial resources available to them. But it is important that developments as they take place, both in the hospital and education services, should be based on a close understanding between the two services. Regional Hospital Boards in consultation with those Boards of Governors which engage in child guidance work are therefore asked to review with the local education authorities in their areas their present arrangements and to formulate with them plans for future development.

Ministry of Health,
Savile Row, London, W.1.
10th March, 1959

To: Regional Hospital Boards,
Hospital Management Committees,
Boards of Governors.

Circular 3/59
Ministry of Health,
Savile Row,
London, W.1.

To all Local Health Authorities (England)

10th March, 1959

Sir,

Child Guidance

I am directed by the Minister of Health to enclose a copy of a memorandum which he has sent to hospital authorities on the subject of child guidance and a copy of a circular sent by the Minister of Education to local education authorities on the same subject.

The provision of a child guidance service is mainly the responsibility of the hospital and local education authorities but co-operation is essential with the child welfare and preventive health services provided by local health authorities under the National Health Service Act. Attention is drawn to this in paragraph 19 of the Ministry of Education circular. A particularly useful way in which cooperation can take place is for the child psychiatrist and possibly other members of the child guidance team to give guidance to the medical and nursing .staffs of the child welfare clinics on problems such as emotional development and on the recognition of early behaviour difficulties which the staff may encounter in their regular contact with mothers and young children.

In paragraph 17 of the Ministry of Education circular, reference is made to the need which may arise for a local health' authority to assume responsibility for any children in need of child guidance who cannot be treated as part of the hospital or school health services. It is hoped that an arrangement can be made for the joint use of the local education authority child guidance clinics for such cases on the same lines for instance as dental clinics are jointly used by school and pre-school children.

I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant,
D. Emery

The Clerk of the County Council.
The Town Clerk,

Copies of this Circular and enclosures have been sent to the Medical Officer of Health.


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Appendix 4A Report on memoranda from Postgraduate training departments


General objectives of postgraduate training

4A.1 The statements of objectives in training for educational psychology which we received are as varied as the postgraduate training departments themselves; we discussed objectives with representatives of departments, and have formed a composite view of the aims of the training courses.

4A.2 Courses have two main aspects: to impart practical skills, and to promote theoretical understanding commensurate with these skills by means of postgraduate studies in child psychology, mental measurement, child pathology and social psychology.

4A.3 The objectives are to produce psychologists who know, and will continue to learn, as much as possible about individual children, at home as well as at school, and after. They seek to develop the ability in student psychologists to consider people in terms of their relationships with one another. Insight into the feelings of others and respect for their integrity are required, together with ability as a sympathetic and reliable observer.

4A.4 The aim is to train student psychologists in ways which bring them into contact with child psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers in order to enable students to learn to present psychological evidence to other disciplines, to appreciate the evidence of others, and to share in the making of sound and practicable recommendations. In some courses, students are helped to face the implications of difficulties which may be encountered in areas where there are staff shortages.

4A.5 Emphasis is given to the relevance of undergraduate study of psychology to work in education services. Specialised study of individual development, of deviations from normal development. and of the dynamics of family life and relationships in other social groups is undertaken. The psychological processes involved in learning, in thinking and in the acquisition and use of language, together with the sources of individual differences in intelligence and in personality, are studied. Scope is given for students to develop their own individual interests and potentialities.

4A.6 Courses seek to provide insight into and first-hand experience of the nature and conditions of therapy with individual children and of therapeutic action within schools, families and neighbourhoods, and to acquaint students with educational and social provisions for children encountering special difficulties and adversities and with approaches to the prevention of emotional disturbance and mental ill-health. Attention is given to equipping them to playa part in planning community services by perceiving new needs and devising ways in which they may be satisfied.

4A.7 The organisation and orientation of individual postgraduate training departments have been considered in Chapter 7.

Content of training programmes

4A.8 This section of the appendix contains a condensed description of the functions for which the training programmes of existing departments prepare their students. No attempt has been made to give a comprehensive statement of the elements of the courses; trained students are capable of a range of work more extensive than that comprised in a simple statement of the work for which specific preparation is given. The courses are orientated toward equipping students with the fundamental specialised knowledge and skills relating to the psychology of children; the attitudes of the tutors toward work with children infuse the courses, and the methods of teaching, the seminars and supervised practice in clinical work are selected and designed to equip psychologists to develop their own professional techniques to meet fresh needs as they are encountered.

4A.9 Students are trained in the practice and evaluation of clinical tests and procedures for assessing the intelligence, attainment and personality of children, individually and in groups; the diagnosis of problems and special tests for children with perceptual losses, or with physical or intellectual handicaps, or with psychiatric disorders may be included. Training is given in presenting psychological evidence to colleagues in other disciplines.

4A.10 Particular attention is paid to psychologists' work with schools and the communication which is an aspect of it with far-reaching implications for the promotion of mental health in the community as a whole.

4A.11 A practical understanding of remedial work is given in order to assist psychologists in the psychological treatment of children, even though remedial teaching as such is not a function universally required of educational psychologists.

4A.12 The extent to which students are prepared for other work that they may from time to time be asked to undertake varies from course to course. The setting up of special classes, selecting children for them and advising the staff concerned, may be covered. Guidance on lecturing and organising courses on principles of psychology and on research findings for teachers, for parents or for others concerned with children may be given. Some postgraduate training departments arrange courses on the construction and standardisation of tests of cognitive ability and educational attainment. in order to enable psychologists to participate in the selection and transfer of children for educational purposes. Students may also be helped to


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prepare themselves for counselling parents, especially those with handicapped children, for other work with adults, and for participating in vocational guidance for school leavers. Advisory work and collaboration with probation and child care officers and with others concerned with children in difficulties is also envisaged.

4A.13 Postgraduate training departments told us that they regretted that there appeared to be little opportunity for research and investigation in local authority employment, particularly in view of the enormous amount of data which passed through psychologists' hands and which could have been a valuable basis for surveys. Where possible, a background for statistical and survey work is given in courses.

4A.14 There is an awareness that psychologists also require administrative skills, and in some cases may be expected to organise and administer child guidance or school psychological services; specific training for this work is given in some courses, together with a working knowledge of educational provisions and of the education system in general which is common to all courses.

Syllabus that can be covered in a one-year course

4A.15 Reference has been made in the Report (paragraphs 7.2, 7.29 and 7.45) to the fact that it has become impossible to cover every aspect of psychological work with children in a course of postgraduate training lasting one year. Postgraduate training departments have told us that their general objectives of training can be achieved in one year, but, beyond that point. limitations are imposed both by the time required to teach additional matter, and, more fundamentally, by the amount of time which students need if they are to be able to assimilate an even greater amount of knowledge. The body of relevant knowledge has been greatly increased during the past decade or so and is continuing to increase rapidly year by year; pressures on educational psychologists to provide assistance of new kinds are increasing too and lead to new demands for training. Training programmes have therefore to be continuously reviewed and developed to ensure that they remain relevant to the work which needs to be done and to confirm that they contain the most significant selection of the subject matter for psychologists specialising in work with children. The situation is further complicated by variations between individual students in the extent of their background knowledge of psychology and, in some cases, by deficiencies in that knowledge.

4A.16 In particular, tutors have told us that training in specific skills has to be severely curtailed in a one-year course. For example within so short a course some are unable to include a training in techniques of primary prevention, designed to reduce the incidence and severity of problems which develop in children under school age, nor can training for psychological consultations in the schools be undertaken. In view of the fact that many educational psychologists are asked to undertake substantial amounts of therapeutic work, some tutors would like the period of the course to be extended to enable training in psychological treatment to be given.

4A.17 Furthermore, there is little opportunity in one year of study for students to become thoroughly familiar with all the tests they may need to use, notably, for instance, some of the tests for less commonly encountered disabilities. Departments have not found it possible to provide students with extensive experience of giving educational advice, nor of vocational guidance and other work with adolescents designed both to help those under particular stress and to reduce the causes of stress. Existing training programmes have in general been unable to give attention to research projects in recent years, but departments wish to be able to re-introduce an experimental approach to learning problems, particularly those encountered by children with handicaps. Other subjects to which it has been possible to give less attention than postgraduate training departments would wish are the theory and practice of lecturing and of administration relevant to psychologists' work.

4A.18 The extent to which the development of training courses longer than one year has, in the past, been hindered by difficulties of finance has been made clear in Chapter 7 of the Report (cf. paragraph 7.45).

Qualifications for psychological work in school psychological and child guidance services

4A.19 The postgraduate training departments were asked for their views on the relative importance of the following qualifications for psychological work in school psychological and child guidance services and for their comments on each:

(a) an honours degree in psychology;
(b) training as a teacher;
(c) experience as a teacher;
(d) other experience of work with normal children; and
(e) postgraduate training in educational psychology.

They were asked to place these qualifications in descending order of importance. All seven departments responded; the result, given in Table 4A.1, showed that an honours degree in psychology and postgraduate training in educational psychology were thought to be the most important of the qualifications, and were accorded equal weight.


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Table 4A.1 The opinion of postgraduate training departments for educational psychologists on the relative importance of qualifications for psychological work in school psychological and child guidance services

Table 4A.2 Successful students, failures, vacancies and total places on postgraduate training courses for educational psychologists, 1945-46 to 1964-65

Output of postgraduate training departments for educational psychologists

4A.20 The postgraduate training departments were asked for details of their students in the twenty years 1945-46 to 1964-65; a summary of the results is given in Table 4A.2. During the period, the number of successful students was almost 84% of the total number of places offered. Although the proportion of vacancies was relatively high in the last three years of the period, two courses newly opened were getting under way in these years.


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Table 4B.1 Honours graduates in psychology in the United Kingdom 1960-1967


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Appendix 4B Report on memoranda from University departments of psychology


Introduction

4B.1 One year courses of professional training in educational psychology are normally open only to applicants with an honours degree in psychology or a joint honours degree in which at least half the course was psychology.* The supply of educational psychologists is fundamentally governed by the numbers of honours graduates in psychology; prospects for future recruitment depend on numbers of such graduates.

4B.2 All the twenty-eight departments of psychology at universities in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and the one department of psychology in a college of advanced technology which had been established by May 1965 were approached and asked about the number of their honours graduates; the number of students expected to be admitted to the honours degree course in psychology in October 1970; the proportion of applicants for honours courses who had in mind psychological work with children; and the proportion of graduates in the years 1960-1964 who had intended to go on to qualify as educational psychologists. Numbers of honours graduates were brought up to date for the eight years 1960-1967 by an approach to all thirty departments of psychology which were in being by 1967.

4B.3 Heads of departments of psychology were also asked for their opinions on the attractiveness of work in educational psychology to their graduates in psychology and for their views on the reasons put forward by the Underwood Committee in 1955 for the shortage of educational psychologists; their opinions were also sought on the relative importance of the various components which might be considered qualifications for educational psychology. Finally, they were asked for any other comments they wished to make.

Numbers of graduates in psychology

4B.4 The information provided by departments of psychology shows a steady expansion in the number of graduates in psychology during the eight years up to 1967. Over this period the number from universities inEngland and Wales increased by 200%, from 188 to 563. In the seven year period 1960-1936 the number of all honours graduates from universities in England and Wales increased by 56% from 13,814 to 21,531. The results of the enquiry are given in Table 4B.1 opposite. Heads of departments of psychology in England and Wales alone expected to admit 956-986 students in 1970. This estimate appears to be a conservative one based by most departments on current resources or those actually allocated. The potential expansion is probably considerably greater; the extent to which the potential can be attained will depend chiefly on the additional finance for staff salaries, accommodation and equipment which can be made available. Six departments commented that expansion was limited by the accommodation available. For example, with extra room, one honours school could be increased threefold without materially affecting standards. Shortage of staff was mentioned as a specific factor restricting expansion by three departments; one professor was of the opinion that 'it must be recognised ... that many, perhaps all, teaching departments of psychology are handicapped more or less seriously by staff shortages at the present time'. Our estimates of the numbers who will graduate in psychology in future years, based on admissions and on estimated admissions, are given in paragraphs 5.30-33 and Table 5.5.

4B.5 We have noted that the figures for graduates in psychology which we have collected vary from others published elsewhere (e.g. in The First Employment of University Graduates and in the annual Returns of the University Grants Committee).** We believe that these variations can probably be accounted for by different decisions about the criteria for the inclusion of joint honours degrees and by differences in the way in which the figures were collected rather than by inaccuracies in the figures concerned. Our figures were supplied directly by the departments of psychology.

The proportion of graduates in psychology who become educational psychologists

4B.6 Estimates of the proportion of candidates who had psychological work with children, including careers other than that of educational psychology (e.g. as psychologists working with children in hospitals), as their objective at the time that they applied for admission to honours courses varied between about one half and one twentieth. The mean was approximately one-fifth.

4B.7 There was some evidence to show that undergraduates tended to abandon any intention they might have had to become educational psychologists during their degree course. 'I think I am right in saying that in all the cases where a student has come to discuss this matter [i.e. his vocational plans] with me during the past nine years he or she has abandoned any plan of becoming an educational psychologist when the nature of the work and the mode of entering has been explained'; ... about one-third of the entrants express some interest in work with children when they apply. At this moment it is anybody's guess whether the interest will be maintained'.

*Higher degrees involving sufficient study of psychology may also be accepted see; paragraphs 4.10-4.11. Graduates holding other degrees may qualify for training at the University of London by a special qualifying examination in psychology; see paragraph 7.13.

**First Employment of University Graduates 1961-62; and for the years 1962-63, 1963-64, 1964-65, 1965-66. University Grants Committee. H.M.S.O., London.
Returns from Universities and University Colleges in receipt of Exchequer Grant 1961-62; and for the years 1962-63, 1963-64, 1964-65. University Grants Committee. H.M.S.O., London.


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Graduates intending to become educational psychologists

4B.8 Between 11% and 16% of graduates in psychology each year in the period 1961 to 1964 intended, so far as the heads of departments knew, to qualify as educational psychologists (see Figure 5.1). In Scotland the proportion of those holding the degree of Bachelor of Education* who were shown as qualified educational psychologists, or intending to become so, was much higher, amounting over the whole period to almost half. With appropriate specialisation this degree is a recognised means of achieving qualification as an educational psychologist in Scotland; many of those reading for it are qualified and experienced teachers.

Reasons for the shortage of educational psychologists

4B.9 The heads of departments were asked for their views on the extent to which the reasons for the shortage of educational psychologists in the early 'fifties discussed in paragraphs 424 and 425 of the Underwood Report were still relevant today. The Underwood Committee believed that salaries did not play a large part (paragraph 424, U.R.). Although one or two heads of departments mentioned the level of salaries as a disincentive to becoming an educational psychologist, they tended generally to agree with the Underwood view that reasons for the shortage must be sought elsewhere; indeed some thought the salary scales were good.

4B.10 The reasons for the shortage of educational psychologists (paragraph 425 U.R.) on which comment was invited are given below; the notes in brackets, which indicate changes which had taken place since the Report was published in 1955, were also sent.

(a) Uncertainty about arrangements, especially financial for training. (Since the Report was published financial arrangements have been improved and for training at any of the seven training centres they are now: (i) through grants paid by the Department of Education and Science under the Training of Teachers (Grant) Regulations in respect of teachers who are not eligible for secondment [as distinct from those who are refused it. for whom grants are not paid]; (ii) through one year's secondment on full salary for a teacher employed by a local education authority the cost of which is 'pooled' among all local education authorities; (iii) through a further education grant from the candidate's home authority; (iv) through a N.A.M.H. bursary.)

(b) Concentration of training facilities in England and Wales in two areas (London and Birmingham) at that time, (Since 1955 courses have been established at Manchester and Swansea.)

(c) Ignorance and misunderstanding of the nature of the work.

(d) Narrowness of the field from which educational psychologists are drawn. (Since 1955, the number of honours graduates in psychology has risen substantially.)

In general heads of departments thought that these reasons were very much less important than others which have come to the fore; in some cases, they thought these reasons had ceased to be important at all. Comments on reasons (a) and (b) above in particular showed that the points which were thought to be most relevant to the shortage were not precisely those which the Underwood Committee advanced, although related to them. Their comments are considered in greater detail below.

Comments on the reasons in the Underwood Report

(a) Uncertainty among undergraduates about arrangements, especially financial, for training

England and Wales

4B.11 Of professors of psychology in England and Wales who commented specifically on this point, six thought it was a significant reason for the shortage, while the same number thought it no longer very relevant. Two others thought that finance affected the supply of educational psychologists only slightly, and was no longer a main reason for the shortage. Two of those who thought that finance was still a major difficulty pointed out that there was dissatisfaction with the inherent uncertainty of the training arrangements as a whole, rather than uncertainty about what the arrangements were or what financial assistance was available. The work of the British Psychological Society in making present arrangements known by their publications was mentioned. 'It is uncertainty about the transitions from one stage to another, the lack of an organised programme and the length of training as a whole that now leads most graduates in psychology to think first in terms of other kinds of psychological work.' Others who felt that uncertainty was still relevant suggested that publicity should be directed at undergraduates to improve knowledge of the facilities available. Some who thought the present arrangements reasonably satisfactory commented favourably on the willingness of local education authorities to second teachers on full salary for the one' year postgraduate course of professional training; ' ... some local authorities are prepared to appoint graduate psychologists to teaching posts (N.B. without teacher training), and to second them for the Educational Psychology diploma'.

*Now known as Master of Education.


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Scotland and Northern Ireland

4B.12 The position disclosed by replies from Scottish Universities and the Queen's University of Belfast was radically different from that in England and Wales. Every specific comment on financial arrangements quoted them as a major factor in the shortage of educational psychologists, but the difficulties were related to assistance for courses leading to the B.Ed. or Ed.B. degree (now M.Ed.) : 'very few grants are available for Ed.B. students, there is no secondment ...'; 'If teachers could be allowed two years off on full pay, their numbers on our B.Ed. course would probably return to their old level. I do not think one year's secondment is enough for a teacher who has no more psychology than that found in the normal Diploma in Education Course'; ' ... students ... cannot afford to spend two years without a post unless they are fully financed in some way. The Education Authority appears to have been disinclined to second its own teachers for this training because of the shortage of teachers: There is now also a two year course at Glasgow University, open to honours graduates in psychology with teacher training or to teachers holding M.Ed. degrees, leading to a Diploma in Educational Psychology; students are employed as probationer educational psychologists in the Glasgow child guidance service for the period of the course. A number of educational psychologists working in England and Wales received their professional training in Scotland. Although local education authorities in England and Wales may second teachers for whatever period they see fit to take degrees or courses of professional training, whether in England and Wales or in other parts of the U.K., arrangements under which the cost can be 'pooled' among all authorities are at present restricted to one year, which has placed two years courses such as that leading to the Diploma in Educational Psychology at Glasgow University at a disadvantage.

(b) Concentration of training facilities

4B.13 Opinions were again divided about the extent to which maldistribution of training facilities contributed to the shortage of educational psychologists. Only two professors in England and Wales suggested that it was a major factor, and both of them had plans to establish new postgraduate courses in educational psychology. It was pointed out that proximity of a training course was a particularly relevant factor in determining whether a married woman graduate trained. One professor adversely criticised both the uneven distribution of courses of professional training for educational psychologists and the quality of training; he stressed the desirability of developing courses under the aegis of universities and thought they should lead to a Masters degree rather than to a postgraduate diploma. Two heads of departments thought that

the uneven distribution of training courses only marginally contributed to shortages today, and none of the other five respondents on this point thought that wider distribution of training facilities would materially decrease the shortage.

(c) Ignorance and misunderstanding of the the nature of the work

4B.14 Three professors specifically gave the opinion that ignorance of the work was no longer a reason for the shortage of educational psychologists; and yet only three thought it was a major reason in the sense, intended by the Underwood Committee, that potential entrants had a false unfavourable impression of the work which deterred them from taking it up. The suggestion that publicity reaching undergraduates through the university departments of education and of psychology and through the appointments officers would improve the position by giving a clearer idea of what educational psychologists actually do and of their professional status was in contrast to the general tenor of the remaining seven comments which implied that any such publicity measures might curtail the recruitment of educational psychologists to an even greater extent. I n the words of one, ' ... some graduates are only too well aware of the limitations of the job'.

4B.15 Some comments suggested that professors themselves had had difficulty in forming an accurate general picture of the work done by educational psychologists; one said 'I believe that the main cause [of the shortage of educational psychologists] is that the Service itself, at the present time, gives rise to the view, whether correct or not, that their main function is that of (a) a specialist teacher, and (b) an administrator of tests. Students are concerned to quite a degree in trying to estimate the likely opportunities they will have for developing their own ideas for carrying out research of one sort or another. Whether rightly or wrongly, the School Psychology Service has the reputation of being slow to initiate research and to be concerned much more with rather routine procedures. Whether this amounts to ignorance or misunderstanding of the nature of the work, I am not clear. It is certainly the impression that I have gained of the nature of the work'.

4B.16 In some cases at least; the undergraduates' impressions were based on firsthand information, and cannot therefore be dismissed as a false conception gained from hearsay. The undergraduates in one department 'had talks by two educational psychologists who gave different accounts of their work, and tended to emphasise the frustrations and difficulties. I do not think they persuaded anyone who was still undecided to choose a career in Educational Psychology ... I do not think any of [the students who were contemplating work in educational psychology] were encouraged by the local educational


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psychologists who talked to them; it was more that they were not put off the job'. The impressions which psychology undergraduates hold of the profession of educational psychology and the effect on their attitude to entering it are discussed in greater detail in paragraphs 4B.25 to 4B.34 below.

(d) Narrowness of the field from which educational psychologists are drawn

4B.17 When the Underwood Committee were considering their evidence, only about 100 degrees in psychology were awarded in the United Kingdom each year; their concern that recruitment was restricted to such a small field by the need for psychologists to have degrees in psychology was therefore understandable. The evidence is that circumstances are very different today.

4B.18 The Committee was of the opinion that most teachers would not think of a career in educational psychology until they were experienced (paragraph 425 (iv), U, R.); then only those who were already graduates in psychology, or who could achieve sufficient study of psychology by other means (e.g. by the course at the University of London mentioned in the note to paragraph 4B.1 above, or by part time study for a degree in psychology) could train as educational_ psychologists. The implication was that psychology graduates were impelled to become teachers only by the same motives as graduates in other subjects, and that few of them already intended to become educational psychologists when they entered teaching.

4B.19 The heads of departments made it clear that this is not the position now: 14% of all students graduating in psychology have formed some intention of qualifying as educational psychologists (see Table 5.2); they therefore consider themselves to be psychologists who enter teaching as the route to becoming educational psychologists, i.e. qualified in one particular field of applied psychology; they otherwise would not be likely to enter teaching at all. We were told that, while students potentially interested in becoming educational psychologists might accept the reasons for requiring some experience in schools, 'they might by no means be people who were willing to risk having to teach for the rest of their lives'.

4B.20 The Underwood Committee went on to consider whether the narrow field, as they saw it, could be enlarged by extending training for educational psychology to more graduates in subjects other than psychology: (a) by increasing the number of two year courses in training on the pattern of the University of London course mentioned in the footnote to paragraph 4B.1, (recommendation 32, U.R.); and (b) by establishing a form of training on the lines of the Scottish system whereby after one year of full-time training (which includes training as a teacher) the trainee can complete the rest of his training while holding a salaried post. This form of training was recommended for consideration (recommendation 33, U.R.). The Underwood Committee also considered whether experienced non-graduate teachers might be trained on special two year courses (paragraph 414, U.R.). No suggestion that this should be done was made in evidence submitted to the Committee and they made no recommendation on this point; moreover, they did not doubt the value of university training for educational psychologists. However, in order to enable non-graduate teachers to become eligible for training as educational psychologists, they suggested that consideration should be given to the possibility of arranging courses of part-time study outside London leading to a degree in psychology.

4B.21 None of the professors submitting evidence to the present working party suggested that in order to widen the field it might be acceptable to include those without an honours degree in psychology. One stated, 'I do not believe that the field from which educational psychologists are drawn is too narrow. If they are to be psychologists, then it is necessary that they should be psychologists. There is undoubtedly room for a few teachers taking conversion courses in psychology, but my own view is that the cram course they get in general psychology is inadequate unless their postgraduate training is fairly extensive. I would prefer such people to take a full Honours degree in Psychology if this were practicable, although I realise that for the majority it is not'. Other similar views were expressed. Furthermore, these views make it clear that the assumption quoted by the Underwood Committee in 1955 'that graduates in subjects other than psychology can learn enough about psychology in a two years' course' is no longer universally accepted (see paragraph 414, U.R.).

4B.22 Professors pointed out that numbers of graduates were increasing fast; 'While in the future recruitment into educational psychology should not be any longer limited by the total number of psychology graduates, the career of educational psychologist will be in competition with a number of other growing openings and it will have to develop more attractive features if it is to compete successfully'; ' ... it is my impression that educational psychology is not getting its fair share of . . . [rapidly increasing numbers of graduates in psychology]'. Others suggested that the increase in graduates was being outstripped by the general increase in demand. 'Surely, however, it all comes back to the basic fact that the output of graduate psychologists is still simply too low to meet the demands in any field, not excluding the universities themselves, where psychologists are required'; ' ... there is a


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general shortage of psychologists in all fields of employment. The graduate in psychology today is, therefore, in a position to pick and choose. If the School Psychological Service wishes to attract a greater proportion of the good quality graduates, it will have to work to get them. Other fields of employment are now making considerable efforts both to improve the conditions of employment of psychologists, and to make clear to undergraduates, before they take their final Examinations, just what advantages their particular field has to offer'. Attractions offered by alternative fields of employment for psychology graduates are mentioned in paragraph 4B.32 below, and paragraphs 5.36 to 5.38.

4B.23 The field from which educational psychologists are drawn is now less restricted than was suggested in the Underwood Report therefore because (a) the annual number of graduates in psychology in the United Kingdom has risen from about 100 in 1954 to about 670 in 1967 and will rise more sharply to almost 1,000 in 1973 (see paragraph 5.33), (b) among graduates in psychology who enter teaching two categories can be distinguished: those who intend to make a career in teaching and those who intend to become educational psychologists. The field of potential educational psychologists includes both categories, but the yield from the second category, of which the Underwood Committee took little or no account. will evidently be far the greater.

4B.24 It is clearly the opinion of the majority of the heads of departments of psychology that educational psychologists should continue to be recruited from graduates in psychology, and that there is scope for a significant increase in the number of students who, at graduation, aim to enter this work. Whether the proportion of graduates who become educational psychologists will increase, or whether it can even be maintained at its present level. will depend very largely on the appeal which the work has for the undergraduate.

The attractiveness of educational psychology

4B.25 Comments on the attractiveness of educational psychology to undergraduates studying psychology give the impression that the level is low. It was clear in a number of cases that heads of departments were themselves of the opinion that the work was unattractive, or at least unsuitable for the very best of their graduates; this situation must inevitably colour the view which undergraduates form of educational psychology. It seemed equally clear in other cases that heads of departments held educational psychology in high regard and were convinced of the worthwhile nature of the work; but even these found it difficult to argue against adverse criticism of the work which students discovered in their enquiries about future careers. There were, however, two professors who

were positive that the work was attractive to their graduates. It may be significant that one was head of a department which had taken only women students until recently; he thought, however, that the length of training was a deterrent to entering the career. The other contrasted the position at his present university with that at one of the longest established universities where in his experience graduates did not find educational psychology at all attractive.

4B.26 In almost every response it was made clear that the unattractiveness of the career was a more important reason for the shortage of educational psychologists than any other. In some cases, unattractiveness was linked to matters concerning training or qualification dealt with below.

4B.27 It has been of central importance to our enquiry to examine the circumstances which surround this unfavourable image in the minds of those from among whom the overwhelming majority of entrants to educational psychology come.

Reasons for the unattractiveness to psychology graduates of educational psychology as a career

Summary of main reasons

4B.28 In the opinion of the heads of departments, there were the following main reasons why educational psychology did not attract graduates:

(a) the long training and experience expected for full professional qualification,

(b) a limited field of professional work and responsibility;

(c) a lack of opportunity for original individual work;

(d) the counter-attractions of the many alternative careers. A typical response summarised a discussion with students: 'psychology students, and graduates, tend to regard educational psychologists as working under great pressure in busy local authority services, and as being left with insufficient time to pursue developments in psychology which would enable them to develop and refine their own professional skills or to engage In research. Students commonly consider the position of clinical psychologists to be better in these respects.' Other quotations from the evidence of professors of psychology on the attractiveness of educational psychology are given below.

(a) The long training and experience expected for full professional qualification

4B.29 Most good graduates do not want to give up psychology for a period in order to take up teaching.

' ... good psychology students are put off educational psychology ... [by] the length of training and experience necessary to qualify.'


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'in my view the greatest difficulty is associated (in the minds of students) with the length of time involved in training and securing teaching experience.'

'Many students, in this Department at least. are put off by the need to have teaching experience, and hence, they take other posts.'

' ... [a] main reason given for reluctance to enter the field of educational psychology . . . [is the] excessively long training period.'

'Many students do not want to do two years' teaching before taking the post-graduate course in educational psychology ... some students think that they may have to take a one-year Diploma in Education before beginning teaching, which they want still less.'

' ... [a] cause for hesitation is [students'] ... perception of the pre-training requirements of 2 or 3 years' teaching experience, preceded by postgraduate training as a teacher.' 'Many, or most students probably wish to escape teaching as a career and do not want to take the teacher training ... Moreover, the prospect of further training, including teacher training, ... is a deterrent; most students will want to earn their livings as soon as possible after graduating.'

'We discussed the whole issue in our department with those of my colleagues who are interested in educational psychology. We were all unanimous in the view that the chief disincentive is the inordinate length of training demanded in preparation for a career in educational psychology.'

'Certainly, one serious deterrent so far as the newly hatched graduate in psychology is concerned, is his objection to the requirement that he should approach his professional job circuitously by first acquiring a qualification as a teacher.' Comments relating to the training and experience required of educational psychologists are also considered in paragraphs 4B.35-45.

(b) A limited field of work and professional responsibility

4B.30 The following comments give some of the adverse criticism.

'I do not think our graduates will be seriously attracted to this field ... unless the scientific quality of educational psychology can be very considerably improved.'

'It is by presenting educational psychology as a full-scale professional activity, with a definite and positive mission to fulfil, that able graduates will be most likely attracted.' 'Students ... await the greater use of "scientific method" in the educational field, tending to reject this career meanwhile.'

'Discussion with students reveals that some of them have serious reservations about the professional work of the educational psychologist that deter them from entering this field. The following criticisms are those most commonly encountered: (a) Educational psychologists seem to spend a great deal of time on routine test administration; (b) Educational psychologists seem to approach most problems with the same narrow test battery; they do not on the whole, experiment with new methods of assessment; (c) The prevailing conditions of work seem to make it difficult and often impossible to spend as much time with children as the complexity of their problems demands; (d) Educational psychologists do not seem to have an enquiring approach to their work, and they seem in fact to produce very little research; there is, moreover, little evidence even of surveys concerned with the validity of their recommendations and procedures.'

'[Students] feel ... that many of the concepts in terms of which an educational psychologist works are not truly scientific or objective but derive from beliefs and traditions that are special to education as it has been practised in the Western world. But the main trouble with educational psychology as a career and as a vocation derives chiefly, I think, from the rather haphazard concatenation of different kinds of activity which have come to be regarded as the educational psychologist's ploy. Seen through the eyes of a thoughtful and possibly idealistic young man or woman, it is one thing to devote one's life to organising and administering testing and advisory services in the Local Education Authority and quite another to be concerned with clinical work in Child Guidance Clinics. It is very confusing to such a person to hear that both of these things may be the concern of an educational psychologist and moreover that in different regions there are differing distributions of these two kinds of duty and differing degrees of influence exerted by the educational and the medical authorities. All this presents an untidy and rather dreary picture to the would-be candidate. He is apt to feel that the exigencies of the service may constrain him into a field where the work is heavy but unsatisfying and not on the lines of his true interest. Such dangers may appear real enough, and one reason for them is clearly the present lack of educational psychologists itself. If there were far more, there would be opportunities for each to veer in the direction of his interests and talents - the administrator to administration, the research worker to research and the clinician to the clinic. I feel bound to say that in my view, this whole situation will not be corrected by minor tampering. What is needed is a redefinition of the educational psychologist's functions and of the potential scope of his work.'

(c) A lack of opportunity for original individual work

4B.31 Some comments on this aspect of the unattractive-


[page 129]

ness of the career in the view of graduates are given below. 'Good psychology students are put off educational psychology ... [because of] a belief that this field is not for those oriented towards experimental psychology, an increasing majority of students. Such students feel that educational psychologists have not contributed very much to the advancement of their subject, and assume either reluctance to undertake research, or inability due to pressure of routine, or lack of scientific competence in some cases. They believe that too many educational psychologists are either psychometricians, or intuitionists, or ex-teachers with "green fingers" who perform useful but lowly tasks in the clinics. Hence the ambitious, research-minded good student rejects the notion that he might enter the field, leaving it, therefore, to the weaker, less scientific, "woollier" colleague to be recruited. Thus the situation may be perpetuated.'

' ... there is a tendency in University Departments to steer the more able students in the direction of research institutes or units, or into postgraduate research with the Department. It is not clear how much opportunity there is for a research minded student to carry out research plans in a Child Guidance or School Psychological Service.'

' ... the work in educational psychology is not as attractive to graduates in psychology as it could be. Many of them, who are not prepared at the present moment to become educational psychologists, express considerable interest in working in educational psychology, but this is because they want opportunities for research. This is especially true for the graduate with a good Honours degree, that is an Upper Second or better. I believe that if there was more research, and less emphasis on being teachers, the work would be much more attractive and many more' would apply.'

' ... there are unquestionably bright young people among psychology students, who in a rather undirected and inarticulate way, feel that all is not well with the educational process generally and in principle psychology could and should have a part to play in improving it. But I suspect that they feel that, insofar as they know anything of the work of educational psychologists, it does not offer scope for the large amount of basic research on child development which will be needed before very much of real importance can be done in education:

Two-thirds of the heads of departments who gave views on attractiveness of the work made comments in this sense; the consensus of their opinions is high.

(d) The counter-attractions of the many alternative careers

4B.32 Unfavourable comparison with the prospects offered by other fields was mentioned less frequently than any of the three reasons above.

' ... even where the "image" of educational psychology is good, even where there is relatively clear awareness of the facts of salary differentials and the frequently greater scope for the "educational" as against the "clinical" psychologist, the fact that trainee or probationary appointments, which immediately confer a certain status, are available in the health service operates to drain off some who are probably better suited to work in the educational field.'

Other reasons mentioned

4B.33 There were a few other reasons advanced for the career not being attractive. As already noted (in paragraph 4B.9), some respondents mentioned the low level of salaries. One professor had found that many students preferred working with adults to working with children, and thought that the desire to work with children decreased during the degree course. Another had found that graduates in psychology were apprehensive about any system which placed them under a medical man lacking training in psychology. This was thought to be the situation in child guidance clinics directed by psychiatrists.

4B.34 Responses from Scotland showed a clear distinction in the attractiveness of educational psychology for honours students in psychology and for students taking the Ed.B. or B.Ed. degree (now M.Ed.). With appropriate specialisation, the latter is the recognised means of qualifying as an educational psychologist in Scotland, and those attracted to the career were therefore more likely to be taking a B.Ed. or Ed.B. degree; about half those graduating with such degrees from universities in Scotland and Northern Ireland between 1960 and 1964 were known to have intended to become educational psychologists.

Qualifications for psychological work in school psychological and child guidance services

4B.35 The heads of departments of psychology were asked for their views on the relative importance of the following qualifications for psychological work in school psychological and child guidance services, and for their comments on each:

(a) an honours degree in psychology;
(b) training as a teacher;
(c) experience as a teacher;
(d) other experience of work with normal children; and
(e) postgraduate training in educational psychology.

They were asked to place these qualifications in descending order of importance; twenty of the twenty-two in


[page 130]

England and Wales responded in this way. The result, given in Table 4B.2, clearly showed that an honours degree in psychology was thought to be the most important of the qualifications; the closeness of the agreement on the final order is also shown.

4B.36 Responses from heads of departments in other parts of the United Kingdom reflected a pattern of training and qualification of educational psychologists rather different from that in England and Wales. Consideration has therefore been chiefly restricted to the comments from England and Wales; the views of the other respondents, however, did not diverge so much that their inclusion would have altered the final order of relative importance shown in Table 4B.2.

Table 4B.2 The opinions of heads of departments of psychology at universities in England and Wales on the relative importance of qualifications of psychological work in school psychological and child guidance services: the extent of agreement on the final order of relative importance which emerged

An honours degree in psychology

4B.37 An honours degree was regarded as the essential basic qualification for work in psychology; it was thought to be the only satisfactory way of acquiring the basic knowledge of psychology and the sound training in psychometric techniques needed for work at a professional level. The background of an honours degree course was thought to give sufficient insight properly to assess the procedures employed; it enabled graduates to devise new methods where existing ones were unsatisfactory and to plan and to undertake investigations into new aspects of educational work.

4B.38 It was suggested that first degree courses in psychology could, with advantage, go further than they do towards providing an introduction to the basic skills and techniques required both of educational and of clinical psychologists, and lead up to the courses of postgraduate training; degree courses giving greater emphasis on child psychology, emotional development and children's learning would tend to orientate students towards psychological work with children.

Postgraduate training in educational psychology

4B.39 Postgraduate training in educational psychology was considered to be an essential concomitant to the degree course. So many subjects had a proper claim to be included in the honours curriculum that the special techniques required of educational psychologists could not be dealt with as part of the undergraduate course; hence a sound training in educational psychology required full-time postgraduate study. Some doubts were, however, expressed about the quality of the postgraduate training; graduates in psychology expected a high level course, and some students were disappointed.

Experience as a teacher

4B.40 Although a number of heads of departments of psychology thought that successful experience as a teacher was of value to educational psychologists, none thought it was an essential part of the qualifications; one was of the opinion that if teaching continued for more than three years, it was almost certain to be more harmful than beneficial. Doubts were expressed about the part that experience as a teacher was expected to play in the qualification of an educational psychologist. Teaching was seen as relevant to attaining a grasp of the education system, together with a knowledge and understanding of ordinary children in school situations and of the problems, attitudes, strong points and vulnerabilities of teachers, and to enabling psychologists subsequently to secure the cooperation of teachers and children; but the efficiency of a period of teaching experience for these purposes was questioned. 'The trouble, of course, is that while one may give students the opportunity to learn about human subject matter, a student cannot be guaranteed to learn.' Moreover, it might take some years for a newly qualified teacher to master the elementary skills of the classroom, skills that he would not practise as an educational psychologist, while the opportunity for gaining knowledge that would be important for a future educational psychologist might be restricted.

4B.41 Concern was expressed about the quality of some of the teaching experience gained by educational psychologists. A long period in one post was of less value than a year or two divided between a variety of types of school, including some schools providing special educational treatment. It was acknowledged that some educational psychologists should be recruited from among experienced teachers; particularly suitable were those who were expert in specialised fields, in teaching handicapped children or in programmed instruction and


[page 131]

other new educational procedures, for example. It was, however, suggested that to produce a lively service it was important to secure those who were primarily good psychologists who could subsequently gain experience in those specialised areas indicated by the particular needs of the employing authority.

48.42 The view was strongly expressed that undue importance had been placed on teaching experience as a qualification for educational psychologists, and that it was doubtful whether it should be required any longer in every case. It was held that many trained graduates in psychology had acquired a sufficient knowledge of the necessary aspects of the education system, or would be enabled to do so if alterations were made to postgraduate courses.

48.43 Comparisons were made with the health service, the armed services and industry, where pioneer psychologists had also been practitioners in the field on which they were advising. In these fields the requirement of double training and previous practice disappeared when psychologists had demonstrated the worth of their specifically psychological contribution. This development had been fruitful (e.g. in the field of mental health); it could be extended to education by reducing the present emphasis on the requirement of teaching experience.

Other experience of work with normal children

4B.44 Other experience of work with normal children was thought to have some value for an educational psychologist - possibly as an alternative to teaching experience.

Training as a teacher

48.45 Professors of psychology in England and Wales were almost unanimous in the view that training as a teacher was not essential for an educational psychologist, though some maintained that it could be of value. There was adverse criticism of the standard of the psychological content of teacher training courses, which some graduates in psychology were said to find futile and a waste of time; one opinion was that the psychology included in the courses was a potential hindrance to graduates in psychology. The technical aspects of teacher training were not generally thought to be important for an educational psychologist. The parts of the course of greater value to him, concerned with the education system and educational method and theory, might be incorporated equally satisfactorily into courses of postgraduate training in educational psychology.

48.46 Comments from heads of departments of psychology in Scotland and Northern Ireland showed a different attitude to teacher training as part of the qualification for educational psychology, reflecting again the different arrangements in those parts of the United Kingdom. Almost all thought it was a significant component of qualification for educational psychology although some misgivings at rating it so highly were expressed.


[page 132]

Appendix 5A Local authority child guidance staff

Diagrams showing the full-time equivalent in post on 31 December 1966, by authorities, in relation to the establishment recommended by the Underwood Report. Educational psychologists are also shown in relation to the establishment recommended by this working party


5A.1 The information given in this appendix is extracted from statistics returned annually by local education authorities to the Department of Education and Science on Forms 20 M. Some education authorities may have omitted educational psychologists who undertake work in connection with other departments of the authority, for example, the children's department.

5A.2 The scale of each diagram has been adjusted to make them comparable and to show the child guidance staff employed in each area on 31 December 1966 in relation to school population (the number of pupils on registers of maintained primary and secondary, special and nursery schools in January 1967).

5A.3 Thus in each diagram:

(1) the point indicated by arrow '1' represents the staffing level recommended by the Underwood Committee. The scale of the three bars across the diagram has been calculated separately for each area in proportion to the school population at the rate of one child guidance team to 45,000 schoolchildren. Because the bars are differentially scaled, at the point marked 1 they represent one team at the recommended level (1 : 45,000) having the recommended relative complements for psychiatrists (1), educational psychologists (2), and psychiatric social workers (3).

(2) the point indicated by arrow 'a' represents the staffing level for educational psychologists alone at the level recommended by the working party (1 : 10,000). See recommendations 5.R1 and 5.R2.

5A.4 The diagrams are arranged in descending order of school populations (maintained primary and secondary, special and nursery schools) within the following groups of areas:

Where authorities collaborate in organising a service, a single diagram is given with the names of the participating authorities. in the heading (or indicated in a footnote to the diagram), the figures of school populations for the authorities concerned combined, and the staffing levels calculated on the total population. An index of authorities follows the diagrams.

5A.5 The example below shows how the information is arranged; it is a guide to the interpretation of the data and defines it more closely.


[page 133]

A. SCHOOL POPULATION UP TO 45,000


[page 134]

A


[page 135]

A


[page 136]

A


[page 137]

A


[page 138]

A




B. SCHOOL POPULATION 45,000-90,000


[page 139]

B


[page 140]

C. SCHOOL POPULATION 90,000-135,000




D. SCHOOL POPULATION 135,000-180,000


[page 141]

E. SCHOOL POPULATION 180,00 AND ABOVE



Index to diagrams in Appendix 5A

Reference is to group (see paragraph 5A.4) and serial number within group.

ReferenceAuthority or serviceReferenceAuthority or service
C9AngleseyA88Chester
A27BarkingB26Cornwall
A5BarnetB20Coventry
A72BarnsleyB30Croydon
A87Barrow-in-FurnessA8Cumberland
A84BathA76Darlington
A1BedfordshireC9Denbighshire
B7BerkshireA45Derby
A22BexleyC5Derbyshire
A37BirkenheadB8Devonshire
E5BirminghamA92Dewsbury
A62BlackburnA65Doncaster
A52BlackpoolB28Dorset
A33BoltonA29Dudley
A64BootleD2Durham
A59BournemouthA7Ealing
B25BradfordA70Eastbourne
A95BreconshireA12Enfield
A10BrentD1Essex
A42BrightonA82Exeter
B13BristolC9Flintshire
A3BromleyA66Gateshead
B1BuckinqharnshireC2Glamorganshire
A75BurnleyA74Gloucester
A90Burton upon TrentB2Gloucestershire
A94BuryA96Great Yarmouth
C9CaernarvonshireA56Grimsby
A4Cambridgeshire & Isle of ElyA67Halifax
A97CanterburyC1Hampshire
B33CardiffA16Haringey
B22CardiganshireA30Harrow
A83CarlisleA70Hastings
B22CarmarthenshireA2Havering
D3CheshireA40Herefordshire


[page 142]

D4HertfordshireA44Reading
A15HillingdonA21Redbridge
A26HounslowA46Richmond-upon-Thames
A43HuddersfieldA73Rochdale
A23Huntingdon & PeterboroughA68Rotherham
E1I.L.E.A. (London)A98Rutland
A50IpswichA53St. Helens
A77Isle of WightA31Salford
A100Isles of ScillyB24Salop
E4KentB9Sheffield
B21Kingston-upon-HullA61Solihull
A55Kingston-upon-ThamesB5Somerset
E2LancashireA13Southampton
B4LeedsA35Southend-on-Sea
B29LeicesterA86Southport
B10LeicestershireA49South shields
A78LincolnB22South-west Wales
A60Lincs. HollandC6Staffordshire
A38Lincs. KestevenA39Stockport
B16Lincs. LindseyB31Stoke-on-Trent
C4LiverpoolA19Suffolk East
E1London (see I.L.E.A.)A41Suffolk West
A32LutonA17Sunderland
C7ManchesterC3Surrey
C9MerionethB27Sussex East
A93Merthyr TydfilB14Sussex West
A34MertonA47Sutton
A18MiddlesbroughA28Swansea
B17MonmouthshireA79Tynemouth
C9MontgomeryshireA91Wakefield
A6Newcastle-upon-TyneA63Wallasey
A9NewhamB18Walsall
A48Newport (Mon.)A24Waltham Forest
B19NorfolkA36Warley
B11NorthamptonA80Warrington
B11NorthamptonshireC10Warwickshire
B3NorthumberlandB18West Bromwich
C9North Wales Child Guidance ServiceA71West Hartlepool
A51NorwichA89Westmorland
B23NottinghamA81Wigan
C8NottinghamshireB6Wiltshire
A54OldhamB32Wolverhampton
A69OxfordA85Worcester
A11OxfordshireB15Worcestershire
B22PembrokeshireA58York
A20PlymouthA14Yorkshire, East Riding
A25PortsmouthB12Yorkshire, North Riding
A57PrestonE3Yorkshire, West Riding
A99Radnorshire


[page 143]

Appendix 5B The number of educational psychologists estimated in 1965 to be needed by thirty of the thirty-two areas approached by the Underwood Committee and equivalent estimate by all authorities in England and Wales


The Underwood enquiry

5B.1 The Underwood Report describes the enquiry undertaken by the Committee as follows:

379. As we said at the beginning of this chapter, we decided to make a purely practical estimate of what should be attempted during the next decade. As a preliminary to this, we addressed an enquiry to the chief education officers of a 1 in 3 sample of the 96 local education authorities which had a child guidance service in 1952. Each chief education officer was asked, after any local consultation deemed appropriate, to give his opinion, based on recent experience, of the number of child guidance staff required to deal adequately with all the children in his authority's area who need to attend a child guidance clinic. The range of estimates was wide, but the majority were bunched fairly closely together. The staff estimated to be needed for the 32 areas was (expressed as full-time equivalents) 31 psychiatrists, 61 educational psychologists and 74 psychiatric social workers, giving a ratio of 1 : 2 : 21.
The maintained school population for the thirty-two areas was almost 1½ million.

The working party enquiry

5B.2 We have had access to the records of the Underwood survey, but we have had to omit two of the original thirty-two areas from our calculations because they are no longer identifiable and their school populations cannot be determined. Our calculations have therefore been based on thirty of the areas* whose maintained primary and secondary school population in 1965 was 1,646,000.

5B.3 The full-time equivalent of 82.25 educational psychologists were in post in May 1965, or 0.50 for each 10,000 children. This was slightly above the 'realistic objective' of 2 : 45,000 set by the Underwood Committee for 1965; the Report remarked in paragraph 381 that the objective entailed on average a doubling of the service in the thirty-two authorities. Taking into account posts vacant in May 1965, the total establishment was for 101.25 educational psychologists.

58.4 Furthermore, we asked each chief education officer to give an estimate of the staff which would be needed for the duties which, in his opinion, educational psychologists employed by the local authority might at present be carrying out;** duties not the responsibility of the local education authority were included if they were thought to be appropriate for educational psychologists. The resulting total desired establishment needed by the thirty areas was 168.25, the equivalent of 1.02 educational psychologists for every 10,000 schoolchildren.

Equivalent estimate by all authorities in England and Wales

5B.5 The results of our enquiry to all chief education officers are shown in Table 2B.2; see also Figure 2.1. The full-time equivalent of 326-4 educational psychologists were employed by all local education authorities in England and Wales in May 1965, and local education authorities told is of the full-time equivalent of eighty-eight posts which were unfilled at that date. There was therefore a total of 414 posts for educational psychologists in England and Wales, or one for every 18,700 schoolchildren. Some authorities told us that if vacancies on their existing establishments could have been filled, further posts would have been approved'; the total number of posts therefore underestimates the number actually required. In response to the enquiry about desired establishment. it was estimated that an additional 205 posts were needed, giving a total establishment of 619.6 for England and Wales or one for every 11.450 schoolchildren in maintained primary and secondary schools. If children in all schools are taken into account the ratio is 1 : 12,500 schoolchildren (see paragraph 5.26).

*By 1965 these areas comprised fourteen counties with a maintained primary and secondary school population of 1,084,704 and twenty-one county boroughs with 561,305 children.

**See Appendix 2A.





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Appendix 5C Manpower: calculations of the number of postgraduate training places for educational psychologists estimated to be needed to achieve a target of 1 : 10.000 schoolchildren


Outline of AppendixPage
Introduction 5C.1144
Values for the different factors
(1) Population size and trend 5C.8145
(2) Target ratio 5C.11147
(3) Size and composition of group in service:
starting date for calculations 5C.12
147
(4) Input from existing postgraduate training courses 5C.15147
(5) Length of working life to normal retirement: age of retirement 5C.17147
(6) 'Migration' rates 5C.21148
(7) Dates for starting new postgraduate training arrangements 5C.31149
(8) Date for achieving the target ratio of 1 : 10,000 5C.33149
Calculations of effective annual inputs 5C.34154
Effects of different annual migration rates 5C.38154
Effects of length of working life to normal retirement 5C.39154
Conclusions on effective annual input 5C.40154
Postgraduate training places needed to produce a given effective annual input 5C.41154
(9) 'Immediate migration' 5C.42154
(10) Drop-out and failure 5C.44155
(11) Vacancies 5C.46155
Relation between postgraduate training places and the effective annual input 5C.48155
Total number of postgraduate training places needed 5C.49155
Sources of candidates 5C.51156
Conclusion 5C.52156

Figure and tables
Postgraduate training departments 1945-1965 Table 5C.1146
Ages and length of service of educational psychologists leaving full membership of the Association of Educational Psychologists, 1963-1967 Table 5C.2148
Changes in membership of Association of Educational Psychologists, 1963-1967 Table 5C.3149
Numbers of educational psychologists: projections of different values of effective annual input
    Figure 5C.1
151
    Table 5C.4152
Effects of different annual migration rates
    Table 5C.5
155


Introduction

5C.1 We describe our manpower calculations in this appendix. Education services, although numerous, effectively form a single employer for educational psychologists; in relation to the services, educational psychologists similarly form a single class of professional employee. Calculations of the kind that we have made might have been less indicative if a more complex approach to this relation between employer and employees had had to be adopted. The simplification of treating employing authorities as if they were a single entity nevertheless leaves some things out of account. Differences between authorities both now and in the future are disregarded, for instance; at present differences are large as Appendix 5A shows. Even so, projections of future needs require a relatively large number of factors to be distinguished, inter-relations between them to be specified, and values for them to be estimated. The effort to be explicit, however, has the following advantages: (a) more and less influential factors can be distinguished, (b) the consequences of different values for influential factors can be explored, (c) recommendations can be made and decisions taken with an awareness of margins of error, and (d) the process by which projections have been made can be re-evaluated and refined at a later stage when more information has become available, provided that steps have been taken to collect it.

5C.2 The following factors are relevant to the present case of resources for training psychologists for the education services.

(1) Size, and trends in the size, of the population to be served, since the numbers required depend on the size of this population.
(2) Ratio (of numbers in service to population) that is to be achieved as a target.
(3) Size and composition of the group actually in service at the point in time from which calculations are based, especially the distribution of ages among its members.
(4) 'Effective annual input' into service from existing courses of postgraduate training and from courses known to be starting (see paragraph 5C.4 below).


[page 145]

(5) Length of working life, from entering service at the end of training to normal retirement. for working careers that are uninterrupted; age of retirement for those in service at the start, (3) above.
(6) 'Migration' rate (or rates) out of work as an educational psychologist, for all reasons other than normal retirement, at any stage before normal retirement.
(7) Starting dates for expansions of postgraduate training arrangements.
(8) Date by which the target ratio of (2), above, is to be attained.

5C.3 Factors (1) to (8) are all variables, with the exception of (3), the data for which can be ascertained. Different values are possible in all the other cases and values for them have therefore to be determined from other sources. Once values have been assigned to them it becomes possible (a) to determine the size of the effective annual inputs from the starting points of expanded postgraduate training arrangements (7) which will enable the target ratio (2) to be achieved at the date set (8); or alternatively, (b) to examine the consequences of particular expansions at particular times on the date (8) at which the target ratio will be attained. It is also possible to explore the very long-term consequences for the size of the group that is being produced on the assumption that none of the other factors changes; in the long term any annual input will then come into equilibrium with the combined output to normal retirement and migration. Clearly some of factors (1) to (8) cannot be fixed completely but can be expected to vary in the future in ways that are not entirely predictable: factors (1), (4) and (6) are cases in point. Exploring long-term consequences nevertheless enables the scale implied by the choice of values for the several factors to be determined and, especially, indicates how far further expansion, or contraction, of training resources may need to be considered in the long term. This kind of evaluation is appropriate and necessary in spite of the approximations because training resources cannot readily be brought into being; nor, once created, can they readily be contracted again since relatively long-term commitments are made to the security in their careers of those who are appointed to run them, apart from commitments and investments of other kinds.

5C.4 'Effective annual inputs' from training courses into service, referred to in paragraphs 5C.2 and 5C.3 above, are not identical with the number of postgraduate training places available at any particular time, or with the numbers of students admitted to training, or even with the numbers of successful students who complete the courses. The following additional factors have to be considered in converting needs for a given effective annual input into terms of postgraduate training places.

(9) The 'immediate migration rate' or proportion of successful students who, for whatever reasons, take other jobs as soon as they complete their training and do not become educational psychologists in the education services; they may in particular take other jobs at home or abroad for which their qualifications also fit them and which from time to time may be more attractive in terms of salaries and career prospects.
(10) Failure and drop-out rate, or proportion of students admitted to postgraduate training places who do not complete the training successfully.
(11) Unfilled vacancies: proportion of training places that remain unfilled because candidates accepted for training withdraw at too late a stage for their places to be accepted by other candidates. Since the incidence of this factor will normally be relatively small, and may affect different postgraduate training departments in different years, it needs to be taken into account in estimating the total number of training places.

5C.5 Values for factors (9), (10) and (11) enable effective annual inputs to be converted into numbers of postgraduate training places needed.

5C.6 lastly, estimates of numbers of training places can be evaluated against sources of candidates for them in order to insure against the possibility of exceeding the supply of suitable candidates.

5C.7 We have considered all these points in arriving at our recommendation that training capacity should be trebled no later than 1975 (recommendation 5.R3 and paragraphs 5.56 to 5.65). How we have done so is discussed below.

Values for the different factors

(1) Population size and trend

5C.8 We have relied on the predictions of the school population made by the Department of Education and Science for 1 January in each of the years up to 1990 (Statistics of Education 1966, vol. 1, Table 44 'Pupils in School'. London: H.M.S.O. 1967). The forecast figures are up-dated by the Department each year, and the forecast from 1967 to 1 990 based on actual figures up to 1966 was the latest available to us.

5C.9 Table 44 of Statistics of Education 1966 includes separate forecasts for' Pupils in school' in ' (i) Maintained primary and secondary schools' and '(ii) All schools'. We have taken the figure for 'all schools', including the effect of eventually raising the school leaving age to 16, to be an estimate of the relevant population for the following reasons, discussed at various points in our Report: (a) we


[page 146]

Table 5C.1 Postgraduate training departments 1945-1965: places available, numbers of students and subsequent employment of successful students as local authority educational psychologists and otherwise


[page 147]

agree with the Underwood Committee that services should be available to all boys and girls (paragraphs 5.16 and 5.27); (b) services are already being provided for some pre-school children and for some young people who have left school; we expect services of these kinds to develop (Chapters 2 and 3), but the children and young people in question are not. in general, included in the figures for 'Pupils in school', except for some children aged from two to four years. Hence the larger figures for 'all schools' give an estimate of the relevant population which is still a conservative one.

5C.10 In order to examine very long-term consequences in the manner described in paragraph 5C.3, above, we have had to consider trends beyond 1990; hence it was necessary to extrapolate the population trend beyond the published forecast. Our assumption has been that the linear trend in the forecast for 1985-90 would continue; this assumption is conservative in the sense that the forecast trend for 1985-90 is markedly less than the current trend for 1966-71. Nevertheless, both the forecast trend for 1985-90 and our extrapolation of it could, of course, be very much in error in relation to unknown higher or lower birth-rates in the future. That this should be so is not an argument against examining such extrapolations for their implications, but is an argument for ensuring that calculations are repeated at sufficiently frequent intervals to enable policies to be adjusted. We believe it to be desirable that our calculations should be repeated at intervals of five years and essential that they should be repeated not later than 1978 (paragraph 5.57).

(2) Target ratio

5C.11 We have concluded from our examination of the evidence that 1 : 10,000 should be adopted as the target ratio for educational psychologists to schoolchildren in the immediate future (paragraphs 5.24 to 5.29). We have noted that this ratio calls for more than twice the recent proportion of 1 : 24,000 (in 1965: paragraphs 5.58 and 5.23). We have also noted that 1 : 10,000 is still appreciably less than other ratios that have been recommended (paragraph 5.28).

(3) Size and composition of group in service: starting date for calculations

5C.12 Our survey of all educational psychologists in post on 1 May 1965 is described in Chapter 2. It provided complete statistical information about the composition of the group, including numbers in each year of age (summarised in Figure 2.4; paragraph 2.21). and numbers of men and women (Figure 2.3; paragraph 2.20); 90% were employed full-time (Table 28.1; paragraph 2.14).

5C.13 We have taken 1 January 1965 to be the effective starting date for our calculations because forecasts of school population are given for 1 January each year in Statistics of Education 1966. We have disregarded the interval between 1 January and 1 May in 1965.

5C.14 All our calculations have been in terms of 'full-time equivalents'. Since the proportion working part-time was only 10% we have made no attempt to treat part-time appointments separately. As a consequence of the points discussed in paragraphs 5C.17 to 5C.19. below, the total of full-time equivalents at the effective starting date was 323 '8, rather than 326 (paragraph 2.14).

(4) Input from existing postgraduate training courses

5C.15 The number of students who successfully completed their courses of postgraduate training in the summer of 1965 was twenty-three from twenty-nine training places; twenty of the successful students started work as educational psychologists in local education authorities (Table 5C.1). We have taken 20 to be the effective input at 1 January 1966 from courses ending in 1965.

5C.16 In 1965-66 the number of training places increased to thirty-six and this was also the number for 1966-67 (see paragraph 7.14). For the reasons discussed in paragraphs 5C.41 to 5C.48, below, we have taken 30 to be the 'effective annual input' of successful students into posts as educational psychologists from this number of training places. We have also taken 30 therefore to be the effective input at 1 January following courses ending in 1966 and 1967, and to be the effective annual input that would be sustained indefinitely if training arrangements were to continue as they were by 1966-67.

(5) Length of working life to normal retirement: age of retirement

5C.17 I n order to make predictions about the potential size of an expanding group of employees it is essential to use information about length of working life for those who remain continuously in post until they retire. A refined approach to the calculations would be (a) to base them on estimates derived from records of the proportions entering service at different ages each year and retiring in each of the years between the minimum age for retirement and the compulsory upper limit; and, (b) to distinguish between men and women. This procedure was not open to us, primarily for the reason that too few educational psychologists have retired (see paragraph 2.21 and Table 5C.3). Furthermore, the proportions of men and women have been changing with a progressive trend towards a preponderance of men (paragraph 2.20 and Figure 2.3);


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and, if our recommendations are adopted, the age of educational psychologists taking up their first appointment will be lower than it has been.

5C.18 We have therefore had to make our calculations in a different way, basing them on a median value of 35 years for length of working life. First, we have used age 60 as the age of normal retirement since continued service after a minimum age cannot be relied on and we lack any distributional data beyond that point. Secondly, we have taken age 25 as the median age on entry, basing this figure on our expectation that substantial numbers will in future start one or two years below this age, but that there will also continue to be those who start later, including small numbers aged 30 or more.

5C.19 In order to keep the calculations uniform the same age of retirement has been applied to the group in service at the effective starting date.

5C.20 Differential calculations for men and women have not been made.

(6) 'Migration' rates

5C.21 By 'migration' we mean movement out of local authority service as an educational psychologist for any reason at any time before normal retirement.

5C.22 We have discussed migration to other kinds of work in our Report (paragraphs 5.39 to 5.49, 6.59 to 6.70 and 6.71). Some migration of this kind is inevitable, and some not only extends career prospects for individuals but, as we have argued, is of benefit to the education system as a whole (paragraph 6.71).

5C.23 It is necessary also to consider migration out of service for other reasons: marriage in the case of women, for instance, and early retirement. either voluntarily, or because of illness or death.

5C.24 Migration has a marked effect on the potential size of an expanding group, and migration rates are critical for the long-term build-up. A refined approach again would be the detailed one of considering men and women separately, and of taking account of relations between tendency to migrate and age and length of service, and of different occasions for migration. We have examined a number of these possibilities in all the ways that were open to us, but in general we have lacked evidence that. so far, there are significant differential tendencies, and sufficient data to warrant pursuing them in detail.

5C.25 The evidence that we have suggests that differences in the rates of migration between men and women are slight: many women who marry tend either to continue or to resume work at least part-time. We have some evidence that tendencies to migrate to other work may be somewhat higher from four to seven years after entering service, and also at ages in the later thirties when the top of present opportunities for promotion have been reached and new opportunities for more extended career prospects are sought; Table 5C.2 summarises evidence relating to these two points submitted to us by the Association of Educational Psychologists.

5C.26 We have therefore had recourse to other approaches to the question of migration. In particular, we have sought to estimate a single percentage rate which, applied to numbers. in service at any point in time, would reflect

Table 5C.2 Ages and length of service of educational psychologists leaving full membership of the Association of Educational Psychologists during the period 30 June 1963 to 30 June 1967; ages of all educational psychologists in service in England and Wales on 1 May 1965 for comparison


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tendency to migrate, which could be taken to be uniform over the whole length of working life, and which therefore could be compounded.*

5C.27 In arriving at a figure for migration rate we have considered evidence from two sources: (a) from the Association of Educational Psychologists for the four years between 1963 and 1967, and (b) from the postgraduate training departments for 1945-65 (Table 5C.1 ).

5C.28 Since membership in the Association of Educational Psychologists is open only to educational psychologists in post. migrants cease to be full members of the Association. Table 5C.3 shows the membership at 30 June from 1963-67 and reductions owing to migra-

Table 5C.3 Changes in membership of the Association of Educational Psychologists, June 1963 to June 1967

tion. Migration rates range from -4,3% to -9,3% and those for the last three years all exceed -8%.

5C.29 The second source available to us was the data of Table 5C.1. Column 9 shows numbers of successful students in service on 1 May 1965 (column 8) as percentages of those who went into service on completion of training (column 6). Column 10 shows equivalent annual migration rates.** The nineteen values range from zero to -10.5% with a median value for 1945 of -2.5%. These calculations assume, however, that all those in post on 1 May 1965 had been continuously in service since the end of their course; this was not so in all cases. These figures therefore make too large an allowance for the compensating effects of a return to work by some, mainly married women, who have spent periods occupied in other ways. The data for anyone year are few.

5C.30 It seemed most reasonable, therefore, to adopt an intermediate value, to base calculations of effective annual inputs needed to achieve the target ratio by a target date on this working value, and then to investigate the consequences, with the effective annual inputs so determined, of taking lower and higher values for migration rate. Accordingly, -4% per annum has been taken as the basic working value; the consequences have been explored for values of -2% and -8%.

(7) Dates for starting new postgraduate training arrangements

5C.31 Two dates have been adopted. (a) It has been assumed that 'effective annual input' will increase by 10 from the summer of 1970, owing to further expansion of existing courses or to the starting of new courses on the present pattern before then (paragraph 7.14); it is possible that this figure may be exceeded, at least in the short term (paragraphs 7.16 and 7.34). (b) The beginning of the next university quinquennium in 1972 marks a date from which new courses might otherwise begin. While some appointments would need to be made before the end of the present quinquennium to start from October 1972, the first year would be likely to be occupied largely in making further appointments, and in planning, selecting students and making other arrangements. It might not be more than marginally productive, though every effort should be made to make it otherwise. Hence the first fully effective output from new two-year courses (of the kind recommended in paragraphs 7.26 to 7.32) could be expected in the summer of 1975.

5C.32 Calculations therefore have been based upon increases in effective annual input (a) by 10 from 1970 as a consequence of some expansion in training arrangements before then, and otherwise (b) from 1975 as a consequence of new courses started in or after 1972.

(8) Date for achieving the target ratio of 1 : 10,000

5C.33 Since any reasonable build-up must be gradual in some degree, 1990 has been regarded as the most remote date by which the target of 1 : 10,000 should be achieved (paragraph 5.29); 1980-90 would be optimal.

*This simplified approach therefore assumes the exponential decrement of negative compound interest. The compounding period has been taken to be one year rather than any shorter interval. It is equivalent to assuming that the process of migration is a random one of constant probability with respect to total number in post at any time; hence it allows the estimates of paragraphs 5C.28 and 5C.29 to be compared.

**The calculations have been made backwards from 1965 over the number of years intervening to the end of each course - 19 years to 1946, 18 years to 1947 and so on. Column 10 gives the uniform annual decrement which when compounded yields the percentages in column 9, as reductions below 100% at the end of each course. Making the calculations in this way (a) effectively assumes that the figures in column 6 can be regarded as estimates of 'full-time equivalents'; (b) does not reflect the variation in the numbers in column 6; (c) is sensitive to the facts that the numbers in column 6 are small and that actual decrements can be only whole numbers.


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[The following notes refer to the graph on the next page]

Figure 5C.1 Numbers of educational psychologists 1965-1990; projections of different values of effective annual input from postgraduate training courses 1965-90, continued and extended to point of equilibrium between input and output to retirement and migration. Target numbers required for ratios of 1 : 10,000 schoolchildren based on the projected school population are shown in charts T1 and T2 (source: Statistics of Education 1966, Vol. 1, Table 44 (i) 'Pupils in school', London: HMSO, 1967, for years up to 1990).

Projection 0: psychologists in service January 1965 showing reduction in numbers by retirement and migration.

Projection 1: addition to 'Projection 0' of effective annual input of 30 per annum from September 1967 (with 20 in 1966).

Projection 2: effective annual input of 'Projection 1' increased by 20 to 40 per annum from September 1970.

Projection 3: effective annual input of 'Projection 2' increased by 20 to 60 per annum from September 1975 (i.e. to double that of 1966).

Projection 4: effective annual input of 'Projection 2' increased by 50 to 90 per annum from September 1975 (i.e. to treble that of 1966).

Projection 5: addition to 'Projection 4' of effective annual input of 20 from accelerated training programmes in each of the years 1970-74. The charts are based on the following assumptions, discussed in the text: (a) 35 years as the median length of working life from entry to retirement; (b) losses of -4% per annum owing to migration from local education authority service as educational psychologist (for all reasons other than normal retirement, e.g. change of occupation including marriage, voluntary retirement, death). Charts T1 and T2 have been projected beyond 1990, the last date included in Table 44 of Statistics of Education. Vol. 1, by extrapolating the linear trend over 1985-90. All numbers are equivalents at 1 January.


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Figure 5C.1 Numbers of educational psychologists 1965-1990


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[The following table spanned two pages: it is shown here as an image 1500 x 812 pixels]

Table 5C.4 Numbers of educational psychologists 1965-1990(a): projections of different values of effective annual input into local educational authority service from postgraduate training courses during 1965-90, extended to point of equilibrium between input and output to retirement and migration, and related to target numbers required for ratio of 1 : 10,000 schoolchildren. Basic assumptions: (a) length of working life to retirement 35 years (median value); (b) losses of -4% per annum owing to migration from local education authority service as educational psychologist (for all reasons other than normal retirement, e.g. change of occupation including marriage, voluntary retirement, death).


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Calculations of effective annual inputs

5C.34 The outcomes of calculations on the basis of paragraphs 5C.8 to 5C.32 are exemplified in Figure 5C.1 (see also Table 5C.4). They show first (Projection 4) that an effective annual input of 90 from 1975 is needed in order to attain the ratio of 1 : 10,000 children in all schools by 1987 (paragraph 5.61).

5C.35 An effective annual input of 90 would be three times the present figure of 30 (paragraph 5C.16); neither maintenance of the current input (Projection 1) nor doubling it to 60 from 1975 (Projection 3) would be sufficient to attain the 1 : 10,000 target (paragraphs 5.58 to 5.60).

5C.36 Projection 5 includes the consequences of an additional input of 20 from accelerated programmes (paragraphs 7.34 to 7.37) in each of the five years 1970 to 1974 in order to reduce the acute shortage in the short term. Added to" the increase in the basic effective annual input from 30 to 40 in 1970 (Projection 2; paragraphs 5C.31 and 5.59), and to the further increase to 90 from 1975 (Projection 4), it would give ratios (a) of 1 : 17,400 in 1975 compared with 1 : 24,000 in 1965, (b)' of 1 : 10,000 in about 1985, and (c) of 1 : 9,200 in 1990 (paragraphs 5.62 and 5.63).

5C.37 The consequences in the very long term, on the basis of paragraphs 5C.8 to 5C.32, are illustrated by the extrapolations beyond 1990. The last members of the group in post on 1 May 1965 will not have retired until shortly after the year 2000 (Projection 0). Equilibrium between the inputs of Projections 4 and 5 and losses to retirement and migration would not come about until some ten years after that. The ratio of psychologists to schoolchildren in the very long term might therefore be about 1 : 8,500 (paragraph 5.61).

Effects of different annual migration rates

5C.38 The projections of Figure 5C.1 have been based on the working value of -4% for annual migration rate (paragraph 5C.30). The consequences of higher and lower rates of -8% and -2% are illustrated in Table 5C.5. They have been applied to Projection 5 with (')11 other factors held constant and, in particular, the effective annual inputs at 1 January have been taken to be 20 in 1966 and 30 from 1967 (paragraphs 5C.15 and 5C.16), 40 from 1970 (paragraph 5C.31) and 90 from 1975 (paragraph 5C.34), together with the additional inputs of 20 in each of the five years 1970 to 1974 (paragraph 5C.36). A migration rate of -8% would lead to a ratio of about 1 : 12,500 children in all schools by 1990 and the target ratio of 1 : 10,000 would not be attained even in the very long term. A migration rate of -2% would lead to ratios of 1 : 10,000 in 1981, of 1 : 9,200 in 1990 and of about 1 :5,800 extrapolated into the remote future, forty to fifty years hence. A rate of -8% is still less than those for which we found evidence in paragraph 5C.28 and one of -2% is less than the median value of paragraph 5C.29. Moreover all the ratios that result from these calculations for 1990 would be within the limit of ratios up to 1 : 6,000 that have been recommended (see paragraphs 5.22 and 5.23); only in the very long term might this limit be reached.

Effects of length of working life to normal retirement

5C.39 Length of working life to normal retirement has been taken to have the median value of 35 years (paragraph 5C.18). Effects of taking the higher value of 40 years have also been explored. At no point does the resulting increase in projected numbers of educational psychologists exceed some 5%. Variation in this factor by this amount is therefore very much less influential than the possible variations in migration rates. Moreover, the value of 40 years is an upper limit (see paragraph 5C.18).

Conclusions on effective annual input

5C.40 The outcome of these explorations therefore is that a threefold increase from 1975 in the numbers of educational psychologists entering education services would in no sense be excessive; hence our firm conclusion that training capacity should be trebled by 1975 (paragraphs 5.64 and 5.66).

Postgraduate training places needed to produce a given effective annual input

5C.41 For the reasons outlined in paragraph 5C.4 the number of postgraduate training places needs to be larger than the numbers expected to enter service. We have sought to estimate this factor from the data of Table 5C.1 for postgraduate training departments from 1945 to 1965.

(9) 'Immediate migration'

5C.42 Over the twenty years covered by Table 5C.l, 28·6% of successful students did not start work as educational psychologists at the conclusion of their training (column 12), although small numbers did so


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later. The proportion of these 'early migrants' was therefore substantial (paragraph 5.40), Opportunities for employment changed markedly over the twenty-year period, however, and the proportion has been less in recent years: 13.3% for the last seven years, from 1958 to 1965, in Table 5C.1. It is to be expected that the competing attractions of other kinds of work will always be influential. and this point has already been considered in relation to migration (paragraph 5C.22), Comparison of columns 12 and 10 of Table 5C.1 suggests that successful students are much more likely not to take up appointment at the end of their course, than they are to migrate once they have started work as educational psychologists, Hence a substantially higher figure is indicated for this 'immediate migration': 12.5% would appear to be conservative* in relation to the average of 13.3% for the last seven years in Table 5C.1.

Table 5C.5 Effects of different annual migration rates on Projection 5: (1) the date at which the target ratio of 1 : 10,000 would be attained, and numbers of educational psychologists and ratios to children in all schools: (2) in 1990, and (3) in the very long term forty to fifty years hence

5C.43 Hence, 11.43 successful students are needed to produce an effective annual input of 10 into local education authority service, since it is to be expected that the latter will be only 87.5% of the former.

(10) Drop-out and failure

5C.44 Columns 4 and 5 of Table 5C.1 show that out of a total of 304 students, 14 failed (4.6%), This figure is already low by comparison with rates of drop- out from undergraduate courses (14%: see footnote to Table 5.5), but a much lower rate is to be expected from postgraduate courses for which candidates are highly selected: 4% would therefore appear to be conservative, especially if this figure is applied over both years of two-year courses taken together, as well as to one year courses.

5C.45 Hence, 10.42 students have to be admitted for every 10 successful students (since the latter are expected to be only 96% of the former),

(11) Vacancies

5C.46 Finally, columns 2 and 3 of Table 5C,1 show that out of the total of 347 places that were available from 1945 to 1965, 43 remained unfilled (12.4%). Vacancies on courses hitherto have largely been caused by difficulties that intending students have had in obtaining financial support. We hope that these difficulties will disappear almost completely if our recommendations are implemented, It is nevertheless to be expected that there will be an irreducible residual problem of candidates who accept a place and then withdraw at too late a stage for the place to be filled by another candidate, in spite of clearing house arrangements (paragraph 7.57), Allowing for a substantial improvement, therefore, to expect that 3% of places in all the postgraduate training departments might be lost as vacancies would appear to be conservative,

5C.47 Hence, 10.31 places are needed for every 10 students actually admitted (the latter being 97% of the former) ,

Relation between postgraduate training places and effective annual input

5C.48 Evidently the three factors of paragraphs 5C.43, 5C.45 and 5C.47 combine multiplicatively: the resultant product is 12.25 for the number of postgraduate training places needed to produce an effective annual input of 10 new educational psychologists into local education authority service, or 1.225 : 1.

Total number of postgraduate training places needed

5C.49 The number of places that will need to be filled each year, therefore, in order to produce the effective

*The effects both of 'immediate migration' and of 'migration', as discussed earlier in this appendix, are to some little extent counteracted by one or two compensating tendencies, There have been inputs of the following kinds: of some trained educational psychologists who did not enter local education authority service immediately on completing their training, but did so later; of others who left local education authority service but returned again after an interval. including some married women who returned to part-time or even full-time work; and of educational psychologists trained overseas or elsewhere in the United Kingdom, including holders of B.Ed. degrees of Scottish universities, some though not all of whom had been trained in child guidance and for work as educational psychologists. Our evidence, however, is that numbers of trained educational psychologists from all these sources have been small, and minute in terms of annual rates; we have no evidence that they will increase. We have not included any separate factor for such compensating influences, therefore, but have considered them to have received due allowance and to have been absorbed in the annual rates with which we have worked for 'migration' and 'immediate migration'.


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annual input of 90 that we have recommended, will be 110.

5C.50 This figure does not allow however for our recommendation that two new courses should be two-year courses (paragraphs 7.26 to 7.32). We have envisaged that each would contribute an effective annual input of 20. On this basis, therefore, counting places in each year of two-year courses separately, the total number of places needed at anyone time would be 160.

Sources of candidates

5C.51 Sources of candidates have been considered at length in the body of the Report and evaluated in relation to the number of postgraduate training places proposed. An honours degree in psychology is an essential qualification (paragraph 4.9). The number of honours graduates in psychology has increased from 200 in 1960 to 670 in 1967; it is expected to have increased further to about 1,000 in the United Kingdom by 1973 (paragraph 5.33); hence the total will approach ten times the 110 places in postgraduate training departments which the foregoing calculations imply to be necessary from 1975 (paragraph 5C.49). This source is clearly sufficient in principle. About 14% of graduates in the United Kingdom between 1960 and 1964 were reported to us as intending to enter educational psychology. It would be satisfactory if education were in fact to secure about this proportion of honours graduates (paragraph 5,3). But even if there were to be 135 to 140 applicants for postgraduate training from among graduates in the United Kingdom from 1973, the margin would be small indeed for ensuring that an adequate selection could be made of 110 appropriate candidates for postgraduate training in England and Wales (paragraph 5.34). Hence proposals are also made in the Report for improving the attractiveness of postgraduate training arrangements and careers in educational psychology. Their purpose is to ensure that this field will be able to compete with opportunities open to psychology graduates in other fields, and that it will attract not only sufficient numbers of applicants, but also a sufficient proportion of the ablest graduates (paragraphs 5.36 to 5.55).

Conclusion

5C.52 We have described our calculations. We consider the conclusions that we have drawn from them to be fully justified if a ratio of educational psychologists to children in all schools of 1 : 10,000 is, on the average, to be achieved by education services in England and Wales between 1980 and 1990 (paragraphs 5.64 to 5.66, and 5C.1 and 5C.33 above). We also believe that it would be desirable, as we have said, that our estimates should be reviewed in not more than ten years time (paragraphs 5.57 and 5C.10 above). Provided that the necessary statistical information were to be collected, the larger body of data that then would be available should enable our projections to be both re-evaluated and refined. It would be a simple matter for a computer to be programmed to explore in further detail what we have done by more painstaking methods. Indeed, if the necessary records of statistical information were to be established and maintained, enabling estimates to be made directly of some of the factors we have had to estimate indirectly, projections could be made and up-dated much more often; and so they also could, under the same conditions, in the case of other professional workers in public services, including those to whom we have had occasion to refer in Chapter 5.


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Appendix 6A The number of educational psychologists required if all the children thought to need special educational treatment because of educational subnormality were to be psychologically examined


6A.1 We have considered whether responsibility for the psychological assessment of all educationally subnormal children should be carried by educational psychologists. It seems to us that the key question is not one of advisability, but of practicability.

6A.2 It has been suggested that between 10% and 15% of the school population need special educational treatment because they are educationally subnormal.* Each year about 800,000 children enter the schools of England and Wales at the present time.** The lower of the two incidence limits, i.e. 10%, means that about 80,000 children per age group possibly require a specialised form of education for this reason. Identification of these 80,000 in each age group ought to occur early in their school careers, so that appropriate education can be arranged for them; but whenever it occurs the effect is a need to identify 80,000 children annually,

6A.3 There would be the following implications if identification through individual examinations were to be undertaken by educational psychologists. Ten examinations per week would fully occupy one psychologist. This estimate includes not only the time required for psychological assessments, which may have to be spread over more than one occasion, but also the time necessarily involved in consultations with school staff, discussions with parents, travelling, and the preparation of reports. During a school year, 400 such examinations could be carried out, so that about 200 psychologists would be required for this work with 80,000 children.

6A.4 This estimate does not take into account, however, the number of children who would be put forward, who would be found not to be in need of special educational treatment. but who would still need to be examined. Nor does it allow for regular follow-up work with children identified in earlier years; this work probably represents at least as heavy a demand on educational psychologists' time as the initial identification. For these additional reasons the number of educational psychologists required would need to be at least 400.

6A.5 It would clearly be unrealistic to expect educational psychologists to undertake the whole of this work at present, when they have many other commitments and their numbers are small. It does not necessarily follow that educational psychologists should not undertake more of this work in future. However, the best use of their.services implies that they should be responsible now f15'r psychological assessments of children whose need for special educational treatment is particularly uncertain, and in other special cases.

*For discussions of these incidence figures see D.G. Pritchard, Education and the Handicapped, p. 214. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963; S. Jackson, Special Education in England and Wales, p. 12. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.
'4(e) educationally sub-normal pupils, that is to say pupils who, by reason of limited ability or other conditions resulting in educational retardation, require some specialised form of education wholly or partly in substitution for the education normally given in ordinary schools;' (The Handicapped Pupils and Special Schools Regulations, 1959, Statutory Instrument 1959 no. 365).
Recently it has been proposed that the term 'slow learning' should be used in place of educationally subnormal. e.g, in the Plowden Report, Children and Their Primary Schools, para, 849, London: H.M.S.O., 1967.

**In January 1966 there were 749,850 children aged five in all schools in England and Wales (97.9% of the 766,000 estimated by the Government Actuary for the five-year old age-group); 792,000 children were estimated in the four year old age-group, 819,000 in the three year old, and 836,000 in the two year old, Statistics of Education 1966, Part 1, Table 5. London: H.M.S.O., 1967.


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Appendix 6B Special needs in Wales


68.1 The work of educational psychologists in Wales is essentially similar to that of their colleagues in England, but there are differences arising from the need to use two languages because some Welsh people are bilingual to varying degrees.

68.2 (a) Communication. Educational psychologists need to communicate easily, both with children and with their parents. A child whose first language is Welsh is likely to be more at home in the language of the hearth than in English; some parents too, particularly in the west and north of Wales, will be more at ease in Welsh. Welsh local education authorities should therefore have on their staff at least one Welsh-speaking educational psychologist. Monoglot English psychologists working in Wales should be aware of the need to call on the services of their Welsh-speaking colleagues.

(b) Assessment. It is much more difficult to make a fair assessment of the psychological and educational development of a Welsh-speaking child using tests and techniques which are administered in English, no matter how appropriate they may be under other circumstances. A small range of standardised tests in Welsh need to be designed and constructed. Prawf Deallusrwydd ar gyfer Plant Cymraeg* is an example of pioneer efforts in this direction.

(c) Research. Research into bilinguialism in Wales has produced interesting results. New work - in the field of language growth for example - accentuates the need for additional research. New projects should be as concerned with applications as with fundamental research: the study of the problems of handicapped children who are bilingual is an example of a field which has scarcely been touched. Educational psychologists have an important part to play in such investigations.

68.3 There are many issues which are seen differently when viewed against a bilingual background. We believe that three main considerations in Wales should be:
(a) the recruitment of sufficient numbers of Welsh-speaking educational psychologists;
(b) the production of some standardised child assessment techniques for use with children whose first language is Welsh; and
(c) the encouragement of psychological research into aspects of bilingualism.

*'An intelligence test for Welsh-speaking children'; an adaptation into Welsh of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, re-standardised in North Wales as a result of a research project sponsored by the Welsh Hospital Board. (See Primary Education in Wales (the Gittins Report), para 25.5.5, London: H.M.S.O., 1967.)


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Appendix 7A A postgraduate training department for educational psychologists which incorporates a demonstration service


7A.1 In this appendix we outline the way in which a large new training department might be organised to run a two year postgraduate course with an annual intake of twenty-five students. Such a department might establish facilities of its own to provide practical experience for its students. In particular, it could establish a 'demonstration service' in close collaboration with a local education authority or several authorities working together. By so doing, it could provide a full range of child guidance and school psychological service functions rather than make demands for student placements on existing services.

7A.2 Such a scheme would have a number of other advantages. Students would contribute increasingly to the service in appropriate ways as their training progressed, A staff of sufficient size would be justified to allow some specialisation; specialised skills would enrich the training provided and improve the range of the service. An organisation with the scope and prestige which we envisage could be expected to attract enough staff of the quality and variety required to provide a standard of training sufficiently high to compare with the existing courses. The department would offer scope for further development; there would be opportunities for higher postgraduate work in applied psychology, including research, and for advanced specialised training in educational psychology of the kind discussed in paragraph 7.38-40. Finally, and most important, such a scheme could provide an excellent service for the local authority and for the children and families in the area.

The situation of the training department and demonstration service

7A.3 The course should be set in a university. The geographical setting of the course would need careful selection. The following requirements would need to be taken into account.

1A large conurbation to provide

(a) economic use of an extensive service;
(b) sufficient examples of less common problems.
2 A university with
(a) departments of psychology, of education and of psychiatry which collaborated in running the course;
(b) desirably, a department of social studies.
3 A local education authority (or a group of local education authorities working together) prepared to participate in the training scheme and to adopt the service,* and which has or is prepared to provide facilities covering the range outlined below and in paragraph 7.21 (4).

4 A regional hospital board prepared to participate in planning the department and in appointing psychiatrists.

5 Desirably, an area should be selected where no existing training department is easily accessible.

Facilities for practical work

7A.4 Practical experience could best be gained in the area covered by the demonstration service or as close as possible to it. A substantial amount of the clinical work would be in the demonstration clinic or in branch clinics provided within the area. Other places where students might gain relevant experience include maternity and child welfare clinics; special developmental clinics, or any other form of assessment unit; day nurseries; hospitals of all kinds; junior training centres, including residential units; approved schools, particularly classifying schools; remand homes; youth clubs; and schools and other educational establishments. Primary schools are of particular importance, but students need not necessarily undertake teaching or work of a specifically psychological nature there; it might. for example, be relevant to an individual training programme to spend a week as an ancillary helper in a class of infants starting school. Special schools and classes will also provide particularly valuable practical experience. I n some cases it may be necessary to go outside the area of the demonstration service to find establishments of specific kinds, such as some types of residential special school. but as the scope of services improves it should become possible to make most placements reasonably close at hand.

Staffing pattern

7A.5 A pattern for staffing a training centre and demonstration service is suggested below; it is not intended to be prescriptive. For all professional staff to hold university appointments jointly with regional hospital board appointments (in the case of psychiatrists) and with local authority appointments (in the case of educational psychologists and psychiatric social workers) would appropriately emphasise the joint nature of the establishment. The educational psychologists could hold academic appointments within the department of psychology or the department of education, depending upon the situation of the course, while it might be considered appropriate for the psychiatrists to be part of the school of medicine. Psychiatric social workers might be appointed in the department of social studies.

7A.6 To provide an adequate service to the community and a setting for training twenty-five first-year students and twenty-five second-year students as educational psychologists, four interdisciplinary teams would be required, each consisting of one psychiatrist (serving half-

*The apportionment of costs between the university and the local authority concerned may need to be considered; see paragraph 7.51.


[page 160]

time), a tutor educational psychologist, and a psychiatric social worker. In addition, one senior educational psychologist would be needed to act as organiser of training and to be responsible for the direction of studies in the department. As the work developed, it might prove necessary to have an additional senior appointment to organise and administer the service aspects of the department. It is acknowledged that the demands of such work would be exacting and would require professional staff with exceptional qualities as organisers and teachers in addition to their professional qualities.

7A.7 A training department would be even more valuable if it could be planned to provide also for training in psychiatry and in psychiatric social work.

Premises

7A.8 A suite of rooms would be needed for the training department and demonstration service; branch clinics for full-time or part-time use might also be needed, but a mobile clinic might be the best way of bringing the service out into the community. The primary consideration in deciding the location of premises should be the needs of the service. The department should be readily accessible to the parents and children seeking advice and the basic site should be reasonably accessible to the university too. To design new premises to meet the complex requirements of a demonstration service would be a stimulating exercise, both architecturally and psychologically, An existing building, particularly one with a friendly atmosphere and domestic in scale, could meet the need well, however. If the use of space is not rigidly and exclusively defined, maximum economic use may be extracted from a compact building; one space might serve as a playroom while the clinic was open and for lectures or discussions at other times, and seminars could take place in rooms used for clinic consultations, for example. It may prove convenient for the local education authority to provide premises, the university being consulted about design requirements; if necessary, an agreed proportion of rent could be paid by the university for the element of teaching use.


[page 161]

Appendix 7B School psychologists in the U.S.A.


7B.1 Psychologists in education services in the United States of America today do not commonly work closely with psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers; the concept of interdisciplinary teams on the pattern introduced to this country between the wars with the support of the Commonwealth Fund of America seems to have been supplanted in its country of origin by teams in which psychologists work more closely with school doctors, school nurses and school social workers or attendance officers. Psychologists are much more confined to an educational setting than they usually are in England and Wales, and child guidance clinics tend to be more peripheral to the work.

7B.2 There are two grades of psychological worker employed in education services in the U.S.A.: psychological examiners and, at a higher level, school psychologists, The completion of a doctoral program comprising four years of postgraduate study is usually required for appointments as school psychologists; the training includes an appreciable study of education, and one year of the course is spent in an 'internship', usually working in schools. The qualifications for admission to the doctoral programs are much less firmly fixed than those for admission to postgraduate training departments in England and Wales; graduates in disciplines other than psychology are accepted and teaching experience is often not specified, Admission to training as psychological examiners requires similar qualifications, but the training is shorter, two years of postgraduate study being required, Psychological examiners often intend to acquire full qualification as school psychologists in due course; further study for people in full-time employment has been facilitated by the flexibility of the university system in the U.S.A., which permits courses taken in 'summer schools' to count towards university qualifications, but the tendency now is for programs to emphasise increasingly the need for students to be full-time.

7B.3 The establishment of the two levels of psychological worker was recommended in 1954 by a conference of school psychologists, educational administrators, teachers, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers (the Thayer Conference). The conference, proposed by the American Psychological Association and promoted by the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, arose out of widespread' concern over the statistics of mental ill-health at all ages in the community and the belief that schools could make a substantial contribution to the maintenance of mental health. A shortage of school psychologists had resulted from the increasing demand for their services; one consequence was that some people without the special training normally required were working as school psychologists, and there was a growing risk of the services deteriorating. The objectives of the conference were to prepare a statement of the functions, qualifications and training of school psychologists in order to guide future developments and to improve supply, The recommendations were published in 1955.*

7B.4 The conference did not recommend any lowering of standards for school psychologists, even temporarily, but made a deliberate attempt to raise academic standards by proposing that only psychologists holding a doctorate should be appointed as school psychologists. Thus it sought to improve the long term prospect for recruitment by enhancing the status and image of school psychologists. Meanwhile, to mitigate the short term crisis in staffing, the establishment of a lower level of psychological examiners was encouraged.

7B.5 Psychological examiners are not trained to undertake the full range of psychological work with children, for which only school psychologists are qualified, and examiners are not necessarily supervised by fully qualified staff, They are normally ineligible for promotion to posts as school psychologists or above without additional training and study; but it is not easy for an individual to take up postgraduate study again in order to raise the level of his qualifications; hence psychological examiners' access to an extended career structure is restricted. There is some dissatisfaction in the United States with a system involving two levels of psychological worker, and there is an opinion, although not universally held, that all psychologists in education services should be qualified at the basic, doctoral level as school psychologists.

*School Psychologists at Mid-Century, ed. N.E. Cutts, Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1955.


[page 162]

Appendix 7C Outline of professional training for educational psychologists provided by a local authority as part of an accelerated training programme


7C.1 We have recommended that the larger local authority school psychological and child guidance services, with adequate staff and facilities of their own and access to university departments of psychology, of education and of psychiatry, should be encouraged to contribute to an accelerated training programme (Recommendation 7.R8). We outline some possible arrangements.

Planning the courses

7C.2 Courses of at least three years would be required. Hence, if two trainees were to be accepted each year, in due course there would be six psychologists being trained at any one time. Authorities and their senior psychologists, upon whom the major responsibility for planning courses will fall, will need the assistance of the British Psychological Society in determining the syllabus and in compiling notes for the guidance of tutors and trainees. The assistance of the Society would also be invaluable in selecting the trainees and in assessing their qualifications. Trainees' who had completed courses of adequate academic and practical content might be examined under arrangements instituted and conducted by the Society, leading to the award of certificates or diplomas.

7C.3 A tutorial approach to the academic content of the courses would be appropriate for the small number of trainees who would be involved. Emphases in a three-year course might be: (a) first year, supervised work with children and their teachers in schools, including special schools and classes; (b) second year. extending trainees' knowledge of child development by, for example, work in nurseries and nursery schools. children's homes and hostels, training centres, youth clubs and adolescent psychiatric units, and by work with school medical officers, probation officers, education welfare officers and child care officers, together with an introduction to methods of psychological assessment and work as a psychologist; (c) third year, supervised work in child guidance clinics and the school psychological service, including work with parents and children and participation in surveys and other projects. There should be continuing contact with university departments of psychology, of education and of psychiatry throughout the course, with increasing emphasis in the later stages. It would be of the greatest value if arrangements could be made for one of the postgraduate training departments to undertake responsibility for some of the theoretical aspects of the training; sandwich courses involving short periods of full-time study should be considered.

7C.4 Such a course would provide a continuous training and would take account of the changing nature of the responsibilities of psychologists in education services toward children in schools, in their families and elsewhere.


[page 163]

Index

Psychologists in Education Services
Report of a working party appointed by the Secretary of State for Education and Science (the Summerfield Report), London: HMSO, 1968


Letter-by-letter alphabetisation has been employed. References, to paragraphs, except where otherwise indicated, are numbered to include, before the point, the number of the chapter to which they relate. Appendices are distinguished by 'A', 'B', or 'C' after the chapter number; paragraphs in appendices are numbered accordingly (e,g. 4A.10 = Appendix 4A, paragraph 10). References with no chapter number relate to the main points of the Report on pages xi to xiii. Recommendations are indicated by 'R' following the point (e.g: 3.R2 = Chapter 3, recommendation 2); a complete list is at the front of the Report on pages xv to xix, and recommendations also appear, with the same numbers, at the end of the chapter from which they stem. A reference followed by (n) indicates that the item is to be found in a footnote.

A

Abstract and symbolic thought - see 'thought'

Acknowledgements, page 2

Administrative Memorandum no. 266 (Ministry of Education) 4.25

Administrative Memorandum 21/61, Addendum 1 (Ministry of Education) 4.28, 7.47(n2)

Administrative setting for psychologists working with children in local authorities 4, 3.R3 (see also 'Psychologists in education services, administrative setting')

Adolescence 7.29

Advanced and specialised courses in educational psychology 14, 16, 7.R10, 5.46, 6.59, 7.1-2, 7.38-40, 7.52, 7A.2
financial support 7.58, 7.60

Aids to learning and instruction 1, 1.2, 1.20-21, 6.64, 7.39

American Psychological Association 7B,3

Approved schools 3.13, 7.21
classifying 7.28

Assessment (psychological and educational) 1, 1.2, 1.22-28, 2.7, 2.25, 3.3, 3.15-16, 6.2, 6.5, 6.15-16, 6.37, 6.42-43, 6.65, 7.21, 7.29, 7.39, 1A.20, 7C.3
educationally sub-normal children Appendix 6A
intelligence scales and other scales for assessment:
    Binet-Simon scale 1.22
    British intelligence scale 1.28, 7.39
    Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception 1.28
    Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities 1.28
    Prawf Deallusrwydd ar gyfer Plant Cymraeg (an intelligence test for Welsh speaking children, adapted from Wechsler I.S.C.) 6B.2
    Wechsler intelligence scales (for adults and for children) 1.24
in Wales 6B.2

Association for Special Education 5.5

Association of Chief Education Officers 6.R7

Association of Educational Psychologists 2.18, 2.31, 4.4, 5.39, Table 5.6, 5.41, 5.47, 1A.30
views on contribution of educational psychologists 6.2

Association of Psychiatric Social Workers 2.34, 6.35

Association of Workers for Maladjusted Children 5.5

Auden, Dr G.A. 1A.5

B

Bachelor of Education (Scottish degree) - see 'Master of Education'

Backward children - see 'Children, backward'

Behavioural processes 4.13

Binet 1A.4

Binet-Simon scale - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales'

Biology, biological scientists 1.1, 4.13

Birmingham 1A.5, 1A.19

Birmingham University - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

Board of Education 1A.19, 1A.21 (see also 'Department of Education and Science' and 'Ministry of Education')
further training of teachers, arrangements for 4.24 (see also 'Circular 1453')
medical department 1A.3, 1A.5, 1A.17

Bowden, The Rt, Hon. the Lord 8.1 (n)

Brain Drain, the (Jones Report) 7.53(n1)

Bristol local education authority 6.59

Bristol University 6.43(n)

British Child-Study Association 1A.2, 1A.14

British Council for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled 3.6(n)

British intelligence scale - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales'

British Medical Journal 5.19(n)

British Psychological Society 15, 3.R10, 7.R12, 7.R19, 1.28(n), 3.11, 3.18, 4.5, 4.10(n), 4.16, 4.19, 5.46, 7.19, 7.37(2), 7.48, 1A.27-30
accelerated programme of training, assistance for 7C.2
advanced courses 7.2, 7.38
Bulletin 5.34(n)
contribution of psychologists in education services, views on 6.3
examining body 7.9(n), 7.37, 7.38
recommendations on staffing 5.23

Burnham Committee 2.18

Burt, Sir Cyril 1.22-23, 1A.7, 1A.13-14, 1A.25

C

Cambridge University 1A.27

Careers guidance 3.R5, 3.6-9, 6.12, 6.39, 7.29, 7.39
Careers Guidance in Schools (HMSO) 3.6

Case conferences 2.30

Chicago Juvenile Psychopathic Institute 1A.9

Chief education officers 2.11, 2.24, 2.36, 2.43-44, 3.2-3, 6.41, Appendix 2A (see also 'Association of C.E.O.s')
concern at shortages of psychologists 5.5, 5.62, 7.34, 7.36
estimates of needs for psychologists 5.25-29, Figure 2.1, 5.61, 5B,4-5

Child care staff - see 'Children's departments'

Child Guidance (M. of E. Circular) - see 'Circular 347'

Child guidance clinics 2.25, 2.27, 2.33-34, 2.40-43
alternative names 3.21(n)
child guidance teams 6.R14, 2.5, 2.9, 2.31-35, 5.6, 6.2, 6.78
Underwood pattern threatened by shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers 5.7-9
child guidance treatment 2.32, Figure 2.8, 5,24
staffing 5, 5.R6-7, Table 5.3, 5.18-23, Appendix 5A
regional hospital board 5, 5.R7, 2.13
voluntary 5, 5.R7

Child Guidance, Council 7.5, 1A.11-12

Child Guidance Training Centre, the - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

Child psychiatrists 2.41(n), 5.19, 7.21(1) (see also 'Psychiatrists', 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, interdisciplinary training' and 'school psychological and child guidance services, interdisciplinary collaboration')

Children 5.R10, 6.R12, 7.R6, 1.23, 2.25, 2.27-28, 2.38, 2.42, 3.3, 6.36, 6.77, 7.21, 7.28, 8.3-4, 7C.3
babies 1.4-7, 1.10, 1.12
before the courts - see 'Juvenile courts'
behaviour difficulties 2.6, 2.9, 3.3, 6.10, 7.5 (see also 'Children, maladjusted' and 'Delinquency')
educational psychologists' relationships with 4.32-35, 6.22, 6.67


[page 164]

(Children, continued)
environment(s)
    family 2, 1.R1, 3.R1, 1.30, 2.32, 3.2, 6.5, 6.21
    school 2, 1.R1, 3.R1, 3.R3, 1.30, 2.32, 3.2, 4.32, 6.5, 6.21
    social 1.29-30, 4.32-33
growth, development and intellectual development 1, 2, 1.1-13, 1.19, 1.23, 1.25-27, 3.3, 3.15, 4.13, 4.32-33, 4.37, 6.3, 6.21, 7.27, 7.29, 8.3, 7C.3 (see also 'Language acquisition')
developmental and learning difficulties 2, 4, 1.R1, 3.R3, 6.R8, 1.29, 2.6, 2.9, 3.15, 6.9, 6.13, 6.22, 6.45(n), 7.9, 7.28-29, 7.39
handicapped 3.R5, 3.R9, 1.22-23, 3.6, 6.9, 6.11, 6.39, 6.42-43, 6.59, 6.63, 6.65, 7.21, 1A.3, 1A.15 (see also 'Delinquency')
    backward 1.24
    cerebrally palsied 6.62
    communication (hearing and speech) defects 2.37, 3.6, 6.20, 6.59, 7.39, 1A.14-16
    deaf - see 'communication defects', above
    educationally subnormal 3.6, 6.39, 6.43, 1A.3, Appendix 6A
    epileptic 1A.15-16
    maladjusted 1.24, 2.32, 3.6, 4.22, 6,13, 6.42, 6,45(n), 7.21
    mentally subnormal, mentally handicapped, imbecile 1.11, 3.4, 3.17, 1A.15
    visual defects 7.39
language acquisition 1.14-19
mother-child relationships 1.3, 1.9, 1.14, 1.16
perceptual stimulation 1.9-12
play 1.8
pre-school 2, 3.R1, 3.R8, 3.2, 3.15, 5.27, 7.29
welfare in long term future 8.1

Children Act (1908) 1A.5

Children and their Primary Schools - see 'Plowden Report'

Children and Young Persons Act 3.13

Children's departments and children's officers 3.R7, 2.36, Figure 2.9, 3.13-14, 6.27, 6.39, 6.45, 6.68, 7C.3

Children's homes - see 'Hostels'

Child, the Family and the Young Offender, the, 8.2

Child Welfare clinics - see 'Welfare clinics'

Circular 1453 (Board of Education) 4.24

Circular 160 (Ministry of Education) 4.18, 4.24-26, 4.28-29

Circular 347 (Ministry of Education) 2.32, 2.41, 6.45, Appendix 2C

Circular 348 (Ministry of Education) 2.32

Civil Service Psychologist Class 4.10, 5.38 (see also 'Ministry of Labour')
Civil Service Commission 5.38(n)
Defence departments 5.38(n) (see also 'Defence departments')
Home Office 5.38(n) (see also 'Home Office')
Ministry of Transport 5.38(n)
Scottish Home and Health Departments 5.38(n)

Clarke, A.M. and A.D.B. 3.17(n)

Clearing house - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, selection of candidates'

Clinical psychologists and clinical psychology 2.22, 3.15, 4.10, 4.13(2), 5.52, 6.74(n), 7.9, 7.10, 7.20

B.P.S. Diploma in Clinical Psychology 7.9(n)
methods of training 7.20(n)
    joint training with educational psychologists 7.22

College of Teachers of the Blind 6.61

Colleges of education 1A.25
lecturers in ... working in child guidance services on a sessional basis 6.67
psychologists working in ... 6, 5.R8, 5.41, 6.58, 6.67, 6.72

Commonwealth Fund of America 7.5-6, 1A.11(2), 7B.1

Community mental health services 2.36, Figure 2.9

Community Services for the Mentally Handicapped 3.17(n)

Computer techniques 7.39

Co-ordination of postgraduate training - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, co-ordination and finance'

Courses for Teachers (Board of Education Circular) - see 'Circular 1453'

Courts - see 'Juvenile courts'

Cutts, N.E. 7B.3(n)

D

Defence departments 4.10 (see also 'Civil Service Psychologist Class, Defence departments')
Degrees in psychology 6, 7, 4.R1, 7.R6, 2.3, Figure 2.5, 2.22-23, 4.2, 4.5-11, 4.14, 4.23, 4.26, 7.26, 7.35, 7.55, 4A.20, 4B.1-2, 4B.35-38 (see also 'Graduates in psychology')
doctorates 14, 7.R9, 4.10
educational psychologists with ... as their first qualification 4.27, Table 4.1, 4.42
equivalents 4.11, 7.26 (see also 'joint honours')
financial support for undergraduates taking ... 7.59
higher degrees 2.22, 4.10, 7.40, 7A.2 (see also 'doctorates' and 'Masters')
joint honours 4.10(n) 5.2, Table 5.1, Table 5.5
Masters 7.R18, 4.10, 4.13, 7.9(n), 7.10, 7.33
new two-year postgraduate course in educational psychology 7.R18, 7.33
numbers - see 'Graduates in psychology'
part-time courses 2.3, 4.22, Table 5.5
pressure for places on courses 5.35
qualifying courses 7.8, 7.13, Table 7.1, 4B.13(n), 4B.18, 4B.20
specialised course in educational psychology 7.23-25

Delinquency (children, young people) 1.24, 7.39

Demonstration services - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, new departments'

Department of Education and Science 15, 17, 7.R12, 7.R16-17, 1.28(n), 5.38(n), 5.57, 7.47, 7.48, 7.52, 7.54, 1A.23 (see also Ministry of Education)
evidence to Maud Commission 6.73
lead from ... required in examination of local authority child guidance policies 5.9
recommendations for alleviating shortages of psychiatric social workers 5.13

de Sanctis, Sante 1A.10

Developmental psychology 4.13

Dewey, John 1.13

Doctors (medical) - see 'Child psychiatrists', 'General practitioners', 'Paediatricians', 'Psychiatrists' and 'School medical officers and medical officers of health'

Doctors (other than medical) - see 'Degrees in psychology (i) doctorates (ii) higher degrees

E

Early learning - see 'Children, growth and development'

Earmarked allocations - see 'Government funds'

Education (process) 1.19, 6.3, 6.77, 8.4
educational organisation 6.64
further and higher education 3.7
resources for long-term future 8.1


[page 165]

Education Act, 1944, 2.42, 4.22, 1A.16, 1A.20, 1A.22

Educational administrators 6.47-48, 6.65, 6.72

Educationally subnormal children - see 'Children, educationally subnormal'

Educational psychologists - see 'Psychologists in education services' and 'Association of Educational Psychologists'

Educational welfare officers 6.3, 6.10, 7C.3

Education in Psychology and Psychiatry, Reports from General Practice VII, 5.19(n)

Education in Scotland in 1962, 5.28(n)

Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act, 1899, 1A.15

Evidence submitted - see 'Witnesses'

Exchequer funds - see 'Government funds'

F

Family services 3.13

Fifth Report, 1966-67 - see 'Universities Central Council on Admissions'

Finance - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology (i) student support (ii) co-ordination and finance'

Fourth Report, 1965-66 - see 'Universities Central Council on Admissions'

Freud 1.3, 7.9, 1A.6

Froebel 1A.24

Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales and other scales for assessment'

Functions of Universities in Modern Society, the 8.1(n)

Further education 3.R13, 3.20

G

Galton, Francis 1A.2, 1A.24

General practitioners 2.37, 2,41(n), 3.15, 6.45(n) (see also 'Royal College of General Practitioners')
psychological and psychiatric aspects of medical education, interest in 5.19(n)

Gittins Report - see 'Primary Education in Wales'

Glasgow University 6.43(n)

Government, framework of 6.77

Government funds 16, 7.R14-15, 7.6, 7.48, 7.51-52

Graduates in psychology 5.R11, 4.21, 7.35, 7.54 (see also 'Degrees in psychology' and 'School psychological and child guidance services, attractiveness to graduate psychologists')
numbers 6, 4.R2, 5.R9, 4.27, 4.42, 5.2, Table 5.1, 5.8, 5.30-34, 7.4, 7,25, 7,59, 4B.4-5, Table 4B.1 (see also 'Degrees in psychology, pressure for places on courses' and 'Psychologists in education services, competitive demands for psychologists')
entering National Health Service 7.20
entering teaching 7, 4.R3(b), 4.17, 4.27, 4.39, 7.4, 7.12, 7.18, 7.20, 7.55
intending to qualify as educational psychologists 5.3, Table 5.2, Figure 5.1, 5.34, 4B.6-8 (see also 'School psychological and child guidance services, attractiveness to graduate psychologists')
training in educational psychology 7, 4.R3(b)-(c), 4.29, 4.40-42
    without entering intermediate career as a teacher 4.40, 7.4, 7.23 (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, new departments')

Grant Foundation 7.12(b)

Guardian, the (newspaper) 8.1(n)

Gulbenkian Foundation 7.12(a)

Gunzburg, H.C. 3.17(n)

Guy's Hospital 1A.12 (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, Guy's Hospital')

H

Handicapped Pupils and School Health Service Regulations, 1945, 4.22, 1A.20 (see also 'Children, handicapped')

Handicapped Pupils and Special Schools Regulations, 1959, 1A.20

Handicapped School Leaver, the (Thomas Report) 3.6(n)

Health visitors 6.45(n), 6.68

Healy, William 1A.7, 1A.9

Historical background to psychologists in education services Appendix 1A

Home Office, the 8.2 (see also 'Civil Service Psychologist Class, Home Office')

Hospital psychiatric services 6.R13, 7.R8, 2.13, 2.41(n), 3.9, 6.37, 6.75, 7C.3

Hospitals 2.30, 2.37, 2.42, 3.15, 5.37, 5.52, 6.32
children's 7.28

Hostels and children's homes 2.30, 3.13, 7.21, 7.28, 7C.3

Human Use of Human Beings, the 8.1(n)

I

Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales and other scales for assessment'

Image of psychologists in local education services 5.46, 5.51, 5.54(b)

Imbecile children - see 'Children, mentally subnormal'

Inner London Education Authority 6.59 (see also London County Council)

In-service training in educational psychology - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, in service'

Inspectors 6.3, 6.65, 6.72, 1A.14
Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools 5.38(n)
    qualified in psychology 7.48
local authority 2.18, 6.51-52

Institute of Youth Employment Officers 5.5

Intelligence tests - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales'

J

James, William 1.4, 1.12

Jewish Health Organisation 1A.11

Joint appointments - see 'Local education authorities, joint appointments'

Jung 7.9

Juvenile courts 3.R10-12, 2.36, Figure 2.9, 3.18-19, 1A.5 (see also 'Delinquency' and 'Magistrates Association')

L

Labour, Ministry of - see 'Ministry of Labour'

Lancashire local education authority 6.73(n)

Language acquisition, development and use 1.2, 1.25, 1.28

Latin 1.4

Learning processes 1, 2, 1.1-29, 4.13, 6.64

Leeds University 6.43(n)

Leicester local education authority 1A.18

Local authorities 2.39, 4.1, 8.2

Local authority associations 15, 17, 7.R12, 2.18, 2.39, 5.5

Local education authorities 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 3.R3, 5.R1, 5.R6-7, 5.R10-11, 6.R4-5, 6.R7, 6.R11, 6.R20, 7.R2, 7.R5, 7.R8, 7.R13, 7.R15-18, 2.4-5, 2.12, 2.39-40, 2.43, 3.4, 3.6, 3.9, 4.1, 4.3, 4.22, 6.71-75, 7.12, 7.18, 7.47, 7.56, 8.1, 7A.3, 7A.5
administrative setting for educational psychologists 6.41
costs of training educational psychologists falling on ... 7.47
joint appointments for educational psychologists 6.58, 6.67, 6.69, 7A.5
need for new policy for child guidance 5,9


[page 166]

Local education authorities (continued)
training arrangements for educational psychologists, (growth of) 4.24-26

Local Government Act, 1966, 15, 7.R13, 4.15(n), 7.47(n1) (see also 'Pooling of training costs')

Local Government in Wales 8.2

Local health authorities 2.37, 3.15-17

London County Council 1A.14 (see also 'Inner London Education Authority')

London, University of 7.13
Birkbeck College 8.1(n)
Institute of Child Health 6.43(n)
Institute of Psychiatry 7.10
University College 1A.27
(see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments')

M

Mackintosh Report on Social Workers in the Mental Health Services 5.21

Magistrates Association 3.R10, 3.18

Maladjusted children - see 'Children, maladjusted'

Management of Local Government (Maud Report) 8.2, 8.3

Manchester University 1.28(n) (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments')

Manpower Appendix 5C

Marriage and family guidance council 3.21

Master of Education (degree, Scot.) 4.11, 4B.8, 4B.12, 4B.34 (see also 'Degrees in psychology')

Maternity and child welfare clinics - see 'Welfare clinics'

Maud Commission - see 'Royal Commission on Local Government in England'

Maud Committee - see 'Management of Local Government'

Maudsley Hospital - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

Medical education, new approaches 7.24

Medical Education, Royal Commission on - see 'Royal Commission on Medical Education'

Meetings of the working party, page 2

Members of working party, page 1

Mental Deficiency: the changing outlook 3.17(n)

Mental health 2

Mental Health Act, 1959, 1A.20

Mental health services - see 'Community mental health services'

'Migrants' - see 'School psychological and child guidance services, psychologists "migrating" from' and 'Colleges of education, psychologists working in'

Miller, Dr. Emanuel 1A.11

Minister of Education 2.32 (now Secretary of State for Education and Science)

Ministry of Education 6.45 (see also 'Department of Education and Science' and 'Board of Education')
Circulars - see 'Circular'
further training of teachers, arrangements for 4.24-26, 4.28-29
training educational psychologists, arrangements for - see 'Circular 160'

Ministry of Health 6.45
lead from ... required in examination of hospital child guidance policies 5.9
supply prospects for psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers, information on 5.18-21

Ministry of Labour 4.10

Mobile units 6.R19, 6.57, 7A.8

N

National Association for Mental Health 6.43(n), 7.6

National Association of Probation Officers 5.5

National Foundation for Educational Research 6.64

National Health Service 2.22, 4.10, 5.38, 5.52, 6.74(n), 7.9, 7.10, 7,20, 7,22(n) (see also 'Hospitals', 'Hospital psychiatric services' and 'Regional hospital boards')

National Union of Teachers 6.64, 6.66

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, University of 6.43(n)

New towns 8.4

Northern Ireland 5.30(n), 5.32-34, 4B.2, Table 4B.1, 4B.12, 4B.34, 4B.46

Nottingham University 7.9(n)

Nurseries and nursery schools 7.R6, 7.28, 7C.3

Nursery nurses 6.68

Nurses 6.68

O

Occupational psychology 4.13

Office staff and equipment - see 'Psychologists in education services, conditions of service'

Organisers 2.18, 6.3, 6.47, 6.48, 6.51-52

P

Parents 2.6, 2.28, 2.30, 2.41(n), 3.3, 3.15, 6.5, 6.9, 6.15, 6.19, 6.28, 6.32, 6.36, 6.45(n), 7.29, 7C.3

Paediatricians 3.15

Piaget, Jean 1.4, 1.12

Plowden Report, 1.23, 3.16, 6A.2(n)

Pooling of training costs
educational psychologists pool 15, 7.R13, 7.17, 7.37, 7.47-48, 7.55-56, 7.59 (see also 'Local Government Act, 1966')
    advanced training costs 7.58, 7.60
teachers pool 4.15(n), 4.28-29, 7.47(n2)

Population pressures 5.17, 6.77, 8.1

Postgraduate studentships - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, student support'

Postgraduate diploma in educational psychology - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, diplomas'

Postgraduate training in clinical psychology 2.22 (see also 'Clinical psychologists')

Postgraduate training (diploma) in education - see 'Teacher training'

Postgraduate training in educational psychology 7, 4.R1, 7.R1-20, 2.22, 4.2, 4.5-7, 4.12-13, 4.15
accelerated training programmes 9.12-13, 16, 17, 5.R5, 7.R7-8, 7.R13, 7.R15, 7.R18, 5.62-64, 7.3, 7.23, 7.34-37, 7.52, 7.60, Appendix7C
    'clearing house' procedure - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, selection of students'
    costs of ... falling on local authorities 7.47, 7.60
    length of course 7C.2
advanced and specialised ... - see 'Advanced and specialised courses in educational psychology'
affected by shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers 5.7, 6.35, 6.77
content 6.79, 7.2, 7.11, 7.27-30, 4A.5-17
    accelerated courses 7C.3
    restricted by one-year courses 7.2, 7.29, 7.45, 4A.15-17
    work with very young children 3.15


[page 167]

(Postgraduate training in educational psychology, continued)

co-ordination and finance 15-17, 7. R11-17, 7.5-6, 7.12, 7.16, 7.40-60 (see also 'Postgraduate' training in educational psychology (i) student support (ii) cost' and 'Pooling of training costs')
    capital costs 7.50
    costs of training falling on local authorities 7.47
    departments' maintenance expenditure 7.50
cost 6.79, 7.14, 7.53
diplomas 7.9, 7.9(n), 7.11, 7C.2 (see also 'Degrees in psychology, Masters')
entry and qualifications for entry 6, 7, 4.R2-3, 7, R6, 4.2, 4.15, 4.19, 7.54(b), 7,56
    to courses in accelerated programme run by local education authorities 7C.2
equipment 7.16, 7.21
examinations 7.R19, 7.9(n), 7.37, 7C.2
existing departments 7.12, 7.R7, 7.R18, 4.6, 4.14 (see also 'Nottingham University')
    capacity 7.14-17, Table 7.1, 7.20, 7.23, 4A.20, Table 4A.2
    contribution to accelerated programme of courses in local education authorities 7C.3
    departments not part of universities 16, 7.R15, 7.52
    Birmingham University 4.28, 7.8, 7.11, Table 7.1, 7.22(n), 7.47(n2)
    Child Guidance Training Centre, the 4.24, 7.7, 7.9, Table 7.1, 1A.11
    expansion of numbers - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology (i) accelerated training programmes (ii) expansion'
    links with local education authority contributing to accelerated programme 7.37
    Manchester University 7.8, 7.11, Table 7.1
    Maudsley Hospital 7.7, 7.10, 7.14
    objectives of training 4A.1-4
    report on memoranda from ... Appendix 4A
    special arrangements for graduates in subjects other than psychology 7.13, 7.47(n2)
    special arrangements for new psychology graduates 4.15, 4.40, 4.41(b), 7.8, 7.12, 7.20, 7.23, 7.45, 7.55
    Swansea, University College 4.15, 7.8, 7.11, 7.12(a), Table 7.1, 7.55 (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, integrated pattern')
    Tavistock Clinic 4.15, 4.24, 7.7, 7.9, 7.12(b), Table 7.1, 7.38, 7.55, 1A.6 (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, integrated pattern')
    University College London 7.8-9, 7.12, 7.13, Table 7.1, 7.47(n2)
expansion 7.9, 12, 5.R3-5, 5.55-64, 7.3-4, 7.14-17, 7.31, 7.52, 7.60 (see also 'Accelerated training programmes')'
    assumptions made in calculation of ... 5.57, 5C.1-48
    calculation of ... Appendix 5C
    need for recalculation of ... by 1978, 5.57, 5C.1, 5C.10, 5C.52
    new departments 7.31
facilities 7.21-22
fees 7.51
finance - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, co-ordination and finance'
Guy's Hospital 7.10
in context of advanced training for teachers 4.23-29
influences on ... 6.76-80
in service 13, 7.R8, 2.22, 2.24
integrated pattern 4.15, 4.40, 4.41(b) (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments, special arrangements for new graduates')
    supervised practical work with children 4.35, 4.40, 7.12, 7.18
interdisciplinary training 8, 7.R4, 6.78, 7.5, 7.7, 7.9, 7.11, 7.22, 7A.7
joint training with clinical psychologists 7.22
Masters degrees - see 'Degrees in psychology, Masters'
methods of 6, 4.R2, 2.4, 7.5, 7.9, 7.11, 7.15-17
    accelerated courses in local education authorities 7C.3
    audio-visual aids 7.16
    desirable variety 7.19-20
new departments 7.10-11, 4.R3(c), 7.R2-6, 7.R18, 4.40, 4.41(c) 7.26-33, 7.52, Appendix 7A
    advantages and economies of size 7.31, 7A.2
    cost per student 7.53
    demonstration service 7.31-32, 7A.1, 7A.4
    premises 7A.8
    situation 7A.3
    staffing 7A.2, 7A.5
    training in educational aspects 4.38, 4.41(c), 7.27
    two-year courses 4.41(c), 7.26
    university departments associated with the courses 7A.3
pooling costs - see 'Local Government Act, 1966', and 'Pooling of training costs'
practical work 7.11, 7.27-28, 7.30, 7.32, 7A.1 (see also 'School psychological and child guidance services, practical training')
    in demonstration service of new departments 7.31, 7A.1, 7A.11
premises 7.21, 7A.8
pre-training orientation 7.R7(b), 4.40, 7.18 (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, integrated pattern')
purpose 6.79
selection of candidates 7.R20, 2.4, 7.45, 7.54(b), 7.56, 7.57
    accelerated courses in local education authorities 7C.2
staff 16, 6.69-70, 7.12(d), 7.14, 7.16, 7.21, 7A.2, 7A.5-6
    additional fieldwork tutors 7.17
standards 7.19, 7.32, 7.35
    accelerated courses 7.36
student support 6.15-17, 5.R9, 7.R11, 7.R16, 2.4, 5.54(a), 7.6, 7.20, 7.42, 7.44-48, 7.53-56, 7.60
    advanced and specialised training 7.58
    failure of ... 5,53
    postgraduate grants (recommended method 1) 7.54(a)
    secondment as trainee 'educational psychologists (recommended method 2) 7.54(b)
    secondment of teachers (Circular 160) 4.24-26, 4.28
    secondment from existing post (recommended method 3) 7.54(c)
    uncertainty of 4.23, 7.42
supply of students 4.24
two-year courses - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, new departments'
vacant places 5.53, 7.45, 7.45(n), 7.55

Pre-school children - see 'Children, pre-school'

Price, D.J. de S. 8.1(n)

Primary Education in Wales (Gittins Report) 6.82(n)

Prison Service 4.10

Probation officers and services 3.R12, 2.36, Figure 2.9, 3.18, 6.45, 6.68, 7C.3 (see also 'Institute of Probation Officers')

Programmed instruction - see 'Aids to learning and instruction'

Psychiatric social workers 8, 6.R2, 2.9, 2.32-35, 2.41(n), 6.4, 7.9, 7.21, 7.22, 7A.5-7, 7B.1


[page 168]

(Psychiatric social workers, continued)
(see also 'Association of Psychiatric Social Workers', 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, interdisciplinary training' and 'School psychological and child guidance services, interdisciplinary collaboration')
numbers in service Table 5.3, 5.17, Table 5.4
shortages 5, 8, 5.R6, 6.R4, 2.5, 5.6-7, 6.31-33
supply
    numbers in 1965 compared with Underwood recommendations 5.14-16, 5.20
    numbers needed to meet projections of school population 5.17, Table 5.4
    poor future prospects 5.8-9, 5.18, 5.20-21, 6.78
    Underwood recommendations - see 'Underwood Report'

Psychiatrists 8, 6.R2, 2.9, 2.32-35, 2.41, 2.41(n), 6.4, 6.37, 7.9, 7.11, 7.22, 1A.6, 7A.3, 7A.5-7, 7B,1 (see also 'Child psychiatrists' and 'Royal Medico-Psychological Association')
numbers in service Table 5.3, 5.17, Table 5.4
scope for employing psychiatrists below consultant rank 5.19(n)
shortages 5, 8, 5.R6, 6.R4, 2.5, 2.34, 5.6-7, 6.31-33
supply
    numbers in 1965 compared with Underwood recommendations 5.14-16, 5.19
    numbers needed to meet projections of school population 5.17, Table 5.4
    poor future prospects 5.8-9, 5.18-19, 6.78
    Underwood recommendations - see 'Underwood Report'

Psychological examiners (U.S.A.) 7.35, 7B.2, 7B.4-6

Psychological reports - see 'Psychologists in education services, examples of work, communication'

Psychological Services for Schools (UNESCO) 5.22, 5.28, 5.61

Psychological tests - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales and other scales for assessment'

Psychologist Class - see 'Civil Service'

Psychologists in education services
administrative setting 4, 2.40, 3.R3, 6.R5, 3.1, 6.41
age 2.2, Figure 2.4, 2.21, 2.23
career structure and prospects 4, 6, 5.R9, 6.R10, 6.R20-21, 5.44, 5.47, 5.49, 5,54(c), 6.58-59, 6.67, 6.74
    improved by developments towards larger authorities 6.72, 6.74 conditions of service 5.47
office staff, equipment and other facilities 6.R18, 6.53-57
dangers of psychologists working in isolation 6.37
date of training Figure 2.3
demands for increased numbers 5.R2, 3.1, 3.3-4, 6.66, 6.77 (see also 'Psychologists in education services, supply and recruitment')
examples of work:
    appraisal and evaluation 6.7-14
    (a) problems of individual children 6.8-12
    (b) problems of groups of children 6.13
    (c) research 6,14
    investigation 6.15-16
    action 6.17-26
    (a) decision 6.18-20
    (b) treatment 6.21-23
    (c) follow up 6.24-26
    communication 6.27 (see also 'Psychologists in education services, work and functions')
experience before appointment 2.11
historical background Appendix 1A
joint appointments - see 'Local education authorities, joint appointments'
length of preparation 4.15, 4.17, 5.51-52, 6.79, 7.2
length of working life 6.79
    reduction in ... 5.54
lower tier of ... 7.35
main contribution of ... 6.2-4 (see also 'Psychologists in education services, work and functions')
methods of entry - see 'Psychologists in education services, sources'
need for ... first became apparent 4.22
numbers of appointments and numbers in service 2.12, 2.14-17, 5.4, Table 5.3, 5.17, Table 5.4
    distribution 2.12, 2.14-16
    full-time and part-time 2.11, 2.14
    in ratio to school children 2.14-15, 2.17, Figure 2.1, 3.4, 5.22-23, 5.28
    in Scotland 5.28, 5.61
    on 31 December 1966, in relation to other staff, to Underwood recommendations and to the recommendations of this working party (diagrams for each local education authority) Appendix 5A
    working together 2.5, 2.16, Table 2.1, 6.73-74
proportions of men and women 2.20, Figure 2.3
qualifications and training 3, 7, 4.R1-3, 6, R3, 2.3-4, 2.11, Figures 2.3-7, 2.22-23, 4.1-42, 4A.19, Table 4A.1, 4B.35-46, Table 4B.2
recognition 4.3
recommended ratio to school children 1 :10,000, 5.R1-2, 5.29, 5.60-64, 7.3, 7.32, Appendix 5A (see also 'Psychologists in education services, supply and recruitment' and 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, expansion')
routes of entry 7, 4.R2-3, 4.39-42, 7.4, 7.12-13, 7.20, 7.23, 7.54
sources 6, 7, 4.R2, 5.R8, 4.26-29, 4.42, 5.52, 7.3-4, 7.23, 5C.51
statistical information Appendix 2B
supply and recruitment 5, 6, 5.R1-11, 3.4, 4.3, 4.42, 5.1-64, 6.71, 7.3-4, 7.23, 7.31-32 (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology (i) accelerated training programmes (ii) existing departments, capacity (iii) expansion (iv) new departments')
    competitive demand for psychologists 5.35-38, 5.51, 7.4, 4B.32
    estimates of needs and recommendations on ratios, working party 5.25-29, 7.3
    estimates of needs, British Psychological Society 5.23, 5.28
    estimates of needs, UNESCO Institute of Education 5.22, 5.28
    needs can be met from future numbers of psychology graduates 5.8, 5C.51
    needs in Scotland and N. Ireland 5.34
    new postgraduate training departments - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, new departments'
    numbers estimated by chief education officers to be needed in 1965 Appendix 5B, 5.25-26
    numbers in 1965 compared with Underwood recommendations 5.15-16
    numbers needed to meet projections of school population 5.17, Table 5.4, 5.58-64, 7.3, Appendix 5C (see also 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, expansion')
    shortage 5.5, 5.43, 5.54(b)
    to take account of 'migrants' 5.42, 5.57, 5C.21-30
    Underwood recommendations - see 'Underwood Report'


[page 169]

Psychologists in education services (continued)
teaching experience 2.3-4, Figure 2.7, 2.23, 4.2, 4.5-7, 4.14-42, 6.72
    alternative work with children 4.35
    before degree in psychology 4.26
    before postgraduate training in educational psychology 4.28
    influences of sources of support for postgraduate training in educational psychology 4.23-26
    kinds of ... 4.35
    length 4.34
    need for supervision 4.35, 4.40
teacher training Figure 2.4, 2.23, 4.6-7, 4.27, Table 4.1, 6.72
trained as educational psychologists Figure 2.6, 4.12
training - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology'
vacancies - see 'Psychologists in education services, numbers of appointments and numbers in service'
work and functions 2, 5, 1.R1. 2.R1, 3.R1-13, 5.R6, 6.R1-21, 7.R9-10, 1.29, 2.5-11, 2.24-39, 3.1-22, 6.1-70 (see also 'Psychologists in education services. examples of work' and 'Assessment, psychological and educational')
administration 6.R16, 2.8, 2.29, 5.49, 6.42, 6.47, 6.74, 7.39 (see also 'Advanced and specialised courses in educational psychology')
affected by shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers 5.7, 6.35-37, 6.77
clinical work 5.45
communication 2.8, 2.24(n), 2.26, 5.43, 6.5, 6B.2
contact with other services 2.36-37, Figure 2.9, 3.4 (see also under individual services, e.g, 'Careers guidance', 'School counsellors', 'Children's departments', 'Local health authorities', 'Juvenile courts', 'Probation officers and services')
educational policy, contributions to 6.2, 6.47
in relation to teaching experience 4.30-38
interdisciplinary collaboration 8, 2.R1, 6.R14, 2.5, 2.9, 2.31, 2.33, 5.6, 5.43, 6.31-39
organisation of psychological services 5.49, 6.47, 6.74 (see also 'Advanced and specialised courses in educational psychology')
pressure 5.43, 5.52, 7.2
preventive work 6.R2, 6.4
procedures in outline 6.5 (see also 'Psychologists in education services, examples of work')
relationships with children 4.32-35, 5.45
relationships with teachers 4.36-37
remedial measures - see 'Psychologists in education services, work and functions, treatment'
research - see 'Research and development'
secondary school selection 2.30, 6.11
specialised clinical work 4.14, 6.R8, 7.R9, 2.37, 5.49, 6.34, 6.59-63, 6.72, 6.74, 7.40 (see also 'Advanced and specialised courses in educational psychology')
training other workers 6.R9, 2.30, 3.3, 5.41-42, 6.63, 6.66-68
travelling 2.24(n), 2.29, 6.56
treatment 2.9, 2.27, 3.3, 6.5, 6.18, 6.22-23, 6.35-36, 6.49-50, 6.65

Psychology, psychologists 1.1-2, 1.28-29, 2.39, 4.10, 4.13, 4.20, 6.68, 6.72. 8.1-2
in industry and commerce 5.37
needs in national organisations 5.38
psychological knowledge 6.R1, 7.R9, 1.1-2, 6.77, 7.2, 7.40
diffusion of 3.14, 3.11

Psycho-neurosis 7.7

Psychotherapists, non-medical 5.13-14

Q

Qualifications - see 'Psychologists in education services, qualifications and training' and 'Degrees in psychology')

R

Reception centres 3.13, 7.21

Regional hospital boards 2.40-41, 6.75, 7A.3, 7A.5 (see also' Hospitals' and' Hospital psychiatric services')
need for new policy for child guidance 5.9

Remand homes 3.13, 7.28

Remedial education and methods 6.R17, 1.19, 1.21, 1.27-28, 2.30, 3.3, 6.13, 6.22, 6.26, 6.37, 6.49-50, 7.8, 7.11

Remuneration 6.R21, 2.2, 2.11, 2.18-19, Figure 2.2, 6.72, 6.74, 7.17, 1A.30
special allowances for supervision 16, 7.R13, 7.47
'Top grade' psychologists 6.74

Rehousing 8.4

Renewed towns 8.4

Research and development 3, 4, 14, 6.R9, 7.R9, 2.30, 3.3, 4.10, 4.13, 5.43-44, 5.51, 6.14, 6.26, 6.36, 6.59, 6.62, 6.64, 6.72, 7.40, 7.60, 6B.2-3, 7A.2

Robbins Committee on Higher Education Table 5.5(n), 7.51(n), 7.53(n1)

Rousseau 1A.24

Routes into educational psychology - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, entry'

Royal College of General Practitioners 5.19(n)

Royal Commission on Local Government in England (Maud Commission) 6.73, 6.75, 8.2

Royal Commission on Medical Education 5.19(n)

Royal Medico-Psychological Association 5.5, 6.35

S

Salaries - see 'Remuneration'

School counsellors 3.R6, 3.6, 3.9-12

School health service 2.37(n), 2.40, 2.41(n), 2.43, 5.6(n) (see also 'School medical officers')

School Health Service Regulations, 1959 2.43

School-leavers - see 'Careers guidance' and 'Handicapped School Leaver, the'

School medical officers and medical officers of health 3.R8, 2.41(n), 2.43-44, 3.15-16, 6.3, 6.10, 6.27, 6.39, 6.42-44, 6.68, 1A.20, 7C.3 (see also 'School health service' and 'Society of Medical Officers of Health')
courses for ... undertaking psychological assessments 6.43(n)
psychological assessments by ... 6.43
    educationally subnormal children Appendix 6A

School Psychological Service, the (B.P.S.) - see 'British Psychological Society, recommendations on staffing'

School psychological and child guidance services 2.12, 2.33, 2.37(n) 2.40-44, 3.1, 3.6, 3.9, 5.6(n), 6.66
accelerated programme for training educational psychologists to be undertaken by ... - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, accelerated programmes'
access to - see 'School psychological and child guidance services, systems of referral'
administration 2.40, 6.74 (see also 'Psychologists in education services, administrative setting')
alternative arrangements for ... 2.13


[page 170]

(School psychological and child guidance services continued)
attractiveness to graduate psychologists 5.R11, 5.36-52, 7.4, 4B.25-34, 5C.51 (see also 'Graduates in psychology intending to qualify as educational psychologists')
measures to increase ... 5.54
collaborative pilot scheme 6.R7, 6.R20, 6.74-75
demands for ... 6.77
demonstration ... - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology. new departments'
early development of 4.22
joint services 2.12 (see also 'School psychological and child guidance services, collaborative pilot scheme')
new policies to take account of manpower available, need for 5.9
organisation 4, 5, 5.R1-2, 5.R6-7, 5.R10, 6.R1-21, 5.9, 6.74 (see also 'Psychologists in education services (i) supply and recruitment (ii) work and functions' and 'Advanced and specialised courses in educational psychology')
    on a regional basis 6.60, 6.73-75
psychologists 'migrating' from ... 6, 5.R8, 5.39-45, 5.49-50, 5.57(n3), 6.62-65, 6.67, 6.69, 6.71-72, 5C.2-4, 5C.21-30, Tables 5C.2 & 3, 5C.38, 5C.42, 5C.42(n)
    'early migrants' 5.40, 5C.4, 5C.42
practical training in ... 7.9, 7.11, 7.17, 7.21, 7.27, 7.30
reduced opportunities for working in interdisciplinary teams 6.33
    collaboration with hospital psychiatric services to compensate 6.37
satisfaction and dissatisfactions of psychologists working in ... 5.39-49
secondment of psychologists as tutors to postgraduate training departments 16, 7.R13, 7.47
staffing Appendix 5A (see also 'Psychologists in education services, supply and recruitment'. 'Psychiatrists, supply', 'Psychiatric social workers, supply', 'Child guidance clinics, staffing' and 'Underwood Report, staffing recommendations')
systems of referral 6.R15, 6.44

School psychologists (U.S.A.) 3.9, 7.35, 7B.2-5

School Psychologists at Mid-Century 78.3(n)

Schools 2.25, 2.27, 2.30, 2.41(n), 2.42, 3.1, 3.9-10, 3.16, 6.4, 6.10, 6.32, 6.56-57, 6.72, 6.77, 7.11-12, 7.28, 8.1, 8.3, 7C.3
independent school pupils 5.27
residential 6.20, 6.25, 7.21

Schools Council 6.64

Science Since Babylon 8.1(n)

Scotland 5.28, 5.28(n), 5.30(n), 5.32-34, 5.61, 4B,2, Table 4B.1, 4B.8, 4B,12, 4B.34, 4B.46

Secondment for training - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, student support'

Secretarial and administrative help 6.R18, 6.53-57

Seebohm Committee on local authority and allied personal social services 5.21(n2), 8.2

Simon 1A.4

Skills for a new world 8.1(n)

Skinner, B.F. 6.64(n)

Slum clearance 8.4

Social Rehabilitation of the Subnormal 3.17(n)

Social Science Research Council 17, 7.R17, 7.54

Social scientists 1.1

Social services 3.9, 6.77, 7.30, 8.2-4

Committee on local authority and allied personal ... see 'Seebohm Committee'

Social workers 6.R2, 5.13-14, 5.21, 6.3-4, 6.15, 6.39, 6.45(n), 6.68, 7.11, 7.21, 7.24

Social Workers in the Local Authority Health and Welfare Services - see 'Younghusband Report'

Social Workers in the Mental Health Services - see 'Mackintosh Report'

Society of Medical Officers of Health 5.5 (see also 'School medical officers')

Soulbury, Lord 2.18

Soulbury Committee (Report) - see 'Remuneration'

Spastics Society 6.62, 7.38

Special allowances - see 'Remuneration'

Special classes 6.R17, 1.22-23, 2.42, 6.26, 6.48, 7.21, 7C.3
in association with child guidance or school psychological services 6.50

Special education and special educational treatment 3.3, 6.13, 6.20, 6.22, 6.42, 6.51, 6.65, 1A.20 (see also 'Special schools' and 'Special classes')

Special Educational Treatment for Maladjusted Children (M. of E. Circular) - see 'Circular 348'

Special schools 1.24, 2.42, 3.17, 6.12, 6.19, 6.48, 6.57, 6.61, 7C.3
for maladjusted children 6.18-19, 6.48, 7.21

Speech therapists 6.68

Statistical information on educational psychologists Appendix 28

Statistics 7.39

Statistics of Education (D.E.S.) 5.17(n), 5.24(notes), Table 5.4, 5.57(n1 & 2), 6.1 (n)

Straker, Dermot 5.33

Student support - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, student support'

Sully, James 1A.3, 1A.25

Survey of educational psychologists in service on 1 May 1965 Appendix 2B

Swansea, University College of - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

T

Tavistock Clinic - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

Teacher training 2.3, 4.2, 4.15, 5.41, 5.44, 6.67, 7.28
advanced training, arrangements for 4.24-26, 6.63, 6.66, 7.56 (see also 'Circular 1453')
    counselling 3,9
educational psychologists with ... as their first qualification 4.27, Table 4.1
postgraduate diploma in education 2.3, 4.2, 7.12

Teachers 7.R6, 1.27-28, 2.6, 2.9, 2.25, 2.28, 2.30, 2.41(n), 3.3(2), 3.9, 3.11, 3.17, 4.20-23, 6.3, 6.5, 6.9, 6.16, 6.20, 6.27-29, 6.36, 6.42, 6.45, 6.45(n), 6.51, 6.62, 6.66, 7.12, 7.21, 7.35, 7.43, 7.54(c), 7.56, 7C.3
associations of 2.39, 5.5, 6.64, 6.66 (see also 'National Union of Teachers')
becoming psychologists 7, 4.R3(a), 4.24, 4.39, 4.41(a), 6.72, 7.4, 7.18, 7.20, 7.54, 7.55
careers masters 3.6
educational psychologists' relationships with ... 4.36-37, 6.22
in special schools 6.22, 6.61, 7.11
remedial 6.22, 6.49

Terms of reference, page 1

Tests - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales and other scales for assessment'

Thayer Conference (U.S.A.) 78.3

Thomas, Dr Elfed 3.6


[page 171]

Thought, thought processes (abstract, convergent, divergent) 1.12, 1.25, 1.28

Tizard, Professor J, 3.17(n)

Training centres (mentally handicapped children) 3.R9, 3.4, 3.17, 7.21, 7.28

Training in educational psychology - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology'

Training of Staff for Child Guidance (M. of E. Circular) - see 'Circular 160'

Training of Teachers (M. of E. Admin. Memo) - see 'Administrative Memorandum no. 266'

U

Underwood Committee 2.32, 4.19

Underwood Report and recommendations 5, 5.R6. 2.32(n), 2.40-41(n). 2.44, 3.6, 3.8, 4.20, 4.28, 7.19, 7.22, 7.47(n2), 7.54
co-ordination and finance of training 7.44
staffing 5.10-13, 5.17, 6.73
    adjusted for increased school population 5.16
    recommendations on interdisciplinary child guidance services threatened by shortages of psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers 5.7-9
    services to be available for all boys and girls 5.27
    staff in post on 31 December 1966 in relation to ... Appendix 5A
    survey on which Underwood recommendations were based 5.24-25, 5.57, 5B.1-2
use of term 'child guidance service' 5.6(n), 5.11
views on causes of shortage of psychologists 5.50, 5.50(n), 4B.9-24
views on open referral 6.45-46

Underwood, Dr J.E.A. 2.32

UNESCO Institute for Education - see 'Psychological Services for Schools'

United States of America 3.9, 7.5, 7.35, Appendix 7B

Universities 7.R8, 3.9, 4.10, 4.24, 5.37, 6.58, 6.70, 7.17, 7.40, 7.47-48, 7.51, 1A.25, 7A.3
departments of education 7.R5, 5.41, 6.67, 7.8, 7.11, 7.37, 1A.26, 7A.3, 7A.5, 7C.1, 7C.3
    lecturers in ... working in child guidance services on a sessional basis 6.67
departments of medicine 7.11, 7A.5
departments of psychiatry 7.R5, 7.37, 7A.3, 7C.1, 7C.3
departments of psychology 7.R5, 4.7, 4.10, 4.17, 4.22, 4.27, 5.31, 6.69, 7.8(n), 7.11, 7.37, 7A.3, 7A.5, 7C.1, 7C.3
    report on memoranda from ... Appendix 4B
    views on attractiveness of educational psychology - see 'School psychological and child guidance services, attractiveness to graduate psychologists'
departments of social studies 7A.3, 7A.5
new postgraduate training departments for educational psychologists to be set up in universities 7.32
Scottish universities 4.11

Universities Central Council on Admissions
Fourth Report, 1965-66 5.30(n)
Fifth Report, 1966-67 4.27(n)

University College London - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

University College of Swansea - see 'Postgraduate training in educational psychology, existing departments'

University Grants Committee 17, 7.R17, 7.51

V

Vocational guidance - see 'Careers guidance'

W

Wales 8.2
special needs in Wales Appendix 6B

Wall, W.D. 5.22(n)

Wechsler intelligence scales - see 'Assessment, intelligence scales'

Wiener, Norbert 8.1(n)

Welfare clinics 7.R6, 2.41(n), 3.15, 7.27

Witnesses, pages 1 & 2
list of ... Appendix A

Working Party on the Handicapped School Leaver 3.6

Y

Yorkshire West Riding local education authority 6.73(n)

Younghusband Report on Social Workers in Local Authority Health and Welfare Services 5.21

Young people 2, 3.R1-2, 3.R5, 3.R13, 2.38, 3.2, 8.3
handicapped 3.R5, 3.R9
before the courts - see 'Juvenile courts'
welfare in long-term future 8.1

Young workers 3.7-8

Youth employment officers (service) 2.36, Figure 2.9, 3.6, 6.39, 6.45 (see also 'Careers guidance' and 'Institute of Youth Employment Officers')

Youth service and youth workers 3.R13, 2.36, Figure 2.9, 3.21, 7.28