Taunton Report (1868)

Notes on the text

The complete report (Volume I) is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

(page numbers in brackets)

Preliminary pages (appointment, contents) (iii-xi)

Introduction (1-13)

Chapter I (14-99)
Kinds of education desirable
Chapter II (100-336)
Present state of schools for secondary instruction
Chapter III (337-435)
Revenues and local distribution of endowments for secondary education
Chapter IV (436-472)
The law of charities as affecting endowed schools
Chapter V (473-545)
Eight of the largest endowments
Chapter VI (546-570)
Girls' schools
Chapter VII (571-619)
Recommendations

Appendices (pdf file)
Appendix I Conscience clause (1-6)
Appendix II Number of boys in inquiry (6-27)
Appendix III Cost of board and instruction (28-35)
Appendix IV Chronological list of schools (36-90)
Appendix V Endowed schools - present condition (91-151)
Appendix VI List of Proprietary Schools (152-159)
Appendix VII Tables (160-183)
Appendix VIII Rateable values of unions (184-185)
Index to Appendices IV and V (186)

The Schools Inquiry Commission Report was prepared for the web by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 14 September 2018.


Taunton Report (1868)
Report of the Schools Inquiry Commission
Volume I

London: HM Stationery Office


[title page]

SCHOOLS INQUIRY COMMISSION


Vol. I.


R E P O R T

OF

T H E    C O M M I S S I O N E R S


Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty




LONDON:
PRINTED BY GEORGE E. EYRE AND WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE,
PRINTERS TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.
FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

1868


[page iii]

COMMISSION

TO INQUIRE INTO

THE EDUCATION GIVEN IN SCHOOLS NOT COMPRISED WITHIN HER MAJESTY'S TWO FORMER COMMISSIONS, BEARING DATE RESPECTIVELY 30th JUNE IN THE 22nd year, and 18th JULY, in the 25th YEAR OF HER MAJESTY'S REIGN. - Dated 28th December 1864.

Victoria, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith.

Our right trusty and well-beloved Councillor, Henry Baron Taunton,
Our right trusty and well-beloved Councillor Edward Henry Smith Stanley (commonly called Lord Stanley),
Our right trusty and well-beloved George William Baron Lyttelton,
Our trusty and well-beloved Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, Baronet, Companion of Our most Honourable Order of the Bath,
Our trusty and well-beloved Walter Farquhar Hook, Doctor in Divinity, Dean of Our Cathedral Church of Chichester,
Our trusty and well-beloved Frederick Temple, Doctor in Divinity,
Our trusty and well-beloved Anthony Wilson Thorold, Clerk, Master of Arts,
Our trusty and well-beloved Thomas Dyke Acland, Esquire,
Our trusty and well-beloved Edward Baines, Esquire,
Our trusty and well-beloved William Edward Forster, Esquire,
Our trusty and well-beloved Peter Erle, Esquire, One of Our Counsel learned in the Law,
And Our trusty and well-beloved John Storrar, Esquire, Doctor of Medicine, Greeting.

Whereas by Letters Patent under Our Great Seal, bearing Date the Thirtieth Day of June, in the Twenty-second Year of Our Reign, We authorized and appointed certain Persons therein named to inquire into the State of Popular Education in England,


[page iv]

and to consider and report what Measures, if any, were required for the Extension of sound and cheap elementary Instruction to all Classes of the People.

And whereas by other Letters Patent under Our Great Seal, bearing date the Eighteenth Day of July, in the Twenty-fifth Year of Our Reign, We authorized and appointed certain Persons therein named to be Our Commissioners for inquiring into the Nature and Application of the Endowments, Funds, and Revenues belonging to or received by certain Colleges, Schools, and Foundations therein named, and also to inquire into the Administration and Management of the said Colleges, Schools, and Foundations, and into the System and Course of Studies respectively pursued therein, as well as into the Methods, Subjects, and Extent of the Instruction given to the Students of the said Colleges, Schools, and Foundations.

And whereas the Persons so appointed severally as aforesaid have reported to Us upon the Matters referred to them, and We have deemed it expedient, for divers good Causes and Considerations, that a Commission should forthwith issue to inquire into the Education given in Schools not comprised within the Scope of Our Two herein-before recited Letters Patent, and also to consider and report what Measures (if any) are required for the Improvement of such Education, having especial Regard to all Endowments applicable or which can rightly be made applicable thereto.

Now know ye that We, reposing great Trust and Confidence in your Intelligence, Discretion, and Diligence, have authorized and appointed, and do by these Presents authorize and appoint you, the said Henry Baron Taunton, Edward Henry Smith Stanley (commonly called Lord Stanley), George William Baron Lyttelton, Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, Walter Farquhar Hook, Frederick Temple, Anthony Wilson Thorold, Thomas Dyke Acland, Edward Baines, William Edward Forster, Peter Erle, and John Storrar, to be Our Commissioners for inquiring into the Education given in Schools not comprised within the Scope of Our herein-before recited Letters Patent, and also to consider and report what Measures (if any) are required for the Improvement of such Education, having especial Regard to all Endowments applicable, or which can rightly be made applicable thereto.


[page v]

And for the better Discovery of the Truth in the Premises, We do by these Presents give and grant to you, or any Five or more of you, full Power and Authority to call before you, or any Five or more of you, such Persons as you shall judge necessary, by whom you may be the better informed of the Truth in the Premises.

And We do further by these Presents give and grant to you, or any Five or more of you, full Power and Authority to inquire of the Premises and every Part thereof by all lawful Ways and Means whatsoever within all Parts of England.

And We do further by these Presents give and grant to you, or any Five or more of you, full Power and Authority to cause all Persons to bring and produce before you, or any Five or more of you, all and singular Records, Books, Papers, and other Writings touching the Premises, and which shall be in the Custody of them or any of them.

And Our further Will and Pleasure is that you, or any Five or more of you, upon due Inquiry into the Premises, do prepare and reduce into Writing, and submit to us, such Regulations as you shall think fit to be established respecting the Matters aforesaid, and to certify unto Us from Time to Time, under your Hands and Seals, your several Proceedings as the same shall be completed, and do, as soon as the same can reasonably be, certify to Us in like Manner the whole of your proceedings under and by virtue of these Presents, together with what you shall find touching or concerning the Premises upon such Inquiry as aforesaid.

And We further will and command, and by these Presents ordain, that this Our Commission shall continue in full Force and Virtue, and that you, Our said Commissioners, or any Five or more of you, shall and may from Time to Time proceed in the Execution thereof and of every Matter and Thing therein contained, although the same be not continued from Time to Time by Adjournment.

And We do hereby command all and singular Our Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, Mayors, Bailiffs, Constables, Officers, Ministers, and all other Our loving Subjects whatsoever, as well within Liberties as without, that they be assistant to you and each of you in the Execution of these Presents.


[page vi]

And for your further Assistance in the Execution of these Presents We have made choice of Our trusty and well-beloved Henry John Roby, Esquire, Master of Arts, to be Secretary to this Our Commission, and to attend you, whose Services and Assistance We require you to use from Time to Time as Occasion may require.

In Witness whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent.

Witness Ourself at Westminster, the Twenty-eighth Day of December, in the Twenty-eighth Year of Our Reign.

By Warrant under the Queen's Sign Manual.
C. ROMILLY.





[page vii]

CONTENTS OF REPORT

Pages
INTRODUCTION1-13

CHAPTER I
KINDS OF EDUCATION DESIRABLE

I. Wishes of parents and opinions contained in evidence of witnesses:
  (a) Secular instruction15-38
    Three grades of education16-21
    Three leading subjects of instruction:
      (1) Language: Greek, Latin, French, German22-29
      (2) Mathematics29-32
      (3) Natural science32-38
  (b) Religious instruction38-43
  (c) Boarding and day schools compared44-49

II. Education in foreign countries and in Scotland:
  (A) New England system50-54
  (B) Upper Canada system54-56
  (C) Scotch system56-61
  (D) French system61-66
  (E) Prussian system66-72
  (F) Swiss system72-75
  Inferences from the whole75-78

III. Outline of English requirements:
  1. Schools of the third grade78-83
  2. Schools of the second grade83-86
  3. Schools of the first grade86-88
  4. Preparatory schools88-92
  5. Exhibitions92-96
  6. Ratio which the demand for secondary education bears to the population97-99

CHAPTER II
PRESENT STATE OF SCHOOLS FOR SECONDARY INSTRUCTION

Supply, and Deficiency100-104
Differences of Endowed Schools from others104-108

§1. ENDOWED SCHOOLS:
  Definition, varieties, position108-116
  I. Scholars and kind of education:
    i. Founders' intentions117-127
    ii. The present state of the Schools:
    1. Instruction given:
      (a) Secular127-140
      (b) Religious140-144
    2. Terms of admission:
      (a) Indiscriminate gratuitous education144-154
      (b) Entrance examination154-156
      (c) Selection of free scholars166-161
      (d) Scale of capitation fees161-167
    3. Local restrictions - Restrictions on exhibitions167-178


[page viii]

    iii. Mode of fulfilling founder's intentions:-
    1. Illustration of reasons for grading schools - Organization178-191
    2. Means of access to schools:
      (a) Preparatory education and third-grade schools191-201
      (b) Access to day schools201-202
      (c) Access to boarding schools:- Board at masters' houses; at lodgings, in hostels202-208
    3. Exhibitions tenable at schools208-209
    4. Endowments available for supply of new secondary schools or of exhibitions:
      (a) Endowments for grammar schools now elementary209-212
      (b) For primary schools not now needed212-213
      (c) For clothing, apprenticing, boarding214-215
      (d) For purposes unconnected with schools: e.g. doles; gifts for apprenticeship, &c.216-221
Conclusion221-222

  II. Masters:
i. Tenure; ii. Qualifications; iii. Powers; iv Emoluments; v. Number of masters223-244

  III. Governors:
i. Governors, consisting of a body specially created245-254
ii. Governors, consisting of an already existing society254
  1. Municipal corporations255-257
  2. City companies257-260
  3. Colleges260-264
  4. Deans and chapters264-273
iii. Governors by inheritance, or by ownership of land273-276

  IV. Sites and Buildings
276-283

§2. PRIVATE SCHOOLS:
283
  1. Subjects of instruction286-289
  2. Management and discipline289-292
  3. Buildings and accommodation292-294
  4. Qualifications of masters and of their assistants294-297
  5. Scholars297-298
  6. Faults and merits of private schools299-303
  7. What can be done to improve them303-306
  8. How far they can satisfy the demand for secondary education, where endowed schools fail306-309

§3. PROPRIETARY SCHOOLS:
  Classification; History; Characteristics; Educational Character310-322

§4. EXAMINATIONS:
  1. Wholly external to the schools ; viz., for Indian Civil Service, &c,325-326
  2. External, but suited to course of study; viz. University examinations326-328
  3. Expressly intended to test school work328-336


[page ix]

CHAPTER III
REVENUES AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDOWMENTS FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION

A 1. Metropolis338-343
2. Towns of about 100,000 population or upwards344-346
B. Agricultural Districts:-
  1. South-eastern Division347-355
  2. South Midland Division356-362
  3. Eastern Division363-367
  4. South-western Division368-375
  5. North Midland Division376-377
  Summary review of five agricultural divisions382-385
C. Manufacturing Districts:-
  1. West Midland Division385-393
  2. North-western Division394-400
  3. Yorkshire Division401-410
Summary of Manufacturing Districts411-414
D. Mountainous and Mining Districts:-
  1. Northern Division415-422
  2. Welsh Division423-427
E. General view of Towns from 20,000 to 100,000 population:-
(a) Manufacturing, (b) Maritime and Garrison, (c) Country Towns and Watering Places, (d) Cathedral Towns, (e) Conclusion428-432
F. Concluding Remarks432-435

CHAPTER IV
THE LAW OF CHARITIES AS AFFECTING ENDOWED SCHOOLS

I. Visitors' Jurisdiction437-438
  Objections to Visitors' jurisdiction438--440
II. Jurisdiction of Court of Chancery (including Charity Commission)440
  i. Protection of a charity against fraud or adverse claims442
  ii. Authorization of leases, mortgages, &c.442
  iii. Appointment of trustees443-445
  iv. Removal of a trustee or a master446-448
  v. Power of framing new schemes, affecting
    1. Qualifications of trustees450-451
    2. Qualifications of (foundation) masters451
    3. Character of instruction, secular and religious451-459
    4. Imposition of capitation fees459-461
    5. Local limitations461-462
    6. Admission of boarders462-463
  (1.) Objections to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery463-466
  (2.) Defects in the Charity Commission466-469
  (3.) Jurisdiction of County Courts, &c.469
    Further changes required469-472

CHAPTER V
EIGHT OF THE LARGEST ENDOWMENTS

Reasons for selection473
1. CHRIST'S HOSPITAL:-
  Proposal of Assistant Commissioner: Defects in governing body: Proposal of Mr. Hare: Nomination System474-482
  Further recommendations for London establishment482-489
  Recommendations for Hertford establishment489-491


[page x]

2. ST. OLAVE'S, SOUTHWARK:-
  History and present condition491-493
  Recommendations493-494
3. DULWICH COLLEGE:-
  History, recent legislation, value of endowment495-498
  Proposed area of admission and organization493-501
  Girls' school501-502
4. KING EDWARD'S SCHOOL, BIRMINGHAM:-
  History: constitution of governing body: recommendation502-008
  Relation of school to town508-512
  Internal organization512-515
  Recommendations515-517
5. MANCHESTER SCHOOL:-
  History and original purpose517-521
  Present condition521-523
  Recommendations524-525
6. TONBRIDGE SCHOOL:-
  History: present scheme: income, &c.525-528
  Recommendations528-529
7. BEDFORD SCHOOL:-
  History: endowment: educational system529-535
  Recommendations535-538
8, MONMOUTH SCHOOL:-
  History: governing body: income538-54O
  Recommendations540-542
  Review of the eight endowments542-545

CHAPTER VI
GIRLS' SCHOOLS

Introductory546-548
General defects of girls' education; subjects of instruction548-553
Capacity of boys and girls compared553
Cambridge local examinations554-556
University of London examinations557
Discipline; cost; day and boarding schools; teachers558-561
Normal schools562
Examinations for women generally; local boards563-564
Endowments; participation of girls in them564-568
Colleges; Conclusion568-570

CHAPTER VII
RECOMMENDATIONS

§1. Measures recommended for Improvement of Endowed Schools:
Preliminary observations571-576
1. Course of study.
  (1.) Secular instruction576-585
  (2.) Religious instruction585-591
2. Application of endowments:
  (a) Maintenance and repairs of buildings592-593
  (b) Gratuitous instruction593-598
  (c) Payment of masters598-601
  (d) Exhibitions601-604
  (e) Clothing and feeding604-607
  (f) Other purposes, and (g) Girls' schools607-608
3. Regulation of expenses608-611
4. Supply of well-qualified masters611
  Normal schools; certificates612-617
5. Management of schools:-
  Powers of head master; governors; provincial authority617-619


[page xi]

6. Inspection and examination619-622
7. Wasted endowments, recommendations concerning622-626
Summary of improvements recommended in Endowed Schools627-629

§2. Machinery suggested for carrying recommendations into effect:
629
1. External management631-648
  i. Central authority633-637
  ii. Provincial authorities637-644
  iii. Governors of schools644-648
2. Internal management:
  Examination of schools and teachers: council proposed648-651

§3. Mode of providing schools in places where there are no endowments, or where they are insufficient:
1. Private and proprietary schools652-654
2. New public schools654-659
Conclusion659-661

APPENDIX TO REPORT

APPENDIX I.
On the conscience clause, by Lord Lyttelton(1)-(6)
APPENDIX II.
On the number of boys within scope of inquiry:-
  by Dr. W. Farr, F.R.S.(6)-(10)
  by T.D. Acland, Esq., M.P.(10)-(15)
  by D.C. Richmond, Esq.(15)-(27)
APPENDIX III.
On the cost of board and instruction(28)-(35)
APPENDIX IV.
Chronological list of endowed grammar and other secondary schools, showing their original foundation(36)-(90)
APPENDIX V.
List of endowed grammar and other secondary schools in Registrar-General's divisions, showing their present condition(91)-(125)
County summaries, showing distribution of endowments and scholars among schools of different character and grade(126)-(145)
Divisional summaries ditto(146)-(149)
Summary for all England and Wales ditto(150)-(151)
APPENDIX VI.
List of Proprietary Schools for (1) boys and (2) girls(152)-(159)
APPENDIX VII.
Tables I.-V. showing the schools which supply undergraduates to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge(160)-(168)
Tables VI. and VII. ditto University of London(169)-(171)
Tables VIII.-IX. Analysis of Oxford local examinations(172)-(175)
Tables XII.-XV. Analysis of Cambridge local examinations(176)-(180)
Tables XVI. and XVII. Analysis of examinations of College of Preceptors(180)-(183)
APPENDIX VIII.
Rateable values of unions in England and Wales(184)-(185)
INDEX TO APPENDICES IV. AND V.(186)


[page 1]

SCHOOLS INQUIRY COMMISSION

REPORT

INTRODUCTION

TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY

WE, the Commissioners appointed by Your Majesty on the 28th December 1864, "to inquire into the education given in schools "not comprised within the scope of Your Majesty's Letters Patent, bearing date respectively the 30th day of June 1858 and the 18th day of July 1861, and also to consider and report what measures, if any, are required for the improvement of such education, having especial regard to all endowments applicable or which can rightly be made applicable thereto," humbly submit to Your Majesty the following report:-

The extent of our investigation is determined by the two Commissions which have lately, by Your Majesty's command, reported on English education, viz, that on Popular Education, of which the late Duke of Newcastle was chairman, and that on the Nine Schools of Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylors, Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury, of which Commission the Earl of Clarendon was chairman. The former of these Commissions inquired into the education of boys and girls of the labouring class, and the children who fell within its province were practically identical with those whose education is or might be aided from the Parliamentary grant by the Committee of Council. The latter Commission inquired into nine of the principal schools in which boys of the middle and upper classes are educated. All that lies between these limits belongs to the province of our inquiry.

The schools, therefore, on which it is our duty to report occupy a very wide range, which in fact includes, with only nine exceptions, all schools which educate children excluded from the operation of the Parliamentary grant. These schools are very different in their external constitution. We have, however, found it convenient to divide them into three classes only, Endowed, Private, and Proprietary.

By Endowed schools we mean schools maintained wholly or partly by means of a permanent charitable endowment.


[page 2]

The term Private schools we confine to such as are the property of the master or mistress who conducts them.

The remaining schools are either the property of individuals, or of companies or corporations, who in some cases appropriate to themselves the profits of the undertaking, in others apply them in reduction of the cost of education for their own or others children; but whatever differences of this nature there might be, we have not found them to be of importance for the purposes of our classification. All schools, which are neither maintained wholly or partially by any permanent charitable endowment, nor the property of the masters or mistresses, we call Proprietary.

Your Majesty charged us to have "especial regard to all endowments applicable, or which could rightly be made applicable," to the education given in the schools comprised within our inquiry. We have therefore considered that all endowments, which appeared originally to have been intended either wholly or partially for education above the elementary fell within our cognisance, notwithstanding that some of them might be now actually applied to elementary education only. We have also paid attention to the question, whether it is desirable to extend the application of a principle, frequently adopted both by Parliament and the Court of Chancery, in accordance with which endowments originally intended by their donors for purposes other than education, have, when circumstances have rendered their application to those prescribed purposes impossible or inexpedient, been devoted to educational objects.

Two other departments of our inquiry may be specially noticed here,

1. The education of girls comes within the terms of our Commission, and has been kept in view in all our inquiries. But this part of our inquiry is, from the nature of the case, more limited than that of boys. Girls are much more often educated at home, or in schools too small to be entitled to the name, and both the number and the value of the endowments which are at present appropriated to their education bear an extremely small proportion to those appropriated to boys. Moreover, the privacy of girls' schools occasions greater difficulty in obtaining satisfactory information than is found in the case of boys,

We are, however, indebted to several ladies for their kindness in attending to give evidence.

2. The education of what is sometimes called the lower section of the middle class is at present often conducted in the National and British schools, and therefore was in some degree comprised within one of Your Majesty's former Commissions. But, as a whole, it appeared to us to be clearly within our province and to


[page 3]

deserve great attention. We have gathered much information as to the various ways in which this education is now carried on, though our inquiry into this most important part of our subject has been attended with unusual difficulties.

We determined to conduct our inquiry simultaneously by three methods: by the oral examination of witnesses before ourselves; by circulars of questions seeking for written information in detail from the authorities of the several schools; by assistant commissioners appointed to make a personal investigation of the actual state of the education and its adaptation to the needs of the population; and, subsequently, by a circular of questions addressed to a certain number of persons of eminence whose opinions were thought likely to be valuable.

I. We sought evidence from persons of very different positions and of various religious denominations.

1. Gentlemen who had taken part in examinations, such as those of the Society of Arts, the College of Preceptors, the local examinations lately instituted by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the matriculation examination of the University of London, the examinations of the Council of Military Education, and of Your Majesty's Civil Service Commissioners, spoke of the state of education disclosed by the facts of their examinations.

2. Representatives of the professions of medicine and surgery, law, and civil engineering, and some gentlemen conversant with agriculture were examined particularly on the kind of education, which it is desirable to secure in persons destined for those professions or for practical farming.

3. The evidence of masters and mistresses of schools forms a large and important part of our information. We have endeavoured to leave no kind or class of school unrepresented. The larger grammar schools, both those occupied chiefly by boarders and those attended by day scholars, smaller grammar schools in country towns, Cathedral schools, the newly established County schools, proprietary and private schools both for boys and for girls, Roman Catholic, and Protestant nonconformist schools, have all been, as we believe, fairly and adequately brought before us. Moreover the scholars in these schools are of all ranks in society within the limits of our Commission. Two schools, Christ's Hospital, London, and King Edward the Sixth's School, Birmingham, from their size and the great value of their endowments, appeared to us to deserve especial attention. Accordingly we personally visited Christ's Hospital, and received evidence from all the heads of the several departments: and subsequently the President, H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge,


[page 4]

honoured us by giving evidence on this subject. From Birmingham we received deputations from the governors, the town council, and the grammar school association recently established.

4. Another important class of witnesses consists of persons who have either been active in the establishment of new schools of a public character, or, as trustees, have been concerned in the management of them, or from various causes have been led to take especial interest, either in the general questions affecting the foundation and management of schools, or in particular methods or particular subjects of instruction. Amongst these we have received a deputation from a committee lately formed for promoting the registration of teachers.

5. Further, we have obtained evidence respecting the present state of the law of charitable trusts as affecting endowed schools, and the difficulties attendant on the administration of it. Lord Westbury; Lord Romilly, Master of the Rolls; Vice-Chancellor Sir W.P. Wood; Sir R. Palmer, then Your Majesty's Attorney-General; Mr. Hill, one of the Charity Commissioners; and other gentlemen who possessed special knowledge, or were qualified to give valuable opinions, on this subject, attended, at our request, and gave us the benefit of their experience and advice.

II. At the commencement of our task we framed a series of questions addressed to the authorities of schools. The questions concerning the instruction and discipline were almost identical for the three classes of schools; but endowed and proprietary schools required each an additional series respecting their external constitution. The questions were, with very few exceptions, confined to the present state of the schools, and were purposely drawn in considerable detail, in order to admit of the answers being definite and concise.

Some difficulty was felt in deciding to what schools we should send our circulars, partly from the absence of any means of satisfactorily ascertaining beforehand what schools were in fact comprised in our Commission, and partly from the very large number of those which we had reason to believe were included. No complete or sufficient list existed in any official document, so far as we were aware; and the lists given in unofficial publications were found to be very inaccurate.

1. For the endowed schools we took as the basis of our list all those which are called grammar schools. The Commissioners, appointed by several Acts of Parliament in succession, inquired, during the period from 1818 to 1837, into almost all of the charitable trusts in England and Wales, and made copious reports on a large number of endowed schools, but did not give any classification of them. In the year 1842 a digest of these reports


[page 5]

was, by Your Majesty's command, made and presented to Parliament. In this the schools were arranged into two classes, viz; first, "Schools in which Greek or Latin was required to be, or, at the time of the Commissioners' inquiry into it, was in fact taught." These were called "Grammar Schools." Secondly, "all other schools." These were called "Non-classical Schools."

To all the schools, thus classed as grammar schools, 705 in number, excepting the Nine Schools previously reported on, our circulars of questions were sent.

Further, we sent our questions to all schools belonging to Cathedral bodies (excepting Westminster school) not being actually for choristers only, to all schools connected with Colleges in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, (which, with Cathedral schools, were exempt from the inquiries of the above-named Charity Commissioners.) and to schools of a similar class which had been founded since the date of that inquiry. We considered it unnecessary that Marlborough and Wellington Colleges should answer our questions, as they had already given full information to the Nine Schools Commission.

Of the schools called in the above-named digest non-classical, amounting to nearly 2,200 in number, we had reason to believe that the large majority were devoted, both by their foundations and by actual use, to the education of the labouring classes only. Where from information received from time to time we found the case to be otherwise, we included any such school in our list: and eventually we thought it advisable to send our questions in full to those of them (about 40 in number) which were reported by the said Charity Commissioners to have incomes exceeding £500 a year; and a very brief list of questions to the rest.

We determined to address our questions both to the trustees and to the master of each school. Those intended for the master were sent to him at the school. In the case of the trustees some difficulty was occasioned by the want of any official list of their names and addresses. This want was partially supplied by the information obtained by the (present) Charity Commissioners in reply to the questions contained in a return moved for by Mr. Hodgkinson in the House of Commons on 7th July 1864. Where by this or other means the name of the clerk to the trustees (if any), or of a leading trustee, was known, the circulars were sent to him for communication to the body of trustees. In the absence of such information, they were sent to the mayor of the town (if any), or if there were no mayor, to the incumbent of the parish. When, after a long interval, and after renewed applications, no answers from the trustees had been received, a copy of the questions was sent to


[page 6]

every trustee whose name was contained in the House of Commons return above mentioned.

The answers which we received were in some cases very elaborate and accurate, in others very meagre and insufficient, necessitating many subsequent applications for further information. The Drapers' Company, who are trustees of Sir John Jolles' School, Stratford-Ie-Bow, of Howell's Charity at Denbigh and Llandaff, and of Barton-under-Needwood School in Staffordshire, have, notwithstanding repeated applications, given no answers. The Mercers' Company, in the cases of the Mercers' School on College Hill (which they deny to be an endowed school) and of Horsham School, have refused to send answers.

There are a few other schools respecting which either the (supposed) master or trustees have given no information; but they are unimportant, and the cause of the neglect is generally explicable from the mastership being vacant, or there being no properly constituted trustees.

Some "non-classical" schools have also neglected to reply to our inquiries. A few have refused to give answers, giving as their reason that they were not properly included in our inquiry.

2. To all proprietary schools whose existence we could ascertain, and which appeared to fall within our province, circulars were duly sent, and from most of them answers were received. Cheltenham College having been requested by the Nine Schools Commissioners to give them information, and having complied with this request, we thought it unnecessary to require more.

Our circulars were sent, among other proprietary schools, to almost all schools named in the (Roman) "Catholic Directory" which were not evidently private. From a few only were answers received.

3. The private schools appeared to be so numerous (amounting, according to a list given in an unofficial publication, to more than 10,000) that we decided to leave to our Assistant Commissioners the duty of deciding to which private schools in their districts circulars of questions should be sent. In some districts, as in those of London and Lancashire, circulars were sent to every private school named in the London, suburban, and Lancashire Directories. In other districts they were sent only where the Assistant Commissioner had been in previous communication with the master or mistress.

Our questions have therefore not been sent to any private school which was not included within an Assistant Commissioner's district.


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As much misconception appears to have prevailed respecting our intention in sending these circulars to private schools, we deem it right to state, that we never contemplated publishing any details of private schools in a way which could enable others than the master to identify the school concerned, but sought the information mainly with a view to obtaining general results on several matters of interest. Some account of the misconceptions which prevailed will be found in our Assistant Commissioners' reports.

The answers received from private schools have been digested or otherwise dealt with by our Assistant Commissioners. The results appear in their reports.

The answers from endowed and proprietary schools have been digested under our direction.

III. A most important part of our investigation is that which we conducted by means of Assistant Commissioners. We selected certain districts of England and Wales which, we thought, presented sufficient varieties of population and employment to enable us to report with some confidence on the present state of the education which falls within our province. Within these districts we determined to institute a personal inspection of the endowed, proprietary, and private schools for boys and girls; to test the attainments of the scholars by actual examination; to ascertain as far as possible the wishes and opinions of the parents respecting the education of their children, and thus to obtain as complete a view, as the time which we assigned for the inquiry admitted, of the demand for education in this section of the community, and of the extent to which this demand is supplied. These districts contained together more than one-third of the area and more than three-fifths of the population of England and Wales. We succeeded in securing the services of gentlemen of proved acquirement and ability to conduct the inquiry,

The districts selected, and the Assistant Commissioners appointed to them, were as follows:

London, within the limits of the Postal district, embracing a circle of 12 miles' radius from Charing Cross, was assigned to D. R. Fearon, Esq. M.A., one of Your Majesty's Inspectors of Schools.
Surrey (outside of the London Postal district) and Sussex were assigned to H. A. Giffard, Esq., M.A., Senior Student of Christ Church, Oxford.
Devon and Somerset, with Bristol and its suburbs, to C. H. Stanton, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law.
Staffordshire and Warwickshire to T. H. Green, Esq. M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.

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Norfolk, with the adjoining towns of Beccles and Bungay, and the Albert middle-class College at Framlingham, in Suffolk, and Northumberland, with Gateshead, to J. L. Hammond, Esq., M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
The West Riding of Yorkshire, with the City and Ainsty of York, to J. G. Fitch, Esq., M.A., Lond, one of Your Majesty's Inspectors of Schools.
Lancashire, with the town of Birkenhead, to James Bryce, Esq., B.C.L., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.
The counties of Flint, Denbigh, Montgomery, Glamorgan, and Hereford, with the city of Chester and towns of Shrewsbury (exclusive of the Grammar School) and Monmouth, to H. M. Bompas, Esq., M.A., Camb, and Lond, Barrister-at-Law.
This inquiry was conducted in 1865 and the early part of 1866. While the above-named districts appeared to us sufficient to furnish a general view of the education, we considered that the endowed schools required more particular attention. Accordingly we instructed our Assistant Commissioners, besides making a general report concerning the education of their districts, to make a separate report on each endowed grammar school within them; and on the completion of this task we determined to continue this inspection, so far only as the endowed grammar schools were concerned, throughout the rest of England and Wales. We were especially induced to do so by the insufficiency of the information given in reply to our circulars of questions; by the importance of the facts disclosed by the inspection already made within the special districts; and by the belief that no such examination and inspection had ever been previously made by any competent authority external to the school.

Some of our Assistant Commissioners being prevented by other engagements from entering on this fresh duty, we appointed four more gentlemen, in addition to the five who were able to continue their services. The distribution of the remaining endowed schools was as follows:

Those in the counties of Berks, Hertford, and Oxford to Mr. Fearon.
Those in the counties of Cornwall, Dorset, Gloucester, Southampton, and Wilts to Mr. Stanton.
Those in the counties of Buckingham, Leicester, and Northampton to Mr. Green.
Those in the North and East Riding of Yorkshire, in the County of Durham (excluding Gateshead), and six schools in Westmoreland (adjacent to the North Riding of Yorkshire) to Mr. Fitch.

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Those in the counties of Salop (excluding Shrewsbury), Worcester, Monmouth (excluding the town of Monmouth), Brecon, Radnor, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Cardigan, Merioneth, Carnarvon, and Anglesea to Mr. Bryce.
Those in the counties of Cumberland, Kent, and Essex to C. I. Elton, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, Barrister-at-Law.
Those in the counties of Suffolk (excluding Beccles, Bungay, and Framlingham College), Huntingdon, Cambridge, and the rest of Westmoreland to D. C. Richmond, Esq., M.A., Fellow of St. Peter's College, Cambridge.
Those in the counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, and Rutland to H. W. Eve, Esq., M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Those in the counties of Bedford, Chester (excluding the city), and Derby to R. S, Wright, Esq., M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, Barrister-at-Law.
This inspection was made chiefly in the spring and summer of 1866, but in a few cases later in that year, or in the early part of 1867.

Further, we considered that much instruction might be derived from a comparison of the methods and results of the system of education adopted in some parts of Europe, in the United States, and in Canada.

Accordingly we appointed Matthew Arnold, Esq., M.A., one of Your Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, to inquire into the system of education of the middle and upper classes in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. This inquiry occupied seven months, commencing in April 1805. Mr. Arnold was specially qualified for this task by his having been sent to France for a similar purpose in 1859 by Your Majesty's Commissioners on Popular Education.

We appointed the Rev. James Fraser, M.A., late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, who was one of the Assistant Commissioners under the same Commission for a part of England, to conduct the investigation in the United States and Canada. We were informed by Your Majesty's Commissioners lately appointed to inquire into the schools in Scotland, that they were desirous of making a comparison between the Scottish system of education and that adopted in America. Mr. Fraser was therefore directed to examine the whole system of schools for all classes in the countries to which he was sent, and to make his report jointly to Your Majesty's Scottish Commissioners and to ourselves. Six months, commencing in April 1865, were employed in making his inquiry, and four months in drawing his report. Mr. Fraser's


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Report has been already presented to Your Majesty by the Scottish Commissioners.

For the purposes of further comparison we authorized our Assistant Commissioner, Mr. Fearon, to inspect and examine the burgh schools in nine cities and towns in Scotland, which Your Majesty's Scottish Commissioners selected at our request, viz., the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the towns of Aberdeen, Ayr, Dumfries, Hamilton, Inverness, Perth, and Stirling. This inspection occupied six weeks, and was made in May and June 1866.

We have the pleasure of expressing our obligations to our Assistant Commissioners for the way in which they have carried our instructions into effect, - a task which, from its nature and extent, required great diligence, ability, and discretion.

We gladly acknowledge the ready assistance given to our Assistant Commissioners by the authorities in the several foreign countries to which they were sent, and by Your Majesty's representatives abroad.

Baron D. Mackay, of the Hague, late Attaché to the Legation in London of the King of the Netherlands, has favoured us with an interesting communication respecting secondary education in Holland.

IV. We have also thought it proper to request a certain number of persons of eminence, who were known to have given their attention to the subject of education, to favour us with their opinions on some of the main points of our inquiry. The answers which we have received from them seem to us to be interesting and important. They exhibit a remarkable concurrence of opinion on several of the principal questions with which we have to deal. We thought it unnecessary to address these questions to persons who had given us oral evidence.

Some other communications which we have received will be found in our volumes. They are some among many proofs which have been given us of the general interest taken in our inquiry, and of the readiness with which useful information has been put at our disposal. Among them is a paper drawn up, at our request, by Dr. Farr, of Your Majesty's General Registry Office, containing an estimate of the number of children whose education is the subject of our inquiry.

We have much pleasure in acknowledging the great assistance readily afforded us by the Board of Charity Commissioners, in allowing us free access to any of their documents which we needed to consult.

We have obtained some interesting information showing the shares actually taken by different schools, and classes of schools,


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in educating youths who go to the universities. We have to thank the heads of almost all of the colleges of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge for affording us facilities for this purpose by having forms of inquiry distributed among the undergraduates in residence at Oxford and Cambridge in May 1867; and to thank the Registrar of the University of London for furthering the despatch of similar forms to all students who had matriculated at the University of London in the years 1864, 1865, and 1866.

The heads of colleges at Oxford and Cambridge have also, at our request, favoured us with information respecting exhibitions and scholarships tenable at their respective colleges, but restricted to youths educated at particular schools or in particular localities.

The College of Preceptors have favoured us at our request with a statement of the schools which have sent in candidates for their Pupils' examinations, and of the number of certificates which have been gained by them.

Our Chairman having communicated to us a letter from Dr. Lyon Playfair, stating that the Industrial Exhibition at Paris in 1867 furnished evidence of a decline in the superiority of certain branches of English manufacture over those of other nations, and that, in his opinion, this decline was partly due to a want of technical education in England, we proceeded to ascertain whether this opinion was held by other competent observers. Finding that the opinion was general, we thought it right to report at once to Your Majesty the communications we had received on the subject, as the prosecution of any inquiry into technical education itself appeared to be beyond our province. This Report was presented to both Houses of Parliament by Your Majesty's command in July 1867.

The ample information which we have collected on the subject of our inquiry has been arranged in the following manner:

The opinions on some main points of our inquiry which we obtained from a certain number of persons of eminence, with some other communications, some correspondence, and an analysis of the evidence, appear in one volume. We have included in the same volume a reprint of an important report on the subject of the teaching of Natural Science in schools, which has been very recently drawn up by a Committee of the British Association for the advancement of' Science and communicated to us.

In the case of the eight largely endowed schools which we have made the subject of detailed consideration in our Report,


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viz., Christ's Hospital, St. Olave's Southwark, Dulwich, Birmingham, Manchester, Bedford, Tonbridge, and Monmouth, we have given the answers of the school authorities at length. These answers form a separate volume.

The oral evidence of our witnesses is given in full in two volumes.

The general reports of our Assistant Commissioners are arranged in four volumes, containing respectively the reports on Secondary Education in Scotland and Foreign Countries, and in the Southern, Midland, and Northern counties of England. In these volumes will also be found our Assistant Commissioners' special reports on the eight largely endowed schools above referred to; and memorandums, by Mr. Elton on the claims of Cathedral schools to a larger share of the Cathedral endowments, by Mr. Richmond on a proposed grouping of the endowed grammar schools in Westmorland, and on certain general facts relating to the schools inspected by him in the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, and Suffolk, and by Mr. Wright on the schools inspected by him in Cheshire and Derbyshire.

The special reports of our Assistant Commissioners on the endowed grammar and other secondary schools, together with short digests both of the answers given by the school authorities to our circulars of questions and of the material facts relating to the foundation of each of these schools, as given by the Reports of the Commissioners of Charities (1818-1837), are contained in eleven volumes, one for each Registrar-General's division. In order to ensure accuracy these digests have been submitted to the authorities of the several schools concerned.

The information received respecting non-classical endowed schools, (not included in our list of secondary schools), and the digested accounts of proprietary schools, will be found in the same volumes.

Mr. Richmond has assisted our secretary in superintending the preparation of these volumes, and has drawn up the lists of grammar and other secondary schools, which will be found in the Appendix to our own Report. The ability and industry with which this gentleman has performed this important task have been of the greatest service to us.

Having thus enumerated the ample materials which have been laid before us, we proceed to state the opinions we have formed on the present state of the education into which Your Majesty commanded us to inquire, and the measures which we humbly recommend for its extension and improvement.

We have arranged what we have to say in the following order:


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In Chapter I. we have endeavoured to describe the aim at which all improvements in secondary education, and especially in the endowed schools, should be directed; the kinds of education that appear to be required in this country, and the classes of schools which will be necessary in order to give those kinds of education effectually.

Chapter II. contains a description of the present state of English schools for secondary education, and particularly of the endowed schools. We have here endeavoured to point out, not only the defects which appear to exist in these schools, but the chief causes to which those defects are traceable.

In Chapter III. we have given an account of the revenues and local distribution of the endowments for secondary education, showing what parts of the country are already supplied with resources of this kind, what parts have no such resources.

In Chapter IV, we have examined the present state of the law affecting educational endowments, and the inadequacy of the jurisdiction at present exercised, whether by visitors or by the Court of Chancery and the Charity Commission to effect any sufficient reform.

In Chapter V, we have specially considered eight of the largest endowments, and pointed out in what respects the results which they attain appear to us to fall short of what might fairly be expected from their revenues, and what changes would in our opinion enable them more adequately to fulfil the purposes to which such endowments ought to be devoted.

Chapter VI. contains a review of the various opinions put before us by intelligent witnesses on the present condition of the education of girls, followed by such suggestions as appear to us likely to tend to its improvement.

Chapter VII. is occupied by the general recommendations, which, after having thus completely discussed all the materials in our hands, we humbly lay before Your Majesty for consideration.



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CHAPTER I

OF THE KINDS OF EDUCATION WHICH APPEAR TO BE DESIRABLE AND ATTAINABLE

THE information that we have collected, partly by means of our Assistant Commissioners, partly by the examination of witnesses, falls naturally under two chief heads; first, an account of what English secondary education now is; secondly, indications, more or less precise, of what it ought to be in order to meet the needs of the country and the wishes of the parents. We think it will be convenient to discuss these separately. We propose in the next chapter to examine what education is reported to be given at present in English secondary schools, and more particularly in the endowed grammar schools, to which our attention is especially directed by the terms of our Commission. We shall then endeavour to estimate both their success and their failure, and, as far as possible, to point out to what causes that success and that failure are due, and thus to lay a foundation for the recommendations which it will be our duty to make for their improvement. But we think we shall gain in clearness, if before we thus proceed to examine what education they now give, we endeavour to determine what they ought to give. We shall thus have a standard to measure their deficiency where they are deficient, and a guide to indicate beforehand the direction in which improvements should be made. In making this attempt to determine what these schools ought to do, we do not propose to set before us an ideal so high as to be out of reach for the present, or even difficult of attainment if due energy be used. We confine ourselves within what we believe to be not only desirable, but within no long period attainable in England. We take as our guides on the one hand the wishes of the parents as far as we have been able to ascertain them, and as far as they seem to us to be reasonable, and the statements made to us by numerous intelligent witnesses who have considered the subject; on the other hand the experience obtained from those foreign countries that have preceded us in their endeavours to secure a sound system of education adapted to their special needs. We begin first with what we obtain from England, namely, the indications


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that we have of the wishes of the parents, and coupled with these the opinions put before us in the evidence of our witnesses, We shall discuss here, first, the secular instruction desired; secondly, the religious instruction; thirdly, the preference expressed, in some cases for boarding schools, in other cases for day schools, according to circumstances.

I. WISHES OF PARENTS AND OPINIONS CONTAINED IN EVIDENCE OF WITNESSES

a. Secular Instruction

(1)Much evidence has been laid before us tending to show that indifference and ignorance of the subject on the part of the parents are among the chief hindrances to education at present. Too often the parents seem hardly to care for education at all. Too often they give an inordinate value to mere show. Too often they think no education worth having that cannot be speedily turned into money. In fact, many parents need education themselves in order to appreciate education for their children, and their present opinion cannot be considered final or supreme.

But ultimately the decision of whatever has to be decided must rest with them, and even at present no step can be taken with any chance of success without the most careful consideration of their wishes. (2)One of the many reasons for the present inquiry is, that so many excellent endowments are useless, because they offer one kind of education, and the parents wish for another. This at least ought to be conceded to them as a general principle, that what they require their children to be taught, that, if it be practicable, shall be put within their reach; what method shall be followed in teaching it, whether anything else shall be taught in addition to it, and if so, what else - this they would probably be willing to leave to the authorities in charge of the schools.

The wishes of the parents can best be defined in the first instance by the length of time during which they are willing to keep their children under instruction. (3)It is found that, viewed in this way, education, as distinct from direct preparation for employment, can at present be classified as that which is to stop at about 14, that which is to stop at about 16, and that which is to continue till 18 or 19; and for convenience we shall call these the Third, the Second, and the First Grade of education respectively. The

(1) Hammond, p. 316. Bryce, pp. 539, 724, 781. Fitch, p. 267, Bompas, p. 10, Stanton, pp. 14, 15, Giffard, pp. 104, 105, Ven. Archd. Hamilton, 9742.

(2) Fitch, p. 109, 176.

(3) Fearon, p. 6, Stanton, pp. 12, 13.


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difference in the time assigned makes some difference in the very nature of the education itself; if a boy cannot remain at school beyond the age of 14 it is useless to begin teaching him such subjects as require a longer time for their proper study; if he can continue till 18 or 19, it may be expedient to postpone some studies that would otherwise be commenced early. Both the substance and the arrangement of the instruction will thus greatly depend on the length of time that can be devoted to it.

It is obvious that these distinctions correspond roughly, but by no means exactly, to the gradations of society. Those who can afford to pay more for their children's education will also, as a general rule, continue that education for a longer time.

We shall discuss these grades of education in order, beginning with the first, that is, with the one which keeps boys at school for the longest time.

The bulk of those who wish for this grade of education, that is, who wish their children's schooling to continue till 18 or past, consists of two very distinct classes, which must be considered separately.

One class is identical, or nearly so, with those whose sons are in the nine schools that have been already reported on by a previous Commission; men with considerable incomes independent of their own exertions, or professional men, and men in business, whose profits put them on the same level. This class appears to have no wish to displace the classics from their present position in the forefront of English education; but there is among them a very strong desire to add other subjects of instruction. Their wish appears to be not to change, but to widen; to keep classics, but to cultivate mathematics more carefully than at present, to add modern languages and natural science.

But it is obvious that this extension of study has its limit, and that it is not possible to carry all boys through a great range of subjects. For this reason all the great schools of late foundation, Marlborough, Cheltenham. Clifton, and others, have been compelled to go still further, and to add modern departments, in which Greek is dropped altogether, and Latin much diminished. It cannot be said that this is always successful, even in meeting the parents' wishes. "They think it excellent that the modern department should be provided; they take considerable interest in it; but they are very generally not willing to put their own boys into it"(1). In fact, they are often timid: and while very desirous that experiments should be tried, not ready to let their own children be the subjects on which the trial should be made.

(1) Rev. Dr. Benson, 4757.


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They desire very often, above everything else, that their boys should be like other boys, and not marked off as peculiar. (1)Moreover, it seems often to be difficult to prevent these modern departments from being a refuge for boys whose inferior ability or diligence bas prevented their success in classical studies; and a special department flooded with the idle and the dull cannot well be otherwise than a failure. When most of the cleverness among the boys, and the chief interest of the master are given to one set of studies, there is little likelihood of true success in the pursuit of a different and a rival set in the same school.

But a much more real obstacle to the success of these modern departments is the unwillingness of many parents of this rank to give their sons an education which precludes them from afterwards going to the Universities. They generally wish to leave this possibility open to the last; and, if so, the classics, according to the present regulations of the Universities, are indispensable. In short, in order to meet their wishes, the modern departments ought to stand as high, whether in social estimation, or in the talent of the boys who enter them, or in opening the way to the Universities, as the Classical Schools to which they are attached. While they shut boys out from the Universities, and are made a sort of refuge into which the masters send the duller intellects, they cannot really be what the parents desire.

But the demand for such schools, or departments of schools, appears to be growing, especially among those, who, from the first, intend their sons to go into business or into professions, direct from school, and do not desire them to have a university education at all. They think classics good, but other things indispensable; and they want the classics either to make room beside themselves, or to give way altogether.

The other class of parents, who wish to keep their children at school the same length of time, have a somewhat different desire. These are the great majority of professional men, especially the clergy, medical men, and lawyers; the poorer gentry; all in fact, who, having received a cultivated education themselves, are very anxious that their sons should not fall below them. (2)Of this class it should rather be said that they wish to cheapen education than that they wish to widen it. They would, no doubt, in most instances be glad to secure something more than classics and mathematics. But they value these highly for their own sake, and perhaps even more for the value at present assigned to them

(1) Green, pp. 153, 189. Fearon, p. 279. Bryce, p. 665. Giffard, p. 150.

(2) Hammond, p. 443. Green, p. 162. Bryce, p. 640.


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in English society. They have nothing to look to but education to keep their sons on a high social level. And they would not wish to have what might be more readily converted into money, if in any degree it tended to let their children sink in the social scale. The main evil of the present system, in their eyes, is its expense. The classical education of the highest order is every day to a greater degree (1)quitting the small grammar schools for the great public schools, and others of the same kind. Those who want such education can no longer find it, as they could in the last century, close to their doors, all over the country. They are compelled to seek it in boarding schools, and generally in boarding schools of a very expensive kind.

When we come down to the second grade of education, that which is to stop at about 16, the desire to substitute a different system for the classical becomes stronger, and though most of these parents would probably consent to give a high place to Latin, they would only do so on condition that it did not exclude a very thorough knowledge of important modern subjects, and they would hardly give Greek any place at all. These parents consist of two classes. On the one hand, many of them could well afford to keep their children at school two years longer, but intend them for employments, the special preparation for which ought to begin at 16; as, for instance, the army, all but the highest branches of the medical and legal professions, civil engineering, and some others. On the other hand, there are very many parents whose position in life makes them require their boys to begin at 16 wholly or partially to find their own living.

The first of these would no doubt accept Latin as an important element in education, partly because it is in some cases of real practical use in these professions, partly because of its social value, partly because it is acknowledged to facilitate a thorough knowledge of modern languages, partly because almost all teachers agree in praising its excellence as a mental discipline.

But the great mass of the other class seem disposed barely to tolerate Latin, if they will even do that. Mr. Fearon has expressed what is no doubt a very general feeling in describing the wishes of the mercantile classes in London.

"Among the mercantile classes in London, that is to say, the tradesmen, shopkeepers, and all who live by trade (who now to a large extent patronize private schools, but many of whom have sons whom they want to educate cheaply, and would, under altered circumstances, gladly avail themselves of the grammar schools), I find a great desire for less instruction in

(1)Fitch, p. 109. Dr, Bryce, 8479.


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classics, and more thorough teaching in modern subjects. This feeling is growing and spreading so much among the mercantile and trading classes, that I have been assured by several men of business that few things would please them better than a successful attack upon classical studies. When I have asked what is the reason of this feeling against the classics, and have endeavoured to explain the value of the cultivation which results from them, the answer has been, 'Our sons' school life is not long enough for the production of the fruits of which you speak. They do not come to any maturity in the time; moreover, though classics may be excellent, yet, mathematics, modern languages, chemistry, and the rudiments of physical science are essential, and we do not find time enough for all. We must, therefore, either abandon classical teaching altogether, or have it provided in a manner which shall not occupy much time'"(1).

To the same effect Mr. Bryce(2) reports that most of the grammar schools in Lancashire have been compelled by the parents to abandon classical teaching or reduce it to a minimum. But it must not be supposed that this opinion is universal, or that it prevails equally in places where the schools are efficient and where they are inefficient. (3)At Birmingham it is stated by Mr. Evans that parents who mean to put their boys into business at 16 are just as willing to put them into the classical as into the commercial department, and that their choice is determined more by the accident of a vacancy in one or the other than by anything else. Mr. Green(4) reports that in his district (Warwickshire) "the aversion to the grammar schools has arisen not from their teaching Latin, but from their failing to teach writing and arithmetic, or at any rate to teach them expeditiously." Mr. Fitch(5) says that "among the shrewd and practical people of his district (Yorkshire) there is an increasing desire for genuine culture, and no disposition to undervalue the study of the classics, but there is certainly a feeling that it is a mistake to subject a boy who is never going to the University to a course which presupposes that to be his destination."

Not a (6)few of our witnesses gave evidence to the same effect. And it appeared evident that as a general rule a successful master was readily allowed to indulge his natural leaning

(1) Fearon, p. 320.

(2) Bryce, pp. 507, 624.

(3) Rev. C. Evans, 5673.

(4) Green, p. 152

(5) Fitch, p. 168.

‚(6) Rev. Dr. Howson, 2782. Rev. Dr. Mortimer, 3681. Rev. W. C. Williams, 5037. Mr. Payne, 6907. Mr. Templeton, 7667. Mr. Isbister, 9189. Rev. Dr. Lowe, 9591. Rev. T. Williams, 11,138. Mr. Ford, 11,878. Mr. Torr, 12,084. Mr. E. Edmunds, 13,736, and others.


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towards classical culture as his instrument of education, provided he did not thereby exclude what the parent considered indispensable; while a few of the more intelligent parents appeared to wish to retain Latin at least, if not Greek for its own sake.

Finally, it may be said, that in education of this grade a certain amount of thorough knowledge of those subjects which can be turned to practical use in business English arithmetic the rudiments of mathematics beyond arithmetic, in some cases natural science, in some cases a modern language, is considered by the parents absolutely indispensable, and that they will not allow any culture, however valuable otherwise, to take the place of these. But some of them are not insensible to the value of culture in itself, nor to the advantage of sharing the education of the cultivated classes.

The education of the first grade which continues till 18 or past, and that of the second grade which stops at about 16, seem to meet the demands of all the wealthier part of the community, including not only the gentry and professional men, but all the larger shopkeepers, rising men of business, and the larger tenant farmers.

The third grade of education, which stops at about 14, belongs to a class distinctly lower in the scale, but so numerous as to be quite as important as any: the smaller tenant farmers, the small tradesmen, the superior artisans. The need of this class is described briefly by (1)Canon Moseley to be "very good reading, very good writing, very good arithmetic". More than that he does not think they care for; or if they do, they merely "wish to learn whatever their betters learn". To the same effect (2)Mr. Green defines their wish to be what is called a clerk's education; namely, a thorough knowledge of arithmetic, and ability to write a good letter. It cannot be said that this is aiming at much, and it is to be wished that parents even of this rank should learn the value of a somewhat higher cultivation. But the more their demand is considered the more thoroughly sensible it seems, and they certainly have a right to insist that what they wish for shall be secured before anything else be added.

The smaller tenant farmers, it is to be feared, do not often aim at so much as this, and(3) if it were not for fear of being outdone by the class below them, would probably not care much for any education at all. But so little of what really deserves the name of secondary education is at present put within the reach of this class,

(1) Rev. Canon Moseley, 1971.

(2) Green, p. 186. Hammond, pp. 289, 334. Fitch, p. 249.

(3) Stanton, p. 14. Giffard, p. 104.


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whether in town or country, that they cannot be said to have had fair means of forming an opinion.

Such on the whole appear to be the wishes of the parents. It is obvious that these wishes point rather to the results of education than to the processes. They are more concerned with what a boy brings away from school than with the methods by which he has acquired it. To learn something of the methods that must be followed to meet their wishes, and, if possible, do more than meet them; to learn how a higher culture may be combined with that necessary preparation for the work of life of which the parents chiefly think, we must have recourse to those who have made education their study. And such, accordingly, were the great majority of the witnesses whom we examined on matters relating to this part of our subject.

Before discussing their opinions on the various subjects of instruction it is necessary to sum up their answers to the preliminary question whether schools should endeavour to give general education, or as far as possible to prepare boys for special special employments? On this point there was an almost unanimous agreement in favour of general education. Of course no objection could be raised to the teaching of any subject which, though specially useful in some particular employment, was either well suited to the general cultivation of the intellect, or could easily be made so. The double purpose served by such a subject would be of necessity a weighty argument in its favour. But special preparation for employments to the neglect of general cultivation was all but universally condemned as a mistake. It disorganised and broke up the teaching. It conferred a transitory instead of a permanent benefit, since the boy whose powers of mind had been carefully trained speedily made up for special deficiencies, and very often it taught what soon had to be unlearnt or learnt over again. Book-keeping, for instance, though it was often taught in schools, and (2)with some success, yet was (3)not generally recommended. (4)It was said that a boy who had learnt it often found that the particular system which he had learnt was not that which he afterwards had to practise; while, on the other hand, a boy who had a thorough mastery of arithmetic could learn any system of book-keeping in a very short time. And similar remarks might be made on other similar

(1) Mr. Amos, p. 260. Mr. Creak, 10,829. Dr. Davies, 12,484. Mr. Lingen, 13,086. Mr. Thompson, 11,697. Mr. Torr, 12,073. Prof. Volcker, 2236. Prof. Rankins, 2339, 2351. Mr. Paget, 2134. Dr, Gull, 2415. Dr. Acland, 2846.

(2) Rev. G. Bradley, 4092.

(3) Mr. Mason, 3296. Mr. Sharp, 8681. Mr. Besant, 1352.

(4) Fitch, p, 271. Bryce, pp. 656, 663. Green, p. 128. Giffard, p. 192.


[page 22]

subjects. The general conclusion was that there should be no attempt to make school a substitute for apprenticeship, but that a school should teach what might be fairly considered as likely to be useful to all its scholars, whether as mental discipline or as valuable information.

Starting from this conclusion, and considering the school as the means of giving general education, we may classify the subjects of instruction under three chief heads - language, mathematics (in which we include arithmetic) and natural science. Of these three the great bulk of our witnesses agreed in thinking the most efficient instrument of education to be language.

1. Most of them, indeed, seemed to look on arithmetic as simply indispensable, and not, therefore, to be including it in their comparison; and it is obvious that for all practical purposes this assumption is sound, (1)But mathematics beyond arithmetic were by several distinctly compared with language and the preference given to language.

With this general conclusion we are disposed to agree. "The human" subjects of Instruction, of which the study of language is the beginning,(2) appear to have a distinctly greater educational power than the "material". As all civilisation really takes its rise in human intercourse, so the most efficient instrument of education appears to be the study which most bears on that intercourse, the study of human speech, Nothing appears to develop and discipline the whole man so much as the study which assists the learner to understand the thoughts, to enter into the feelings, to appreciate the moral judgments of others. There is nothing so opposed to true cultivation, nothing so unreasonable as excessive narrowness of mind; and nothing contributes to remove this narrowness so much as that clear understanding of language which lays open the thoughts of others to ready appreciation. Nor is equal clearness of thought to be obtained in any other way. Clearness of thought is bound up with clearness of language, and the one is impossible without the other. When the study of language can be followed by that of literature, not only breadth and clearness, but refinement becomes attainable. The study of history in the full sense belongs to a still later age: for till the learner is old enough to have some appreciation of politics, he is not capable of grasping the meaning of what he studies. But both literature and history do but carry on that which the study of language has begun, the cultivation of all those faculties by which man has contact with man.

(1) Rev. Dr. Barry, 5492. Dean of Ely, 17,216. Rev, J. M. Brackenbury, 17,343.

(2) Arnold, pp, 592-599.


[page 23]

To this judgment one important qualification must be attached; for it must be admitted that, to a certain extent, the cultivation derivable from language will be supplied by the ordinary intercourse of life, whereas the "material studies", if not regularly taught, will probably never be learnt at all; and this consideration must be allowed much weight where the length of time assigned to education is very short. And one witness, to whose opinion great authority must be given, (1)Canon Moseley, distinctly preferred that an artizan should have a thorough knowledge of the science of his own handicraft, even without any cultivation at all, to his possessing superior cultivation with less science.

There is no doubt some difficulty in balancing the claims of liberal and mechanical studies on those who are to live by handicraft, and if Canon Moseley's opinion be confined to the case of artizans there is much to be said in its defence. But the great majority of our witnesses took the opposite view, and some even stated that (2)they would teach Latin, if only for two years, and even to peasants, if peasants could be induced to learn it.

Passing from languages in general to the choice among them, it seems to be generally agreed that, except for education of the first grade, (3)Greek cannot be usefully taught. And even in that grade it seems to be the prevailing opinion that Greek should not be considered absolutely essential. But there was a very essential, great preponderance of evidence in favour of Latin.

There can be no doubt that a boy gains very much in the study even of his own language by the study of another. A great deal of grammar which it is very hard to explain to a learner becomes clear without any explanation at all in the mere act of learning a foreign language. (4)All masters appear to be agreed that nothing teaches English grammar so easily or so well as Latin grammar, and next to that, they would place the teaching of some other foreign grammar, such as French, The preference is given to Latin for many reasons. There is something no doubt in the beauty of the language itself. But the chief stress is laid on the fulness and precision of its accidence, in which no modern language can rival it. Further, it has entered so largely into English that the meaning of a very large proportion of our words is first discovered to us on learning

(1) 1972.

(2) Mr. Templeton, 7650. Mr. Walker, 11,028. Rev. F. V. Thornton, 15,568-9. Rev. Dr. Lowe, 9560. See also Dr. Hodgson, 8976.

(3) Green, p. 191. Bompas, p. 8. Stanton, p. 18. Giffard, p. 187. Bryce, p. 642.

‚(4) Rev. C. Evans, 5787. Rev. J. Jones, 6438-47. Rev. H. G. Robinson, 6495. Mr. B. Hill, 17,108. Hammond, p. 399. Green, p. 150. Bryce, p. 647.


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Latin. And to a no less degree has it entered into English literature, so that many of our classical writers are only half intelligible unless some knowledge of Latin precede the reading. Latin again is a common gateway to French, Italian, and Spanish. Some teachers even maintain that (1)French can be taught more easily in company with Latin than by giving all the time to French alone. To these reasons must be added the fact that a very large number of the examinations of the present day require a knowledge of Latin, and schools are therefore compelled to teach it in order to meet this requirement.

The witnesses whom we examined on this question may be divided into three classes: 1. Schoolmasters who spoke from their own experience; 2. Professional men, who described the general education which they thought necessary as a preparation for their own professions; 3. Managers and promoters of schools and others who for different reasons had taken an interest in education, and had bestowed some thought on the subject.

The schoolmasters were almost unanimous in regarding Latin as their chief educational instrument. (2)It might almost be said that in proportion to a master's success was the emphasis with which he expressed this preference. Not a few declared that boys who learnt Latin, beat boys who did not learn Latin, even in other subjects with which Latin had no direct connexion. This was in particular the testimony of the head master of King Edward's School at Birmingham, who had lately introduced Latin into one of the elementary schools under his charge.

Of course it may be said that these gentlemen are generally better able to teach Latin than anything else, and that they ascribe to the subject a success which is really due to their own better acquaintance with it. And there is no doubt much truth in this, but for practical purposes this consideration adds on one side almost as much as it takes away on the other. For it is quite certain that for some years to come whatever is to be done in the way of education must be done through and by the present schoolmasters, and especially the best of them; and the fact that they can teach some one subject better than anything else will necessitate giving a large place to that subject in any plan for the improvement of education. (3) Mr. Bryce pronounces Latin to be at present "the only subject taught with thoroughness". And

(1) Green, pp. 150, 151. Stanton, p. 20. Rev. Dr. Bryce, 17,275, Rev. W. C. Williams, 5038-41.

(2) Mr. O. Waterfield, 16,478, and p. 770. Rev. Dr. Haigh, 15,307. Rev. W. C. Williams, 5038-41. Rev. J. Jones, 6188. Rev. T. Southwood, 5570-4. See also Mr. Walrond, 15,331. Rev. C. Evans, 5786-5794.

(3) Bryce, p. 640.


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it would plainly be in the highest degree inexpedient to dislodge it from its place till we were sure of getting something better.

The representatives of the different professions, though by no means so earnest in their opinions as the schoolmasters, still on the whole came to the same result. (1)Lawyers, medical men, farmers, engineers agreed in wishing that a certain amount of Latin should form a part of the preliminary education for their several occupations.

There was not the same unanimity among those whose acquaintance with the subject was not quite so directly practical, and the opinions expressed by some of these require special notice.

Lord Harrowby, Mr. Dasent, and to these we must add Mr. Thring of Uppingham, from among the masters, and Professor Seeley, who has had personal experience of the teaching of boys, earnestly advocated the importance of English. Lord Harrowby, Mr. Dasent, and Mr. Thring were speaking chiefly of the first us first grade of education, and wished to find a place for English by the side of the classics; great weight is undoubtedly due to this opinion, and to the arguments used in support of it. The beauty of English literature; its power to cultivate and refine the learners; the fact that French and German children were carefully instructed in their respective languages; the example of the classic nations themselves, who certainly studied their own great writers; these and other similar arguments were urged upon us with great force. Mr. Thring, moreover, maintained that he had succeeded at Uppingham in introducing English without injuring the classics at all. Assuredly it would be a most valuable result if anything like a real interest in English literature could be made general in England; and we cannot believe that English could not be studied in English schools with the same care and with the same effect as French is in French schools or German in Prussian schools. (2)Professor Seeley went still further than the other three; he was speaking chiefly of education of the second grade, and in that education he wished to substitute English for Latin, and exclude Latin altogether. But he means by English not grammar, but rather rhetoric, "English", he says, "ought not to be taught to boys as a language, but as their language; not curiously and scientifically, but artistically, practically, rhetorically, The object is to train boys in their gift of speech, to teach them to use it more freely, more skilfully, more precisely, and to admire and to enjoy it more when it is nobly used by great authors. The merely grammatical part should

(1) Mr. Young, 2383. Dr. Gull, 2427-8. Mr. Paget, 2183. Dr. Acland, 2867. Prof. Rankine, 2362. Mr. Garle, 2543. Mr. Torr, 12,067-9. Mr. Edmunds, 13,735.

(2) 16,615.


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therefore be passed over lightly, the antiquarian part might be omitted altogether; the principal stress should be laid on composition." "Precision, accuracy, and solidity" he would avowedly make secondary, and aim rather at "brilliancy and elegance". (1)It may he admitted that Professor Seeley has rightly defined the true purpose of teaching English literature; not, that is, to find material with which to teach English grammar, but to kindle a living interest in the learner's mind, to make him feel the force and beauty of which the language is capable, to refine and elevate his taste. If it could be so taught, it would certainly have one merit that could hardly be overestimated, namely, that the man would probably return to it when the days of boyhood were over, and many who would never look again at Horace or Virgil, would be very likely to continue to read Shakspear and Milton throughout their lives. But it is obvious that precision, accuracy, and solidity cannot be dispensed with, and if not attained by this instrument, must be by some other. This, however, might perhaps be supplied. But a still greater difficulty in the way of Professor Seeley's suggestion is the difficulty of finding (2)fit teachers to use such a method. Average teachers will be after all average men with little perhaps of brilliancy and elegance in their nature; and it may be questioned whether much would be gained by setting before them so high and, in many cases perhaps, unattainable an aim. (3)Mr. Derwent Coleridge points out with much force that "to teach English as a study is a far more rare and difficult accomplishment than to teach Latin; and that for one man who can take a play of Shakspear or the 'Paradise Lost', as a class book, there are ten who can carry boys very respectably through Caesar and Virgil, whether regard he had to the language or the subject matter." "A practical view", he continues, "must be taken of the question. The English classics must be read, and will help of themselves to educate the reader; but a scholarly acquaintance with the English language, of the humblest kind, can be most quickly as well as most thoroughly gained through the medium of Latin." On the whole, we have no doubt that English literature could have, and ought to have, a place in our schools; but we do not think that it will obviate the need of another language.

Canon Moseley and Mr. Rogers went as far as Professor Seeley, but rather with a view to education of the third grade than of the second. Both looked on Latin as unsuited to this kind of education. Canon (4)Moseley seemed to think that classics as

(1) Bryce, p. 619. Giffard, p. 196.

(2) Green, p. 149

(3) Answers to circular, p. 20.

(4) 2060.


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taught in such schools must be "essentially and necessarily superficial, pretentious, and unreal." Mr. (1)Rogers feared that if Latin were admitted at all, it would be found "the thin end of the wedge". The schoolmaster "would go on to Greek", and "his ambition would be to get the boys off to the University." Both seemed to think that it was rather a good than an evil that a clear breach should be made between the different grades of education. This, however, was not the general feeling. It was generally thought that no arrangement of this matter would be complete unless it were possible for boys of exceptional talent to rise to the highest education which the country could supply. And this of course implies that there should be some connecting thread pervading education of every grade. In particular, Mr. Goldwin Smith(2) urged the necessity of maintaining such a connexion, as in his judgment a powerful argument in favour of basing education generally upon Latin. Canon Blakesley regarding "education as the social bridge which unites all classes of society in England above the mere day labourer", believes that "the cement of this is furnished directly or indirectly by the Latin language"; and he would therefore make Latin "a part, however differing in amount, of the cycle of instruction in every middle school, from the lowest to the highest." (3)To the same effect Mr. Green treats it as a serious objection to the abandonment of Latin that it would finally divorce the smaller grammar schools from the Universities.

The best mode of dealing with Latin is probably not far from that suggested by Mr. Fearon. If boys were not allowed to begin Latin till the elements of an English education were thoroughly secured; for instance, till they were capable of passing the highest standard of the Committee of Council on Education; if it were then kept within such limits as not to encroach on other subjects but give them aid, it would probably have its full educational value at the time, and prepare the way for a higher grade of education afterwards, if a higher grade were intended.

French may be considered as in some degree the rival of Latin, in its claim to be the means of teaching language. (4) Earl Fortescue has put the argument in its favour concisely and forcibly - "I believe that the subtler parts of French grammar afford a very good discipline to the mind, and a very fair test of what might be called scholarship in the case of those who have only a limited number of years to bestow on their education. One must never forget that a living language has

(1) 13,695,13,696.

2 8909. Bryce, p. 217. Answers to circular, p. 14.

(3) Green, p. 153.

(4) 8828.


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a much better chance of being kept up in after life than a dead one, and besides the knowledge of it has a certain marketable value, not perhaps easily defined, but very appreciable." Professor Cassal also maintained that it might be made as effective an educational instrument as Latin. But it seems quite certain that at present very few English teachers could make such a use of it. (1)Mr. Giffard reports that it is impossible to estimate the result of substituting French for Latin till a new class of teachers equally versed in both French and English has arisen. And (2)Mr. Fearon and (3) Mr. Bryce corroborate this opinion by pointing out the difficulty of procuring thoroughly competent teachers of French. The great argument on which French can at present be recommended in preference to Latin is its practical utility. And to this argument it is impossible to deny much force. The intercourse with France is so great, and increasing so fast, that perhaps few Englishmen now find, and still fewer will find in future, that they have no need of a knowledge of French.

(4)German has at present, in most parts of England, in a less degree than French the claim of practical utility; but in another respect it must be ranked higher, for its numerous inflections peculiarly adapt it for teaching grammar; and for that purpose it would stand next to Latin.

Of the remaining foreign languages, Italian has a precise and clear grammar, and a noble literature. It might be used with great effect to cultivate the taste of boys, and to give them an appreciation of beauty both of thought and of expression. In some places there is sufficient intercourse with Italy to give it a commercial value also. But on the whole there did not appear to be any effective demand for its introduction into the schools.

The fair inference from the whole evidence seems to be that Greek should be given up as a regular part of the course of study, except in schools of the first grade; that the study of English literature and of French should be warmly encouraged, not so much in substitution for, as by the side of Latin; that a certain elasticity should be allowed in the regulations so that schools of different types should he established without difficulty; but that, considering its excellence as a means of cultivation, and the fact that the schoolmasters can in most cases teach it better than anything else, Latin should be generally allowed to hold its place.

Before leaving those which we have called the "human" subjects of study we must not omit to mention Political Economy.

(1) Giffard, p. 194

(2) Fearon, p. 298.

(3) Bryce, p. 646.

(4) Rev. J. Jones, 6246. Rev. J. G. C. Fussell, 15,907. Mr. B. Hill, 17,110. Rev. Dr. Bryce, 17,275. Rev. Dr. Howson, 2730.


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The need of teaching this was pressed with the greatest earnestness, and with very weighty arguments, by Mr. Ellis(1) and several others.(2) It is undeniable that it bears directly on the conduct of life, and that in practical applications few studies can surpass it. It may be made exceedingly interesting. It supplies excellent examples of reasoning. In the hands of a thoroughly skilful teacher it can be brought completely within the comprehension of boys at school. It would not take much time, and ought certainly to form a part of a good educational programme. The chief obstacle at present in its way is that comparatively few teachers have studied it with sufficient care to be able to teach it with effect. But it is a subject that if steadily encouraged might probably before long hold an important place without interfering with other studies no less important.

2. It is not necessary to say much on arithmetic, and those elements of mathematics that properly follow arithmetic. Arithmetic, as we remarked above, seems to be looked upon by the bulk of our witnesses as simply indispensable. And with this opinion we emphatically agree. (3) The demand of the parents for thoroughly good arithmetic appears to us to be one which must be satisfied, whatever else has to give way to it. Both for its utility and for its educational power, nothing else can stand in its place. It has not of course the breadth which belongs to the study of language. But it has still greater power of exercising the reasoning faculties, and it is the gate-way, not only to all natural science, but to a very large part of men's dealings with each other.

The great value of early and thorough instruction in arithmetic is strikingly exhibited in the success of the City of London School. It appears from (4)Mr. Fearon's report that this is one of the most thoroughly efficient schools in the country, and Mr. Fearon ascribes its efficiency very largely to the fact that the staple of the instruction is not the science of language, but that of numbers or magnitudes. Nor can there be any doubt that it is possible, as a general rule, to teach arithmetic to children who are too young to grasp with perfect clearness even the elements of grammar.

The importance of the branches of mathematics which follow arithmetic was rather generally admitted than earnestly pressed upon us by the witnesses whom we examined. (5)No one can

(1) 13,865-13,937.

(2) Prof. Key, 3060. Prof. Seeley, 10,615. Rev. Dr. Bryce, 17,299. Lord Fortescue, 11,955. Rev. Dr. Howson, 2739-41. Prof. Goldwin Smith, 8910.

(3) Hammond, p. 404. Bryce, pp. 605, 733. Bompas, p. 21. Giffard, pp. 190,191.

(4) Fearon, p. 287.

(5) Dr. Bryce, 17,234. Prof. Rankine, 2,332. Earl Fortescue, 11,970.


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doubt the value of geometry as an exercise in severe reasoning; and algebra, though inferior to geometry in this respect, yet is needed to give perfect completeness to the knowledge of arithmetic, and affords admirable examples of ingenuity. (1)There were a few indeed who would put mathematics distinctly above all other subjects as a means of education; but on the whole there appeared to be no general desire to push the cultivation of mathematics very far.

We cannot but ascribe this in some degree to the fact, (2)generally noticed by our Assistant Commissioners, that the teaching of mathematics in English schools is rarely satisfactory. Mr. Bryce remarks that in spite of its undeniable utility, both for mental discipline and on many occasions for practical application, the study of mathematics is generally neglected in his district (Lancashire). Mr. Hammond, Mr. Bompas, and Mr. Stanton say much the same; and it seems evident that while the teachers, as a rule, do not take much interest in the subject, in all probability the methods of teaching also want improvement.

Euclid is almost the only text book now used in England for teaching geometry. (3)There is reason to fear that it is not well taught, that boys are pushed on too fast and too far, without thoroughly comprehending the earlier parts of it, and that too much time is given to the mere text, without illustrations or applications; and it is quite certain that if geometry be a most valuable instrument of mental discipline when thoroughly understood by the learner, its value is absolutely reduced to nothing if the comprehension of it be hazy or loose. But we think that it is well worth consideration whether Euclid be the proper text book for beginners, and whether boys should not commence with something easier and less abstract. Mr. Griffith,(4) the Secretary to the British Association, stated that in his opinion too much time was given to Euclid, and that many boys had read six books of it who knew nothing of geometry; and Professor Key went so far as to express a (5)wish to get rid of Euclid altogether, as a most illogical book. (6)The French and German schools have long disused it altogether. The English evidence does not, on the whole, go to this effect; but the facts seem to justify the opinion that in teaching geometry it would be well to spend much more time on the earlier parts, and perhaps to let the practical application to a great degree precede the strictly scientific study. (7)Mr.

(1) Mr. Sibly, 12,444. Dr. Davies, 12,524.

(2) Hammond, pp. 411, 412. Bryce, pp. 620-24. Bompas, p. 18. Stanton, p. 23.

(3) Dr. Davies, 14,014.

(4) 1,664.

(5) 2,992.

(6) Arnold, 507.

(7) Fearon, Scotch Schools, p. 56.


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Fearon found the Scotch burgh schools much superior to the average English schools in mathematics, and he ascribes this to the practical turn given to their mathematical teaching. Practical applications, being less abstract, are much more easily within the reach of average intellects, and there may be some(1) who can study these with great profit and yet cannot attain to the abstruser parts of the science; and even clever boys would probably be the better if their study of Euclid were preceded by that of mensuration and practical geometry. We cannot but believe that mathematics ought to receive more attention than they do, and that if they were properly taught the results attained would soon prove their value.

The study of practical geometry is closely connected with, and in some degree dependent on, that of drawing. And both on this account and still more for its own sake as a valuable means of education, drawing appears to deserve warm encouragement. Mr. Stanton(2) remarks that "whether we regard it as a means of refinement, or as an education for the eye, teaching it to appreciate form, or as strengthening habits of accurate observation, or again as of direct utility for many professions and trades, it is equally admirable." Dr. Hodgson(3) stated it as his opinion that drawing should be taught to every child as soon as he went to school, and added that it was already taught to all the boys (nearly 1,000) in the Liverpool Institute. From Mr. Samuelson's letter to the Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education drawing appears to be always regarded as a most important subject of instruction in the technical schools on the continent; and the bearing of this on the excellence ascribed to the foreign artizans and superintendents of labour cannot be mistaken.

The difficulties which at present stand in the way of thoroughly good instruction in drawing are partly the want of efficient teachers, partly the expense of good models and proper rooms; but perhaps still more the frequent desire of parents for premature or showy results. Much has been done both to improve the teaching of the subject and to make it more general by the schools of art established by the Department of Science and Art in various large towns. Mr. Fearon(4) is of opinion that, at any rate as far as London is concerned, these schools afford the best solution of the difficulties which at present impede the study. Mr. Fitch(5) reports that in his district also the system adopted by the department gives great satisfaction to those masters who have introduced it into their schools.

(1) Prof. Rankine, 2332.

(2) p.25.

(3) 9030, 9034.

(4) p. 303.

(5) p.306.


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We are aware that many complaints are made of the dispiriting effect produced by the tediousness of the South Kensington system, and probably it will be well that the authorities should carefully consider whether, in teaching boys who do not intend to make drawing a profession and have not any natural enthusiasm for art, a somewhat less protracted course of drilling than that which is now insisted on may not be sufficient. But the evidence appears to establish with certainty, that(1) the system of the department is far superior to the practise of copying finished and showy pictures, which is often the only instruction in drawing which the schools are found to give.

3. More space must be given to the discussion of the place which ought to be assigned, according to the evidence and according to our judgment on it, to natural science.

The study of natural science has of late years been strongly pressed on the attention of schools by scientific men, on the ground that it is capable of being made eminently useful in education, and that it is not expedient that mental training should rest exclusively on language and mathematics. This view has received a large amount of sanction of the highest kind. The Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham have of late years permitted students at a certain stage of their University course and on certain conditions to drop classics and mathematics, and complete their studies for graduation in arts in natural science. They have also included natural science as an optional subject at their local examinations. The University of London has established a Faculty of Science on a level with its Faculty of Arts, and it not only requires some knowledge of natural science from its candidates for arts' degrees, but also at its matriculation examination. The General Council of Medical Education and Registration in their recommendations to the Medical Corporations and Universities of the United Kingdom, include natural science in the list of alternative subjects in which, after 1st October, 1868, all students ought to be examined before they enter on professional study. The College of Preceptors puts natural science among the optional subjects at its examinations; and examinations for certificates of attainment in natural science have been instituted by the Society of Arts and by the Department of Science and Art at South Kensington. The report of Lord Clarendon's Commission recommends the study of natural science in the public schools; and the example set by the lycées and colleges in France, by the Gymnasien and Realschulen of Germany, and by the Schools of Industry in Switzerland, in giving

(1) Bryce, p. 655. Stanton, p. 25.


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a prominent place to natural science in their curricula, cannot be overlooked.

Of the witnesses whom we ourselves examined on this point almost(1) all who were not schoolmasters, desired the adoption in schools of some branch of natural science, though as a rule they did not aim at the deposition of any existing subject; they thought natural science should have its due place, without interfering with the other studies. They judged it desirable for various reasons, - as a means of cultivating the faculties of observation; as an important agent in mental discipline; as providing useful knowledge capable of being applied to the purposes of life; and some recommended it on all these grounds.

The evidence of schoolmasters goes to show that(2) a great majority of those who were examined have accepted natural science as a, part of the school work, but it exhibits the greatest diversity of opinion as to its value. (3)Some hold the strongest conviction of its importance; (4)others express hesitation and misgiving, and doubt if it has a place of any real value as an educational instrument; and (5)a few discredit its utility entirely. This discrepancy of opinion appears to be in a great measure due, as in some instances is confessed, to the greater or Jess acquaintance of the masters themselves with natural science, and their consequently greater or less appreciation of its use, and disposition to secure the efficiency of its teaching.

In schools where natural science is said to be popular, and where its educational influence is most unhesitatingly affirmed, the instruction in it is manifestly the most efficient. Efficiency of teaching and recognition of its benefit appear to rise and fall in a corresponding ratio. Nor need it occasion surprise if eminent classical and mathematical scholars, admittedly unacquainted with natural science, should cling to the dogma that all educational training should be grounded on grammar and mathematics and that they should be opposed to any portion of the subjects in which they have confidence being displaced by others in which they have none.

(1) Mr. Lowe, 6643-6647. Rev. Canon Moseley, 1972. Mr. Griffith, 1680. Prof. Price, 693. Dr. Acland, 2864. Prof. Rankine, 2317-2319. Mr. Besant, 1322. Mr. Paget, 2134.

(2) Rev. W. Tuckwell, 10,443, 10,475. Mr. Walker, 11,070. Dr. Benson. 4765. Rev. F. Calder, 7564. Rev. C. Evans, 5906. Dr. Hodgson, 9036. Dr. Howson, 2745. Mr. Payne, 6917.

(3) Rev. W. Tuckwell, 10,443-10,449. Dr. Hodgson, 17,608. Dr. Bryce, 17,233, 17,277. Mr. Ford, 11,875. Mr. Payne, 6917.

(4) Rev. J.M. Brackenbury, 17,364. Rev. G. Bradley, 4122. Rev. W. Webster, 8264. Mr. Creak, 10,829. Rev. J. S. Hodgson, 17,613.

(5) Mr. Dasent, 14,015. Dr. Bruce, 16,314. Rev. W. C. Williams, 5130.


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But the (1)cause of natural science probably suffers as much from indifferent teaching as from absolute exclusion from the schools. To teach it well it is indispensable that the teacher should be as thoroughly conversant with his subject and as energetic and apt at his work as a master in any other department of knowledge. It is also desirable that he should have sufficient apparatus for illustrating his lessons, and dexterity in the use of it. At present it not uncommonly happens that natural science, accepted as a necessity, is delegated to some master of no great mark, whose task it is to get up as much information about it as may be supposed sufficient to comply with external demand. This master, besides being wanting in all but the most superficial acquaintance with his subject, is often ill supplied with apparatus, as well as deficient in skill in manipulation. Such teaching must of necessity be lifeless, unintelligent, and fruitless. In other cases it is thought that all the demands of natural science may be met by engaging an occasional lecturer to deliver a few popular lectures. Such lectures, illustrated by startling experiments, may stir up a momentary excitement among boys, but that they can have any permanent educational value is not to be expected. Sometimes, again, it appears to be prosecuted with success in the lower forms, and then dropped altogether in the highest, simply because other subjects are better rewarded at the Universities. We cannot wonder that when it is treated in this way it should be pronounced superficial and incapable of disciplining the mind.

Of course some allowance must be made for difficulties arising from the obstacles which at present interfere with the introduction of the subject. These are the want of competent elementary teachers, of suitable elementary books, and of apparatus and laboratories; but we have no doubt these wants will speedily be supplied whenever natural science shall be seriously accepted in schools, as has been the case in France and Germany.

We cannot consider any scheme of education complete which omits a subject of such high importance.

We think it established that the study of natural science develops better than any other studies the observing faculties, disciplines the intellect by teaching induction as well as deduction, supplies a useful balance to the studies of language and mathematics, and provides much instruction of great value for the occupations of after life.

That instruction in this subject must be carefully graduated by the mental powers of the learner, and that the strictly

(1) Dr. Acland, 2880. Mr. Hill, 17,095. Prof. Goldwin Smith, 8840.


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scientific part of it should be delayed till arithmetic has been mastered, and the mind is able to appreciate mathematical reasoning, is admitted; but the evidence of those who have tried it with success is enough to prove that the best methods of teaching it may safely be left to the teachers, if good teachers be procured.

Which branches of natural science are best adapted for introduction into schools depends very much on the age of learners. The best starting point would probably be found in the outlines of physical geography. This subject is already taught with success in many elementary schools. It requires no apparatus but good maps. It has many points of connexion with the other usual subjects of instruction. Round it as a nucleus might easily be gathered much useful information, which boys could understand and remember, even before they were capable of the simplest scientific study. (1)This should be followed by some branch of science which would not tax more than the faculties of simple observation. The examination of objects, their parts and uses, and the distinguishing of their points of resemblance and difference with a view to their exact identification and classification, constitute an exercise of great importance as well as interest to young boys, and for this purpose descriptive botany or in some cases zoology, is, perhaps, the most suitable and convenient. But when boys reach the age to be taught natural science with scientific precision, (2)the subjects best adapted for teaching above all others are experimental physics and chemistry, inasmuch as they constitute the common platform of all the rest. They have generally been preferred in schools, and particularly in those in which natural science teaching has proved successful. Astronomy, physiology, and other subjects have been tried, but it is certain that these sciences cannot be satisfactorily prosecuted to the exclusion of experimental physics and chemistry, and if established on them as a basis, a degree of advancement, and maturity of experience, might be inferred, which would warrant the selection being left to the discretion of the teachers. Even in the case of experimental physics and chemistry it would hardly be judicious to attempt dealing with more than a very limited section of each. The great object, especially with boys sufficiently forward to be capable of exact scientific teaching should be to secure thoroughness of knowledge as far as it goes; the important distinction between elementary and superficial knowledge should be upheld as vigorously as it is by the most notable teachers of grammar and mathematics.

(1) Dr. Howson, 2745.

(2) Dr. Acland, 2865.


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Whilst recommending that natural science should be taught in all schools within our province, we do not suggest that it should displace any existing subject held to be of importance. We believe that an amount of knowledge of natural science may be acquired in schools side by side with classics, mathematics, and modern languages, which may be of the greatest advantage to young men proceeding to the Universities, or to professional training, or directly to the business of life. Probably some slight modification of the existing arrangement of studies in classical schools may he called for; but we are under no apprehension that the classics will suffer in consequence. On the contrary, we have good reason to know that natural science may so quicken the intelligence and increase the mental power of boys as greatly to contribute to their advancement in other studies. In the City of London School, where there are upwards of 600 hays, all the boys are taught natural science; and while some of them through means of this instruction have carried off distinctions in several of its branches at the University of London and South Kensington, it has not been found to prevent them from achieving the highest honours in classics and mathematics at the Universities of Cambridge and London.

In the semi-classical and commercial schools the different character of the work would obviate all difficulty by affording greater room for natural science. It is most likely that in different classes of schools, or in schools of the same class, the extent to which natural science may be carried may greatly vary, just as is now the case with mathematics. Indeed it may be highly desirable that there should be considerable variety in this respect; for it must not be lost sight of that boys of very ordinary power of grasping other subjects may evince special ability in natural science, which ought to be provided for.

Nor would it be wise in a country whose continued prosperity so greatly depends on its ability to maintain its pre-eminence in manufactures, to neglect the application of natural science to the industrial arts, or overlook the importance of promoting the study of it, even in a special way, among its artizans.

Several Continental States have already acted on the policy of promoting instruction in natural science for their artizan population; and there is good ground for believing that they are now reaping the fruits of their foresight.(1)

In particular cases, therefore, it may even be desirable to make natural science the main subject of instruction. Very forcible

(1) In reference to the important subject of technical instruction we have already made a special report.


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evidence was given of the success of the Bristol Trades' School, in which "experimental philosophy" is made the main subject. The boys of this school are the sons of operatives and tradesmen, the class that may receive their early education in national, British, or commercial schools. They are required before admission to be fairly advanced in English, writing, and arithmetic; these subjects are carried forward, and, in addition to experimental philosophy as the main subject, geometrical drawing is also taught. This school, being one of those in connexion with the Department of Science and Art at South Kensington, and deriving aid from the Government, may be considered as hardly coming within the scope of our inquiry. But it is not the less suggestive of a description of school which might be instituted to the great advantage of boys of a somewhat higher rank of life. It may reasonably be presumed that schools of a similar kind, but including a higher range of studies, and with such improvements as further experience may suggest, would prove highly popular and useful in many large, and especially in manufacturing, towns, particularly if arrangements could be made in them for extending the like instruction in the evenings to persons of greater age or otherwise employed during the day. In such places also, if the amount of the expense made it difficult to give instruction in natural science in the separate schools, that difficulty might perhaps be surmounted, if central schools for instruction in natural science could be established, so that by forming classes of boys drafted from different schools, or by a system of rotation of schools, all should share the use of the same apparatus and learn of the same teacher. Such schools would give that knowledge which would afford a solid foundation for the instruction to be given in any technical schools that might hereafter be established.

The Department of Science and Art has already promoted the establishment of classes for instruction in Natural Science in a considerable number of the larger towns. And although these classes are chiefly intended for the children of the manual labourers, they are also attended by scholars whose instruction properly falls within the province of this Commission. It is possible that in many cases these classes may be made the nucleus of institutions for scientific instruction of a more advanced kind.

One cause of discouragement to the study of natural science in schools, especially among clever boys working for exhibitions and scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge, calls for remark. Exhibitions and scholarships at these Universities are for the most part reserved for youths who display distinguished ability in classics or mathematics, and these may therefore be said to


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outbid natural science. But we trust that sufficient interest will be created in the subject to supply a remedy for this before long, and to add the encouragement of University emoluments to that which has already been given, the encouragement of University honours.(1)

b. Religious Instruction

We proceed next to the subject of religious instruction, which deserves special consideration, both because of its own paramount importance, and because of the peculiar difficulties with which it is attended.

We do not apprehend that there can be any real doubt that the great majority of parents would decidedly desire that their children should be religiously brought up. We are told (2)"that when boys are sent as boarders the parents generally stipulate that they shall attend church or some other place of worship"; (3) "that very few express the least wish for a purely secular system"; "that (4)the vast majority would be unwilling to see the subject of religion, and especially the reading of the Bible, excluded from the schools." And this evidence is confirmed by too many slighter indications from other sources to leave any doubt on our minds that on the whole the parents not only desire that their children should he taught religious truth, but that they should learn it where they learn other things, that is, at school. In fact in this country the parents rarely seem to have the leisure, and, if they have the leisure, often haw not the ability to instruct their own children in religion. And although, if a system of schools giving secular instruction only were once established, it is quite conceivable that the zeal of the different religious bodies would rapidly supplement it with separate arrangements for religious instruction, yet no such division of school teaching into distinct branches of secular and religious has yet been tried in England to any great extent, and it cannot be said that the parents generally show any strong desire that the trial should be made.

While, however, the parents appear to wish that the schools should continue to provide religious instruction, they by no means as a general rule show the same desire that that instruction should be of a denominational character. Mr. Bryce tells us that (5)"Church of England parents take it as natural that their children should learn the catechism, but they do not ask for it where it is not taught," and "they have certainly no desire

(1) On the whole subject of the teaching of Natural Science in schools, we desire to refer to an important Report, presented to the General Committee of the British Association at Dundee, which we have reprinted, vol. ii. p. 219.

(2) Fitch, p. 182.

(3) Fitch, p. 186.

(4) Bryce, p. 510.

(5) Bryce, p. 511.


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whatever that their sons should be educated apart from Dissenters." "And it is very much the same", he adds, "with the Nonconformists." "It is the rarest thing," says (1)Mr. Fitch, "for parents to show any desire for dogmatic instruction or to make any remonstrance if such instruction is altogether omitted." On such points it may be, as Mr. Bryce says, that they do not consider themselves competent to pronounce; but, whether from this cause or from some other, those who are solicitous about religious teaching are not always equally solicitous about the form in which it may be given.

There are limits, however, to this willingness to accept whatever religious teaching the schools may offer; for the parents are by no means always willing to surrender their right to regulate this part of the education of their children, and many who would leave the matter absolutely to the school authorities if they knew that they could always interfere with effect when they chose, would feel it to be a very serious grievance if religious teaching were made compulsory without reference to their wishes. Many certainly feel that the religious instruction of their children is a matter on which they have a special right to decide, and they would only accept such instruction on condition that they might withdraw their children from it if at any time they thought fit to do so.

Nor are there wanting cases to show that this right of withdrawal, if allowed, would be sometimes, though probably not often, exercised.(2) Roman Catholics as a general rule would object to allow their children to receive religious instruction from Protestant teachers. Many Nonconformists object to the Church Catechism, and would prefer that their children should not learn it. Some would not, perhaps, object to the catechism but to the explanations of the master; some would object to all dogmatic teaching whatever. Such cases as these would not probably be very numerous in any one school, and there might be many schools in which there would not be a single scholar whose parents decided to withdraw him from the religious instruction of the master.(3) But there would be enough to show that the demand for the right of withdrawal rested on real grounds, and could not be put aside as being of no practical value to the parent, while needlessly embarrassing the working of the school. On the contrary, the right would in most cases be exercised, if exercised at all, by precisely those parents whose opinions deserve particular respect,(4) conscientious men who took a deeper interest than usual in their children's religious educa-

(1) Fitch, p. 182.

(2) Bryce, p. 511.

(3) Bryce, p. 513.

(4) Stanton, p. 54.


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tion. Such men might, and very likely often would, find nothing in the teaching of the school to which their consciences objected, but if they did find anything of the sort, they would be unable to pass it over as a matter of no importance.

It might seem the easiest method of dealing with this difficulty to let the schools take the form, either of strictly denominational schools, which should enforce the distinctive religious teaching of their separate denominations on all their scholars, or of secular schools from which religious teaching should he excluded altogether and left to other agencies.

But while it would be highly inexpedient to discourage the establishment of exclusively denominational schools as private institutions, it is evident that no schools of a public character could now be restricted in so exclusive a sense to particular denominations as to enforce a distinctive religious teaching on all the scholars without any regard to the wishes of the parents. Denominational schools have in some respects a high value, and in particular they can often secure zealous and able service at a cheaper rate than other schools, and can thus bring a high kind of education within reach of those who could not otherwise afford it; but it would be thought unjust that institutions claiming to be national should be administered in the interest of a single section of the nation, and it would require nothing short of a demonstration, that the restriction was absolutely necessary, to induce all parties to submit to it.

But, further, the various religious denominations in this country are so mixed up, that, if separate schools for each denomination were required, there would be many districts in which the denomination which was in a minority would be unable to have any school at all. There would not be enough of them to fill a school of their own, and they would be excluded from the school of the majority. This difficulty is already found in the schools for the children of labourers, and it would be still more serious in the class which is next above them.

There might seem to be less objection to the other alternative, namely, to that which would limit the instruction given in schools to secular subjects and leave the teaching of religion to the ministers of religion under such arrangements as might be made for that purpose. There are some schools established already on this footing, and it is (1)well known that many who are much in earnest in promoting the improvement of education are in favour of the general adoption of this rule. But the objections to it are very serious, and, while we are not

(1) Prof. Key, 2937.


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prepared to call them overwhelming, we think that they deserve most careful consideration before they can be set aside. For, in the first place, such a system would probably do much to alienate the sympathies of many religious men, and perhaps drive them to give all their hearty support to denominational schools, in which not only the religious, but to some degree the polemical, character was predominant. Such men exercise great influence over the rest of the country, and their alienation would in all probability very seriously impair the efficiency of the schools by lowering their character in public estimation. But further such a system would possibly tend to exclude many earnest men from the masterships and would hamper many whom it would not exclude. No good master entrusted with the education of the young can fail to feel, that their moral, is of at least equal importance with their intellectual, improvement, and many would find themselves unable to speak freely on the highest moral questions, if they were compelled to absolute silence on religious questions; and less than absolute silence would not be enough, since to exclude religious teaching, and yet allow the master to introduce it into his lessons, or use it for purposes of discipline, would bring back the difficulty which the exclusion of religious teaching was intended to avoid. There would probably be some masters who, though deeply religious men themselves, would yet be capable of managing a school and educating scholars without giving any distinctive religious instruction. But, taking the profession as a whole, there is reason to believe that the surrender of religious teaching in the schools would be felt as a heavy loss by many excellent schoolmasters. It must be remembered that our schools as they are, and as the parents expect them to be, are not merely, as they conceivably might he, places where instruction only is imparted, but places for the formation and training of the character. And, if so, it seems doubly difficult to draw in practice a sharp line of division between what is secular and what is religious in the school life, and say that the master shall deal only with the former, and wholly exclude the latter. There would appear to us to be danger of serious deterioration in the tone and character of schoolmasters if the attempt were made, and perhaps the more so the more it might approach towards success. When to all this is added that the parents do not appear to desire the alteration, it would seem better not to exclude religious teaching unless it be found absolutely necessary. For it is not to be forgotten that this cannot be treated simply as an open question. We are not called on to say, what it would be best to do, if a complete system of education had now to be created for the first time. We are proposing to deal with a


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large number of endowed schools already in existence. In all but a very few of these schools religious instruction has been regularly given since their first foundation, that is in some cases for upwards of three hundred years, and to exclude it now would be a very different thing, and would have a very different effect, from not introducing it for the first time.

We are confirmed in this opinion by the fact, that our evidence appears to show, that the difficulty which we are discussing is not nearly so great as it might appear at first sight. There are certainly some schoolmasters who profess themselves unable to manage a school unless the religious instruction is compulsory upon all the scholars; but the great majority of those whom we examined on this point, including some of the best and ablest, appeared to find no practical difficulty in exempting from denominational teaching those whose parents desired them to be exempted. And Mr. Bryce,(1) after examining carefully into this matter in his district (Lancashire), came to the conclusion that what is commonly called the religious difficulty was either altogether unreal or one which was generally settled with ease by the exercise of common sense and mutual forbearance. Mr. Stanton(2) reports that "in no case did he find any instance of any master, whether he were churchman or dissenter, priest or layman, who expressed any but the most tolerant views on this subject, and who did not labour to widen rather than to contract a restriction."

There are, no doubt, occasional cases of hardship, but it does not seem impossible to prevent these by defining the rights of the parent on the one hand and of the schoolmaster on the other in such a manner as almost to remove all real ground of grievance.

The rights of the parent rest upon the principle that, in the last resort he must be responsible for the religious instruction of his own child. In order to recognize the responsibility to the full every parent whose boy is attending school as a day scholar ought to have a right to withdraw him from any part of the teaching, to which he conscientiously objects, without giving further reason than his wish to do so. He ought to be able by a written notice to claim exemption for his son from attending prayers or public worship, and from any lesson or series of lessons on a religious subject. He ought also to be protected against any systematic or persistent inculcation in his son's presence of doctrines of which he disapproves. But, on the other hand, as the parent ought to be

(1) Bryce, p. 510.

(2) Stanton, p. 54.


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free to withdraw the scholar, so ought the master to be free and unfettered in his teaching. The parent ought not to be able to hamper the master's teaching, by requiring incessant watchfulness, lest some allusion should slip out, or some doctrine be incidentally enforced, while there was really no intention of influencing his son in that direction. If any parent thinks he has a grievance of this kind, the obvious remedy seems to be to allow an appeal to some impartial and independent authority. In most cases the common sense of the persons concerned will settle the difficulty; if not, it must be settled by the common sense of a higher tribunal. Such a tribunal it will be our duty to suggest in our Chapter of Recommendations.

Boarders stand on quite a different footing. In dealing with a day scholar the master avowedly undertakes only a part, perhaps hardly the larger part, of his education; in dealing with a boarder in his own house he is entrusted with the whole. It seems unreasonable to require that a master shall receive a boy into his house; shall be responsible for his moral training; shall be responsible for what, if possibly less important to the boy himself, is still more important to the school as a whole, the influence which he exercises over the others; and yet shall not be free to use the means whi.ch he would naturally employ for his education. The master in this case stands in the parent's place, and to do his work properly ought to be clothed with all the parent's authority. In this case, too, there can be no doubt that in most instances the difficulty will be settled, as the evidence shows that it is settled, by common sense and mutual forbearance. But if it cannot be so settled, the proper remedy seems to be to put the boarder into the position of a day scholar. The trustees should be required, when the master would not consent to allow the parent such exemptions as the latter might desire, to permit some arrangement by which the boy could board elsewhere and attend the school as a day scholar. As the parent would also have the power of sending the boy to some other boarding school, where the master's views more nearly agreed with his own, it cannot be said that any real grievance would remain.

Subject to these regulations there seems good reason to retain the long established practice of including religious instruction in the work of schools. And indeed there can be no doubt that to include the duty of giving religious instruction in the schoolmaster's work adds greatly to the dignity of his office, and to his own sense of responsibility, gives a higher tone and character to the whole of the school life, and presents education both to parents and to boys in its only true light.


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c. Boarding and Day Schools compared

We have next to compare boarding schools with day schools. Here we find advantages and disadvantages on each side.

In the first place, it seems probable that the boarding school, if it be good, is the more efficient instrument of teaching. To a boarding scholar the school is the world, and the work of the school is the work of the world. The lessons, the promotions, the distinctions, the failures occupy a larger place in his imagination, and consequently make a deeper impression on his mind, than if he were living at home and were perpetually reminded, that his world was but a part of that larger world to which his father and his mother belonged. Moreover, boys learn much from each other. The boarder finds in the perpetual presence of his schoolfellows a perpetual stimulus to his intellect; his father's conversation is partly on subjects that he does not yet understand, partly is removed from him by the undefined difference caused by difference of age; but the conversation of a boy, even if far cleverer than himself, is still within his comprehension. Boarders, again, generally prepare their lessons together, and in so doing, not only help each other, but, to a great degree, stimulate and cultivate each other's understanding. From these causes it is generally found that where a school has both boarders and day scholars, the boarders, as a rule, will beat the day scholars. In some cases, no doubt, this is due to the fact that the boarders generally belong to a somewhat higher class of society, and consequently come from more cultivated homes. But even when both are on the same social level, it is still found that the boarders have generally an advantage: the boarding school supplies the more stimulating atmosphere. The parents might perhaps, if they chose, turn the scale the other way. In Scotland, as we shall presently see, the keen and intelligent interest which the parents take in their children's education is the force which gives life to the school work; and the results show that day schools are capable of doing quite as much as boarding schools if the scholars are spurred to exertion by wholesome encouragement at home. But in England, at any rate at present, the parents do not seem able to make day schools as efficient places of teaching as good boarding schools.

Again, it seems to be generally admitted that a good boarding school has more power in the formation of character than can be exerted by the joint action of the home and the day school. A boarder is compelled to rely much more on himself. He cannot lean always on his parents. He is compelled to choose between right and wrong without the aid of an older


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judgment. He is exposed to some temptations from which the day scholar is shielded; but in a really good boarding school he is exposed to them in the most wholesome way, with a strong public opinion among his fellows to keep him generally right, and with the certainty that anything mean or underhand will be detected and despised. Moreover, if the master have any force of character he can do much to elevate and refine the public opinion of the scholars, who will almost always readily answer to anything that appeals to their higher instincts. In old schools, especially where men of high character have taught, there is accumulated an inheritance of right feeling, which is of the utmost value in moulding the character of successive generations of scholars. "In the great schools," Mr. Fitch remarks,(1) "which possess famous traditions, and in which the pupils come for the most part from the houses of gentlemen, there is a tone of manners and a sentiment of honour which go far to neutralize the disadvantages of a too early withdrawal from the shelter of home. Few boys can breathe such an atmosphere without being strengthened by it." And to this must be added, that the games in the playground, which play a very important part in disciplining the character of English boys, are much better and more easily managed for the most part in boarding schools than in day schools. There, as much as anywhere, boys learn fairness, control of temper, obedience to authorities of their own choice, co-operation for a common end: valuable qualities in after life, even when first learnt in play.

Yet there is something here to be said on the other side. Boys who attend school while living at home are probably kept in some cases from the knowledge of evil, which it is better that they should not know. If the boarding school be not distinctly good, if the tone of the boarders be low or coarse, if the sentiment of honour be weak, the public opinion of such a school is likely to do more harm than good; and then the day scholar has the advantage. A boy living at home is not likely to learn cruelty, or to come in contact with immorality. From many temptations he is shielded, if not entirely, yet to a great degree. And, even if it be best for most boys to learn to resist temptation in boyhood, it may be a question whether some are not the better for being sheltered from temptation as long as it is possible to shelter them. For these reasons there are some who think that on the whole day schools are better for the character than boarding schools. And those who defend the large public boarding schools

(1) p. 191.


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are not always disposed to favour smaller boarding schools for boys of a lower social rank.

Lastly, if we compare the cost of boarding schools with that of day schools, the advantage is greatly on the side of the day schools. A boy who lives at home costs his father his food and clothing, and nothing else except his education. If the boy is sent away to a boarding school, the father does not pay less rent, or rates, or taxes, or wages to servants; but the boy's share of all these expenses at the boarding school must be paid for. Besides this, the master who has the boarding house will expect some profit, and will have a right to expect it. (1)The increase of responsibility, and consequently of anxiety, the sacrifice of time, liberty, and privacy consequent on keeping a boarding house must be compensated. Finally, when a boy lives at home, he is not compelled to share in all the expenses of his richer schoolfellows. If they choose to lay out more money on their games, or on any other joint expenditure than his parents can afford to give him, he can stand aloof without great difficulty; but if he is a boarder, this is very difficult. In consequence of all this, even the cheapest and most economically managed boarding school will still be dearer than a day school. And, when we observe how heavy a burden many parents find the education of their children to be, we must allow that this is a consideration of the greatest weight.

In making this comparison between boarding schools and day schools we have assumed the possibility of establishing either. But it is obvious that this possibility is limited by the locality in which the school is to be placed. If there be no population within easy reach, a day school of sufficient size is impossible; a boarding school is always possible, since, if it were really good, parents would not now consider distance a serious drawback. As far as it is applicable, this must be considered as an argument in favour of boarding schools, and an argument of great weight. For a large school has several great advantages over a small. A large school can afford to pay for an able head master, and real ability in the head master will often make the whole difference between a good school and a bad. A large school can be better classified: unless higher fees are paid for teaching, the number of boys assigned to each master must be nearly the same in a small school as in a large; but it is much easier in a large school to provide that they shall be nearly equal in attainment. Again, the division of labour is easy in a large school; very difficult in a small. In a small school one master must teach several subjects; in a large school, each subject of importance

(1) 18,603.


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may have its proper teachers. Nor are the moral less than the intellectual advantages of a large school. It is easier to create a healthy public opinion among the boys; it is easier to neutralize the bad effect of one or two unprincipled scholars; it is easier to make the boys proud of their school, and unwilling to lower its good name.

On examining the wishes of the parents, as far as we are able to ascertain them, it seems evident that all these considerations have had their weight. Parents who send their sons to schools of the first grade appear on the whole to prefer boarding schools. This is proved by the fact that all the great schools are now full, and that within the last twelve years several others have been established and all readily filled. The kind of education given at Eton, at Rugby, at Marlborough, whatever may be its drawbacks, has at any rate received whatever stamp of public approval can be considered to be given by overflowing numbers. And it is not too much to say, that what chiefly wins this approval is not so much what these schools teach, as the training which is given by their school life.

Yet there can be no doubt that there are many who would gladly have their children taught whatever schools of the first grade shall teach, but who cannot afford the expense of sending them to a boarding school. There are probably also some who would distinctly prefer day schools without any reference to their superior cheapness. At Eton, at Rugby, at Harrow, and at other schools of that standing, where day scholars are admitted, there are always some who are not attracted by cheapness only. In the metropolis, and in large towns, there is plainly room for large day schools of the first grade; such for instance as the City of London School, the Liverpool College, King Edward's School at Birmingham, and others that might be named. And in towns of a size insufficient to fill a first grade school with day scholars, it still would be highly expedient, wherever it was possible, to establish mixed boarding and day schools of that grade, to which boys could be sent as day scholars, if their parents desired to send them.

When we pass from education of the first grade to that of the second and third we find that those who have studied the matter are by no means agreed in opinion whether boarding schools or day schools should be preferred, while it becomes much more difficult to ascertain the wishes of the parents. (1)Lord Harrowby, (2)Mr. Goldwin Smith, and (3)Mr. Lingen expressed a decided preference for day schools; Mr. Lingen explaining that in his opinion the advantages of what is called the public school system would

(1) 14,064.

(2) 8824.

(3) 13,082, 13,083.


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not be found to attend boarding schools for boys of a lower social rank. To these must be added (1)Dr. Hodgson who even regretted for that reason the establishment of the "county schools", and our Assistant Commissioner, (2)Mr. Fitch, who remarks that, "as we descend lower in the social scale the value of a boarding school as a place for the formation of character appears to him to be less. The schools", he continues, "are smaller; they have little or no history; and the average tone of manners and of thinking in them is not very elevating. As a rule a boy is better off who attends a good day school and comes home to prepare his lessons, and to spend his leisure with his parents and sisters, than if he became a boarder at an ordinary school."

On the other hand, the system of schools founded by Mr. Woodard, and described to us by Dr. Lowe,(3) rests on the principle that education in boarding schools ought to be supplied to all classes. The same view was earnestly advocated by several of our witnesses; and our Assistant Commissioner, Mr. Giffard, expresses the opinion(4) that "the boarding school is most requisite where it is least available, viz., in the lower ranks."

The question, however, which kind of school is to be preferred, will probably be answered by considering not so much what is best or what is desired as what is possible.

For those tenant farmers who desire to give their children an education of the second grade, or, in some cases, of the first, for the professional men scattered about the country, the clergy for instance, the medical practitioners in the villages, and others on the same level as regards both their means and their wishes for their children, it would be impossible to provide day schools since they are too thinly scattered to fill them. For them boarding schools as cheap as is consistent with efficiency ought to be provided if possible. And if private benevolence can be stirred to promote schemes like Mr. Woodard's, there can be little doubt, that the number of parents, who desire to send their sons to boarding schools, is quite sufficient to fill all schools of this sort that are likely to be established.

But for the dwellers in towns the difference of expense will be enough to decide the question. Thoroughly efficient day schools could be maintained in towns at much lower charges than must be made by the most economical boarding schools; and the boarding school education would certainly be purchased too dearly if for that purpose inferior masters were employed and the board were paid for by making the teaching worse. Mr. Woodard, indeed, originally(5) proposed, if necessary, to support his schools

(1) 9068.

(2) p. 191; Bryce, p. 673.

(3) 9342, 9367.

(4) p. 146.

(5) 9315.


[page 49]

of the third grade out of the profits of the schools of the first. This is an expedient often tried on a small scale, but it may be doubted whether it would succeed on a large; it is really an education tax levied on the wealthier parents for the benefit of the poorer; but it is not levied on those wealthier parents who have most money, but on those who have most children, a rule that is not likely to win permanent approval; nor can the endowments bear the cost of carrying all the children of the middle classes that live in towns into the country; nor, if they could, does it seem the best way of spending the money. Mr. Woodard, as Dr. Lowe informed us,(1) afterwards gave up this plan, and determined to make his schools separately self-supporting. But it is admitted that the masters give their services at a very low rate, and the success of the plan must in some degree be ascribed to religious zeal.

On the whole, the conclusion seems to be, that for education of the second and third grades the inhabitants of towns must chiefly depend on day schools. These should be situated, if possible, not in the centre, but in the outskirts of the towns, where it may be possible to attach playgrounds to them. Day schools also will probably be found best for the smaller tenant farmers who cannot afford the expense of boarding schools. It may not always be easy to maintain such schools for want of numbers; but it is to be remembered that the smaller the farms the larger the number of this class; and sometimes by having one school for two or three parishes, with a well-arranged system of day boarding, sometimes by making the farmers' school an upper department of the parish school, it is to be hoped that the wants of this class might be fairly met.

II. EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND IN SCOTLAND

Our immediate purpose in this chapter is to give an outline of the schools that we believe to be wanted in this country, and of the education that they ought to give, and not to discuss the best means of providing, maintaining, or governing such schools, or of supplying them with good masters. In the account, however, which we are about to give of the systems of education now at work in America, in Scotland, and on the Continent of Europe, it will be found that we have travelled beyond these limits, and have included a sketch of the whole machinery of each system, as well as of the schools which are worked by that machinery. But this departure from our immediate purpose

(1) 9315.


[page 50]

will be excused by the consideration, that the schools themselves and the work that they do can only be thoroughly understood by viewing them in their relation to the whole systems of which they form a part. For the same reason we have included a brief mention of the primary schools in each country, although such schools do not properly fall within the scope of our Commission.

In these systems we see solutions, more or less complete in each case, of the same problem as that which is now put before ourselves. That problem is to meet the demand of modern society for schools adapted to its varied and, in some cases, almost inconsistent needs. This problem is not before any two countries in precisely the same shape. Nor would it be possible to transplant the solution that has succeeded in one country, without alteration into another. In sending Assistant Commissioners to report on what other nations have done in the matter of education we expected rather to procure light on the general principles of our subject than to find models for exact imitation. But it is obvious that any conclusions that we may have drawn from the wishes and opinions expressed to ourselves or to our Assistant Commissioners in England will be greatly confirmed, if it appear that similar needs and similar means to supply those needs are found in other countries: and, in some instances, it is not unlikely that we may have a guidance in the working of these complete systems which we could not obtain in England at all.

Our Assistant Commissioner for the United States and Canada was Mr. Fraser; for Scotland, Mr. Fearon; for France, Prussia, and Switzerland, Mr. Arnold. The following account of the different educational systems at work in these countries is taken (except where otherwise expressly stated) from their reports.

A. The New England system, as described by Mr. Fraser, appears to be weak where we are strongest, strong where we are weakest. Mr. Fearon, in his report on the Metropolitan district, has described for us at least one really good school of the first grade,(1) that of the City of London; and at least one of the second grade,(2) that of St. Mary's, Whitechapel. But a good or even a fair public school of the third grade he could not find. The higher schools in New England can hardly compete with our own higher schools; but with good schools, corresponding to what we have termed the third grade, they are well supplied. Their excellence matches our deficiency.

(1) pp. 277-288.

(2) Appendix III.


[page 51]

The American system in its most perfect form consists of primary schools for children from 5 to 8 years old; schools called grammar schools, intended to carry on education to between 14 and 15, though the scholars often stay somewhat longer;(1) high schools of the second grade in which Latin is taught, and of the first, in which Greek is added to Latin; and, parallel with these, English high schools, in which French and German take the place of the classics, and the English subjects receive more attention. In the primary schools the teaching is purely elementary, and the children at the end of the course(2) are supposed to be capable of reading easy prose, spelling words of three syllables, working easy questions mentally in the first four rules of arithmetic, and writing down any number below thousands in figures. This standard is not high,(3) but it appears to be generally attained. The Boston grammar school course, which Mr. Fraser thought the most successful, continues the teaching of spelling, reading, writing, and arithmetic,(4) and adds book-keeping, geography, English grammar, history of the United States, natural philosophy (i.e. experimental physics), drawing, and vocal music. The grammar school is not a direct preparation for the high school, but aims at being complete in itself. Scholars who intend to enter the high school generally leave the grammar school(5) about 13, some even as early as 10. The (6)Latin high school at Boston carries the scholars into Caesar, Ovid, Virgil, and Cicero in Latin; Xenophon and Homer in Greek. At New York the classical high schools aimed at more(7) but did not seem to attain more. The English high school at New York was much more successful, carrying on mathematics and natural science(8) to a very fair standard, and adding French, moral philosophy, English literature, and political economy. The classical high schools at (9)Boston are intended to lead to the University; those of (10)New York themselves grant degrees. The religious instruction in all these: schools is strictly unsectarian. As a rule every school opens with prayers, and provision is made for reading the Bible. But children of all denominations come to the same school, and the Bible is read without note, explanation, or comment. It is obvious that no complete religious instruction can be given within these limits. But here the Sunday schools come in to supply the deficiency; and on the whole(11), in Mr. Fraser's opinion, the mode in which the subject is dealt with does not appear to cause serious dissatisfaction or anxiety even to those who take a deep

(1) p. 87-89.

(2) p. 116, 330-333.

(3) p. 118.

(4), p. 121-122, 333-335.

(5) p. 127.

(6) p. 89.

(7) p. 136, 337, 338.

(8) pp. 141,335, 336.

(9) p. 131.

(10) p. 126.

(11) p. 181.


[page 52]

interest in religious questions, and who would be keenly concerned for the unimpaired maintenance of religious truth. Finally, all but the rural schools are very carefully classified, or (1)graded, as the Americans term it, and that not only within each school but in the relation of the schools to each other; so that in every case each teacher has charge of a class in which all the scholars are as nearly as possible at the same point of attainment.

There are deviations from this general type in different States, and of course in rural districts there can be no high schools; in some cases even the primary and the grammar schools are not distinct. But the true nature of the system is best understood by being seen in its most perfect form.

Perhaps it need hardly be added that these schools are all day schools. There are boarding schools in America as in England, but the boarding schools are all private. The public schools are intended for, and to a great degree are filled by, all classes. There are indications here and there of a tendency among the wealthier to send their children to private schools as more select; but the great majority prefer the public schools. In many instances the schools are attended not only by all classes but by both sexes. But the most approved plan in towns large enough to admit of it is to have two grammar schools, one for each sex, and one primary school for both sexes. To complete the description, it should be said that the vast majority of the teachers are women, and that this preponderance of women has increased lately, and is increasing still; female teachers are thought to be not only cheaper but more efficient.

The schools are absolutely in the hands of the people. The State requires them to be established, but does no more. Every Township, a division which corresponds nearly to a poor law union in this country, is required to establish a primary and a grammar school, either separate or combined in one. If there are 500 families the law requires a high school of the second grade; if 1,000 families a high school of the first grade. These schools are erected and maintained by a School Committee elected by the Township; this Committee also appoints and overlooks the teachers, and examines the scholars. The State has no power of controlling, hardly any power of stimulating; and in some cases this excessive localization works much mischief. The expenses are borne by the local rates. The local rates, levied not on income, (2)but on property. whether real or personal, are exceedingly high, amounting for instance at Boston to what would be 20 per cent per annum on income. And out of these rates it is generally calculated that

(1) p. 33, note 87.

(2) pp. 50-54.

(3) p. 47.

(4) p. 54.


[page 53]

the schools absorb one third.(1) In some parts school fees are charged; but these are unpopular,(2) and most of the schools are free. The result is to put the best education that the country gives within the reach of every single child. It was attempted to do more than chis, and compel the children to attend.(3) But this attempt has failed, and the attendance is quite as irregular as in England.(4)

It cannot be said that the teaching in these schools is perfect. The teachers are young and do not stay long in their profession;(5) in some instances(6) they are paid so ill that the book-sellers are able to tempt them away to become agents for the sale of books. The text books are not the best. Too much reliance is placed on the mere memory, and examination questions are objected(7) to if not taken directly from the books.(8) The higher culture(9) is distinctly below that of England.(10)

But whatever the defects of the system, it has the one great merit of being alive. The teachers(11) "have the gift of turning what they know to the best account; they are self-possessed, energetic, fearless; they are admirable disciplinarians, firm without severity, patient without weakness; their manner of teaching is lively and fertile in illustration; classes are not likely to fall asleep in their hands."(12) An American teacher with whatever other faults is never dull. The scholars are ambitious and eager to learn;(13) even legislation is necessary to prevent an undue strain. They are more energetic than accurate.(14) Their taste is not formed on the best models.(15) The school life does not last long enough for thorough education.(16) But the schools are the most direct preparation far the life that is to follow.(17)

On the whole it appears to us that the great merit of these schools is their precise adaptation to the American people and the American political life.(18) Without the American energy to inspire them, and the American political life to follow them, we think that it may be doubted whether they would attain any real success. There appears to be nothing in them to lift the people above their own level. There is no arrangement in the system by which the fittest and most cultivated have a powerful voice in controlling the education of the whole. They fall far short of Prussia in completeness and in culture. But they seem to have succeeded in supplying every citizen with as much education as is indispensable for the ordinary duties of life, and in opening to him the door for more if he desire it. They show

(1) p. 53.

(2) pp. 22-3, note.

(3) pp. 35-36.

(4) pp. 35, 93-95.

(5) 75-6.

(6) p. 24, note.

(7) pp. 139, 146-9.

(8) p. 174.

(9) pp. 83-4.

(10) p. 136.

(11) p. 72.

(12) p. 173.

(13) p. 171.

(14) pp. 111-113.

(15) pp. 176-177.

(16) pp. 90-92.

(17) p. 167.

(18) p. 168.


[page 54]

what may be done by calling on the people to educate themselves and putting all the machinery for the purpose into their own hands. And the result is that Mr. Fraser pronounces them "if not the most highly educated, yet certainly the most generally educated people on the earth." (1)

B. From the United States Mr. Fraser went to Canada, and he gives an account of the school systems both of Upper Canada and of Lower; of these we think it enough for our purpose to give an outline of the system of Upper Canada, since Mr. Fraser was unable to pay a visit in person to any of the Lower Canadian schools and his account of them is founded entirely on the printed and oral reports of others. The school system of Upper Canada is somewhat more centralized than that of New England, but it is also more voluntary. The townships are not compelled, as in Massachusetts, to establish common schools; but if they do, these schools are brought into closer relation with the central government.(2)

The Province contains 42 counties, and each county is divided(3) into townships of about 10 miles square. Each county may establish one or more grammar schools, and every township one or more common schools.(4) The grammar schools ought to correspond to the American high schools; but not more than one or two can be called successful, and as a system the grammar schools must be pronounced a failure. The common schools correspond to the American grammar and primary schools.(5) Each common school is mainly supported by a rate levied on its own township, a share of a rate levied on the whole county, and a share of a grant made by the central government. Fees are also paid by the parents, but they are very low.(6) The schools are managed by officers of the township,(7) inspected by a superintendent appointed by the county;(8) and subject to general regulations made by a council for the whole province. Although no township is compelled to come into this system, in 20 years it has "covered the province with a network of schools."(9)

Special attempts have been made to retain the religious instruction in the schools,(10) and not throw it altogether on the parents, who often have not the means to give it.(11) Every school is opened with prayer and the reading of the Bible, from which, however, any parent may withdraw his child if he pleases. The clergy of the different denominations are allowed to attend and instruct the children of their own congregations at fixed hours,

(1) p. 203.

(2) p. 227.

(3) p. 210.

(4) pp. 259-267.

(5) pp. 211, 213, 216.

(6) pp. 217-222.

(7) pp. 214, 222-225.

(8) p. 210.

(9) p. 227.

(10) pp. 242-258.

(11) p. 245.


[page 55]

and in some cases separate schools for different denominations are allowed to be established. These rules seem to have satisfied the clergy. But Mr. Fraser remarks that the separate schools are often inefficient from being too small, and that in the other schools the clergy as a rule do not use their right of coming to give instruction.(1)

The general character of the teaching is well described in the following passage; but it is right to add that it was vacation time during a large part of Mr. Fraser's visit to Canada, and that the following description is the result of only a limited experience:

(2)"I could not help being struck by the correspondence of the results produced by a Canadian school to those produced by an ordinary English elementary school, and by the contrast ‚that both systems present to the more brilliant and showy, but perhaps less solid and permanent, acquirements of an American school. The range of subjects taught and learnt in the best schools in Toronto does not go beyond the standard of most of our town schools, nor indeed of many of our best village schools. Reading, writing, and cyphering, geography and history, English grammar, including etymology (to which much attention is paid with manifest advantage), the elements of geometry, algebra, and mensuration, a little drawing and a little singing; that is all that I found constituting the circle of instruction in one of the most advanced Toronto schools. The chief specialities of the Canadian methods were long lessons, generally a continuous hour to each subject; in reading, the ‚requirement that the pupils should possess themselves of the matter of the lesson; in teaching grammar, the stress laid on the distinction between prefixes, roots, and affixes, and on etymology generally; and, generally, the discouragement given to rapid answering, and the time allowed for reflection and thought. Entering a Canadian school, with American impressions fresh upon the mind, the first feeling is one of disappointment. One misses the life, the motion, the vivacity, the precision - in a word, the brilliancy. But as you stay, and pass both teacher and pupils in review, the feeling of disappointment gives way to a feeling of surprise. You find that this plain, unpretending teacher has the power, and has successfully used the power, of communicating real, solid knowledge and good sense to those youthful minds, which, if they do not move rapidly, at least grasp, when they do take hold, firmly. If there is an appearance of what the Americans call 'loose ends' in the school, it is only an appearance. The knowledge is

(1) p. 257.

(2) pp. 241-242.


[page 56]

stowed away compactly enough in its proper compartments, and is at hand, not perhaps very promptly, but pretty surely when wanted. To set off against their quickness, I heard many random answers in American schools; while, per contra to the slowness of the Canadian scholar, I seldom got a reply very wide of the mark. The whole teaching was homely, but it was sound. I chanced to meet a schoolmaster at Toronto who had kept school in Canada, and was then keeping school at Haarlem, New York, and he gave Canadian education the preference for thoroughness and solid results. Each system - or rather I should say the result of each system, seems to harmonize best with the character of the respective peoples. The Canadian chooses his type of school as the Vicar of Wakefield's wife chose her wedding-gown, and as the Vicar of Wakefield chose his wife, 'not for a fine glossy surface, but for such qualities as will wear well,' I cannot say, judging from the schools which I have seen - which I take to be types of their best schools - that their choice has been misplaced, or that they have any reason to be disappointed with the results. I speak of the general character of education to which they evidently lean. That the actual results should be unequal, often in the widest possible degree, is true of education under all systems, everywhere."

C. We owe our account of the Scotch secondary schools to Mr. Fearon. We did not think it necessary to send an Assistant Commissioner to make a complete report on the whole Scotch system, an account of which was being prepared by Her Majesty's Commissioners appointed to inquire into schools in Scotland. But being informed by the Commissioners that(1) nine schools selected by them might be considered fair representatives of the Scotch schools for secondary instruction, we instructed Mr. Fearon to visit and examine these nine schools, though not to confine his investigation absolutely within those limits, if he found it practicable and desirable to do more. Mr. Fearon has accordingly visited these nine schools, and(2) seven others selected by himself, and has reported on Scotch secondary instruction so far as these would enable him to do so.

The Scotch system appears to comprise three grades of institutions for education, the parochial schools, intended chiefly for primary instruction; the burgh schools or academies, for secondary instruction; and the universities. The parochial schools, which date from the Reformation, are closely connected with the Scotch Church; so much so, that when the Free Church seceded from the

(1) p. 1.

(2) p. 2.


[page 57]

establishment, the seceders proceeded to build new schools as well as new churches. The schools are by law under the control and supervision of the Presbyteries, though the buildings of each school are maintained, and a minimum salary is paid to the master, by the heritors or landowners of the parish. The secondary schools are the burgh schools in the municipal towns and the academies. The burgh schools are maintained and controlled by the municipal authorities, who appoint the masters, determine the subjects of instruction, and fix the fees to be paid by the scholars. It is not easy to draw the line between these schools and the academies. Several burgh schools appear, after falling into disrepute, to have been revived and remodelled, and then called by this name. As a rule, however, it seems that an academy either has, or has at one time had, the support of a body of subscribers, and is therefore in some degree a proprietary as well as a municipal school. In these cases, as long as the subscribers have continued their support, they have retained a share in the control. Some academies, as for instance, that of Edinburgh, are simply proprietary schools. Lastly, above the burgh schools and academies stand the four universities.

The peculiarity of the relation between these various institutions consists in this, that they compete with and overlap each other. The (1) parochial schools often give what is really secondary instruction; the burgh schools and academies often give primary; and (2) the universities largely compete with the burgh schools and academies, and admit many to the professors' lectures, who would more naturally be still at school. Each institution in fact takes its own independent line without regard to the others.

The (3) usual organization of the secondary schools themselves is probably unique. It is common in English schools to allow boys to receive, besides the regular fixed course of instruction, lessons in special subjects at the choice of their parents, and for these to make an extra charge; but the Scotch system carries this discretion of the parents to the utmost length. There is no fixed course imperative on all the scholars, but separate fees are charged for each separate subject, and it is left entirely to the parent to choose what subjects his boy shall learn. A boy may, if his father chooses, learn nothing but mathematics; another may learn nothing but Latin. The (4) parents, however, are said to show themselves very good judges of what is good for their boys, and the system is reported to work well. The (5) subjects in which instruction is offered, and among which the parents can therefore choose, are the usual English subjects beginning at the age of five or six, Latin, French, and mathematics beginning at about

(1) p.7.

(2) p. 8.

(3) p. 15.

(4) p. 18.

(5) pp. 23, 24.


[page 58]

eleven, and Greek beginning at about thirteen. The course is supposed to end at about sixteen or seventeen. Among these subjects Latin holds the place of honour; in Greek and mathematics the boys do not proceed far; in modern languages they do very little. But with the exception of this last subject what is done is done well. In (1) Latin the boys make excellent general progress, and though verse is rarely attempted good progress is made in Latin prose; what is learnt of Greek is learnt thoroughly and well; the little of mathematics that is professed is mastered by all; and the results of the English instruction are said to be excellent. What perhaps must be considered of most importance is that the average work, the general mean level of the results produced, is much better than in most English schools, even of the first grade.

Religious instruction does not appear to be always given in these schools. When given it is usually in accordance with the doctrines of the Church of Scotland. But no arrangement is required to protect liberty of conscience. If a parent disapproves of the lessons in this subject, he does not send his son to them; and since all subjects are optional, he is but using the liberty inherent in the regulations of the school.

While the buildings (2) of these schools are maintained by the borough authorities, the cost (3) of the instruction falls almost entirely on the parents. It is obvious that on the Scotch system this is not a fixed amount, but varies with the subjects in which a parent chooses his boy to be instructed. At the (4) Glasgow High School the parents' share of the cost of good instruction is estimated by Mr. Fearon at £17 10s. 6d. for a boy of 16, and at £10. 12s. 6d. for a boy of 10. At (5) the Hamilton Academy the instruction of two boys at the same ages would be £3. 3s. and £1. 13s. respectively. These are the two extremes of cost; the average lies perhaps half way between them. The parents (6) appear to be much more willing than in England to pay for education; they have not been spoilt by a bad use of endowments, and they have learnt by an experience of nearly three centuries to value good education highly. The arrangements (7) for boarding are as much under the control of the parents as the subjects of instruction. The schools are organized as day schools. Boys who live beyond the limits, at which the school can be attended from home, lodge near the school, wherever the parents choose to put them. And there is therefore even a greater variety in the cost of board than in the cost of instruction. This system is popular in Scotland because of its freedom, and in all probability no other can be so cheap to the poor. But it ought to

(1) pp. 55, 56.

(2) p. 36.

(3) p.15.

(4) p. 124.

(5) p. 137.

(6) p. 15.

(7) p. 10.


[page 59]

be added that the average cost of board does not appear to be much cheaper (1) than in England, and that there is a considerable (2) and increasing class in favour of the English system.

The schools are attended by(3) all classes except the (4) highest, and in many cases by both sexes. The schools being practically intended to complete their course at about 16 are really of the second grade; such education consequently as properly belongs to schools of the first grade they cannot give, and the parents who desire their sons to have it are obliged to send them to England. With this exception the mixture of classes is complete, and it is obvious that this mixture is greatly aided by the discretion which is left to the parents to regulate the expenditure. A poor man, who cannot afford to give his son the full benefit of the school, is not precluded from giving him as much at any rate as he can afford to pay for; and if he lives at a distance and cannot afford to put him to board where he will be made comfortable and carefully guided, he can at any rate get him a poor lodging, enough to live in while his school life lasts. Of the value of this mixture of classes it is needless to speak; there can be no doubt that it largely contributes to that general diffusion of intelligence for which Scotland is remarkable.

The teachers in these schools appear to be generally very well chosen. (5) Most of them are graduates of one or other of the Scotch Universities, and while the Scotch as a rule appear to have a natural aptitude for the profession of teaching, the course prescribed by the Scotch Universities for their degrees is in many respects (6) well calculated to cultivate that aptitude successfully.

The following(7) description gives a lively picture of a good Scotch schoolmaster whom Mr. Fearon saw at work in his school. After describing a school of a different kind Mr. Fearon goes on,

"And then the contrast between such a scene, and that presented by the class-room of a Scotch burgh school, crowded with 60 or 100 boys and girls, all nearly of an age, seated in rows at desks or benches, but all placed in the order of merit, with their keen thoughtful faces turned towards the master, watching his every look and every gesture, in the hopes of winning a place in the class, and having good news to bring home to their parents at tea time. The dux seated at the head of the class, wearing perhaps a medal; the object of envy and yet of pride to all his fellows; fully conscious both of the glory and the insecurity of his position; and taught, by the experience of many falls, the danger of relaxing his efforts for one moment. In front of this

(1) p. 175.

(2) p. 12.

(3) p. 18.

(4) p.22.

(5) p.43.

(6) p.45.

(7) p. 52.


[page 60]

eager animated throng stands the master, gaunt, muscular, and time-worn, poorly clad, and plain in manner and speech, but with the dignity of a ruler in his gestures. and the fire of an enthusiast in his eye; never sitting down, but standing always in some commanding position before the class; full of movement, vigour, and energy; so thoroughly versed in his author or his subject that he seldom requires to look at the text-book, which is open in his left hand, while in his right he holds the chalk or the pointer, ever ready to illustrate from map or black-board, or perhaps flourishes the ancient 'taws' with which in former days he used to reduce disorderly new comers to discipline and order. The whole scene is one of vigorous action and masterly force."

But it is remarkable that there should be the same independence of action between the different masters of each school, that has been already noticed as existing between the schools and universities. The (1) Rector, who is the first in rank among the masters, has none of the power which in England belongs to the Head Master. Each master teaches in his own way and without control. The boys are not as in England handed on from master to master up the school. The arrangement (2) will be best understood by describing how Latin, the principal subject, is taught. The course being intended to last five years, there are four masters beside the Rector; the Rector takes the boys in their fifth year, and thus always receives a new set of pupils at the beginning of every year; but each of the four other masters keeps the same boys for four years successively, carrying them through from the lowest class to the highest but one, and only receiving a new set of pupils every fourth year. Promotion in the English sense there is none, but the boys go through a course of lessons, and are handed on at the end, whether fit or not, to the final year with the Rector. Each master receives the fees paid by his own pupils for his own subject, and it is therefore no more than fair that he should he unfettered in his mode of teaching.

Such are the Scotch Burgh Schools; but (3) outside the schools there is a force at work, which really supplies them with all their life and vigour, and this is the extraordinary interest which the parents take in the progress of their boys. All the energy and all the interest of the Scotch teacher would perhaps not produce more result than that which English country grammar schools afford, were they not seconded by the anxious and intelligent watchfulness of parents and patrons and by the consequent eagerness and diligence of children. "What place in the class to-day?" Mr. Fearon found to be the first question asked

(1) p.41.

(2) p. 25.

(3) p. 53.


[page 61]

when a boy went home after school; then would follow questions as to what he had read; whether such and such a neighbour's son was above or below him; and, if above him, why so; and whether, if he worked a little harder, he could not manage to take him down; how he had gained or why he had lost a place; who was dux; and did he think he had a chance of ever being dux, and so on; every word showing the keen interest the parent feels in the son's progress, and the importance which the whole family attach to his success. In short the schools are practically in the hands of the parents; the parents use the masters to educate their sons, but they themselves direct the education. The responsibility, the expense, the guidance are all their own, and the result is that they give their hearts to a task which in many respects none others can do so well.

On a review of the Scotch system it is evident that there is little that can be called organization. The universities do not act in concert with the burgh schools, nor the burgh schools with the parochial. It can hardly be said that the masters within each school act in concert with each other. Boys of the same age are taught the same lessons without any regard to the difference in their abilities. The selection of the studies is left to the parents, and there is no means of grouping these studies so as to tell best on each other. The schools are not put under any efficient supervision, nor are the boys examined in such a way as to test the results of the teaching.

Yet making every allowance for the fact that Mr. Fearon only saw a selected number of the schools, the system must be allowed to produce very fair results. That such results should come from such a system is a proof of what the parents can do for their children's education, if they are thoroughly in earnest. In spite of all defects of organization (some of which, indeed, might be easily remedied), the force which is supplied by the constant and vigilant interest of the parents achieves a remarkable success. This interest is partly due to the fact that the parents pay the full cost of the teaching, and have consequently learnt to value it in proportion to its worth; but chiefly, perhaps, to the power which the system gives them of controlling the instruction at their own discretion, and to the strong sense of responsibility which has thus been fostered in their minds. It would not of course be possible to transplant the system exactly as it stands into another country; it is the growth of nearly three centuries. But to catch something of the same spirit would be undoubtedly worth much.

D. The French system, as judged from an English point of view, appears to have the merit of being a perfect piece of machinery


[page 62]

for the cultivation of the intellect. On the moral side it seems to be weak,(1) and there are some appearances of its having a deficiency just like our own, namely, in the education put within the reach of the superior artizans and smaller shopkeepers. For our account of this system we have supplemented Mr. Arnold's report in some degree by using the evidence of Professor Cassal. The references will show precisely how much is due to each.

The schools are of two chief grades - first, the Primary; secondly, the Colléges Communaux and Lycées.

(2)Every commune is required by law to establish a primary school, and 29,000 (all but about 1,000) have already done so. Many have also established infant schools (Salles d'Asile) as preparatory to the primary. These primary schools are intended to give elementary education up to the age of 12 or 13. The teachers are trained in normal schools, are appointed and dismissed by the Prefect of the department, are paid partly by the communes and partly by the fees of the scholars, their minimum salary being fixed by the law. The schools are inspected by the primary inspectors, officers of the department, who visit them at all times without notice. The fees paid by the scholars are not high: indigent parents pay no fees at all. Many communes make their primary schools entirely free, and pay the teachers from the rates.

The standard of instruction is not high; but it appears to be fully attained. The teachers know their business, and are kept to their work. The instruction is much on a par with that of an elementary school in England; the reading and arithmetic somewhat better; the writing, and the knowledge of history and geography not so good.(3)

The cost is borne partly by the parents, partly by the communes, partly by the State. The financial arrangements appear to give general satisfaction; and though the salaries of the masters are extremely low, it does not appear that they are an unhappy class, or that their incomes are such as to prevent men of ability from entering the profession.(4)

Next above these stand the lycées and the colléges communaux. These differ in two respects;(5) the lycées are established by the State, one in each department; the colléges communaux by the communes; again the lycées are always organised on a complete system,(6) and the teachers must have received the highest guarantees of their capacity; the colléges are often incomplete,

(1) Professor Cassal, 10,756.

(2) Ib. 10,688-90.

(3) Mr. Arnold's Report to Popular Education Commission, vol. iv. p. 68.

(4) lb., pp. 59-62. Professor Cassal, 10,688.

(5) Ib. 10,706.

(6) Mr. Arnold's Report, to this Commission, pp. 484, 495, 496.


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omitting the highest of those parts into which the lycées are divided, and the teachers are of inferior ability and attainment.(1)

A lycée properly contains three parts, the elementary division, the grammar division, and the division of humanities. The lower class is the 8th, and boys are admitted into it as young as seven,(2) if they can read and write; but even below this class the lycées are authorized to place a preparatory class, not numbered, in which the instruction is mainly that of primary schools, and does not include Latin. Here they begin to learn French by heart,(3) In the 8th class they begin Latin. This class and the 7th constitute the elementary division. Then an examination has to be passed to enter the grammar division; here begin Greek and modern languages. Out of 24 hours of lessons in the week, 15 are here given to classics (i.e. Latin, Greek, and French), 2 to history and geography, 2 to modern languages, 1 to arithmetic, 2 to singing, and 2 to drawing.(4) In the 4th, the head class of the grammar division, geometry begins.(5) The time given to mathematics is increased by 1 hour, that given to classics diminished by the same. At this point several of the colléges communaux stop. But the complete system has here another examination, and then follows the highest division, that of humanities.(6) Here Latin verse begins; the whole school time becomes 26 hours, and the mathematical time is increased to 4. Algebra and natural history take the place of arithmetic. The French classics are carefully studied. Finally, in the highest class of all, called philosophie,(7) classics for the first time lose their preponderance; logic, moral philosophy, and physics are studied. The whole course lasts for 9 years, and a boy beginning at the bottom at 8 or 9 is 17 or 18 when it is finished. He then takes his degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, and proceeds to study specially for his profession. This professional study corresponds therefore to our University course in the position which it occupies, but it is directed in every case to some one special end, and not any longer to general education.

(8)The religious instruction of Roman Catholic boys is given by chaplains, and is under the inspection of the bishop of the diocese. Protestant and Jewish boys receive the religious instruction of their own communions. The great lycées of Paris have Protestant and Jewish chaplains attached to them, just as they have Catholic chaplains. Where Protestants or Jews are not numerous enough for the school to have a special chaplain for them, boys of those persuasions still receive their religious in-

(1) Professor Cassal, 10,742.

(2) Arnold, p. 477.

(3) lb., p. 478.

(4) Arnold, p. 478.

(5) lb., p. 479.

(6) lb., p. 479.

(7) lb., p. 479.

(8) Ib. p. 507.


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struction from ministers of their own creed appointed to visit them, and are entirely exempted from the religious instruction of the Catholics. There are no complaints at all of improper interference or proselytism.

Looking at the results, the proficiency in Greek seems decidedly inferior to that of our own scholars.(1) But the Latin of the best scholars is equal to that of our best, and what is of great importance the Latin of their average scholars is far above that of ours.(2) In arithmetic, mathematics, and natural science we are much inferior.(3) They know their own literature better than our boys know ours. The real advantage which they have is that though their classical culture is not carried so far, the boys are more generally brought up to the mark in all their studies.

There are two main reasons for this: the careful preparation of their teachers for their profession, and the system of supervision.

Nothing can exceed the care with which the teachers are fitted for their work.(4) The best come from the great Normal School at Paris.(5) This school, at which board, lodging, and instruction are all free, is filled from the lycées by competition among all those who wish to enter the profession. The very elite of the students being thus got together, are taught by the best professors in France, with a perpetual view to their becoming teachers.(6) Finally, no one either from this school or from any other, is placed on the staff of a public school without having passed a very strict examination in the precise subjects which he is to teach, and having given a lesson, as if to a‚ class, as a part of that examination.(7)

Still further to secure the perfection of the machinery the lessons in the schools given by these teachers, who are called professors, all precisely follow a given curriculum.(8) Every lesson of every hour throughout all the schools is prescribed by the central government; and the professors prepared to do a definite task are kept to that task and no other. Further, they are set free from every duty but that of giving the lessons.(9) The moral training and the discipline of all the scholars, and the domestic management of the boarders, are entrusted to different officers, the Proviseur, the Censeur, and the Econome. They have not even the task of seeing that their pupils learn their lessons. This is entrusted to an inferior set of men, the maitres d'étude.

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 502. Professor Cassal, 10,731.

(2) Ib. p. 503.

(3) Ib., p. 505. Professor Cassal, 10,732.

(4) Ib., pp. 470-477. Professor Cassal, 10,106.

(5) Ib., p. 471.

(6) Ib., p. 472.

(7) Ib., p. 470. Professor Cassal, 10,734-10,739.

(8) Ib., p. 477. Professor Cassal, 10,707-8.

(9) Ib., p. 474. Professor Cassal, 10,707-10,711.


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The maitres d'étude are men who have not the capacity or attainments to become professors, but take the inferior post of ushers. From the supervision of these ushers the boys are never free day or night. Of course the idleness in which an English: school boy too often indulges is quite impossible under this system. The lessons are learnt, and learnt with care. But it is to be feared that a heavy price is paid for this.(1) It is said that, whilst the professors are much respected, among these maitres d'études there is a large stagnating mass in which there is much corruption and much mischief, and that from this mass a great deal that is noxious distils among the boys they are set to overlook.(2) Even without this it cannot be good for the boys to associate constantly with inferior men whom they soon learn to despise. A chronic state of suppressed rebellion is said to be not an uncommon condition of a French lycée.

Thus while the masters or professors are bound to a system which leaves them no freedom whatever in their work, the boys have no freedom either in work or in play - a system which in England would be thought intolerable.

To complete the account, it is necessary to add that the demand to escape from the classics is quite as strong (though not so easily gratified) in France as in England.(3) To meet this demand the plan of bifurcation was introduced, which allowed a boy at the top of the grammar division, instead of entering the division of humanities, to go off into a special division of science and modern studies. But this plan has been pronounced a complete failure. The authorities, if they could, would simply abolish it.(4) This, however, they cannot do. And they now propose to establish, side by side with the present lycées, schools entirely distinct but of absolutely equal rank, from which classics shall be altogether excluded. These schools will be in the same buildings and under the same government as the classical schools; the boarders will all live together. But they will have their own separate staff of teachers and their own distinct classes and curriculum.

The demand for these schools comes partly from the rich employers of labour, who wish to get rid of Latin and Greek and yet to give their boys the prestige of a lycée, but still more from the higher portion of the artisans, a class which, as with us, so to some degree in France, does not yet seem to have got quite what it needs. There is some reason to fear that the new arrangement may fail since the rich class of people wanting the schools is too small to fill them, and the large class is too poor to pay the fees.

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 477.

(2) Professor Cassal, 10,742-10,756.

(3) Mr. Arnold's Report, pp. 507-5l2.

(4) lb., p. 508.


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The cost of all these schools is moderate: For day boys, from £6 to £10 a year without a tutor, £9 to £13 with a tutor; for boarders, from £40 to £60 for everything.(1) In the colléges communaux the fee paid by the day scholars is generally about £4; that paid by boarders, from £23 to £28.(2) There are numerous open scholarships given by competition among the elder boys; by selection (said to be very just) among the younger.

The management is in the hands of the Minister of Public Instruction, whose power regulates even the minutest details.(3) He is assisted by an Imperial Council of Public Instruction, containing some of the most eminent literary and scientific men of France;(4) and by 18 academic councils, corresponding to the 18 academies which divide France between them for the purposes of professional instruction.(5) Every important school is annually inspected and reported on, all the scholars annually examined. The number of lycées is 74, with 32,794 scholars;(6) the number of colléges communaux 347, with 33,038 scholars. To these must be added a large number of private schools,(7) educating 52,081 scholars, which are under no supervision, but which cannot be opened without permission, nor by persons who have not passed the examinations prescribed for teachers.

The total number of scholars in public secondary schools thus appears to be 65,832, and, as the population of France is about 37,500,000, the proportion is about 176 out of every 100,000; and if the scholars in private schools be added, the total is 117,913, or rather more than three per thousand of the population.

E. The Prussian school system like the French has two chief grades, the primary, or elementary, and then the Gymnasien and the Realschulen.

The primary schools are established by law throughout the country, one in each parish, managed by local authorities under general regulations by the Central Government, taught by masters who have passed a prescribed examination. They are reported to be cheap and good.(8) The peculiar characteristic which seems to deserve notice is, that every Prussian child is compelled to receive instruction from some master who has been examined and passed, and this practically fills the primary schools, since to many no other schools are accessible.(9) A law of compulsory education exists in New England; but there public opinion does not heartily support it, and it is consequently quite inoperative.

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 491.

(2) Ib., p. 497.

(3) Ib., p. 466.

(4) lb., p. 467.

(5) lb., p. 467.

(6) Professor Cassal, 10,736. Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 465.

(7) lb. p. 498.

(8) Rev. M. Pattison's Report to Popular Education Commission, vol. iv. p. 185.

(9) lb., p. 244.


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In Prussia public opinion cordially approves, and the law is a reality.(1)

Of the schools of the higher grade the Gymnasien are what we should call classical, the Realschulen what we should call commercial schools.(2)

The Gymnasien are more like our best classical schools than any other schools in Europe, or indeed in the world. There is the same preponderance of classics, very nearly the same methods of teaching, and, to a considerable extent, the same results.(3) It is supposed that a boy enters at 9 and remains till 19. The school is divided into six classes. Latin begins at the bottom, and occupies 10 hours a week out of 28, till the head class, and then 8 hours out of 30. Greek begins two classes from the bottom, and occupies 6 hours a week throughout, German, 2 hours; arithmetic and mathematics, from 3 to 4; French, 3 in the lower classes, 2 in the higher; geography and history, 3 in the higher and 2 in the lower; natural science, 2 in the head class and 1 below. All learn drawing in school hours; singing and gymnastics out of school. This programme is fixed by the Government, but within the programme the masters are free.

(4)In places where there is no Realschule boys in the middle‚ division of a gymnasium may substitute other studies for that of Greek. Where there is a Realschule accessible, this is not permitted; and in the upper division of a gymnasium it is nowhere permitted. In general the gymnasium is steadily to regard the formation of the pupil's mind, and of his powers of knowledge, without prematurely taking thought for the practical applicability of what he studies. It is expressly forbidden to give this practical or professional turn to the studies of a pupil in the highest forms of a gymnasium, even when he is destined for the army.

In some places where it is not possible to maintain a complete gymnasium, a progymnasium is substituted. A progymnasium is merely a gymnasium without the higher classes. Most progymnasiums have four classes only; some three; some again five, that is, all but the head.

(5)As the primary schools pursue a course of teaching which is not specially designed as a preparation for the higher schools, it has become a common practice to establish Vorschulen or preparatory schools, as in France, to be appendages of the several higher schools, to receive little boys without the previous examination

(1) Rev. M. Pattison's Report to Popular Education Commission, vol. iv. pp. 192, 197,200.

(2) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 552. Appendix to Nine Schools Commission, pp. 50-57.

(3) Mr. Arnold's Report, pp. 582, 583.

(4) Ib., p. 551.

(5) Ib., p. 553.


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in reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and scripture history which the higher school imposes, and to pass them on in their tenth year duly prepared into the higher school. These Vorschulen have in general two classes.

The methods of teaching are the same as in the best English schools.(1) The boys learn their lessons and bring them prepared to school. The work is chiefly oral, not as in France, chiefly written. The boys do most and the master least, whereas in the best French lessons this is reversed.(2) There are no maitres d'études as in France; the same masters do the whole of the work. In one respect they differ both from us and from the French. The French lycées, like the majority of our best classical schools at present, are in idea boarding schools. The Prussian gymnasium is in idea a day school.(3)

The classical attainments of the best scholars are about on a level with those of our own best. In composition they are much below us;(4) but, on the other hand, the boys have an appreciation of an author's place and significance in the literature of his country and of the world which our boys have not. Their interest in Greek and Latin is more vivid; their hold upon it more likely to be permanent. Perhaps it is of still greater importance that, as in France so in Prussia, a larger number of their boys appear to be in the first flight of their class, and to have really profited by their education. But the examination of boys who have closed their school course is not confined to classics.(5) Every boy has also to pass in German, French, mathematics, physics, geography, history, and divinity. The total result of his examination is to give him a certificate of fitness for the university. Partial failure in some subjects is allowed to some degree to be balanced by extraordinary merit in others.(6) The examination is said to be careful but not excessive; nor is it in any sense competitive. It is ordered to be "such as to tempt to no special preparation and effort, but such as a scholar of fair ability and proper diligence may at the end of his course come to with a quiet mind, and without a painful preparatory effort tending to relaxation and torpor as soon as the effort is over." (7) A boy who cannot get his certificate at all may still go to the university and attend the lectures. He cannot, however, get any of the university privileges, and this excludes him from all the liberal professions.

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 583. Appendix. to Nine Schools Commission, p. 53.

(2) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 503.

(3) lb., p. 587.

(4) lb., p. 584.

(5) Ib., p. 564. Appendix to Nine Schools Commission, p. 53.

(6) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 564.

(7) Ib., p. 566.


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There are normal schools, but nothing corresponding to the great normal school in Paris, nor do the Prussians seem to attach very great importance to the normal schools which they have, for the preparation of masters for their work.(1) Those who wish to become teachers prepare themselves most frequently by studying the subjects which they will have to teach.(2) But two means are taken to secure that they shall be quite competent; first, every teacher must pass a very stringent examination in the subjects which he proposes to teach, and he is only allowed to teach those in which he has passed, and only to classes of the precise standing for which his knowledge indicates him to be fit; and, secondly, every teacher is required to pass a year at some school watching the work, and learning how it is done.(3) The masters give him an opportunity of learning his business and of showing them that he has learnt it, and then give him a certificate of his having done so. This plan appears to be quite as successful as the French in securing thorough efficiency in the teachers.

The Realschulen are of three grades. The first grade has a course of nine years, thus continuing the education of the scholars almost as long as the Gymnasien.(4) In these schools Greek disappears, and Latin, though obligatory, is so robbed of its preponderance that in the head class it only gets 3 hours out of 32, while in the same class mathematics and natural science get 11. The leading subject here is French; English is obligatory, if a boy is going into business.

The subjects of examination at the close of the course are, divinity, German and German literature, Latin (not including translation into Latin), French, and English; history; physics and chemistry; pure and applied mathematics, and drawing.(5) Excellence in one subject may counterbalance shortcomings in another; but no candidate can pass who absolutely fails in any.

In the Realschulen of the second grade Latin is not obligatory,(6) and the course may be seven years instead of nine, so that the education should close at the age of 16. The Realschulen of the third grade, called Bürgerschulen, have a still shorter course and a less complete one.

The Realschulen are the path to many branches of the public service, and are also especially adapted to prepare boys for business. But it is remarkable that these schools, though unquestionably successful, do not educate so many boys as the gymnasia: there are 172 of the latter, with 45,403 scholars; there are only 88 Realschulen, with 20,732 scholars.(7)

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 571. Appendix to Nine Schools Report, p. 57.

(2) Ib., p. 570.

(3) lb., p. 571.

(4) lb., p. 552.

(5) lb., p. 567.

(6) lb., p. 553.

(7) Ib., p. 554.


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The masters in the Realschulen are subject to the same rules of examination as those in the Gymnasien.(1) They are allowed to teach only what they have proved themselves competent to teach.

(2)Both in the Gymnasien and in the Realschulen religious instruction is given to every class for at least two hours a week. Every master is required to prove his knowledge of divinity by passing an examination, and is not placed until he can pass. The religious instruction is as a rule given in each class by the master who has general charge of the class, and is not treated as one of the special subjects to be taught by a special master. The nature of the religious instruction depends on the denomination of the school. All schools must be either Catholic or Protestant, or mixed, and the religious instructors are all Catholic or all Protestant, or there are some of each. But all public schools are open to scholars of all creeds, and parents can withdraw their children from the religious instruction if it is not of the creed to which they belong.

All the public schools, whether Gymnasien or Realschulen, are supported by endowments and school fees.(3) Very little indeed is spent upon them by the State, though, as in England, a few belong to the municipalities. The school fees are exceedingly low; not only lower than in England, but lower than in France, the average being under £3 a year for instruction even in the best schools..

The masters do not receive the fees, but are paid fixed salaries out of the funds thus raised. The fees, however, being so low, the salaries of course correspond, and the maximum does not exceed £300 a year and a house.(4) On this, however, Mr. Arnold well remarks that "the whole scale of incomes in Prussia is much lower than with us, and the habits of the nation are frugal and simple. The rector of Schulpforta, the principal school in Prussia, with his £300 a year and a house has, in all the country round him, where there is great well-doing and comfort, few people more comfortably off than himself. He can do all that he wants to do, and all that anybody about him does; and this is wealth."

The total number of the public secondary schools, as given in the returns procured by Mr. Arnold, was 144 Gymnasien, with their Vorschulen, containing 47,019 boys; 28 Progymnasien, with their Vorschulen, containing 2,597 boys; 83 Realschulen, with their Vorschulen, containing 24,546 scholars. This gives a total of 74,162 scholars in 255 schools; the population, at the period

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 569.

(2) lb., pp. 576, 577.

(3) Ib., p. 560. Appendix to Nine Schools Report, p. 59.

(4) p. 580.


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at which the returns were made, was 18,476,500; the proportion of scholars to population is therefore slightly over 4 per 1,000.

Besides these public schools, there are many private. Anyone can open a private school, subject only to two restrictions: he must have passed the prescribed examinations, and cannot teach any subjects but those in which he has passed; and his school is always liable to government inspection.(1) He may fix his own charges, make his own programme, teach in his own way. His boys may go to the university by passing the same examination as is prescribed for other boys. They are at some disadvantage, for these examinations, held at the public schools, turn upon the studies of the upper forms of the public schools, and are conducted in great part by their teachers. But on the other hand allowance for this disadvantage is expressly ordered to be made to them.

The public schools are governed by a happy combination of local and central authorities.(2) The property of the school, the scale of fees, the admission of free boys, the care of the buildings, and unless the school be in the patronage of the Crown, the nomination (subject to approval) of the master rest with the local authorities. But they have no control over the teaching, nor over the discipline. The supervision and control of these rests first with the district board, and then with the provincial board, Prussia being divided into 8 provinces and subdivided into 26 districts.(3) The studies to be taught in the school and the number of hours per week to be given to each study are laid down by the central government. But within these limits each head master, in concert with his colleagues, decides how each subject shall be taught, and chooses, subject to approval by the provincial board, which in its turn must have the approval of the minister, what text-books shall be used. The Minister of Education, assisted by eight specially qualified councillors,(4) makes general regulations for all the schools, and in particular approves or disapproves all text-books. The conduct of the examination of all candidates for the office of teacher and the general superintendence of the "leaving examinations", are entrusted to seven examination boards,(5) who, besides reporting yearly to the minister, report also to each provincial board, on the examination for teachers for that province,(6) and comment if necessary on the papers of the leaving examinations.

Besides making regulations for the school the minister also exercises considerable influence by the use of a(7) very large patronage.

(1) Mr. Arnold's Report, p. 555.

(2) Ib., pp. 556-559.

(3) Ib., p. 557.

(4) lb., pp. 556, 585.

(5) lb., pp. 558, 564, 569.

(6) App. to Nine Schools Report, p. 57.

(7) p. 555.


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For many of the endowed schools are Royal Foundations. And the appointment to these always has been and still is vested in the Crown. But in making these appointments he is jealously watched by the profession and the public, and nothing like political favour is allowed to be shown.

The minister has (1)considerable powers of control over the masters and can suspend them, but he cannot dismiss without the consent of a special court.

When we view it as a whole, the Prussian system appears to be at once the most complete and the most perfectly adapted to its people, of all that now exist. It is not wanting in the highest cultivation like the American, nor in dealing with the mass of the middle classes like our own; nor does it run any risk of sacrificing everything else to intellectual proficiency like the French. It is somewhat more bureaucratic in its form than would work well in England, but it is emphatically not a mere centralized system in which the Government is everything. In France the central government is undeniably distinct from the people; supported by the people no doubt, and obeyed by them, but distinct from them. But in Prussia the education department is simply the instrument which the people use to procure the fulfilment of their own desires. The Prussians believe in culture, and, whoever may have originally created the educational machinery, that machinery has now been appropriated by the people themselves. (2)They are proud of their schools, and will not allow the Government "to sacrifice them to any other interests, and however greatly political considerations may be paramount in other departments of administration, in this they are not." The result is an unrivalled body of teachers, schools meeting every possible need of every class, and a highly cultivated people.

F. Mr. Arnold took the Canton Zurich as the representative of Switzerland in the matter of education as he had taken Prussia as the representative of Germany. This canton shows its zeal for education by devoting nearly one-third of the whole public expenditure to that object,(3) whilst there are also considerable endowments, and the parents pay fees besides.

The system(4) begins with the communal school, which takes the child at six and keeps him till he has completed his twelfth year. To this school every parent is compelled to send his children under penalty of a fine, or to satisfy the school authorities that the children are getting as good an education elsewhere. And (5)even those w ho have their children educated elsewhere,

(1) p. 574.

(2) p. 576.

(3) p. 608.

(4) p. 608.

(5) p. 610.


[page 73]

must still pay the school fee just as if the children attended the school. As the schools are really good few go elsewhere, and one finds all classes of society mixed in them.

When a child has passed through the communal school, the parent is still compelled to keep him under instruction for (1)three years more, either in the public schools or (as before) under equally good tuition. The public schools to which he may be sent, and among which the parent has the choice, are of five different kinds.

The lowest is the (2) singing school (Singschule) which requires him to keep up his knowledge of church music and singing by one hour's practice in the week, and to attend the religious instruction of the pastor of the parish for one hour and a half. Next above this stands the (3) finishing school (Ergänzungs-schule) which is in fact a higher department of the communal school, with eight hours of instruction a week, the eight being generally taken in two mornings. The fee is in both these schools the same, (4)three francs a year, which may be raised to six by the local school authority. Next ranks the (5)higher popular school, or, as it is also called, the secondary school, corresponding to what we should call a school of the third grade. Here the studies are the same as those of the communal schools, only that each branch is carried further and that French is added; the instruction extends over 28 hours a week. In each of these three kinds of school the course lasts for three years, and at the end of that time the scholar being fifteen is no longer required to be under instruction. The fee in the secondary school is 24 francs a year, but the school is bound to take one scholar in eight as a free scholar.

The two remaining schools are(6) the school of industry, with a course of five years and a half, and the (7)gymnasium, with a course of six years and a half. Each has a lower and a higher division.

(8)The school of industry corresponds with the Prussian Realschule, but it has no Latin at all. The subjects of instruction in the lower division are religious knowledge, the mother tongue, history, geography, natural philosophy, arithmetic and mathematics, free hand and geometrical drawing, singing, gymnastics, and military exercises. The course lasts three years. In the upper division English and Italian are a part of the regular programme. But there is no longer one course obligatory on all; there are three distinct courses, the mechanical, the chemical, and that intended to prepare for business. The Education Council

(1) p.608.

(2) p. 609.

(3) p. 609

(4) p. 610.

(5) p. 613.

(6) p. 615.

(7) p. 615.

(8) p. 616.


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urges the masters not to let the school be turned into a place for mere professional study; but this organization gives a bias which it is hard to resist. The course lasts two years and a half. In the lower school of industry the fee is 30 francs a year, in the higher, 60.

The (1)gymnasium is, in all important respects, formed on the same model as the Prussian, except that whereas in Prussia the common primary school is not regarded as the proper preparation for the gymnasium, in Zurich it is, and the studies are so adjusted that a boy passes naturally from one to the other. The instruction of the gymnasium is still, however, classical, and the passage to the University lies through it. But Greek is not generally obligatory, and the composition is reduced to a translation into Latin or Greek once a week, and this translation is little more than a grammatical exercise. On the contrary, composition in French is carried as far as the essay, and much beyond composition in the classical languages. The fee in the lower gymnasium is 30 francs a year; in the higher 48.

The gymnasium leads to the (2) University; the school of industry to the Polytechnicum. The University is like other German Universities. The (3) Polytechnicum (which though situated in Zurich is a national and not a cantonal institution) is a high school for training civil engineers, for teaching the applied sciences, and for training teachers of technical instruction. The fees are low; the staff of professors excellent; some of the most distinguished scientific men in Germany have been brought there by the Swiss Government.

For the management of all these schools there is an (4)ascending series of school authorities. Each elementary school is managed by a school committee consisting of the parents of the children. This committee appoints the schoolmaster, fixes the fees to be paid, manages the finances, and provides the school buildings. The master gets, besides a low fixed salary, half the school fees; the other half goes to the managing committee. With this half, with the proceeds of any endowments attached to the school, with a grant from the State, and in some cases with rates, in some cases with voluntary subscriptions raised among themselves, the school committee provide the school expenditure, and often in order to get a good master pay him more than the law compels them. The school committee, however, do not superintend the discipline, nor the teaching. That duty belongs to the committee of the commune, consisting of the pastor and five members elected by universal suffrage. This committee

(1) p. 615.

(2) p. 619.

(3) p. 620.

(4) pp 610-613.


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reports on the schools to the committee above it, the committee of the district. The canton contains eleven districts, with an average of 15 communes in each. The district committee consists of nine or thirteen members, three chosen by the teachers and the rest by universal suffrage. The district committee inspects the schools, and reports to the Education Council, which represents the State. The Education Council consists of the Director of Education, four members chosen by universal suffrage, and two by all the teachers of the canton.

This organization is peculiar in giving such a position to the teachers. (1)The teachers in Zurich form a sort of guild, and exercise considerable influence. They are formed into bodies for the discussion of questions which concern their work, and report regularly to the school authorities. Changes in the rules cannot be made by the Education Council without their opinion being taken.

The work done for education in the canton out of its own revenues is summed up by Mr. Arnold in one sentence: (2)"A territory, with the population of Leicestershire, maintains a university, a veterinary school, a school of agriculture, two great classical schools, two great real schools, a normal school for training primary and secondary teachers, fifty-seven secondary schools, and three hundred and sixty-five primary schools; and many of these are among the best of their kind in Europe."

The drawback to this complete system is that, excellent up to the highest grade of education,(3) it then fails. The idea of what the French call la grande culture has not much effect in German Switzerland, and it is not in her purely literary and scientific high schools, and in the line of what is specially called liberal education, that she is most successfuL The highest teachers come from Germany, but, large as are the salaries paid to draw these distinguished foreigners to Zurich, they are said not much to like the atmosphere in which they find themselves, and in general not to stay long. The higher intellectual cultivation, in short, is wanting. In what they have tried to do they have succeeded perhaps even better than France and Prussia; but their aim has been distinctly lower.

Inferences from the whole

A general review of the various systems of education above described appears to supply sufficient data for deducing some important principles likely to be of great use in deciding on the course that ought to be pursued for the improvement of education in this country.

(1) p. 618.

(2) p. 620.

(3) p. 621.


[page 76]

1. In the first place it is, we think, hardly possible to question the proofs here given of the great value of parental and of popular sympathy. Even the most skilfully organized system, that of the French, seems to be weak where it fails to secure this sympathy, while a system with most imperfect organization, like the Scotch, obtains nevertheless a remarkable success by the sheer force that it derives from this source. Prussia carries, and purposely carries, the people with her. Switzerland puts the administration of her schools into the most democratic form possible. In America the control is absolutely in the hands of the people. We could not have a stronger confirmation of the rule with which we started, that before all things the wishes of the parents and of the people at large must be met. But this evidence goes still further, and tends to show the expediency of securing their hearty interest. The way of doing this may not be the same in England as it is elsewhere. We are not prepared to say, for instance, that English parents should at once be asked to do what Scotch or Swiss parents do. If English parents were to interfere to such a degree they would probably do much harm, and it would cost a generation at least before they learnt how to correct their own mistakes. But, short of that, it is possible to see that the schools shall, on the whole, satisfy the wants of the people, and to provide that the management shall in some reasonable measure be in their hands. The people perhaps cannot give guidance, but they can give life, which is even more valuable than guidance. With the people, what we do may be imperfect; without them, we shall probably do little or nothing.

2. In the second place the conclusions to which we were brought by a review of the opinions put before us in regard to the subjects of instruction are strongly confirmed by the experience of those countries that have been most successful in the management of education. Everywhere we find the classics still regarded as the best instrument now to be obtained for the highest education, and when the classics are neglected the education seems to be lowered in character. But we see also that two important modifications must be made in this general statement.

One is, that the time given to classics must be so far curtailed, if necessary, as to admit of other important studies by their side. France curtails the study of Greek for this purpose; Prussia the practice of composition: but neither gives up the classics in her highest education, nor Latin even in what ranks much below the highest. The Scotch parents who can choose at their own discretion still make Latin the staple of instruction, while they are not content with Latin only. Even Zurich, with a decided lean-


[page 77]

ing to industrial education, has a large proportion of scholars in classical schools. But all these countries appear to stand above us in the teaching of every subject except the classics, and England is quite alone in requiring no systematic study of the mother tongue.

The other modification of the general rule in favour of classics is that room must be made for schools of an altogether different type. There are minds fitted to be developed by other studies than that of the most perfect known languages. There are occupations for which classical studies do not give the proper preparation. Schools like the Realschulen of Prussia, or the schools of industry of Switzerland have become a positive need of modern times. The precise type that would suit England best it may require some experience to fix; but what is obviously wanted is such an elasticity in the general regulations as would enable different kinds of schools to grow up easily in different parts, and any that did not succeed to be easily remodelled.

3. Further, it is important to remark that the principle of respect for liberty of conscience is everywhere fully acknowledged. Either the religious instruction given in the public schools is confined to that on which all can agree; or special teachers are appointed to give religious instruction to the children of their own religious denominations; or the parents are allowed to withdraw their children from the religious instruction altogether. In no case is the school allowed either to endeavour to make proselytes, or to refuse to admit scholars whose parents object to the religious teaching that may be given.

4. Lastly, a comparison of these different systems with each other and with our own is enough to demonstrate the value of a thorough organization. The French, the Prussian, and the Swiss systems owe the completeness of their success to the perfection of their machinery. There is no waste of power. The aim of the teacher is clear and distinct; the scholars know perfectly what to expect; the work is tested at every proper point; the higher education is not interfered with by the demands of the lower, as is perhaps the case in some degree in America, nor is the lower interfered with by the demands of the higher, as is certainly the case in England. The Scotch system does much, but it is impossible to put it by the side of the Prussian, or still more the Swiss which it perhaps resembles in its general aim, without seeing how much it would gain by a co-ordination of the schools with each other and with the universities, and by a regular system of careful examinations. But even if Scotland and America can enforce success without much organization, simply because the


[page 78]

problem of education in both countries is comparatively simple; it is impossible to expect the same result in a country like England, with so complex a society, with such a vast variety of needs, with old traditions of teaching already in existence, and of necessity exercising a powerful influence on all educational institutions new or old. The schools are drawn in different directions by the demands of the Universities, by the demands of the parents, by public opinion, by antiquated regulations; and since much of this medley cannot be destroyed, there is no remedy left but to reorganize it in such a way as to put what we have to the best use and make room for more by the side of it.

III. OUTLINE OF ENGLISH REQUIREMENTS

It has been already remarked that it would be probably both useless and impracticable to attempt simply to transplant into England systems that have flourished elsewhere. We have not the universal energy and restlessness of the Americans, nor the long training of the Scotch, nor the singular aptitude for organization of the French, nor the strong belief in the value of culture which makes education so universal an object of desire in Prussia. But there is no reason why, if we cannot do precisely what our neighbours have done, we should not do something of a corresponding character. The wants of England are not exactly the same with those of America, France, or Prussia; nor even, where the wants are identical, will the proper means of supplying those wants always coincide. But without quitting the course usually observed in dealing with English institutions we have no doubt that the right result in the matter of education may be defined now and reached hereafter.

It is plain that what is wanted is a sufficient supply of schools of the three grades already defined in the beginning of this chapter. We have already discussed the nature of the instruction that should be given in them, and the outline that we have drawn of the systems now at work in other countries supplies us with examples that we may imitate, though not exactly copy. We now therefore proceed to speak of: 1. Schools of the Third Grade; 2. Schools of the Second Grade; 3. Schools of the First Grade; 4. Preparatory Schools for each grade; 5. Exhibitions or other similar means of enabling boys to pass from one grade to another; 6. Ratio which the demand for the several kinds of schools bears to the population.

1. Schools of the Third Grade

1. The most urgent educational need of the country is that of good schools of the third grade, that is, of those which shall carry


[page 79]

education up to the age of 14 or 15. It is just here that the endowed schools appear most signally to fail, while nothing else takes their place. There may be a few good schools of the sort here and there, such for instance as the Bristol Trade School, and Hele's School at Exeter, and some others; but such schools are unquestionably not numerous nor well distributed. And the private schools cannot be relied on to fill up the gap; for as soon as a master is thoroughly successful in a school of this sort, there is everything to induce him to raise his terms, and to fill his school with boys of a higher social class; and thus the need still remains unsupplied. The evidence is almost unanimous that just here is our most conspicuous deficiency, and that the artizans, the small shopkeepers, the smaller farmers are in many places without any convenient means of educating their children at all, and still more often have no security that what education they do get is good.

When it is considered how very large a proportion of the population is included in these classes, it is evident that no other deficiency in our provision for education could well be more important. It is not only the case, however, that the number concerned is larger than that of any other class except the lowest, but that the wealth and prosperity of the country depend to so great a degree on the industry, and that industry on the intelligence, of those who are left thus uneducated. We have already made a special report on the statements made to us regarding the inferior rate of progress said to be visible in British manufactures, when some of the productions of this country are compared with those that were sent by other nations to the Exhibition at Paris. This is ascribed in some measure to a want of technical instruction in our artisans, as well as in their employers and foremen. Such a want, however, would be a far less serious matter, if it stood alone. But we are bound to add that our evidence appears to show that our industrial classes have not even that basis of sound general education on which alone technical instruction can rest. It would not be difficult, if our artizans were otherwise well educated, to establish schools for technical instruction of whatever kind might be needed. But even if such schools were generally established among us, there is reason to fear that they would fail to produce any valuable results for want of the essential material, namely, disciplined faculties and sound elementary knowledge in the learners. In fact, our deficiency is not merely a deficiency in technical instruction, but, as (1)Mr. Arnold indicates, in general intelligence, and unless we remedy this want

(1) p. 621.


[page 80]

we shall gradually but surely find that our undeniable superiority in wealth and perhaps in energy will not save us from decline, If we could provide good schools for our artizans up to the age of 14, then these who showed aptitude for special industrial pursuits would be in a fit condition to enter on the needed special study. But our first object should be to enable the whole of this large population, whose education we are now considering, to cultivate their children's understandings and make them really intelligent men. We need schools that shall provide good instruction for the whole of the lowest portion of what is commonly called the middle class, and we cannot overstate our sense of the importance of the need. These are the schools that we have called Schools of the Third Grade.

The organization of these schools ought to be such as to leave the masters considerable freedom in the use or methods, but to define the chief aim and purpose clearly and precisely, and that aim should be thoroughly to satisfy the demands of the parents for good elementary teaching, and then, and only then, to add anything more.

For this object the school might be divided into two divisions, a lower and an upper. The lower division should be adapted to receive boys at the age of six or seven and keep them to the age of twelve. Boys might enter between those ages if they were fit, but the course should be framed to suit that period. At the age of twelve an average boy ought to be able to read with perfect fluency and intelligence any ordinary book, to have learnt some considerable quantity of the best English poetry by heart, and to write, not a rapid, but a clear good hand; he ought to be expert in arithmetic as far as proportion and fractions inclusive, and to show that he has been trained to use his common sense in working arithmetical questions; and he ought to know the outlines of geography, physical and political. Accordingly this should be the examination prescribed for the upper classes of this division. Boys who could pass an examination of this extent should be promoted to the upper division. No one of the subjects taught in the lower division should be dropped in this. English reading should be continued so as to give some knowledge of our best authors, and the outlines of English history and political economy should be commenced. But to these should be added either the elements of Latin or some modern language. In the same way to the arithmetic should be added either algebra or practical geometry; and to the geography either botany or some branch of experimental physics, or the rudiments of inorganic chemistry. Drawing also should be taught, either as a necessary


[page 81]

or as an optional subject. The upper division like the lower should have a regular examination of its higher classes, not in order to provide for the passage of the boys to another school, but to secure the efficiency of the work.

These schools would correspond to the Secundar-schulen of Zurich, to the Bürgerschulen of Prussia. They need not be all of one type. On the contrary it would be wise to put no obstacle in the way of a free growth of very various kinds of schools of this sort. Some, like the Bristol Trade School, might give up the study of language, and cultivate the elements of the sciences most needed for the trade or manufactures of the place. Others might give up natural science and perfect the boys in French. But in the great majority of cases it would be best, for the reasons already discussed, to retain Latin, with the precaution that it should not be allowed to engross too large an amount of time.

The precise subjects to be taught in the upper division ought to be decided in every case by the Governors of the school. But some latitude should be left to the schoolmaster in his choice of methods and of any subsidiary subjects which he might consider an aid towards the prescribed end. If a master choose to introduce the teaching of Latin into the lower division, there does not seem to be any reason to forbid it, provided only that it be not included in the subjects of examination between the two divisions, and be so taught as not to interfere with the preparation for that examination. Some schoolmasters say that they can teach English more quickly by teaching the rudiments of Latin, and, if they can, there is no reason to interfere with the instruments that they may prefer to use, nor does it seem advisable in this country to adopt the foreign plan of prescribing an authoritative programme of studies. But it is of importance to secure the end of making the schools do their proper work, and this can best be done by means of the examinations to be passed at proper points in the course, which should be therefore prescribed by the Governors subject to such consent from superior authority as may be deemed necessary to the harmonious working of the whole body of schools.

A boy of 14 ought to be required to quit a school of this grade at the end of the current half year. A rule of this sort is necessary, to prevent successful schools of this grade from encroaching on the work of the schools of the grade above, and slipping into their places. For it is the tendency of all schools to endeavour to retain good scholars as long as they can; and in this very way the public schools have, within the last forty years, pushed the age of going to the University fully two years


[page 82]

later than it was. And if the master can retain his good scholars beyond the age, as a matter of course to them he will give his chief attention. It is obvious that the result of allowing schools of the third grade to turn themselves in this way into schools of the second would be to bring back again the present deficiency. Nor is this requirement anything new or untried. Many of the old foundations prescribe the time at which a boy must quit the schools, and the rule is still observed. A similar rule is enforced at Christ's Hospital. The foreign schools obtain the same end by fixing a definite course of instruction for each successive year of age, and requiring the boys to quit when the course comes to an end. But it would be more in accordance with English methods to fix the age directly, and permit greater freedom in the course of instruction.

Of course there will be boys in these schools, who though originally intended to finish their education at 14, have their destination afterwards changed, and wish to continue their education longer. But it will be no hardship to require such boys to proceed to a school of the second grade for the purpose, provided that in all proper cases such boys are enabled by exhibitions or similar assistance to go to a school of that grade without increase of expense.

It might often be desirable to attach the schools of the third grade to the present elementary schools, which are subject to the inspection of the Committee of Council. The Committee already distinguish, in making their grants, between those children who appear to them properly to come within the operation of the parliamentary grant, and those who do not. Thus the principle is already admitted, that in these elementary schools children of parents capable of paying the full price of education may be taught with the others. It would therefore be possible to treat the present elementary schools as the lower division of schools of the third grade, and on the one hand, to make a full charge to those who are not recognised by the Committee of Council, on the other hand, to admit to the upper division without increase of fee children of labourers who could pass the prescribed examination, and who seemed to deserve a longer and better education.

Such an arrangement as this would obviate not a few difficulties in the establishment of schools in the rural districts where population is comparatively thin. But on the other hand, it would be highly inexpedient to make an arrangement of this sort without the full concurrence of the parents on the spot. And it would certainly require very careful management when made. For much of our evidence tends to show that social


[page 83]

distinctions in education cannot at present be altogether ignored. The education of the gentry has gradually separated itself from that of the class next below them, and it is but natural that this class in their turn should be unwilling to be confounded with the labourers whom they employ. It would be better that such distinctions, as far as education is concerned, at any rate in day schools, should disappear; but an attempt to obliterate them by superior authority might both do mischief and fail of its object.

Sometimes where it did not appear possible or expedient to unite an elementary school under the Committee of Council with one of the kind that we are describing, it might still be wise, and not equally difficult, to bring them, into relations with each other similar to those which are established between the graded schools in New England. The two might work in harmony, though in different buildings, and under different management. But arrangements might be made for promoting the most promising boys of the elementary school to the third grade school without increase of charge to their parents. And sometimes a third grade school might in this way be fed by several elementary schools. Both kinds of schools would gain by this. The prospect of such a promotion would stimulate the boys in the lower school. And the third grade school would be perpetually supplied with picked scholars.

Supposing that the schools are erected, kept in repair, warmed, and supplied with all needful apparatus from endowments, or some public sources, we estimate the cost of thoroughly efficient teaching at an average of £4 a year. Teaching of an inferior kind may, no doubt, be got for less; but not such teaching as can be pronounced fully equal to the need. This we have reason to believe the parents would not be unwilling to give, at any rate in many parts of England, if they were thoroughly satisfied with what they got in return. In some cases a judicious use of endowments or of other funds under public control might relieve some of the parents of a part of this burden. To relieve them of it altogether would, according to almost unanimous testimony, be unwise.

2. Schools of the Second Grade

The general character of the instruction to be given in schools of the second grade is determined by the fact that it is to cease at about 16. After that the boys are not supposed to go to the universities, but either to employments or to special preparation for employments. These schools would prepare youths for business, for several professions, for manufactures, for the army,


[page 84]

for many departments of the civil service. Many of the farmers, many of the richer shopkeepers, many professional men, all but the wealthier gentry, would probably wish to have their sons educated in schools of this sort, if the education were thoroughly good of its kind.

We have already expressed our opinion that in such schools Greek should not be included, except as an extra and under special regulations. The shortness of the education would not allow such a knowledge of Greek to be acquired as could introduce the learner to Greek literature, and the time would be wanted for other subjects. But Latin would be a necessity in all but a very few of these schools, since most of the occupations presuppose it in some degree, and many of the examinations prescribe it. To Latin one modern language ought to be added and thoroughly well taught; and in some of the schools two modern languages, according to the general character of the place and the usual destination of the scholars. English literature and the elements of political economy should not be neglected. The mathematics in these schools ought to be at once strictly scientific and yet of a practical cast; not aiming at subtle refinements, but at practical applications. It would be by no means expedient that mere rough and empirical methods should be substituted for strict mathematical reasoning; but the minds of the learners should be perpetually brought back to concrete examples instead of being perpetually exercised in abstractions. It would be possible to put algebra, geometry, and trigonometry within the reach of many of the boys, and to go even further with a few. Lastly, these are especially the schools in which it would often be worth while to lay great stress on practical mechanics and other branches of natural science. Many of these schools would correspond to the Realschulen of Prussia, to the schools of industry of Zurich. In them would be educated many of the employers of skilled labour, to whom a knowledge of such science would be of the highest value. The elite also of the boys in the third grade schools would be often transferred here to be our accomplished workmen, our highest and most skilful artizans.

The organization of these schools should be similar to that of the schools below. There would be two divisions, a higher and a lower. The lower division should receive boys at 7 or 8, and keep them till 12 or 13. In the lower division of the third grade schools it would hardly seem possible, at least for a long time to come, to require the boys to pass any entrance examination; but in schools of the second grade even boys who enter the lower division ought to be able to spell and read easy English, to know the multiplication table, and to write large hand. At the top of


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the lower division the boys should pass an examination of the same kind as that required at the top of the lower division in third grade schools. But though it would not, perhaps, be possible to require a higher standard, it might be possible to require a wider one. For instance, Mr. Fearon recommends that the modern languages in these schools should begin early; and if the governors thought fit to make the elements of French a part of the examination at the top of this lower division, it probably would not be difficult to secure it. This, however, should only be allowed on condition of thorough proficiency in the elementary subjects, especially in arithmetic, for ignorance of which nothing can make up.

The upper division would receive the boys who had passed the final examination in the lower division, and would keep them till 16. The subjects of examination at the head of this upper division would be prescribed by the Governors according to the peculiar kind of school they wanted; and some latitude should be allowed them in their choice of subjects. In some schools, for instance, there would be two modern languages taught, and very little natural science; in others natural science would be the preponderating subject. The Governors would be guided chiefly by the requirements of the parents for whose children the school was intended, but partly also by the advice of the schoolmasters, who might be able to produce much more effect by one subject than by another. But in all these schools it should be an absolute rule that the elementary subjects should be kept up; for the loss of these nothing can really compensate. English, for instance, should be carefully cultivated to the very last, and no boy should pass through a school of this kind without having acquired a good knowledge of a few of the best English authors. Arithmetic should never be dropped. The aim should be to reconcile the cultivation of the faculties with the requirements needed for business and for professions.

Subject to the duty of preparing the boys for the examinations at the close of each division, the masters would be free in their choice of methods, of text books, and even of subjects of instruction. The governors should prescribe the results to be aimed at, but it would be better to leave the processes absolutely to the schoolmasters. Even if some advantages might be gained by laying down an exact programme of studies by which the masters of a school shall be bound, as is done in Prussia, and still more rigidly in France, it is so alien to English habits that we can hardly doubt that it would injure the schools rather than aid them, fetter the schoolmasters rather than guide them.

The fees in day schools of this grade might vary from £6 to £12; but boarding schools of the same sort would be required also, and


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the fees for boarders, including education, need not, in our judgment, rise above from £30 to £40.

3. Schools of the First Grade

Most of the schools of the first grade would make it their chief aim to prepare for the Universities. Not that all their scholars, nor perhaps in most cases more than a fourth or a fifth, would go to a University, but, as a rule, those who went would be the ablest and the most advanced; and their education would almost of necessity govern that of the rest. It is not therefore possible to prescribe a course of instruction for these schools without reference to what the Universities require. The schools would therefore be generally classical schools. But besides the classics it would now be generally admitted that English literature and the elements of political economy, modern languages, mathematics, and natural science ought to find a place in such schools as these, and that even if they be considered subordinate subjects they should be made a serious part of the business of the school; the masters who taught them should be put on a perfect footing of equality with the other masters; the time allotted to them should prove that they were valued; the marks assigned to them in promotions, the prizes given for proficiency in them, the care taken in examining the boys' progress, should be such as to stimulate the learners and prevent all suspicion, that, while classics were a reality, all other studies were a mere concession to popular clamour.

The lower division of these schools would admit boys at about 8 on their passing an easy English examination, and keep them till between 13 and 14. Then an examination would test the work of this division, and the boys who passed it would be admitted into the upper division to remain till about 18 or 19. The higher classes of the upper division would be subject to a regular examination in the same way. The examination between the two divisions might be somewhat freer and wider than was permitted in schools of the grades below. But still it would be necessary to insist that elementary subjects, and especially arithmetic, should have been thoroughly well taught. There can be little doubt that the inefficient teaching of arithmetic to little boys is at present a great obstacle to good instruction in mathematics and natural science in all our schools.(1) And it is the more necessary to insist on the elementary subjects at the threshold of the upper division of these schools than at the same point in

(1) See Report on the best means for promoting Scientific Education in Schools, presented to the General Committee of the British Association, vol. ii. p. 219.


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schools of the other two grades, because in the schools of the first grade it is more than anywhere else impossible to make good at a later stage any early deficiency in grounding.

The fees in day schools of this grade might vary from 12 guineas [£12 12s.] to 25 [£26 5s]; but the fees of boarding schools could not perhaps be brought much, if at all, below £60, and might vary upwards from that sum.

While most of these schools would be classical and would teach both Latin and Greek, it seems to be required that there should be some in which Greek was not taught, but either more modern languages or more mathematics or more natural science in its place. Such semi-classical schools would then answer to the highest of the Prussian Realschulen. In them it would be possible to carry what are usually the subordinate subjects to such a point as to give them a high educational value over and above the value of the information contained in them. It is not impossible that in course of time some of them might rise to great importance and take rank with the present leading schools, with Harrow or Winchester or Rugby, with Marlborough or Cheltenham or Wellington College, and eventually make the modern departments of the three latter unnecessary. Such a result would seem to be very desirable: it would certainly meet a very strong wish in the minds of many parents even among the wealthiest classes, and would solve the problem how far culture can be carried without any knowledge of Greek. That such culture would be inferior on one side would be obvious. Greek literature is too noble in itself, and has penetrated all modern literature too deeply for its absence not to be felt if it be omitted. But greater proficiency in other studies, such as a wider knowledge of the literature of Europe, or of natural sciences, might be a considerable compensation in many cases, and perhaps more than a compensation in a few.

But the experiment cannot be tried with much real hope of success, unless provision be made that boys should he able to proceed from these schools to the Universities, if their parents should desire them to do so. Few, if any, boys would be sent to these semi-classical schools with the intention of going to a University afterwards; but it would often happen that a parent would change his mind, and though he had not before intended it, would wish to put his son into some profession for which a University degree was desirable. A school in which such a change of purpose was impossible would be at a very serious disadvantage, and in all probability would always stand at a lower social level in public estimation than the classical schools. As long, therefore, as the Universities require some knowledge of


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Greek as essential, it will be necessary to provide, that though Greek shall not be a part of the regular course in semi-classical schools, it may be learnt as an extra by those boys whose parents desire it.

The education given in schools of the First Grade marks the limit of our province. It is not our duty to discuss what should be the studies or the regulations of the Universities; but we think it our duty at this point to remark, that the organization of the education given in schools can never be complete, unless the Universities co-operate to make it so, by giving encouragement in due measure to every kind of study which the country needs. If any studies get no recognition at the Universities, or if no room is made for them, it is impossible for those studies to flourish in the schools. If science has an unpractical character at the Universities, it will be very difficult for the schools to give it a practical turn. If the Universities cut themselves off from the needs of the country, they make it much more difficult for the schools to supply those needs. We cannot but consider it the duty of the Universities, placed as they are at the head of English education, to study carefully the requirements of the country, and to take their part in supplying them.

4. Preparatory Schools

In all the three grades of schools that we have described, we have considered it necessary to lay the greatest stress on the importance of securing the thorough teaching of the elementary subjects. We are convinced that so far from injuring the more advanced instruction, nothing will be found a greater help to progress afterwards than a mastery of that kind of knowledge which is within the grasp of the younger children. To hurry on too fast, partly in the hope of giving the learners the interest of perpetual novelty, partly in the belief that boys can learn more rapidly than they really can, partly to escape the drudgery of frequent repetition, is, we fear, a very common fault, and yet a very serious one. It works a double mischief. In the first place, it makes a boy less fit to grapple with the difficulties that he meets with afterwards. But in the second place, the elementary subjects are above all others those which are most useful in the occupations of life and most indispensable in the estimation of the parents. A boy who has not been well grounded in arithmetic in the very beginning of his education, is assuredly less fitted to learn either mathematics or natural science afterwards; there is strong reason for thinking that, since his intelligence has not been so thoroughly cultivated as it should have been, he is less fitted to learn grammar or language. But he is besides this


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less fitted for almost every occupation in which he can possibly be employed, and the parents have a just right to complain that he has not been rightly prepared for his duties in life.

In order, therefore, to secure that the elementary subjects shall be taught as thoroughly as is required, we have suggested that each of the three grades of schools shall be divided into two divisions, an upper and a lower, and that the examination at the top of the lower division shall give such a prominence to the elementary subjects as to concentrate the attention of the teachers upon them, and compel everything else to be held subordinate till these have been first mastered. Such an organization leaves the teachers free in their choice of methods and processes, but precisely defines their aim.

But it is obvious, that it is by no means necessary, that the upper and lower divisions that we have described should always be united in the same school. It would be quite possible to make the lower division in each case quite distinct from the upper, put it under different governors, in different buildings with different teachers. Such a lower division is what is commonly called a Preparatory School.

It is already common to send boys to such preparatory schools before sending them to schools of the first grade. It was once the practice to send boys to the great schools as early as seven or eight, and allow them to remain steadily working their way through the forms till their school life was completed. In those days the lowest form in a public school was usually the first, instead of, as now, the third, or even the fourth. No marked difference was made in the modes of instruction employed for teaching boys of seven and boys of seventeen. They began with their Latin grammar and Latin Delectus, and, except that of necessity they had to attend the teaching of the writing master, they did little else till they were old enough to add Greek to their Latin.

But it has now become a very common practice not to send boys to such a school as Harrow or Rugby till 13 or 14, and to have them prepared at a preparatory school with boys of their own age. These preparatory schools are mostly, but not always, private schools. They necessarily arrange their curriculum in each case to meet the demands of the larger schools to which the boys are afterwards to go. If the larger schools demand anything more than Latin - if they demand French, English, arithmetic, geography - the preparatory schools are compelled to teach these subjects, or they soon lose their scholars. They are not lower departments of the larger schools, for they are quite independent, and they are in no way bound to prepare boys for one school rather than for another; and in many cases one prepara-


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tory school will prepare boys for several public schools, just as one public school receives boys from several preparatory schools. Nevertheless, it is plain that they correspond in the work that they have to do with the lower divisions that we have above described of the schools of the first grade.

It is an important question whether the lower divisions of the schools of each grade should be attached to the upper divisions, or should be separate and independent. And it will also probably make our suggestions clearer, if we here point out what are the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement.

In the schools of the third grade it is obvious that the lower divisions do not differ from good national schools, except in as far as a higher school fee may secure schoolmasters either of a higher social rank or of greater professional skill, and may at the same time tend to confine the school to the children of those who can afford to pay what is beyond the power of manual labourers. There can be no doubt that for both these reasons such lower divisions of third grade schools, distinct from the ordinary national schools, will be demanded, and, so far as the parents are willing to bear the burden, will be provided. It does not seem likely that the parents will be content in all cases with the national schools, even if the national schools are quite capable of doing the work required. It is reported that in many schools the schoolmasters who hold the certificates of the Committee of Council are not successful because they are of a (1)lower social rank, and are not felt by the parents to be the equals of the children whom they have to teach; and it is well known that not only do the parents often dislike their children to be taught by men whom they do not consider their equals, but still more do they dislike them to associate with other children to whom the same objection applies. If it were not for this we might, perhaps, consider the national schools as already supplying the lower divisions of the third grade schools; and even as it is we have already expressed a hope that in many cases the national schools may hold this place.

But wherever this is not expedient, it seems on the whole best that the lower and upper divisions of a third grade school should be united in one institution. There is of course greater freedom, if the two divisions are made quite independent of each other. But on the other hand the lower division will probably be the better taught the more precisely its aim is defined, and nothing will define that aim so well as being required to prepare boys for an upper division of the same school. To this must be added that while there is something invidious in a distinct elementary school for those who are very nearly of the same social

(1) Fearon, p. 366.


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standing, but can afford to pay a little more, that invidiousness is much diminished if the elementary school is visibly a part of a larger institution, the whole purpose of which is to give something more than elementary instruction. Nor is it impossible to combine a good deal of freedom in teaching and in management with the provision of both lower and upper divisions in the same school. Boys in the lower division might be allowed to quit it, not merely for the upper division of their own school, but for the upper division of any other third grade school within their reach that would receive them; and on the other hand the upper division might admit boys that passed the requisite examination, not only after they had passed through its own lower division, but also if they had been prepared anywhere else.

For these reasons we are not of opinion that separate preparatory schools of the third grade would be needed.

The case of schools of the second grade is not quite the same. For in these schools, in which boys are to remain till 16, the difference in methods, both of teaching and of government, required for younger and for elder boys begins to become of considerable importance. Little boys require a good deal of explanation and of oral instruction. They must be taught how to learn. They require frequent assistance in almost every lesson. They can learn lessons by heart without aid; but this is almost the only kind of lesson in which they will not want aid incessantly. They require to be helped over difficulties which the elder boys may be left to face for themselves. Their lessons must be short and, if possible, perpetually varied. They soon flag if their attention is required to be given for a long time to the same subject. They require a good deal of supervision. In all these respects they differ very markedly from the elder boys. After 13 or 14 a boy is the better for being compelled to depend much more on himself. He must learn to persevere with a difficult task till he has solved the difficulty. He must learn to learn without aid. He must be trusted out of sight, and must learn to prove that he deserves trust. His lessons must be longer, and he must learn to persevere with the same kind of work till it has made a definite impression on his mind, and not be eager to hasten from novelty to novelty.

It is obvious that in these respects the teaching of younger and older boys will be conducted by different rules; but it is not at all easy to have two different sets of rules in the same school. The younger boys, who would submit to needful rules if in a school by themselves, are not equally willing to be treated differently from those who are but a little older than themselves in the same school. They fret for the liberty of their seniors


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before they are fit for it. And rules which would give them no annoyance, if they were not living with others that were not subject to the same, are felt as a burden, and perpetually tempt them to disobedience.

The force of these remarks is not so great when applied to schools of the second grade as when applied to schools of the first grade. But they are enough to make it expedient not to discourage the establishment of preparatory schools even of the second grade. There are certainly various reasons why the lower divisions of schools of this grade should not be separate. In many cases it would be more economical to make the two divisions parts of the same institution; the amount of building would possibly be less if the two divisions were united than if they were quite independent of each other; still more likely is it that the staff of teachers would be less, since, unless the divisions were both very large, the same teachers might be employed in both divisions. But where the numbers are sufficient to justify an entirely separate lower division, whether under the same or under different management, it is probably the better arrangement.

It is evident that this conclusion is still more certain in the case of schools of the first grade. It is exceedingly difficult to combine under one system the rules that are good for boys of 10 or 11 with those that are good for boys of 17 or 18. The whole cast of the management is so different in the two cases that the combination cannot but produce incessant friction. The lower and the upper divisions of a first grade school ought, if possible, to be quite apart, with different buildings, playground, rules, and officers. We shall see in our next chapter that in some instances endowed grammar schools have become preparatory schools of this sort. It is a question with which we are not at present concerned, but which we shall then discuss, whether such a use of endowments can he considered legitimate. But we have no doubt that the establishment of such schools, if not from endowments or similar public resources then from private enterprise, is right and necessary.

5. Exhibitions

One great service, which till a very late period was rendered to this country by the grammar schools, was that so many boys of more than ordinary capacity found in them, what they could hardly have found elsewhere, the means of rising to eminence in all professions, and especially in literature. Our history is full of names of men who have risen by their learning, and not a few from comparative obscurity. And in a great majority of


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cases these men obtained their early education in the first instance from the nearest country grammar school, and sometimes not only their early education, but exhibitions to enable them to complete that education at the Universities. There are indeed few schools which cannot point to at least one such hero in their past history, and many schools can mention more than one. The genius that would otherwise never have been known either to himself or others, has proved his powers in the country grammar school in competition with his neighbours, has attracted the notice of an intelligent master, has been encouraged to devote himself to learning, and has finally left his mark on the world just as at first he did among his schoolfellows.

This service was, perhaps more certainly than anything else which the grammar school can now do, a main object of the founders. To say that they intended to teach Latin and Greek to no more than the few who now desire to learn it, or to say that they intended to teach something useful to the mass of the population who are now within reach of their schools, is rather to distort than to represent their original purpose. But that they intended boys of more than average ability to find in these schools the means of a first-rate education, which would qualify them afterwards for useful service to the Church and State, can hardly admit of any doubt at all.

The value of the service, and the certainty that it was within the meaning of the founders, would be very strong arguments for leaving the grammar schools alone, if they still continued to do what they did even till the beginning of the present century. But this excellent work, which they have done so long, they have at last ceased to do.

The fact is that they could do this work only so long as education was comparatively simple and uniform, and all classes could be educated together. While the upper classes were content with such classical teaching as the nearest grammar school followed by the University could give, and the middle classes, if they did not want so much classics, still were content with the same teaching continued for a shorter period, the schools could be sustained with vigour, and any genius that appeared found a fit soil and a congenial atmosphere for his growth. But education has become varied and complex. The different classes of society, the different occupations of life, require different kinds of teaching. Many who once would have been content with next to no education at all, now, not only require education, but require an education suited to their special needs, and will not accept that which was before provided for everybody. The upper classes have found the advantages of


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large schools and free intercourse between many boys, and will not allow their children to grow up with no school companions but their immediate neighbours, but send them off where they will see a wider range of character and enter at once on a larger world. Many in the middle classes are not content with Latin and Greek when Latin and Greek no longer means association with the sons of the gentry. The grammar schools either sink from one rank to another till they descend below even the national schools, or else they maintain their classical teaching and lose their scholars. The result is that a boy of superior ability who may live in the neighbourhood of an old grammar school cannot now find there what he wants to give him an opening; he may possibly, though not so often as before, find a good master, but he cannot find what is of no less importance, good schoolfellows. For it must be remembered that even a good master is utterly unable to make a really good school unless he has a tolerable number of scholars. If there be not enough scholars to render the school-work important in the eyes of both master and boys, the teaching will generally be feeble, the lessons spiritless, and the school of little use. In most cases moreover a good schoolmaster cannot be procured, if there is no prospect of a supply of scholars.

It is useless to endeavour to restore what is plainly past. It must be confessed - in confessing it we are but recording a plain fact - that it is no longer possible to keep all education in one groove, and by giving precisely the same education to all classes to make it easy for talent in every class to rise to its natural level. The continental nations have already acknowledged this fact. Switzerland offers to a father five different kinds of schools to which he may send his children, but makes no provision for an easy passage from one to another. Prussia offers a choice of two, but with the same absence of any link between them. In both these countries, if a boy enters the commercial he rapidly unfits himself for the classical school, and vice versa. France has not made her primary schools a preparation for the Lycée, and within the Lycée itself has hitherto offered a choice of departments, and is now about to offer a choice of schools. Everywhere it is acknowledged that the problem of education is no longer simple, but that different solutions will be required in different circumstances. It will be seen that we also propose to accept the distinction that we already find, and to classify schools side by side, so that a parent, according to the destination for which he intends his son, may place him from the first in a school of the third grade, or of the second, or of the first. The three grades do not lead one into the


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other, but stand side by side, starting it may be said from the same point, but leading to different ends.

The different kinds of education now demanded have made this division a necessity. If a boy is to leave school at 14, it is not the best thing for him to have a fraction of the education which would suit boys who could stay at school till 18. He needs to have something complete in itself as far as it goes. He needs before he leaves school to be practised in writing a plain well expressed letter, to be made perfect master of commercial arithmetic, to have a firm grasp of some branch of natural science, to understand the elements of political economy, and he would be much the better if he could read a French letter or newspaper. Some of these things might well wait if he were going to stay much longer; as it is he wants to carry them with him, and they cannot wait. On the contrary, a boy who is going to stay till 18 may well let these things wait, if it be convenient that they should wait; it may, for instance, be better that he should read much more English before he is practised in writing it, that he should spend much more time on Latin and soon after begin Greek, that he should let natural science occupy less of his time since he can keep up the study so much longer.

But we cannot think it well that the old glory of the grammar schools should be entirely lost, and that it should be henceforth impossible for ability to find aids to enable it to achieve distinction. Nor do we think it a necessary consequence of what we have proposed.

The schools of the third grade are not, and are not intended to be, preparatory to schools of the second; nor schools of the second to schools of the first. But provided only there be still maintained some one leading study as a link between the three, we still think it quite possible and even easy to arrange that real ability shall find its proper opening.

It is for this reason among others, that, in all these schools we have suggested, that Latin should generally hold a leading place. Even in schools of the third grade, where it would be impossible to make Latin the chief study, the elements of the language might receive sufficient attention to give the clever scholars a firm hold on it. These schools would keep the boys till 14, but of course boys of exceptional talent would often be near the head of such schools two or three years sooner, and by the time they were 13, and therefore of an age to enter an open competition, would have learnt a good deal more than boys who had only just reached the same class. Such boys picked out from the rest and sent to schools either of the first grade or of the second, according to the talent that they showed and the


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professions for which they were destined, would not be long at any disadvantage in the classes of the school to which they were thus promoted. It is true that before that age boys in classical schools have usually begun Greek, and if the selected boys were of only average ability this would be a serious disadvantage to those who began that language so much later; but boys who have a natural aptitude at language very rapidly make up for such differences as these. We believe that clever boys, thoroughly well instructed in the elementary subjects, with their minds well opened already by studies adapted to their capacity, fired by the natural ambition consequent on their own success, would be found quite capable of making up, perhaps of more than making up, for the disadvantage of changing from one system to another.

It is plain that to pay for this passage from schools of a lower grade to those of a higher, the boys would usually need assistance. This assistance could best be given in the shape of exhibitions, and as far as possible the endowments might be employed with advantage to provide the funds. Several of our witnesses spoke with great emphasis in favour of this proposal. (1)Lord Harrowby pointed out that exhibitions or scholarships would be the proper mode of providing for the exceptional boys who now and then come up to the surface above their fellows in a small town. Mr. (2)Evans laid before us a scheme for making the best use of endowments, a leading feature of which was a provision for creating exhibitions to take boys from lower to higher schools. A recommendation nearly to the same purpose was advocated by Mr. (3)Lingen, Dr. (4)Bruce, Mr. (5)Short, Mr. (6)Griffith, and several others. The (7)Bishop of Bath and Wells stated that in his diocese there were many small endowments which would be most usefully employed if converted into exhibitions. Mr. (8)Adderley took the same view. Mr. (9)Miall, Mr. John Stuart Mill, Professor Rogers, and Mr. Twisleton all concurred in speaking of the founding of exhibitions as a wise use of the endowments. With these views we entirely agree, and we are of opinion that exhibitions should be provided, open to merit and to merit only, and, if possible, under such regulations as to make it tolerably certain, that talent, wherever it was, would be discovered and cherished and enabled to obtain whatever cultivation it required. These exhibitions would then do that, work which the grammar schools once did and can now do no longer, and in our judgment there is no use to which endowments can be put more in accordance with the interests of the country and the original intentions of the founders.

(1) 14,113.

(2) 5925.

(3) 13,107.

(4) 16,355.

(5) 4179.

(6) 16,581.

(7) 7143.

(8) Answers to circular, vol. ii. p. 5.

(9) Ibid. pp. 60, 62, 70, 77.


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G. Ratio which the demand for Secondary Education bears to the population

It is difficult to ascertain with precision the extent of the demand for education of all the grades, viewed collectively as a whole throughout England and Wales. It is still more difficult to obtain data for an estimate of the proportionate demand in particular places for each grade separately. We have endeavoured to collect some data, which may serve for an approximate estimate on both points, and may indicate the course into which further inquiry in each locality may with advantage be directed.

We will here only briefly indicate the result of the several estimates whi.ch we have obtained, and the practical conclusion which we think may be drawn from the facts before us.

Dr. Farr, of the Registrar General's Department, furnished us with a calculation of the number of boys in the upper and middle classes of society at different ages. The calculation is based on the number of £20 houses and of marriages by licence.

The result is an estimate that the number of boys belonging to the upper and middle classes of the age of 8 years and under 16 is 260,712 or 12.55 per thousand; of the age of 8 years and under 15 is 230,051 or 11.07 per thousand.

Dr. Farr takes as the basis of his ratio the total population for the year 1864 at 20,772,308.

This estimate, supposing it to be nearly correct for the whole of England and Wales, has to be considerably modified in its application to the rural and urban populations respectively, and, under each of those heads, to the habits of the population of particular districts.

The educational demands of rural districts must be affected by the size of farms, which vary from over 2,000 acres to much less than 100 acres; the demands of the urban population vary in towns of different sizes, and also according as commerce, manufactures, or retail trade prevail.

One of our own body endeavoured to obtain an exhaustive statement of the number of boys at schools of different kinds in Exeter, and of the number of boys in two agricultural parishes in Devonshire.(1) The number of boys belonging to resident families at Exeter in local schools above the elementary appeared to be at the rate of 16 per thousand, and the proportion of the several grades as follows: For the lowest grade half of the whole or not less than 8 per thousand; for the (2)middle and

(1) The details are given in a paper printed in Appendix II.

(2) The total number of boys actually in schools of the two higher grades in Prussia is, as we have seen, about 4 per thousand.


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higher grades either 5 per thousand and 3 per thousand or 6 per thousand and 3 per thousand respectively, according as the first grade is limited or not limited by the prevalence of classics in the curriculum.

Several of our Assistant Commissioners in the course of their local inquiries paid considerable attention to this statistical point. The information they collected will be found in their reports.(1)

A. detailed examination of the question is contained in a paper specially prepared by our Assistant Commissioner and registrar, Mr. D. C. Richmond.(2) He made an investigation which he believes to have been almost, if not quite, exhaustive in two towns, Woodbridge, population 4,513, and Bury St. Edmunds, population 13,318, and in two large villages, Kimbolton and Stradbroke. He found the proportion of boys between the average limits of 8 and 15 years, in attendance at secondary schools, to range from 16 to 20 per thousand of the population of the towns. In the villages (in which a lower limit of school age prevails, namely from 8 to 14), his estimate is about 11 per thousand.

Mr. Richmond has compared the information which he has obtained with the lists of residents in these places given in the County Directories, and has thence obtained an approximate calculation of the number of boys requiring secondary education in the three counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, and Suffolk. The result is that 12.28 per thousand represents the proportion of upper and middle class schoolboys in these three counties, an estimate which does not differ materially from that given by Dr. Farr for all England. An examination of other estimates shows that this method of calculation based upon the Directories may be trusted in other parts of the country also. If we assume that the ratio of 12‚.28 per thousand holds good for England generally, we obtain a total of about 255,000 boys as the number within the immediate scope of our inquiry.

The demands of parents in different places are manifestly affected by the opportunities for education placed within their reach. Education is eagerly sought and its cost is willingly paid in some places where it is offered in full efficiency and under circumstances favourable to its acceptance; while in other places education unsuited to the demand, although offered for nominal fees, or even gratuitously, is depreciated in value, and neglected.

On the whole we are disposed to think that without attempting any complete statistical accuracy we may draw for practical

(1) Green, pp. 110, 252; ‚Wright, p. 662; Fitch, p. 333.

(2) See Mr. Richmond's paper printed in Appendix II.


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purposes the following conclusions, which we advisedly give only in round numbers:

1. That in order to bring the best secondary education within the reach of parents, there should be provision ultimately in towns for not less than 16 boys per thousand of population.

2. That in every town large enough to maintain a day school, it is desirable that there should be at once provision for 10 boys per thousand of population, with a power of extension.

3. We think also that of the whole presumed demand one-half at least should be assigned to the requirements of scholars of the third grade.





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CHAPTER II

PRESENT STATE OF SCHOOLS FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION

Supply and Deficiency of Schools of different Kinds

IN discussing the present condition of secondary education it is important to bear in mind that all education depends in the main on two elements, the direct instruction given and received, and the indirect influences under which a child is placed while receiving it. The first is most prominent during school hours and the time actually spent in preparing for school. The second is powerful though somewhat latent in school, and is almost alone powerful out of it. The lessons a boy actually learns, the knowledge given him by his teacher or schoolfellows, the gradual development of his intellect, are parts of school life, which are within the immediate circle of a school's purposes and management; they are reducible to rule and method, and the success or failure of the rules or methods is ascertainable by direct examination, within fairly sufficient limits. But the impalpable constant influence of a master's justice, ability, and earnestness, or of his feebleness and carelessness, the sense of order and purpose, or of disorder and helplessness throughout the daily life, the conflict in temper and ability with schoolfellows, the presence of numbers of boys, all of whom are constantly examples or warnings, the whole tone and moral atmosphere of both school and home, are no less powerful causes in determining for good or for evil the present exertions and the future conduct of the schoolboy. The intellectual training and some of the moral training are or may be alike, whether the boy be a boarder or a day scholar; but the boarder is entirely subject to the school influences, and is much more powerfully affected by his fellows; the day scholar passes, when he leaves the school-room, to a totally different scene, and the ties which bind him to his comrades are much slighter in themselves, and are liable to be perpetually weakened by the counter-attractions of family or neighbours.

Speaking generally it may be said that direct teaching and learning are the primary object for which schools are established, and that the indirect influences are the necessary concomitants of the means by which the teaching is given. But the im-


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portance of the latter is so great that they often form the main consideration of both parent and schoolmaster. They vary greatly in different schools; and they vary, or are considered likely to vary, much in private schools compared with public schools, in schools for boarders compared with those for day scholars. And these differences have great weight in determining the preference, which some persons have for one class of school and some for others. The kind of instruction given, attachment to the Church or otherwise, the social rank of the pupils or of the master, the cost of the instruction or of the boarding, the quality of the food, the healthiness or favourable situation of the place, the methods of punishment, the length and frequency of vacations, the chance of obtaining exhibitions, all are matters on which many schools claim some distinctive merit, and for which parents are disposed to select one school rather than another. It is not at all desirable, even if it were possible, to have all schools moulded on one type; each type has its own special advantages and disadvantages; and any attempt at securing the same subjects to be taught, the same method of organization to be followed, the same discipline to be adopted, would fail in securing either the immediate object of uniformity or the ultimate object of the highest improvement of education.

But the information which we have collected shows plainly that the variety at present existing is accidental and arbitrary. The three grades of education (above the primary) determined by the age at which boys are removed from school, at 18, at 16, at 14, correspond roughly to different classes of society and to different courses of study. If it is desirable that parents who purpose to obtain for their sons an education of any of these grades should be able with facility to select a public or a private school, a boarding or a day school, according to their sense of the superior advantages of each, this desire in a large number of cases cannot, as things are, be gratified.

Of private schools only is there a large supply in point of number, but their distribution is irregular.

Of public boarding schools there is a large supply for those boys who are intended to stay until 18 years of age. There is a smaller supply for the second grade, this supply consisting of the recently established County schools and a considerable number of grammar and proprietary schools. For the third grade the Shoreham school,(1) established by Mr. Woodard, is an almost solitary

(1) Shortly to be moved to Ardingly. Even this school has 10 per cent of its scholars above 14 years old, and thus is classed by us as a second grade school.


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example. The charitable foundations, where a limited number of boys selected as objects of charity are clothed, fed, and instructed, such as Colston's and Queen Elizabeth's Hospitals at Bristol, and many others, cannot be considered as instances, for from their nature they are confined to a favoured few.

Public day schools exist in larger numbers, but very many of them are in a languid condition, unwilling to relinquish classics, unable to give them full play, struggling feebly to accommodate themselves to the discordant aims of the several parts of the community. And the circumstance in many cases that the school is bound to give a gratuitous, or mainly gratuitous, education, makes it merely a successful rival to the national school in point of attraction, and a most unsatisfactory substitute in point of quality. Those who wish for a better education, or for school companions of a higher social level, may be quite willing to pay for it; but they cannot get for money what they want. In at least two-thirds of the places in England named as towns in the census there is no public school at all above the primary schools, and in the remaining third the school is often insufficient in size or in quality.

To put the same fact in another light; for the upper classes of the community there is a sufficient supply of public boarding schools, and a very small supply of public day schools; for the upper section of the middle class there is a smaller supply of public boarding schools, and a very insufficient supply of public day schools; for the lower section of the middle class and the upper section of the artisans there is almost no supply of public boarding schools, and a very poor supply of public day schools, giving an education higher than the National schools.

Again, if we look to the course of instruction we must make large deductions even from this supply. Those who, wishing to keep their sons at school until the age of 18, yet desire a good education, which shall rest mainly on science, and only partially on classics, would find hardly a single public school of size and reputation to meet their wish. The military and civil department of Cheltenham college is the most prominent exception. The modern schools or departments of Marlborough, Wellington, and Clifton colleges, of Rossall school, and some others approach next. But Marlborough, Wellington, and Rossall are boarding schools only, and the modern departments are usually small in comparison with the classical, and do not receive the main stress of the attention of the authorities. This general deficiency, however, is in course of removal. Moreover, the deficiency is more an absolute deficiency than one relative to the demand. There is no great demand for education, carried up to 18 years


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of age, which shall yet look away from the universities; and the universities by requiring Greek and Latin make the existence of semi-classical or non-classical education of the best kind almost impossible. What is found is due mainly to the examination for admission to Woolwich.

For boys who are intended to stay till 16 years of age there are few schools with a curriculum fully adapted to them. As regards boarding schools, some that have been recently founded, as the (so-called) County schools, and some that have been recently reorganized, have fairly suitable courses of study. But of the day schools it may be said that, with few exceptions, they become semi-classical by force of circumstances, not by choice. They omit Greek simply because boys do not stay long enough to learn it, or parents object to pay for it; but they do not teach mathematics vigorously, they teach little or no natural science, and French is weighted with an extra payment or taught in a way to give little real mental training. These subjects do not get their full share of the teaching and organization of the school. The desire of the master would be rather, that a few boys should stay longer and learn more Latin and some Greek, than that the mass of the boys should receive the best possible education in non-classical studies. There is seldom made an attempt of any earnestness and importance to give the education of the schools established in Germany under the name of Realschulen.

For boys who are intended to finish their education at 14 there is very little public education excepting in the upper class of a national or British school, or in an endowed school of the same general standard, but frequently of inferior quality: so that as the middle division of the boys within the scope of this Commission have to take a fragment of a classical education, the lower division has either to take a still more imperfect fragment, or to accept of a distinctly lower curriculum than they might otherwise have found to their profit.

Public schools giving a fair general education, but laying especial stress on such mechanical and physical sciences as shall best assist the scholars who are intended for manufacturing or mechanical pursuits, hardly exist. The Bristol Trades school is the most noticeable instance which has been brought before us.(1)

We have as yet said nothing of the quality of the education, and yet this again must occasion a further deduction from the already too scanty supply. For the supply wanted is above everything a supply of good schools. Whether they shall be

(1) Rev. Canon Moseley, Q. 1923-2034. Stanton, p. 33.


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public or private, for boarders or day scholars, large or small, nay, even what shall be the particular curriculum, is a secondary consideration. The first consideration is that the teaching shall be sound and stimulative, the discipline manly and firm. It is plain from the evidence of our witnesses, and the still more important evidence of our assistant commissioners, that the schools, whether public or private, which are thoroughly satisfactory are few in proportion to the need. Of these few there are some public and some private; but the private schools are those intended for the upper class and upper half of the middle class. Below that line there is little good education till we come to the elementary schools under Government inspection. That little, however, is in public schools.

We have here used the term public schools to comprise both endowed and proprietary schools. Private schools exist on their own merits; they owe no account to anyone, they are subject to no inspection or control; any man or woman may start one to-morrow if persons can be found willing to send their children to it. The profession of a private schoolmaster is absolutely unrestricted; anyone entering it puts himself under no new or special liabilities; he is free to choose his own course of teaching, to take this pupil and refuse that, to retain his pupils as long as he likes, or dismiss them for what cause he likes; he can make his own charges, prepare his pupils for any examination or for none, employ any or no assistants, give as much or as little as he pleases of his own time to his work. The one practical condition of his success is his satisfying the parents of his pupils.

The positions occupied by the master of an endowed and by the master of a proprietary school, different as they are in other respects from one another, are alike in their contrast to that of a private schoolmaster. Whatever be the terms of the foundation deed, or the rules of the proprietors, the master is in either case a person selected and appointed to an office. He does not come forward relying simply on his own ability and character, but has a stamp put upon him by others; usually he is selected from a number of candidates, is appointed to execute a work with a traditional method and sphere of action, and is accountable for its satisfactory performance. He has to satisfy, not merely the parents of his pupils, but also a body of governors, the very purpose of whose creation is to secure a good school.

In proprietary schools this is universally the case. The school may be the property of an individual or of a company; the proprietor or proprietors may carry it on from the hope of improving education, or (but this is rare, if indeed it ever exist,) as a directly commercial speculation. But in either case the


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schoolmaster is selected because he is thought likely to teach well and manage well, and he is liable to dismissal, with more or fewer formalities, on his failure as a teacher or manager, or on his ill conduct as a man. The course of instruction, the class of his pupils, the charges for instruction or for board are usually prescribed to him by this superior authority, and the results of his teaching and management are usually tested by the proprietors themselves, or by examiners appointed by them. He works under a sense of direct responsibility, not to an indefinite number of individuals who may commit their children to his care, but to selected persons who are charged with a definite duty of supervision and control.

On the other hand, proprietary schools are not uncommonly private schools in this respect, that they do not admit to the benefits of the instruction any and every applicant of whatever social position he may be. It is this freedom of admission which gives endowed schools a special claim to the title of public schools.

In other respects endowed schools vary greatly, as well from proprietary schools as from one another. The interest felt by the governors or trustees, the care taken in appointing a master, the power of controlling him during his tenure of office, the ease or difficulty of removing him if he prove inefficient, are as different in different schools, as are the character and usefulness of the schools themselves. But while the proprietary school is framed to meet some felt want, and may be moulded till the want is met, the endowed school is in a large majority of cases hampered by obsolete or inflexible rules, and committed to the government of persons who are frequently unable or unwilling to give the requisite attention to its interests. If they are able and willing, they yet may have little experience and knowledge to guide them in what is often a difficult and delicate duty. The pecuniary interest which a private schoolmaster has in making his school succeed is in the proprietary school replaced, on the one hand, by the interest of the proprietors, who are promoting the education of their own children in the way they like best, or are pursuing a cherished project of philanthropy; on the other, by the desire of the schoolmaster to retain a lucrative office and maintain with dignity a prominent social position. In the endowed school there is, in very many cases, no great motive to exertion either on the part of trustees or master. The trustees are usually appointed for life, or become such ex officio, and have only a general sense of public duty to move them to an unattractive task; the master is often appointed for life also, and, it may be, has neither the power to adjust the rules to


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the circumstances, nor the energy to work all zealously where adequate profit does not follow upon labour, nor loss upon neglect.

Of all the endowed schools in the country there is hardly one which is both entirely subject to the public voice and devoted without restriction to the public good. It cannot be too much considered how completely the aim of the founders of these schools has been not uncommonly frustrated by the want of any ready, active, and competent control, which could test the working of the charity, and, whilst abrogating, if necessary, the specific plan of the founder, carry into vigorous effect his general intentions. The State has allowed endowments to be scattered over the whole surface of England, while it has provided no better remedy for the inevitable changes wrought by time, than, either an application to the Court of Chancery or Charity Commission, which are confined in their action by the law of charitable trusts, or the ponderous machinery of a special Act of Parliament. For the administration of these endowments innumerable small bodies of trustees are created and continued according to the wills of the dead, not for the limited period of an ordinary private settlement, but in perpetuity, while yet there is no public test to show them the state of the school, no recognized depositary of educational experience to consult, no legitimate authority to prevent what was meant to be a profit and a blessing from becoming incidentally, but under the circumstances inevitably, a waste or even worse.

It is unnecessary to repeat here the weighty statements made by many high authorities, and especially those collected by the Commissioners on Popular Education, and sanctioned to a great extent by them, viz., that "the evidence as to the present state of the endowments (coming within their province), and their present influence on education, is almost without exception unfavourable and decidedly pointing to the necessity of remedial measures."(1) For it is clear from the information which we have ourselves received that there are few endowments applicable to secondary education which are put to the best use, and very many which are working to little or bad use. An endowed school is not a transitory institution which is killed by its inutility; its constant influence is secured by its foundation. A school kept up otherwise than by a private individual for his own profit at once assumes a semi-public aspect; it becomes an object of general or local, not merely individual or family, concern; and it thereby is always an obstacle more or less serious to the establishment in

(1) Rep., p. 467-469.


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the same place of any other school of the same class. If the school is efficiently taught, it is certain, except in very large towns, to prevent another school of the same class being established, or, if established, permanently kept up; but though efficiently taught, it may not be as well adapted to the wants of the locality, as one ruled by the desires and suited to the wants of the existing generation would be; it may be confined by law or by the hands of its legal administrators to members of the Church, or of a body of nonconformists, or to the inhabitants of a limited district. Notwithstanding such want of adaptation, or of openness, or of efficiency, it still occupies the ground, and is a perpetual discouragement to any attempt to erect another; for a change may occur to-morrow, new trustees may come in, a new master may be appointed, a new scheme may be obtained from the Court of Chancery, none of which events can be relied on to occur, and none of which have the inhabitants the power in their own hands and of their own motion to bring about. The action of the Court cannot be predicted with‚ any certainty, except that it is most often prevented from looking simply to what will produce the best and most suitable education, and that it may be bound to disregard such an object as not within its jurisdiction.(1)

There is not (with the exception of some schools for the military and naval services) a single school in England above the class of paupers over which the State actually exercises full control. A few are under the control of the municipal authorities of a borough. The rest are under private individuals or private companies, or special ecclesiastical or eleemosynary [charitable] corporations, or bodies of practically irresponsible trustees. There is no public inspector to investigate the educational condition of a school by direct examination of the scholars, no public board to give advice on educational difficulties, no public rewards given directly to promote educational progress, except those distributed by the Science and Art Department, hardly a single mastership in the gift of the Crown, not a single payment from the central government to the support of a secondary school, not a single certificate of capacity for teaching given by public authority professedly to teachers in schools, above the primary schools. In any of these senses there is no public school and no public education for the middle and upper classes. If direct pecuniary assistance is not required the State offers nothing. It might give test, stimulus, advice, dignity: it withholds them all, and leaves the endowed schools to the cramping assistance of

(1) See Chap. iv. p. 453.


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judicial decisions, which may be quite right as regards the interpretation of the founders' words, and quite wrong as regards the wise administration of the schools they founded. Where the powers of the Court of Chancery have been applied with some success in the reformation of a school, the object has frequently been obtained only after much delay, after much expense, and sometimes by straining the law. The threat of opposition before the Court has wrecked many good schemes of reformation.(1)

We propose to discuss the present state of the schools under the following heads:

1. Endowed Schools;
2. Private Schools;
3. Proprietary Schools; and lastly we shall discuss
4. Examinations which now directly or indirectly test the work of the Schools.
§ 1. Endowed Schools

The term "endowed schools", strictly speaking, is applicable to a large number of schools which are not usually intended by the name. The schools established during this century in connexion with the National or British and Foreign School Societies, and others of the like nature, are almost always held in buildings permanently dedicated to the use of the school. A site and buildings thus permanently appropriated form a valuable and very useful endowment. But such schools are excluded from the scope of our Commission by their being established and maintained for the primary education of the classes living by manual labour. The endowed schools to which we shall refer are those which have usually, besides buildings, some income from charitable funds permanently appropriated to the school. There are about 3,000 schools, or foundations for schools of this nature, established for the most part before the present century, of very different degrees of importance, and presenting every variety of excellence or badness. A glance at the map which we have had constructed will show at once how thickly they are distributed over the surface of England, and how few places of more than 2,000 inhabitants are without an endowed school.

Of these 3,000 endowed schools, about one fourth come strictly within the immediate object of our Commission, and we have accordingly reported on 782. A list of them will be found in Appendix V. This number is composed of those which were intended to give, or which now actually give, a higher education

(1) Evidence of Mr. J. P. Fearon, Q. 13,334-5.


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than that given in the National or British Schools, or were intended to educate, or do now actually educate, that part of the community which usually requires such a higher education. The education of the classes living by manual labour is limited by the early age at which they leave school in order to earn their bread; it is a primary education only, terminated at the age of 12 or 13, or earlier. The education of those who can stay longer than that age at school is the education to which our inquiry relates. Schools, confined to the children of the poorest only, and intended to give them the rudiments of education only, reading, writing, and arithmetic, are excluded from the main purpose of our investigation, although we have not thought it right to disregard them entirely. The line which separates these from others is, in practice, hard to draw with precision, and we shall have occasion to point out the important bearing which many of such schools have on some parts of our inquiry and recommendations. But in the main we must be understood in speaking of endowed schools to refer to the schools which appear to come under the legal definition of grammar schools, and to 70 or 80 others which, with them, make up the number of 782. The nine grammar schools, which formed the subject of inquiry by a former Commission, are not counted in this number.

Whether a school is or is not a grammar school is a question of legal construction in every particular case. If the founder intended that the school should teach grammar, which is held to be Latin, or Latin and Greek, it is a grammar school.(1) Often this is directed in express terms, sometimes in more general language; at others, the same intent may be inferred from the qualifications required in the master, or from the connexion instituted between the school and the Universities, or from the early and continued practice of the school. The distinction of this class of endowed schools from others is recognized in several Acts of Parliament, and may often affect considerably the legal position of the schoolmaster. We shall have occasion to refer to it more particularly in the following chapter. The other endowed schools which we have included in our list are, first, about 20, which, on account of their having at one time taught Latin, have been ranked with the grammar schools in some official publications; and, secondly, some which, either now teach classics or at least give a higher or longer education than that given in the National or British Schools.

The total number of boys educated in these schools, excluding those which are now merely elementary, appears to be 36,874. Of these 9,279 are boarders and 27,595 day scholars.

(1) See the wide definition of grammar school in 3 & 4 Vict. c. 77. s. 25., quoted below, p. 453.


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The aggregate net income from endowment of the grammar and other secondary schools included in our list is £195,184. But this is an imperfect representation of the whole amount of revenue in which the schools are interested. The management of the estates and repairs of the school buildings cost a very considerable sum; but as these expenses are often mixed up with similar expenses incurred for almshouses and other charities upon the same foundation as the school, it, is impossible to state their amount accurately. The gross income of the schools, and charitable foundations including grammar schools, is £336,201. The annual value of exhibitions to which the schools have a claim but which are not included in these amounts is at least £14,264.(1)

The amount of endowment of these schools ranges from that of Christ's Hospital, which includes a net income of over £42,000 a year, besides a very valuable site and large buildings, to some which consist simply of a rentcharge of £5 or £6 or less a year. But these are extreme cases. The usual case is, that the school possesses a school-house, a master's house, and an annual income. Eight(2) grammar schools on which we have specially reported in a subsequent chapter, and one other,(3) have net incomes exceeding £2,000 a year; 13(4) have net incomes inferior to these, but at least £1,000 a year; 55 others have incomes of at least £500; 222 others have at least £100; and the rest are under £100 a year. A few schools only have no school-house nor master's house; most have both, but of very different sizes and values.

Nor is the distribution of these endowments over the country more regular. The total net income of all the schools of the county of Cornwall, included in our list, does not amount to £400 a year, nor are the buildings of much value. Most counties range between £1,000 and £4,000 a year. Lincolnshire, on the other hand, has over £7,000 a year; Lancashire, nearly £9,000 a year.(5)

(1) These amounts are exclusive of the income of the nine schools of Lord Clarendon's Commission, which appear to amount to £57,745 net, £84,185 gross, and £8,296 exhibitions. The number of scholars in these nine schools appears to be 2956.

(2) Exclusive of Eton, Winchester, St. Paul's, Charter House, Merchant Taylors', and Rugby. The eight schools are Christ's Hospital, Dulwich, St. Olave's, Birmingham, Manchester, Tonbridge, Bedford, and Monmouth. See Chapter V.

(3) Aldenham, which has a net income (owing to recent sales of laud) of £3,600.

(4) Exclusive of Harrow, Westminster and Shrewsbury. The thirteen schools are the Clergy Orphans' School at Canterbury, Berkhampstead, Felsted, Lucton, Ashby de la Zouch, Oakham, Uppingham, Repton, Macclesfield, Leeds, Rishworth and St. Bees, and (see p. 258), the Mercers' school.

(5) The net income which the schools derive from the endowment is alone referred to in the above statement. All money spent in repairs, rates, taxes, interest on, or discharge of, debt, &c. is deducted, nor is the amount of any fund for exhibitions, which is independent of the general income, included. See Appendix, p. (91).


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The total number of towns of more than 2000 inhabitants, according to the census of 1861, which have endowments for a grammar or other secondary school, is 304. Many of these endowments are now applied to primary schools only. There are 228 towns of that size without any such endowment. In a very few of these towns proprietary schools have been established; the rest have private schools only. The remainder of the grammar school foundations are in villages, or in towns of less than 2,000 inhabitants.

There are many other points in which these schools present striking differences from one another. Some are parts of a large charitable foundation, which embraces numerous other objects besides education; some endowments are distributed over several schools, the grammar school being but one among many. Again, some are intended expressly for the members of the Church of England, others for special denominations of Nonconformists; others again, and those the very great majority, have no such binding and exclusive connexion. Schools of which few persons have heard beyond those resident in the villages where they are situated, schools which are the mainsprings of education to large towns, and schools which have a wide reputation and attract boarders from distant parts of the country; schools which have been known chiefly by the disputes to which they have given rise, and their long and frequent entanglement in Chancery suits; schools which have in former days trained leaders in science and statesmanship, and now languish in obscurity and neglect; schools which from their very first establishment have ranked with the best and highest centres of education, - of all these kinds instances, of some too few, of others too many, are found in our list. The management of them has been in the hands of all classes of persons: high official dignitaries, the noblemen and gentlemen of the county, selected inhabitants of the particular place, the inhabitants in vestry assembled, the minister and churchwardens, or other officers, of the parish, the mayor and corporation of a town, a London city company, the master and fellows of a college, the dean and chapter of a cathedral, the heir of the founder, the owner of a particular manor or house, the master or masters of the schools themselves, are to be found separately or in very various combinations, as the holders of the school property and the regulators of the school studies, having the right to nominate the scholars and appoint the masters.

The social rank of the scholars is also very various. In some schools almost all ranks meet, in by far the majority either the higher ranks or the lower ranks are found, but not both to any great extent together. The unwillingness of one class to


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mix with the class below does not exist in the same intensity in all parts of the country; sometimes it differs in parts not far from one another, and of similar social character; on the whole it appears stronger in the south than in the north of England.

The teaching in common of boys and girls is much more rare. Like the mixture of ranks it was more frequent some years ago than it is now. Most of the endowed schools have, as a matter of fact, whether the terms of the foundation were exclusive or not, been confined to boys. A few foundations have been established especially for girls; a few more embrace separate schools for boys and girls; but the schools in which the two sexes are taught together are now almost exclusively confined to the recipients of purely elementary education.(1)

It would not be difficult to make large additions to the varieties already spoken of. No body of schools could be more diverse. But the diversity is almost always unintentional, and accident has rarely made it appropriate.(2) Large endowments are attached to places where there are few to benefit by them; and pittances only are found where the need is great. In numbers of districts schools stand near to one another doing the same work, and doing it more wastefully and worse than one school only would do it; and in the same districts, or even at the same places there is other work to be done equally important and perfectly feasible, which is meanwhile neglected. Viewed as a whole, the condition of school education above the primary bas been called a chaos, and the condition of the endowed schools is certainly not the least chaotic portion. The founders of these 762 schools have each thrown in their contributions, and there has been no one with power to organize the mass or assign to each school its place and function. If the founders had all lived at the present time, "Were cognizant of present circumstances, and were desirous of adjusting their respective benefactions so as to answer present needs and to harmonize their own foundations with schools established by other benefactors, some control would still have been imperative to prevent loss or evil. That control is not rendered less necessary by the fact, that not more than one hundred of these foundations are less than a century old, that five hundred are more than two centuries old, and that some come to us from times as ancient as the fourteenth century; that the social position and prospects of the community, its hopes and desires, have changed enormously both over the whole country and in the several districts of it, since the large

(1) See Fitch, p. 197.

(2) See a forcible description by Mr. Fearon, p. 271.


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majority of these schools were established; that the value of property has experienced no less a change, but a change affecting these endowments in very unequal degrees; so that the founders' language, as applied to the present position of the endowments, is frequently that of men disposing blindfold of property of which they do not know the value, distributing it to persons of whose needs they are ignorant, and directing the execution of purposes which are impracticable and undesirable. Even trifling matters speak significantly of the change. When Richard Pate, in 1586, founded Cheltenham Grammar School, he provided for the scholars books by ordering the entrance fees of 4d. and 3d. paid by residents and nonresidents respectively, to be for the "schoolmaster to buy Latin and Greek books for the use of the scholars, to be tied fast with little chains of iron in some convenient place in the school, and when the school was sufficiently provided, the master to enjoy the surplus." When Alderman Dauntsey in the reign of Philip and Mary wished to establish an almshouse and school at West Lavington, he thought it sufficient to direct the Mercers' Company to build a house with eight chambers, one for the master and seven for seven almspeople to live in. So at Middleton in Lancashire, Dean Nowell, in Elizabeth's reign, "recites in the trust deed that he had made a convenient building for a grammar school, with suitable apartments for the master and usher, the school being a building like a barn, with a small room at each end, approached by steps from the outside, to serve as the suitable chambers for the master and usher respectively."(1) When Sir T. Boteler's executors, in 1526, in giving statutes for his school at ‚Warrington(2) declare that it shall be lawful for the schoolmaster for the time being to take of any scholar four pennies in the year; viz., in three quarters of the year, one potation penny, "for the which he shall make a drinking for all the said scholars," and at Shrovetide, "one cockpenny"; he is referring in the latter words to a practice very prevalent then in the north of England, but which seems strange to us."(3) And the Statutes of Hartlebury School expressly authorize the master "to have, use, and take the profits of all such cockfights and potations,

(1) Lord Westbury, Ev. Q.16,625. Compare East Retford. (Carlisle ii.283).

(2) Bryce, Gen. Rep., p. 469.

(3) At Shrovetide the scholars used to make a present to the master, out of which he had to procure a cock, which he fastened by a string to a post and fixed in a pit for the boys to pelt with sticks. If a boy hit the cock it became his property, if no boy hit it, the master took it for himself. Other accounts make the cockpenny to have been a contribution to the expense of providing cocks for a fight.


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as are commonly used in schools."(1) Sir John Deane, in his statutes for the school of Witton (Northwich), in 1557, "wills, that upon Thursday and Saturday, in the afternoons, and upon holydays the schollars refresh themselves, and a week before Christmas and Easter, according to the old custom, they bar and keep forth the school the schoolmaster, in such sort as other schollars do in great schools."(2) The frequent injunction that "the scholars in all their speeches within the school should use the Latin tongue and no other,"(3) the requirement that the master shall teach in the school from 6 (or in the winter from 7) in the morning to 11, and from 1 to 6 (or in the winter 5) in the afternoon,(4) the belief that nothing further was necessary to establish a school than to pay a master a fixed sum and require him "teach grammar to all comers without anything else to be demanded"(5) and numberless other parts of the founders' deeds all show that they were planting schools in a society widely different from ours, and fitted to times and habits which are now long past.(6)

But these schools are not now governed by the directions, often very full and precise, of the founders and donors. Sometimes the unrepealed rule remains, in startling contrast to the present practice. Sometimes the schools have been reconstituted or reformed by the interposition of persons to whom the founders themselves assigned the duty, sometimes by special commissioners appointed under an old Statute of Queen Elizabeth,(7) sometimes by the Court of Chancery, sometimes by the Legislature itself. Reforms thus introduced have often been most salutary for the time, and then in their turn have fallen behind the progress of events; not uncommonly they have unconsciously perverted what appear to have been the real intentions of the founders, as well as injured the educational interests of the inhabitants of the place. But in

(1) Carlisle, ii. 759.

(2) Carlisle, i. 133 ; and see the account of the lengths to which the practice was carried, ii. 632.

(3) Alton, anno 1641. Marlborough, Gr. S, 1550. At Chigwell the founder orders that "for speaking English in the Latin school the scholar be corrected by the Ferula, and for swearing with the rod."

(4) Kirkby Stephen, Chigwell, Southampton, Skipton. At Wigan they were not to be in school after daylight had closed. See Carlisle, i. 729. The difficulty about lights often occurs, e. g. Dean Colet orders that the scholars shall use "not tallow but wax candles at the cost of their friends."

(5) Wimborne, Stockport, &c.

(6) See Fearon, pp. 261-266: the Statutes of Manchester schools, given in vol. iii. p. 311, and of St. Paul's and Merchant Taylors, in Report of Nine Schools Commission, ii, 581-589.

(7) 43 Eliz., cap. 4.


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both cases they have been isolated efforts for the independent improvement of individual schools; the schools have been regarded as the subjects of special trusts of a precisely limited character, not as local contributions to the higher education of the country, which might be freely adjusted to changes as they occurred. It is necessary to keep this constantly in mind when the condition of the endowed schools excites our wonder and regret. Speaking generally, but of course with exceptions, we may say, and say with confidence, that they are not such schools as their founders contemplated and designed; they are not such schools as their several governors would think it right, if they had the power, to make them; they are not such schools as would be established by a Judge of the Court of Chancery, who was putting into execution his own views of the best means of education; they are not such schools as the inhabitants of the locality would most desire. They now exhibit neither the will of the dead for their time nor the will of the living for our time, but the result of a futile attempt, in moulding for the use of the present, what was given and intended for the use of the present, to employ, as exclusively as might be, the "dead hand" of the past.

We have said that five hundred of these schools, or two-thirds of the whole number, were founded more than two centuries ago. That is to say, they were founded while the revival of literature, the reformation of religion, the upgrowth of science, the seething of political theories, were still new forces, of which men could but feel the first effects, and were powerless to predict the future course and issue. But these forces were and are, above all, educational forces; they have told upon men's intellects, and they have told upon children's training. And the grammar schools, which were intended to bring the higher cultivation to all places and all classes, are of all institutions the least worthy to be kept down to the standard of the past, and their founders are of all persons the least worthy to be mocked with the faithless fulfilment of the letter of their orders.

Besides this there are two events which, occurring in this century, and consequently unknown to almost all the founders, have essentially changed the circumstances in which these schools are placed. They are, first, the establishment of the National and British and similar schools, and their subsequent increase and support by the assistance of the Government grant, and, secondly, the great increase in the facility of locomotion. The schools aided by Government educate a part of the scholars, who might otherwise have been found in the grammar schools, and educate them better and more usefully than they were educated before, or can be now educated in the grammar school without sacrificing its other and


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main purposes. The facility of locomotion has made distant schools' accessible to children who would otherwise have gone almost of necessity to the school of their town or village. It is no longer needful, and it is certainly not desirable, for each school to endeavour to meet the varied educational wants of the whole immediate neighbourhood. These changes make it necessary to interpret afresh the founders' intentions, and to compare their directions with the facts before us.

It is plain that for the proper execution of this task there is required, what hitherto has never existed, an account of the actual results of the endowed grammar schools as ascertained by examination independent alike of the governors and the masters. The Commissioners who inquired, from 1818 to 1837, into the charities of the country, while reporting numerous abuses, some of which have since been effectually remedied, did not examine the scholars or report specially on the educational aspect of those charities which were devoted to schools. It has been our duty to supply this omission. In the general Reports of our Assistant Commissioners, and in their special reports on the schools separately, will be found ample materials for forming a judgment on the many important questions which arise respecting the external and internal constitution of the grammar schools, and the use now made of some other endowments. These reports justify greater confidence in pronouncing on the causes of the unsatisfactory condition of the schools and on the remedies required, than it would be possible to feel without the information which they give. We have an account of the experience not of a few schools here or there, but of all schools of the class in England and Wales. It is from the record of this wide investigation that we shall draw our statement of the present condition of the endowed schools, and endeavour to explain distinctly the causes, which have prevented them from doing the good which they otherwise might have been expected to do. The full details must be sought in the reports of the Assistant Commissioners themselves.(1)

Our account of the schools will be most naturally distributed under the following heads:

I. Scholars and kind of education.
II. Masters.
III. Governors.
IV. Sites and buildings.
(1) When any fact is stated or quotation made, in reference to the present state of a school, without any distinct citation of the authority, it must be understood that the authority is the Assistant Commissioner's Report on the school named. These reports will be found in the volumes for the several Registrar-General's divisions.


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I. SCHOLARS AND KIND OF EDUCATION

We propose under this head to speak first of the intentions of the founders, as regards secular and religious instruction, the payment or non-payment of fees, and the area to which the benefits of the school are absolutely or preferentially confined; next, to compare these intentions with the present state of the schools; and, lastly, to submit the facts, which point to the practicability of a more complete and successful fulfilment of these intentions than is at present the case.

i. FOUNDERS' INTENTIONS

The most frequent terms in which the founders described the schools they intended to establish were simply a "Grammar School", a "Free Grammar School",(1) or "a master to teach grammar"; but other purposes of similar import are also common. "Latin", or "Latin and Greek", or "Latin, Greek, "and Hebrew", or the" learned languages", or "grammatical "science and Greek and Latin literature", are found not unfrequently. What was then not only the best, but the only means and source of intellectual cultivation rose naturally and necessarily to the lips of the founders, when they thought of providing a school at all. The education of the masses could hardly be thought of with serfdom yet unabolished. The problem of those days was not universal education, but universal opportunity of education. The few who desired to learn might easily lack the means. The town or village might be relied on to supply some one who could teach reading and writing, but higher teaching could not be left to spring up spontaneously; and the service of the Church, which specially required it, offered it a natural and customary shelter. Before the Reformation chantries were frequently founded for a priest to say mass for the repose of the founder's soul, and the priest was often required in virtue of his endowment to keep a grammar school also. The choirs in training to sing the Latin offices appear to have been the nucleus of many of the early grammar schools; and, when the chantries and monasteries were dissolved at the Reformation, the schoolmaster was restored with the Latin grammar in his hand.(2)

(1) A list of the grammar and other secondary schools is given in Appendix iv. arranged in chronological order, with the nature and limitations of the original foundation of each briefly indicated. Most of the quotations from the founders' statutes in the following pages are from Carlisle's account of the grammar schools.

(2) See the "Act for Chantries Collegiate" 1 Edw. 4. c. 14. Hammond, p. 472. Bryce, p. 461.


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Under these circumstances, founders who described their purpose as the establishment of a grammar school, may be supposed rather to have thought of the general functions which the school was to discharge than of the subject in which instruction would be given. Grammar school was the technical name of a well-known class. Those who gave a further description, and mentioned Latin, or Latin and Greek, were really adding nothing to the definition. The only grammar that was, or could be, taught at first was Latin; Greek was added afterwards, and some founders prescribed Hebrew as well. But other expressions are found of a more general character. The cathedrals founded by Henry VIII had schools as part of their establishment, the purpose being "ut juventus in literis liberaliter instituatur". So Archbishop Holgate's three schools (1547) were for "grammar and other knowledge";(1) Ilminster (1549) for "godly learning and other manner of learning"; Hawkshead (1585) for "grammar and principles of Greek tongue, with other sciences". Some founders dilate on the particular authors that should be read; as at Witton (1557), "good authors, such as have the Roman eloquence joined with wisdom(2)"; others on the qualifications required in the master, as at Haworth (1637), "one able to teach Greek and Latin, so as to fit his scholars for Oxford or Cambridge"; or at Goudhurst (1610), "a pious and learned man, able to teach Latin and Greek, and all other tongues, arts, and sciences required for the Universities"; others in a more marked way express the same view of the grammar school's functions when they require that the scholars should already possess the elements of education before admission. Thus at Alford (1565) the founder orders that "none shall be admitted into this grammar school before he can read perfectly and write legibly", and "that it is not accounted any part of the schoolmaster his duty to teach any of his scholars to write but of his own good will and gentleness". At Sandwich (1568) "every scholar shall before his admission into the school be able to write competentlie and to reade perfectlie both Englishe and Lattyne". Similarly, at St. Saviour's, Southwark (1562), "No child of the parish shall be admitted as a scholar but he shall be first examined by the master, whether he read English and Latin perfectly and write his name". At Tiverton (1599) there was to "be no scholer continue in the said schoole as a scholer, but boys, and ‚none

(1) See some of the early statutes in Carlisle's Grammar Schools: and Fearon, pp. 261-265.

(2) This is copied from Dean Colet's statutes for St. Paul's School, which appear to have been often regarded as a model.


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above the age of eighteen years or under the age of six years, and none under a grammar scholer."(1)

Some foundations again were stated to be intended not only for grammar but for elementary learning as well, usually as a preparation for grammar. Thus the very early foundation of Enfield (1507) was "to teach children within the town of Enfielde to know and read their alphabet letters, to read Latin and English, and to understand grammar, and to write their Lateines according to the use and trade of grammar schools." St. Olave's, Southwark (1571), was to be "a grammar school for the bringing up, institution, and instruction of the children and younglings of the parishioners, as well in grammar as in accidence and other low books, and in writing." At Manchester (1525) "the high maister shall alway appoint one of his scollers, as he thinketh best, to instruct and teach in the one end of the scale all infants that come there to learn their ABC primer and forthe till they begin gramyer, and every month to choose another new scoller so to teach infants." At Lewisham (1656), the founder "in love to draw the parents the more willingly to send their children to the school", directs that a writing master(2) should be appointed with a salary of £11 per annum. At East Retford (1551) the master and usher were ‚"to teach and read unto their scholars of the first form the figures and characters of letters, to join into sound and pronounce the same perfectly, and immediately to learn the inflection of nouns and verbs", and it is calculated that "the more prone natures may spare part of the first year to hear the explication of Tully's Epistles, and write and repeat some Latin words out of them." Not unfrequently a different school altogether was established for the "pettys", to teach them the rudiments of education.(3) At Chigwell (1629), Archbishop Harsnett erects "two fair and large school-houses" to the intent that "the children and youth of Chigwell and other adjoining parishes should be in one of the said schools taught to read, write, and cypher, and cast accounts, and to learn their accidence; and in the other school-house to be instructed in the Latin and Greek tongues." But it was not till after the Restoration that numerous endowed schools were founded for primary education alone.

Arithmetic is rarely mentioned in early foundations.(4) At

(1) See also Camberwell, Oundle, Woodbridge, Tonbridge, St. Alban's, Norwich, (Hammond's report), &c.

(2) See Hammond, p. 429.

(3) Fearon, p. 268.

(4) See, however, Rolleston (1520); Bromsgrove (King Edw. VI.).


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Bungay (1592), the schoolmaster and scholars were to keep school every Saturday and every half-holiday until three o'clock in the afternoon "for writing and casting accounts with the pen and counters according to their capacities(1)." So at Wellingborough (1596), Aldenham (1599), and in the 17th century at Stratford-le-Bow (1617), Chigwell (1629), Walsingham (1650), Drax (1669), Brigg (1676), and many others, we find accounts mentioned. At Dartmouth, besides a master to teach Latin, there was to be another to teach "English, the art of navigation, and other mathematics"; and similarly at Rochester (Williamson's school, 1701), and Petersfield (Churcher's College, 1722), and other places, schools were expressly founded to prepare boys for sea service.(2)

If we make every allowance for the paucity of subjects of instruction in early time, on the whole it is clear that a grammar school was intended to give something higher or more than the necessary elements of education. These latter were either presumed altogether, or were treated as a merely subordinate and preparatory part of the proper work of the school. The stress perpetually laid on "learning" and "good knowledge of Latin and Greek", or a university degree, as a qualification for the master, and on "aptness" and "towardness", and the presence of preliminary knowledge in the scholars, shows that these schools were regarded as the means of bringing a higher culture within the reach of all, and raising from among the poorest as well as the richest those who should thereby be able to serve in larger measure the Church and commonwealth.

Religious instruction was apparently a regular part of the grammar schools' work both before and after the Reformation, and is constantly mentioned. Thus, at Childrey (1526), "the chaplain of this chantry shall be well skilled in grammar", and, besides teaching the children things which are necessary to enable them to "assist the priest in the celebration of the mass, shall teach them in English, the Fourteen Articles of Faith, the Ten Commandments, the Seven Deadly Sins, the Seven Sacraments of the Church, the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost, and the Seven Works of Mercy, as well temporal as spiritual, the five bodily senses, and the manner of confession."(3) At Witton (1557), "the children shall learn the Catechism, and then the accidence and grammar set out by King Henry VIII., ... and then Institutum Christiani Hominis, that learned Erasmus made." At Kirkby Stephen Thomas Lord Wharton says in his statutes (1566), "The master

(1) Mr. Hammond's Report.

(2) Hammond, p. 290.

(3) Compare the statutes of Cuckfield (Carlisle, ii. 595).


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shall interpret and reade to his schollers those authors which may induce and lead them to vertue, to godliness, and to honest behaviour, and to the knowledge of humanity, but not to wantonness or sauciness; for he shall read to them the Ten Commandments, in the Latin tongue, as is used in the realme of England, for the most part, and Cato, Æsop's Fables, Tully's Offices, and De Amiticia and De Senectute, &c." At St. Bees (1583) Archbishop Grindal says, "the first books of construction that the scholars shall read, either in Latin or Greek, shall be the smaller Catechisms set forth by public authority for that purpose in the said tongues, which we will they shall learn by heart, that with the knowledge of the tongues they may also learn their duty towards God and man." So mention is often made of attendance at church, both on Sundays find holydays at the regular service, and sometimes before daily morning school, to sing a psalm at the tomb of the founder or to pray for the founder's soul.(1) At other schools particular prayers were expressly named, or even composed for the purpose of being used in school before and after the daily work.(2)

The scholars for whom the grammar schools were provided, were of no one class in particular. Most usually "children", or "youth", is the only term used to describe them. The school was to be for such as required an education in grammar, and among them would be some of all classes, but many more of those above the labouring classes than of those below. The poor, indeed, are frequently named, but rather in a way that indicates the desire to keep the door wide open for their reception, than the expectation that they would form the majority of the scholars. Nor is the mention of the rich at any period uncommon. The school at Wye (1447), was "for the instruction of youths gratis, both rich and poor." At Macclesfield (1502), that "gentil mens sonnes and other good mennes children in Maxfield and the countre thereabouts might be taught grammar." At Cromer (1505), almost the same words are used with the addition "and especially poor men's children". At Bruton (1519), all scholars "as well poor as rich, were to be taught freely grammar after the form of Magdalen College, Oxford, or St. Paul's School, London, and not songs or petite learning, nor English reading, but to be made perfect Latin men." At Knaresborough (1616) the school was to be "for the education and instruction of boys and youths of the parishioners of Knaresborough and Goldsborough, and others whomsoever, as well

(1) e.g., Kirkby Stephen. Compare Macclesfield.

(2) e.g., St. Alban's.


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poor as rich, as well in grammar as in the accidence; and other inferior books." At Lowther, Viscount Lonsdale (1697) expressed his intention to be "to found at Lowther a school of learning for the education of gentlemen's sons there."(1) But nothing illustrates this point better than the noble words of Cranmer: "It came to pass," says Strype, "that when they should elect the children of the grammar school" in the newly converted cathedral church of Canterbury, "there were of the Commissioners more than one or two who would have none admitted but sons or younger brethren of gentlemen," urging that "husbandmen's children were more meet for the plough, and to be artificers, than to occupy the place of the learned sort; ... for we have as much need of ploughmen as of any other state, and all sorts of men may not go to school." To which Cranmer replied, "I grant much of your meaning herein as needful in a commonwealth: but yet utterly to exclude the ploughman's son, and the poor man's son from the benefit of learning, ... is as much as to say that Almighty God should not be at liberty to bestow his great gifts of grace upon any person, nor nowhere else but as we and other men shall appoint them to be employed, according to our fancy, and not, according to His most godly will and pleasure, who giveth His gifts both of learning and other perfections in all sciences unto all kinds and states of people indifferently. Even so doth he many times withdraw from them and their posterity again those beneficial gifts if they be not thankful. ... Wherefore, if the gentleman's son be apt to learning, let him be admitted; if not apt, let the poor man's child, that is apt, enter his room."(2)

In accordance with this desire to bring the poor fully within the range of higher education, the grammar schools were in the main gratuitous. The endowment thus had a double value; it gave permanence, and it rendered payment unnecessary. The permanence was a great boon to the richer no less than to the poorer sort, for education was thus present at their doors, and the freedom from payment left no excuse for making education a matter of social privilege, and not of common right. Whatever may have been the original import of the term "free school",(3)

(1) At Bolton Abbey (1700), Robert Boyle founded a school open for children of all noblemen, gentlemen and others, upon terms agreed on by parents and master; the poor of certain places to be taught at 1s. a quarter.

(2) Strype's Cranmer, p. 127.

(3) The legal and usual interpretation of free school is a school which the scholars pay nothing for attending. Dr. Kennedy has disputed this interpretation, and suggested another, viz., a school free from the control of a superior body, e.g., a chapter, a college, a monastery. For the former may be urged (1), that these schools were, as a fact, [footnote continues on next page]


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whether it denoted "gratuitous", or "exempt from superior control", or "public and open to all", the last was apparently the ruling idea and best exhibits the purpose and effect of the school's position, as independent alike of the payments of its scholars and of the caprice of a superior. But the immunity from payment, or "freedom of the school", as it is often called, though frequently left by the founder to be inferred from the title he gave his school, and the well-known characteristics of the class to which the title referred it, was at other times declared in full and precise language. Thus at Manchester "every schoolmaster shall teach freely and indifferently every child and scholar coming to the school without any money or other reward taking therefore." At many schools custom sanctioned the master receiving occasional voluntary payments, frequently called cock-pence, which, in the case of the rich, were often considerable.(1) In others the freedom was limited to a certain number only, e.g., 3, 4, 6, 12, 14, 20, 30, 60,(2) 70,(3) 80,(4) 144,(5) but not so as to exclude "those that be of ability to pay." In some it was ordered that books should be found for the scholars without charge; in others a charge for this purpose was expressly sanctioned, and a child whose parents were unwilling to pay for his books was directed to be excluded from the school.(6) A small fee on admission was not uncommonly required from all, sometimes with a saving for "a poor man's son who is not well able to pay the same"; and small quarterages were

[footnote continued from previous page] gratuitous, or nearly gratuitous, to all or some of the scholars; (2), that "free" and ‚"freely teach", and other expressions, are constantly used apparently in relation to the title of the schools, and that the language of some founders, as early as Elizabeth's reign at least, perhaps in Edward VI's reign, leaves no doubt that they understood it in this sense.

On the other hand, it may be urged (1), that, most schools being then gratuitous, such a fact would hardly have been chosen to give the distinctive title of these schools; (2), that free school is in Latin schola libera, and that liber appears never at any period to be used by itself to mean "gratuitous". Thus in Edward VI's charter for Shrewsbury School the words "free" "freely" (liber, libere) occur five times, besides in the title of the school, and in none of these cases do they mean free from payment; (3), that whatever franchise or immunity was denoted by the word, it would, according to ordinary usage, be an immunity for the school or its governors, not for the scholars; (4), that the nearest analogies are "free town" (villa libera), "free chapel" (libera capella), and that these mean free from the jurisdiction of the sheriff and of the bishop respectively; (5), that the imposition of some charge (e.g., admission and quarterages), was clearly not at all incompatible with the title of free school; (6), that such a meaning as "privileged", "free from some particular jurisdiction", or "free from capricious control or arbitrary payments", is the most usual, if not invariable, meaning of free (liber) in law terms, e.g., free socage, free man, freehold, &c. (7), that the interpretation of free as gratuitous is easily accounted for from the fact that the schools were (mainly) gratuitous.

(1) Fitch, p. 144; Bryce, p. 469. "They varied from 6s. to £2 2s."

(2) Aldenham.

(3) Horsham.

(4) Newport (in Salop).

(5) Berkhampstead.

(6) Sir N. Bacon's Rules at St. Alban's.


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sometimes added for such purposes as are described in the rules made for Coventry in 1628: "The scholars are to pay quarterage to the sweeper of the school for ringing of the bell, for making of fiers there, and for roddes as hath been accustomed."(1) Or at Guildford in 1608: "Every scholar shall pay 8d. yearly, viz., 1d. quarterly towards the providing of brooms and rods, and also 4d. at the Feast of St. Michael yearly, wherewith shall be bought clean waxen candles to keep light in the school during the winter." These payments were besides an admission fee of "6d. if a town boy or 12d. if of the country or a stranger", paid to the master for his trouble in examining the scholar at entrance.(2) In some schools a graduated scale for the different ranks in society was fixed both for admission fee and quarterage.(3)

Nor did the founders neglect the probability of their free scholars being irregular in attendance. Fines ("so many pence as the days of absence be in number"(4)) or a second payment of the admission fee;(5) or reduction to the class of paying scholars,(6) or expulsion,(7) are in many cases expressly ordered.

All these regulations seem to point to one conclusion, that the school was gratuitous for the boy's, not for the parent's benefit. Nothing could be more natural or laudable than to forbid anything which could prevent the spread of learning or check the willingness to use the good gift offered. If fees were to be paid by all, the poor boy might be shut out; if fees were paid by others and not by him, the poor boy might he neglected or despised. But yet the labourer was worthy of his hire; and few founders but must have felt that to refuse the allowance of payment from those who were able to pay was to cramp the intended utility of the school by confining the gain of the master and the income of the school to the produce of the

(1) Carlisle ii. 649.

(2) Carlisle 567. At St. Saviour's, Southwark, the admission fee was 2s. 6d. and the quarterage 2d. At Witton, at admission 4d., and on the first Thursday after the beginning of school after Christmas, 1d.

(3) At Llanrwst some ancient rules, the exact date of which is unknown, fix the fees as follows: Entrance: 1, every knight sonne, 2s. 6d.; 2, every doctor or esq. sonne, 2s.; 3. every gentl. or minister sonne of £50 p. annum, 1s.; 4, every yeomane sonne of £20 p. annum and riche tenants, 9d.; 5, poorer and meaner men's sonne to pay 6d.; 6, but poore indeed gratis. Quarterage, to be payed 1 Maij, 1 Auguste, 1 Novembris, 1 Februarij yearly: 1, knight sonne, 2s.; doctors and esq. sonnes, 1s. 6d.; 3, gentl. and ministers' sonnes of £50 p. annum 9d.; 4, meaner gentl., 6d.; 5, they of the poore sort, as an acknowledgment, 3d., 6, and poore indeed gratis. See also Ruthin, Shrewsbury, &c.

(4) e.g. Oundle (1556), Sandwich, 1580.

(5) e.g. Bristol, St. Alban's.

(6) e.g. Chigwell.

(7) e.g. Newport (in Salop), Woodbridge.


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endowment. They accordingly forbade fees, or allowed them, as the one fear or the other was most prominent to their minds. But nowhere does there appear any evidence of a desire to save parents paying, who could afford to pay. When a founder ordered that his school should not be "a school of exaction",(1) it was in order to confer on the child of the poor as well as the rich the inestimable boon of a high education, not to make a petty distribution of alms to the parents.

Whence the scholars were to come, was a matter which in a very large number of cases the founders either said nothing about or expressly left perfectly open. Even where in a charter it is recited that a petition was presented for a school for the benefit of a particular town, the limiting words were very frequently omitted in the clause granting the petition. No exclusive privileges appear to have been intended. The benefit designed for the town or parish was a good school within its boundary, to which all inhabitants might resort without fear or favour. A grammar school in a town did not mean a grammar school confined to a town. The charter of Edward VI in founding the grammar school at Louth did but express in full terms, with a statesman's width of view, what private founders endeavoured to execute with humbler means on a smaller scale. "Whereas, we have always coveted, with a most exceeding, vehement, and ardent desire, that good literature and discipline might be diffused and propagated through all the parts of our kingdom, as wherein the best government and administration of affairs consists; and, therefore, with no small earnestness, have we been intent on the liberal institution of youth, that it may be brought up to science, in places of our kingdom most proper and suitable for such functions, it being as it were the foundation and growth of our Commonwealth; and having certain and unquestionable knowledge that our town of Louth, in our county of Lincoln, is a place most proper and fit for the teaching and instructing of children and youth, in regard it is very populous and stocked with youth, and, heretofore, a great concourse of children and youth have flocked thither from the adjacent towns to acquire learning(2)"; we grant and ordain that there shall be "one grammar school in the said town of Louth which shall be called The Free Grammar School of King Edward VI." So of private foundations there are many where the founder attached no restriction whatever to the enjoyment of his bounty, and not a few where he expressly repudiated any

(1) e.g. Tiverton.

(2) These same words occur in other charters also, as in that of Queen Elizabeth for Sevenoaks school.


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restriction. He ordered a master to be appointed, gave land or money for his maintenance, and enjoined on him the duty of teaching all who should come to him to be taught. Three such schools were founded by Archbishop Holgate in 1546, at York, Hemsworth, and Old Malton; the master of each being directed to "teach grammar and other knowledge, and godlye learning in the same school freeIy without taking any stipend, wages, or other exaction of the scholers, or any of them, thither resortinge to Iearn and know the same." The same was the case at Leeds, Guisborough, Sedbergh, Skipton, Giggleswick, Tadcaster, Kirkby Stephen. Rivington, Wimborne Minster, Stamford,. Wotton-under-Edge, Manchester ("there shall no scholar, ne infant of what oounty or shire soever he be, being man child, be refused"), Brewood ("for instructing of youth, as well forriners as parishioners without takeing anything therefore"), Wainfleet, ("quoscunque ad dictam scholam accedentes libere et gratis sine cujusque rei exactione doceat"), and others.

Other schools were founded for the free education of the children of freemen of the borough, or of residents of the town or parish, or of the neighbourhood; but often with a distinct allowance of foreigners on payment. In many cases where the foundation contained no limitation either of number or locality, subsequent statutes, or orders of the Court have introduced them (1). The inadequacy of the endowment to pay for teaching a large number of free scholars has often made this necessary, especially where, as is sometimes the case, the foundationers are entitled to further privileges, as books, clothing, board, lodging, fees to pay for their apprenticeship, exhibitions at University, or mere gratuities on leaving school. In other cases the foundationers are entitled to be received not gratuitously but for a smaller payment than others, and there is great diversity in the extent and nature of the privileges.

If we sum up briefly the purpose of the grammar schools, we may describe it to be, an education higher than the rudiments, conducted under religious influences, put within the reach of all classes, with an especial preference for the poor boy who is apt to learn, and frequently also for some particular locality. Partly from the founders' own directions, partly from decisions of the Court of Chancery, and partly from byelaws of the governors of the particular school, the execution of this purpose as been fenced around with various restrictions which often defeat the object they were designed to save. To teach "grammar", and nothing but grammar, to compel all the

(1) e.g. at Norwich in 1566. See Mr. Hammond's Report.


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scholars of schools founded before, as well as since, the Reformation to attend the Church of England services and learn the Church of England formularies, to exact no fees from scholars who are perfectly able to pay them, and to confine the benefit of a school within an ancient boundary, as if a town or parish lost the benefit of its school in so far as any non-parishioner was taught there, is to travesty the founders' intentions, and imprison their bounty within the walls which they built for its protection. Yet nothing is more common than to find such interpretations practically put upon the founders' intentions, and the schools rendered useless, or even harmful, in consequence.

II. THE PRESENT STATE OF THE SCHOOLS

1. Secular and Religious Instruction

(a) Secular Instruction

The grammar schools then were intended to give at least a higher than rudimentary education, and especially to prepare fit boys for the Universities. There are more than 700 endowed grammar schools. How many of them in any effectual way fulfil this intention?

We have a variety of evidence on this subject, and we will commence with the position of the schools as directly preparatory to the University.

1. We have obtained nearly complete information(1) as to the number of undergraduates at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge who have been at any one school for at least two years, and have gone to the University within one year from leaving the school. The total number of schools of all kinds in England and Wales which can thus be distinctly credited with the training of boys for the older Universities is 245.(1) Of this number 153 are included in our list of endowed schools, besides the nine schools of Lord Clarendon's Commission and Marlborough College. Nor would the numbers be affected to more than a very trifling

(1) Our account is derived (1), from information supplied by three-fourths of the undergraduates at Oxford, and more than half of the undergraduates at Cambridge; (2), from a distinct return made by the head master (a) of every school, which was named by any undergraduate as having been his place of education for two years and which he had not left a whole year before going to the University; (b), of every endowed school which had stated in reply to the Commissioners' schedule of questions that they had sent any scholar to the University in the five years preceding 1865. An abstract of the returns is given in Appendix VII. The table compiled from the masters' returns (Table iv) is with certain additions (Table v) the source of the statements made in the text. The number 245 includes King's, University, Owens', and the Cirencester Agricultural, Colleges.


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extent. if schools where a youth had spent less than two years, or which he had left one year or more before going to the Universities were included. The same schools would be credited with a few more boys; but no other endowed school, and only one other school at all, would come into the list.

Thus the total number of endowed schools in England and Wales sending boys to the Universities is 166.

We have not full information respecting the above-named Nine Schools and Marlborough College, but it appears probable that they send more than half of the whole number of undergraduates belonging to the endowed schools.(1) Of the remainder, 23 schools, having at least nine each, send in all 431, or an average of nearly 19; 47 other schools, having at least three each, have 234, or an average of 5; 83 others have only 111, or an average of 1 1/3.

Our list of endowed secondary schools, as we have said, contains a certain number (say 80, which were not founded as grammar schools. If we disregard these, we yet have about 550 endowed grammar schools which are not, as a matter of fact, sending any boys at all to the University; and 83 more which have an average of 1 1/3 each. This number represents all that had left each school for the University in three successive years. It is obvious thai as a general rule a school which does not send one student a year cannot be regarded as regularly preparing for the University. So that, making allowance for some few schools which have been too lately revived to have had time for sending students regularly,(2) we cannot consider more than between 80 and 90 of all the endowed schools in England as, in a proper sense of the term, University schools and less than 40 of these are sending three students every year.

This state of facts involves a double loss; a loss of competition and intellectual atmosphere to the few university students who are scattered over the grammar schools which send one, or less than one, a year; and a loss to the other scholars, whose interests are often sacrificed to the predominant regulation of the school studies by the needs of the candidates for the University.

(1) The ten schools sending the largest number of undergraduates, according to the masters' returns, had 336 students. Of these 242 appear in the list compiled from the undergraduates' returns. The nine public schools and Marlborough had in the list compiled from the undergraduates' returns, 643; if this should be raised in the same proportion they would have 890. It may be noticed that Cheltenham College (a proprietary school) sends probably more than any school except Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Marlborough, and Winchester.

(2) e.g., Dulwich, Doncaster, Richmond.


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The latter point admits of further illustration by a comparison of the number sent to the University with the total number of scholars. It is obvious that the number actually passing to the University represents a much larger number in preparation for it. And it often represents also another large number composed of boys whose parents desire that, though not going to the University, they should share in the same course of study and be under the same social influences as those who do. These two classes ought to form a majority of the whole school, if the school is to be mainly classical. Nor should the majority be slight. The practical injustice involved in the sacrifice of one set of scholars to another is greater in the case of youths not belonging to these classes than in the case of those who do belong to them, for the former are usually day scholars, the latter usually boarders. And there is probably but one public school which the day scholar can attend, while the boarder has a large choice, and if the curriculum of a school be not adapted to his wants, he is at no loss to find one that is. We shall hardly therefore be putting the requisite number too high if we say that a school whose studies are to be ruled by preparation for the University should have 60 per cent of its scholars preferring such a curriculum. Even this would imply the possibility, and even the probability of 40 per cent of the scholars being forced into a course not the best for them, and perhaps of a large number being kept away altogether. Nor, again, shall we be asking undue evidence of the fact that as many as 60 per cent prefer a course of studies pointing to the University, if we require one-third of that number, or 20 per cent of the whole, to be actually preparing for the University. If the proportion of boys actually preparing for the University fall below this, it is hardly possible to believe that the interests of the mass have not been unfairly sacrificed to the interests of a few. Mr. Fitch gives an instance in point: "There is one school which, though destined for 200, has for several years past had an average attendance of less than 60, which is not popular in the town, and does not rank high in any respect, but which puts forth statements showing that within the last five years six boys have distinguished themselves at college, of whom three are the master's sons."

Now, on examining the Table given in the Appendix, it will be seen that out of 80 or 90 endowed schools, sending at least one scholar a year to the University, only half - in fact only 32 besides the nine schools of Lord Clarendon's Commission, and Marlborough, - can be estimated to have this pro-


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portion of scholars destined for the University.(1) We do not at all say that these 32 schools, which at the present moment have 20 per cent or upwards of their scholars preparing for the University, are the only schools which ought to be retained as University schools, or that all of these should be retained in preference to others. Any reconstruction of the grammar schools would involve many considerations which cannot be now adverted to; but there are two qualifications of the inference deducible from these figures, which require distinct mention. One is, that a school which by long custom or, as in some important recent cases, by original design, is intended for boarders exclusively, or all but exclusively, requires to be measured by a different standard from other schools intended mainly or partly for day scholars. Such a boarding school may fairly claim to regulate its course of studies exactly as it pleases. It owes no local allegiance; and a boy for whom a University course of study is not desired can as readily be sent elsewhere. Some day schools in populous neighbourhoods where there are other schools accessible, stand in a similar position. The other qualification is, that in a large town, a day school may be large also, and then the scholars destined for the University, though a small proportion of the whole number of scholars, may yet be sufficiently numerous to justify some special attention to them, though the main current of the school takes a different direction, and the general course of study be adjusted to the main current. Birmingham, Bristol, and Wolverhampton stand in this position; Leeds may be taken as having the 20 per cent; Manchester has a much greater proportion.

Few of the endowed schools appear to be preparing students for the University of London.(2) Out of 784 matriculated students(3) of that University who have informed us of their previous education, only 79 have been two years at any one of

(1) This estimate is based on the assumption that a boy going to the University has spent, if a boarder, six years at the school; if a day scholar, seven and a half years, A school which has nine of its scholars at the Universities sends three each year, and these three represent 18 boys at the school in preparation for the University. If the whole number of scholars be 100, 18 per cent is the proportion of University students to other boys. Some few boys may be intended for the University, but die or be prevented from going. In order to allow for this diminution we have counted in the numbers stated in the text all the schools which according to the table have only 18 per cent or upwards.

(2) See also Green, p. 173.

(3) That is more than three-fourths of those who matriculated in the years 1864, 1865, and 1866. See Appendix vii., Table vii.


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these endowed schools and matriculated within one year from leaving it; and these 79 are distributed over 49 schools.

Nor do the Oxford and Cambridge local examinations receive many successful candidates from the endowed schools.(1) We have examined the lists of the last three years; 71 endowed schools have passed 326 candidates in the Oxford junior examinations, and of these Manchester has passed 87; the other 70 have passed 239 in all, or very little more than one a year each; 13 only have passed an average of two a year. In the senior examinations 122 scholars from 46 endowed schools appear; of these Manchester has passed 29 candidates, and the remaining 45 have passed only 95 in all, that is, an average each of little more than two in three years.

If we take the Cambridge examination lists, we find that 74 endowed schools have passed 424 junior candidates. Of these, Brewood, and Norwich commercial, schools, passed 36 and 34 respectively in the three years; the other 72 schools passed 354 scholars, or an average of five in three years each, 27 only passing an average of two a year. In the senior examinations we find 139 scholars from 45 endowed schools. Only 18 schools passed an average of one a year. The remaining 27 schools had only 36 amongst them. Not one in 10 of the whole succeeded in obtaining a first class in either the Oxford or Cambridge lists.

2. A second means of measuring the degree to which the present condition of the grammar schools corresponds to their founders' intentions is by looking at the subjects actually taught in them. We find 340, or about 43 per cent of the whole number of schools in our list (excluding the nine schools) which do not teach either Latin (except possibly to only one or two boys), or Greek. And in very few of these cases is any effective Instruction given in mathematics, French, or natural science. By far the majority, though not quite all, give no better education than that of an ordinary national school, and a very great number do not give one so good. Of the remainder, 183, or about 23 per cent of the whole, are semi-classical, that is, they teach only the barest rudiments of Greek, or no Greek at all, except to perhaps one or two boys. There are 50 endowed grammar schools at present in abeyance. The remaining 209, or about 27 per cent of the whole, are classical schools. This number is much larger than the number which can on any showing be credited with a single University student in three years; it is not far from three times the number which send one a year;

(1) See Appendix vii., Table viii-xv. Compare also Fitch, p. 301.


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it is more than six times the number of those which have 20 per cent of their scholars destined for the University.

In the above account we have included as classical only those which are actually teaching classics. If the character given to a school by its master and trustees were to be taken the number would be largely increased. At the time when our inquiry commenced a return was being made by the grammar schools in compliance with an order of the House of Commons. This return comprises a list of the subjects taught in the endowed grammar schools. Mr. Fitch compared this return with the actual state of the schools which he inspected. "One school describes its course as 'Greek, Latin, English, French, mathematics, geography and history'. Another, 'English, classics, and mathematics.' Yet both proved on examination to be elementary schools of the humblest class, and nothing beyond reading, writing, and arithmetic was taught in either of them. In Yorkshire and Durham alone I have counted 38 schools which credited themselves at the end of 1864 with an ample and varied curriculum, including Greek and Latin, and other advanced subjects; but in which, on examination in 1865, it was found that no scholars were learning the subjects so described."(1)

The difference between the number of schools in our list and the number of those actually teaching grammar is especially striking in some parts of the country. Thus our list contains 28 schools in Cumberland and 40 in Westmorland. Of these only three in each are now classical, and only four in each semi-classical; the remainder are merely elementary schools. This vast discrepancy is, however, to some extent accounted for by the fact that a few in Cumberland and about 12 in Westmorland were not founded as grammar schools, although at one time Latin was taught in them. But there has been a considerable change in the position of education in these counties. The schoolmaster and parish clergyman are no longer the same person. Nor are the schools now the places of direct and immediate preparation for the ministry which they were once. A somewhat similar change in the position of the schools has taken place in Wales, but, the schools being far fewer in proportion to the age and population, their classical character has more frequently survived the change.(2) Another outlying county, Cornwall,(3) is also noticeable

(1) Fitch, p. 172. Compare Bryce, p. 506.

(2) See Mr. Richmond's memorandum on Westmorland (vol, ix.), and the evidence of Revs.. J. S. Hodgson and J. Simpson; and on Wales the evidence and appended memorandum of Rev. J. Griffith (all in vol. v).

(3) So also Northumberland. See below, p. 171.


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for the decadence of its grammar schools, though the change here must have been facilitated by the insignificance of the endowments. Truro is the only classical school out of 11 schools in our list, and only two others are semi-classical. This is the more striking because in the next county, Devonshire, out of 18 the majority remain classical and only one is non-classical.

3. Thirdly, in order to show more in detail what is the general character of the instruction actually received, we will quote some passages from our Assistant-Commissioners' Reports.

Mr. Fitch says, "On the whole, the classical learning prescribed by statute in the large majority of the grammar schools may be safely pronounced a delusive and unfruitful thing. It is given to very few in any form. It is not carried to any substantial issue in the case of five per cent of the scholars. It is more often taught to keep up a show of obedience to founders' wills than for any better reason. It is so taught in the majority of cases that it literally comes to nothing. Finally, it furnishes the pretext for the neglect of all other useful learning; and is ‚the indirect means of keeping down the general level of education in almost every small town which is so unfortunate as to possess an endowment." He speaks of the English language and physical science(1) as being seldom taught systematically, and rarely regarded by the head masters as a serious part of the school course. After criticising the methods employed in teaching arithmetic, he adds, "I am, however, less concerned here with these matters of opinion than with the simple fact, that three-fourths of the scholars whom I have examined in endowed schools, if tested by the usual standards appropriate to boys of similar age, under the Revised Code, would fail to pass the examination either in arithmetic or any other elementary subject."(2)

Mr. Bryce, as regards Lancashire, gives a somewhat more favourable account of the knowledge of arithmetic and of the practice of the masters in endeavouring to give the instruction which parents desire. But he found the case different in other parts of the country. He says, "In Lancashire, owing, one must suppose, to the strongly practical spirit of the people, the stringency of the old rules has been almost entirely relaxed, and the education, in most grammar schools, is quite as much commercial as

(1) "Leeds was the only grammar school in which I have found a resolute and systematic attempt to teach science" (p. 182). Mr. Fitch also names specially Ripon, Halifax, and Richmond, as schools where other subjects than Latin and Greek receive proper attention (p. 170).

(2) Fitch, pp. 178-182.


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classical. I did not know, or at least did not appreciate, the extent to which this had been done until I went from Lancashire into the western counties of England. In Shropshire, Worcestershire, and Monmouth, those grammar schools which have not sunk into parish schools, have preserved a distinctively classical character. Latin is taught to every boy, Greek to all who remain long enough in the school; arithmetic and even mathematics are looked upon as subjects of quite inferior importance; modern languages are little attended to; chemistry and physics are scarcely heard of. But in Lancashire it may be said that the grammar schools have almost all of them undertaken to give to those who seek it a commercial education. So recently, however, has this change passed on the old foundation schools, that the Lancashire people have not yet had time to understand and enter into the fact, and bring themselves to act accordingly."(1) Latin is taught to 41 per cent of the scholars, and Greek to only 15 per cent. "A good deal of time is given to arithmetic, but the teaching is very clumsy and unscientific." Of other subjects of instruction(2) his account, which applies to all, not merely to the endowed, schools, is, in brief, that French(3) and mathematics(4) are not subjects to which the teaching power of the school is more than very partially directed; that natural science is in the endowed schools hardly taught at all;(5) that writing is good, but spelling only tolerable, and geography "unsatisfactory", and little beyond the superficial facts of English history known, and that in a confused way. "From boys of 15 years old and upwards I had sometimes exceedingly good answering in English history, and should probably have had it oftener, but for the practice in classical schools of dropping English history soon after 14, and substituting ancient."(7)

Mr. Bompas, who has given us the results of a very interesting and fairly successful experiment which he made in holding examinations of many schools in common (for the detailed results of which we must refer to his report), mentions in particular one fact which speaks forcibly of the little effect often produced even from teaching Latin. The following two questions were set in a paper: (1) "Translate into English, Epistolam quam misi vidit;" (2) Translate into Latin, "He was a good boy." From "well-managed classical grammar schools" 236 boys, who were learning Latin, gave answers to these questions. Of these boys 130 were over 13 years of age, and 106 below 13. Of the

(1) Bryce, p. 507.

(2) Bryce. p. 506.

(3) p. 644.

(4) pp. 621, 623.

(5) p. 649.

(6) pp. 604, 609.

(7) p. 614. Compare Hammond, p. 416.


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former only 76, or less than 59 per cent; of the latter only 12, or less than 12 per cent, answered both questions correctly. (Of private schools, charging more than a guinea a quarter, the proportions on a larger number of boys were a little over 31, and 7 per cent respectively.) The account given of Euclid is even worse. At the same time it should be added that, " all the masters agreed that the boys who learn Latin do best in their English subjects, and," Mr. Bompas says, "the results of the examination fully bear this out. There can be no doubt that the great difference is owing to the fact that it is the boys who are most proficient in other subjects who are selected to learn Latin. Whether this is the whole reason it is difficult to say: it may be worthy of remark, however, that applying the same test to Euclid the results are not so marked."(1)

Mr. Green's account of the grammar schools in Staffordshire and Warwickshire (excluding Birmingham) is so compact and pertinent that we shall give it at some length. "There were only one or two schools at which I found lessons given either in English history and literature, or in the French language, or in chemistry in such a way as to have much educational effect. As a general rule the knowledge of Latin in a grammar school is the measure of attainment in all other subjects." Taking this as a criterion, Mr. Green states that there are only 97 boys in all the schools which he examined, "who, with any amount of time allowed, and with unlimited use of the dictionary, would make out for themselves with decent correctness an ordinary passage of Cicero or Virgil. The power of translation into Latin I found almost universally below that of translation from it, and the knowledge of Greek lower in proportion to the Latin than it would be at an ordinary 'public school'. ... "Of the whole number not more than four would be qualified in knowledge of Latin for the 6th form at Rugby. An other 12 might by the same test be fitted for the upper or lower 5th in that school. The rest would range from the upper 'middle' to the 'shell', i. e., they would in no case have less than five forms and 200 boys above them."(2) ...

"As regards mathematics I only found five grammar schools, viz., Stratford, Warwick, Coventry, Stafford, and Brewood, in which anyone was reading anything beyond Euclid and elementary algebra, and at only one of these, Brewood, is the mathematical standard relatively higher than the classical.

(1) See the tables (Nos. 21 and 22) given by Mr. Bompas, p. 39; and comp. Giffard, p. 150.

(2) Green, p. 147.


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The five schools together would not furnish more than 12 boys who had gone so far as plane trigonometry, and of the rest of the 97 but a small minority had been over six books of Euclid. As to knowledge of French I cannot speak precisely; but I set or saw translations from French into English at all the schools, where I understood that it was made much of, and if 20 were taken as the number of those in all the schools who could translate a passage from an ordinary French writer for themselves, so as at all to understand it, the allowance would be a liberal one. At Brewood and Coventry, and at those schools only (to the best of my knowledge), lessons are given in history and English literature of a kind which can be reckoned to contribute to liberal education. These schools together might produce about 10 boys having an intelligent interest in English literature, and a knowledge of history that would be likely to continue with them. Chemistry is studied to some purpose by a few boys at Walsall and Stafford."(1)

Mr. Hammond's district comprised the two counties of Norfolk and Northumberland, and he appears to have attained a very complete knowledge of both. The last is almost a blank in respect of all education which could be regarded as preparatory to the University. In the former, no education of this description is supplied except at six, or at the most seven, schools, five of which are the grammar schools of Norwich, Beccles, Holt, King's Lynn, and Bungay.(2) "In none of them, except Norwich, does it engross very much of the teacher's time or attention, nor is it anywhere carried out to the same perfection as at such schools as Marlborough College or the City of London school." In Northumberland very few boys indeed learn any Greek beyond the accidence; and Latin, except for a few boys, is regarded more as an aid to the acquirement of English etymology than for its own sake.(3) In Norfolk Latin, so far as it went, was in the endowed schools generally satisfactory. But hardly any boy in either county, except "at Norwich Grammar School, could possibly have been set to write five consecutive lines of Latin not taken from an exercise book." It is fair to add that Norwich sacrifices nothing to it. "In mathematics, modern languages, and general literature the school has few equals, and certainly no superior, in the county."(4) "French is in Norfolk a recognized study in classical schools, as well as in most of the semi-classical schools; ... in some it was very

(1) p. 148.

(2) Hammond, p. 386, 327.

(3) Compare Fitch, p. 272.

(4) p. 401.


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good, and in all but one satisfactory. In the non-classical schools French, when attempted, is worthless.'(1) Arithmetic is in the great majority of Norfolk and Northumberland schools practically, and perhaps educationally, the most important subject taught; a large proportion of time and attention is assigned to it." Only at a few schools is any useful knowledge of algebra given, and only at Norwich Grammar School does it extend beyond the solution of quadratic equations. Euclid is not satisfactorily learnt; it is taught too exclusively by the oral method in Northumberland, (though remarkably well at Newcastle Grammar School) and by papers in Norfolk.(2) Of natural science, Mr. Hammond believes no real or substantial knowledge is imparted in the two counties except at the chief private school in Newcastle. Of English subjects "history is the least taught and the worst learnt.(3) Geography is a much more favourite and successful subject."(4) English literature is hardly taught at all.(5) On the whole, Mr. Hammond's account seems more favourable than some of the others, yet of the 19 schools in Norfolk, 14 are not now really "grammar schools".

Mr. Stanton's and Mr. Giffard's accounts do not vary to any important degree from the others. Mr. Stanton (whose district was Devon and Somerset) notices particularly the great difference in knowledge of Latin between boys who were to leave school at 14 or 15 compared with those who were to stay till 16 or 17, the almost absolute incapacity to turn the simplest English into grammatical French, the very small proportion who could write from dictation 10 lines from an elementary history of England without a mistake; the great ignorance of notation in arithmetic shown by the lower boys; and the little attention paid to English literature or physical science except at Taunton College school, and a few others.(6)

Mr. Giffard speaks of the private schools most at length, the endowed schools being comparatively unimportant in his district (Surrey, extra-metropolitan, and Sussex). But of the latter he observes, "I do not find that in the grammar schools where the classics have been abandoned any fair substitute for them has been provided. Modern languages, mathematics, the natural sciences, music and drawing, are nearly unknown to them. ... For the most part a descent has been made from the highest to the meanest kind of teaching. At Bletchingly and East Grinstead for example the free boys are of the humblest class,

(1) pp. 402, 403.

(2) pp. 411-13.

(3) p. 414.

(4) pp. 415, 417.

(5) p. 425.

(6) Stanton, pp. 19-26.


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and are lucky if they learn to read and write. The schools at Hastings, Horsham, and Rye would be distanced in competition with the best public national school."(1)

Finally, Mr. Fearon, after speaking strongly of the small results obtained in the higher schools from classics in the case of boy who leave school at 16,(2) of the scanty number who can answer an easy paper in arithmetic, if the questions are not exactly in the shape fitted for the immediate application of a rule,(3) of the great inaccuracy and want of critical study of French, shown even by the head boys and even in translations from French into English,(4) proceeds to the third grade schools. He [unreadable - possibly 'shows that the cost'], chiefly from endowment, is often from £3 to £8 per boy, and that the education given is much inferior to that in an inspected national school which scarcely costs 30s. He describes in one the outrageous disorder of the boys, and the entire absence of any classification. After classifying them he found that out of 57 boys "the first 16 only, all over 12 years of age, could read passably." The reading among "boys of eight, nine, and ten years old was exceedingly bad." "The writing in copy-books of those first 16 was exceedingly bad, I really think it had every possible fault." In writing from dictation only one boy, in arithmetic none, would have passed successfully a Privy Council inspector's examination. Very little geography, and no parsing, was known. History was not learned. Mr. Fearon adds that though this was one of the worst endowed schools of the third grade which he visited in the Metropolitan district, there were at least three others which he thought almost as bad, and one which he thought worse.(5)

Drawing, as an education of the hand and eye, and not as a mere accomplishment, is being gradually but slowly introduced in most parts of the country. In large towns the School of Art either relieves the grammar school of this task, or supplies well qualified teachers.(6) Mr. Fearon, however, says of his district that, with the exception of Christ's Hospital, he can hardly mention a single grammar school where drawing is satisfactorily taught(7)

The foregoing account shows that the instruction given in the endowed schools is very far removed from what their founders could have anticipated, or from what the country has a right to demand. The districts assigned to our Assistant Commis-

(1) Giffard, pp. 119, 120.

(2) Fearon, p. 292.

(3) p. 297.

(4) p. 301.

(5) pp. 309, 310.

(6) Fitch, p. 305; Bryce, p. 655; Bompas, p. 23; Green, p. 130; Hammond, pp. 390,430; Stanton, p.25; Giffard, pp. 144, 151.

(7) Fearon, p. 302.


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sioners embrace almost every diversity of character and population, yet the results appear very uniform. The other grammar schools, which are not included in the districts above-named, do not give a more favourable impression. It is true there are not a few exceptions, and not a few other cases which, if not exceptions to the general statement of the facts, are exceptions to the blame which the facts seem to impute. It is true also that some allowance must be made for the embarrassing effect of a stranger's examination, and perhaps more for the natural tendency of all inspectors to discover and note the defects which it is the ultimate object of an inspector to remove, rather than the good with which they do not desire to interfere. But all our Assistant Commissioners selected specially the easier subjects for their examinations; they applied a variety of direct tests, and collected a mass of other more indirect evidence; they examined and inspected a great number of schools besides the grammar schools, and had thus large opportunities of correcting any false inferences which may from time to time have suggested themselves. And their judgment receives strong confirmation from the fact, that this unsatisfactory state of secondary education is the natural consequence of the clearly proved absence in a large number of cases of the conditions of educational success. Untrained teachers, and bad methods of teaching, uninspected work by workmen without adequate motive, unrevised or ill-revised statutes, and the complete absence of all organization of schools in relation to one another could hardly lead to any other result.

Before passing on to another topic we desire to call attention to three points:

1. Our list of endowed grammar and other secondary schools comprises as a matter of fact schools giving every kind of general education which exists in England, from those which are only just subordinate to the Universities to those which occupy the lowest place in the scale of primary education. A great many endowments for secondary education are wholly devoted, and a great many others are partially devoted, to uninspected primary schools.

2. The grammar schools with some proprietary schools, have almost a monopoly of the highest school education. This is clearly seen from the list of schools sending scholars to Oxford or Cambridge. There are few private schools in the list at all, and only seven or eight which show more than a straggling connexion. Nor, according to the account of our Assistant Commissioners, is the usual or average result of instruction in the different subjects of


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the school course inferior to that given in private schools fairly comparable with the endowed schools. In commercial arithmetic and writing, especially in the case of boys of 13 or 14, the advantage appears to be slightly with the private schools. In Latin and in the higher subjects generally, it is with the grammar schools.

3. Small as the direct results of the teaching of Latin, and insufficient as the attention given to some other subjects evidently is, the Assistant Commissioners do not generally recommend the abandonment of Latin in their favour. Where Latin is best taught, French and mathematics are best taught also. Where Latin is not taught, other subjects are rarely well taught. The old meaning of grammar needs enlargement; but not, at least in most cases, entire change.

The discussion of the methods of instruction in the several subjects is not one which we need enter into. It is sufficient to refer to the interesting and elaborate discussions of this matter by Mr. Hammond,(1) Mr. Bryce (2) and Mr. Giffard,(3) and the briefer discussions by our other Assistant Commissioners.(4) More teaching and less "hearing lessons" generally, but especially in history and geography; in arithmetic, more oral explanation to the class as a whole, in geometry more use of the blackboard, and in both more frequent examinations both orally and by paper; in French more attention to the grammar, and the provision of better text books; in Latin a greater use of exercises from the very first, and more firmness in the accidence and intelligence in the syntax, are especially noticed as much needed in a very large proportion of the schools.(4)

(b) Religious Instruction

The general facts may, we believe, be briefly stated thus: In nearly all the grammar schools this instruction is in accordance with the principles of the Church of England. In the higher schools the Greek Testament, the Evidences of Christianity, and the History of the Church, are usually part of the instruction for the upper classes. In the lower classes and in the great majority of schools, the historical parts of the Bible are read, sometimes with explanations, or some easy simple reading book is

(1) Hammond, pp. 391-430 (boys), 506-530 (girls).

(2) Bryce, pp. 602-668 (boys), 806-816 (girls).

(3) Giffard, pp. 186-198 (boys), 206-211 (girls).

(4) Fearon, pp. 295-303 (boys), 399-407 (girls), and Scottish Report, pp. 47-52; Stanton, pp. IS-29; Bompas, pp. 18-23, 51; Green, pp. 149, 150, 184, 185; Wright (vol. viii.), p. 675; Fitch, pp. 178-182, 267, 276.


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used, and the Church Catechism is learnt by heart.(1) The latter part of the instruction is very frequently a bare exercise of memory. "The majority of boys", says Mr. Fitch, "learn to repeat the Catechism by heart, but are wholly unable to interpret its language; and their mode of uttering the words shows that they associate no meaning whatever with them. I have been repeatedly told that ... it was not the practice to explain the meaning of the words." Mr. Bryce speaks to the same effect. "As respects doctrine, I found in many schools a creditable knowledge of the words of the formulary from which instruction had been given, but scarcely ever, except in senior classes, and seldom even there, the slightest idea of their meaning."(2)

As regards the practice of the schools in dealing with Nonconformists, those who would desire to interpret the founder's words so as to exclude from the school all whose parents do not consent to their receiving distinctive dogmatic teaching appear to be very few. On the other hand, there is a very wide and general consensus that, without impairing the religious tone of a school or hampering the master in his teaching, it is easy to consult the consciences of those persons who desire for their children an exemption from the instruction in the Church of England formularies. Mr. Bryce, who has put together with great force the results of a wide and careful examination, shows that (in Lancashire) Church of England schools are habitually attended by Nonconformists, and Nonconformist schools by the children of Churchmen.(3) The three schools of Liverpool College, which were expressly intended always to combine secular with religions instruction, and to give religious instruction in harmony with the Church, count among their scholars 10 per cent of Nonconformists in the highest school, 20 per cent in the middle, and 30 per cent in the lowest, though there are in the town other schools of high reputation and public position which recognize no distinctive religious teaching.(4) The grammar schools teach the Bible, and usually, to some at least, the Church Catechism. Eccleston Grammar school is freely used by the Roman Catholics, Colne has one-third Independents, one-third Wesleyans, and one-third Church of England, and (a few) Roman Catholics. Preston has all denominations, one-half being Nonconformists. On the other hand, Stand has Unitarian trustees and head master, while half the day boys belong to the Church of England; Lane-head is in the hands of the Baptists and Inde-

(1) Hammond, pp. 395-397; Bryce, p. 509; Fitch, pp. 182, 183.

(2) Bryce, p. 657.

(3) Gen. Rep. pp. 509-521.

(4) Rev. Dr. Howson, Q. 2790.


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pendents; the scholars are Baptists, Independents, Churchmen, and Roman Catholics. An endowed school at Lancaster is managed and taught by members of the Society of Friends; the children are mainly Church of England, and none belong to the Society. In the two last the Bible is read with all the scholars; in Stand with the boarders only.

The evidence furnished by non-endowed schools is similar. "Taunton, Frome, Plymouth, and Yeovil all contain large schools the masters of which are not members of the Church of England, but mixed up with the pupils at all of them are a large number of Churchmen's sons. There were 40 boys, sons of Churchmen, at the Independent College at Taunton."(1) Mr. Hammond says that in Norfolk (where boarding schools are most in vogue), "both Churchmen and Dissenters are in favour of denominational schools. In Northumberland, though most of the foundations are connected with the Church of England, the conditions of religious learning have been in general relaxed in favour of Nonconformists."(2) Mr. Stanton states that twice only did he meet with anything like a grievance on this score. Even at Colston's Hospital, a strictly Church of England foundation, one-fifth are sons of Dissenters.(3) Mr. Giffard speaks of hearing of only one or two objections on the part of Dissenters to their learning the Catechism in endowed schools.(4)

Some notice may here be taken of the Guildhall Commercial School at Bury St. Edmund's, because the question of religious instruction was much discussed on the settlement of the scheme, and the law was laid down in very decided language by Vice-Chancellor Knight Bruce. The plan eventually adopted, of confining the religious instruction on week days to reading and explaining the Scriptures, and giving dogmatic instruction according to the principles of the Church of England on Sundays, makes the school, which is under trustees of different religious denominations, acceptable to all. More than half the boys attended on Sundays, the rest being excused by the trustees.

In a very recent foundation at North Tawton religious instruction in the Bible is required, but the Catechism is only taught to those boys whose parents request it.

Five schools in Lancashire enforce the Catechism upon all their scholars, yet strangely enough in only one of these, Bury, is this in accordance with what may be supposed to have been the founder's intentions. The present endowments of Bolton and

(1) Stanton. p. 65.

(2) Hammond, pp. 368, 369.

(3) Stanton, pp. 54, 55.

(4) Giffard, pp. 118, 119, 187.


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Kirkham are not older than the time of the Commonwealth, and no particular religious instruction was specified. Clitheroe was founded in the reign of Philip and Mary. The exclusiveness is due in the case of Bolton to rules of the trustees; in the cases of Kirkham and Warrington to recent schemes of the Court of Chancery; in that of Clitheroe to a narrow interpretation of some rules of the governors, made with the sanction of the bishop in 1835. The Roman Catholics, who are numerous at Bolton and Kirkham, having no good school in those places of their own, "complained (at Bolton) bitterly of their exclusion." At Langport Eastover (in Somersetshire) attendance at the parish church and learning the Church Catechism are necessary for all scholars, though the founder (in 1698) spoke only of learning the "principles of the Christian religion", and 15 years ago the Dissenters joined heartily in a subscription for providing a new house for the master.(1) At Snettisham some rules of the trustees, drawn up in 1854, require a certificate of baptism from every free boy, and enforce the learning of the Church Catechism and attendance at church twice every Sunday. The Chancery scheme did not appear to require this. Mr. Fitch says: "The only cases in my district in which I have found a rigid enforcement of the Catechism against the wishes of parents have been schools for the poor and free scholars. In schools where boys pay good fees there is little or no exclusiveness.(3) The three or four great schools in my district are in the hands of earnest churchmen, and are characterized by earnest church teaching, but I have found in them the children of Catholics and of Unitarians, and I know that the wishes of such parents have been considerately met. ... In this district there is a strong wish for the legal enforcement of some such provision as a 'Conscience clause' on all the grammar schools. ... In a small village the endowed school is generally the only school; in a larger place it is the only secondary or middle school. The grievance of excluding the children of Dissenters is therefore far more serious in the grammar schools, as a whole, than in the ordinary national schools. I have already said that the protection of a conscience clause is not often invoked: but it is the exceptional cases which furnish the measure of

(1) See also Wem. The trustees of these schools appear not to be aware of Lord Cranworth's Act (given below in chap. iv.).

(2) At Great Crosby 28 foundationers are obliged to learn the Catechism, &c., and to attend church; the paying scholars are exempted, if objection be made.

(3) See Mr. Fitch's account of the Huddersfield Colleges, p. 233.


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its necessity."(1) Instances are found in other districts also where, though no specific complaint was made, a feeling of decided want of confidence in the school existed on the part of the Nonconformists.(2) Mr. Green says that, "so far as he could learn, Dissenters scarcely ever object to the presence of their sons either at prayers according to the Liturgy of the Church of England, or at religious lessons given by a clergyman, so long as they have their evenings and Sundays at home, and are not compelled to learn the Catechism." He adds that though the rights of Dissenters are generally protected in recent schemes by a conscience clause, or by the discretion of the bead master, yet that "he saw enough to lead to the opinion that the protection of the Nonconformist conscience cannot safely be left to discretion, but needs to be systematic."(3)

2. Terms of Admission

We have shown that the intention of the founders in establishing grammar schools and providing them with an endowment was to put the higher education permanently within the reach of all classes. For this object, they provided first, that the poor should be exempted from all payment, or, lest the poor should still be neglected, that no fees should be paid by any; and, secondly, that some elementary knowledge should be required as a qualification for admission, or sometimes that a preparatory school should be added in order that the grammar school might be able to discharge its proper functions of giving higher and not merely rudimentary education. We proceed to consider (a.) the effect of indiscriminate gratuitous admission; (b.) the effect of not enforcing an entrance examination; (c.) the mode of electing free scholars; and (d.) the rate at which capitation fees may be fixed.

(a) Indiscriminate Gratuitous Education

The question of gratuitous education is one which has excited constant disputes, and has led not unfrequently to serious quarrels, which have injured the prosperity of the school concerned, and embittered the relations between master, trustees, and inhabitants. There is no question to which the attention of our Assistant Commissioners has been more frequently called

(1) Fitch, pp, 185-188.

(2) e.g. Sudbury, Newark.

(3) Green, p. 236.


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and none which in some or all of its bearings has been more fully discussed by them.(1)

The calculations of the founders when they gave an endowment and ordered no fees to be charged, either were originally mistaken or were defeated by the change in the value of money and the social condition of the country. The prohibition of fees created serious difficulty. The endowments failed to furnish an adequate income for the payment of the master or masters, and the school could not discharge its intended function unless some addition could be made to its funds. Lord Eldon's famous decision in the Leeds case at length came in aid.(2) If a grammar school was only for teaching Latin and Greek, then the freedom of the school was confined to those learning Latin and Greek. If scholars required anything more than the founder directed, they might be required to pay for it. An exclusively classical education, without French, arithmetic, or English, was not what boys needed or parents wished, and it thus became possible to increase the school funds by charging fees for everything else that was taught, while yet Latin and Greek were free. This course has been sanctioned repeatedly by the Court of Chancery, and acted upon in a very large number of cases. The amount of the fee is usually fixed without any reference to the amount of the non-classical instruction, and, in fact, by the need of the school and the local value of the whole education offered.

It is obvious that such a method is open to serious objection. It looks like a fraud upon the founder's intention, and it may become a source of perplexity and local irritation. Thus Mr. Fitch relates that "one parent sent a boy to a school without payment in order to try whether the master would fulfil the terms of the statute, and teach" (what the foundation named) "English, Latin, and Greek, for nothing. The determination was persisted in for a year, and the boy afterwards removed in disgust, owing to his systematic exclusion from the writing and arithmetic classes."(3) Such a course, adopted by a considerable number of parents, would evidently derange any school which was not a mere collection of classes in separate subjects. And nothing can be worse than that the education of a child should be made the battle-ground between schoolmaster and parents obstinately

(1) Stanton, pp. 39-50. Giffard, pp. 127-130. Fearon, pp. 304-311, 326-33. Green, pp. 96-117, 170 sqq. Hammond, pp. 434-442, 447, 454-461. Wright (vol. viii), p. 681. Fitch, pp. 139-165. Bryce, pp. 463-480.

(2) Of the inconveniences of this decision in other points of view notice is taken in Chap. IV p. 453.

(3) Fitch, p. 149.


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insisting on their supposed respective rights. Though this is doubtless an extreme case, yet the feeling which it exhibits is not at all uncommon in a less obtrusive form.

But there are a considerable number of grammar schools which are still open without payment to all comers, or to all the children of the privileged locality, or to all without distinction up to a certain number. Such schools exhibit a striking contrast to the schools, standing often in the same town or village, established for elementary education, and aided by local subscriptions and a State grant. The grammar schools were intended to give a costly education to all classes, and they exact nothing from any recipient in accordance with the words of a statute one or more centuries old, or with an inference from the title of free school. The elementary schools were established within the present century to give a cheaper education than the other to the poorer classes, and they exact some payment, though small, from every recipient, in accordance with modern rules expressly adapted to the circumstances of the time. The effects of the system adopted by the elementary schools are well known; the effects of the system maintained by many grammar schools may be ascertained clearly from the Assistant Commissioners' Reports.

The evidence before us tells almost uniformly against this system There is hardly a school to be found - we are not sure that there is one at all(1) - in which a grammar school is giving effectively an indiscriminately gratuitous education in "grammar". Either the freedom is not indiscriminate, or the school does not teach grammar effectively. The higher education and indiscriminate admission are incompatible. If the former is maintained, the school becomes of no use to those who seek only an elementary education; if the admissions are under inadequate conditions, the education is lowered to suit the wants of the scholars. A grammar school education, that is, an education which shall fit boys for the Universities, or the Woolwich or Indian Civil Service examinations, or without such special purpose shall give full play and discipline to their faculties, is a costly education, and requires a master of good abilities. Such a master will expect as large an income as he could obtain in other professions. In proportion as an education approaches to this standard in quality, does it approach to it in cost. Very few indeed of the grammar schools have an endowment sufficient of itself to give a high or even a moderately good education to a large number of scholars; and

(1) At Birmingham and Manchester the number of scholars, though large, is much below the number of applicants; at Bedford a discrimination is effected by the existence of other schools equally gratuitous and more attractive to many applicants.


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yet, within certain limits, it may be said, that as you diminish the number of the scholars you both increase the cost of each scholar's education and impair the means and influences which may be well and wisely used to improve it.

To lower the character of the education is of course a partial remedy. But to lower the education is at once to reduce the privileges which the grammar school offers, and to reduce them where they are most wanted. The rich child can be sent to another school, the poor child of "pregnant wit"(1) must go without the very means of rising which the founder intended for him. Nor does a slight lowering suffice. To lower the education rather than impose fees, leads in practice to the reduction of the grammar school to the level of an elementary school. Those who require least education are the most numerous and the poorest class, and have the best claim to be heard, if the number and position of the recipients be regarded rather than the character of the benefit. The endowment is soon exhausted unless either the numbers coming to be taught are lessened by the character of the education obtainable at the school, or the education be made as little costly as possible by being limited to the rudiments.

In all education the importance of at least the head master in the school being a really able man cannot be over-estimated. If the income attached to the mastership of a first-class school be less than £1,000 a year, or of a second-class school less than £500 or £600 a year, it is quite certain that high a ability will not be attracted to such laborious and exhausting work. And next in importance to real ability in a master comes the presence of considerable numbers in the school. A small school is proportionately much more expensive than a large one, and it fails to give thorough stimulus to either scholars or master. The stir and dignity, the multiplied energy and mutual help of a large school are rarely compensated by any greater attention or more careful instruction in a small one. And yet it may be easily shown, by a comparison of the scale of endowments with the cost of good instruction, that very few endowments will suffice to pay for the instruction of more than a few scholars unless the character and worth of the instruction be reduced.

The cost in a large first-grade school, like Marlborough College (52O boys), of first-rate instruction is about £20(1); in a second-grade school, like the Whitechapel foundation (221 boys), and St. Clement Danes schools (95 boys), reported on by Mr. Fearon,

(1) See statutes of Manchester School.

(2) See the fees of proprietary schools below, p. 165.


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is £8 to £10(1); of a third-grade school, from £3 to £5. At the City of London School (630 scholars), which stands intermediate between the first and second division, sending a few very successful scholars to the Universities, but with the large majority of its scholars leaving at 15 or 16, the cost is about £10 10s per head. But there are not enough masters for the junior classes, and the masters are underpaid.(2) In all these cases the sum is exclusive of the cost of buildings, rates, taxes, repairs, and exhibitions to the Universities.

It will be at once seen(3) that very few of the grammar school endowments can, unassisted by fees, educate more than a very limited number of scholars, at least of the first or second grade. Of third-grade scholars it would be oftener possible to maintain gratuitously a. considerable school. It is only, therefore, by reducing the education to what is suited only to boys leaving school at 14 years of age that the grammar school endowment can (except in a comparatively few cases) hold out; and by this reduction (it cannot be too often repeated) the school is rendered nearly useless to many whom the founders distinctly intended to benefit, and it fails to give to the poor boy, who is apt to learn, the means of putting out his talents to the best advantage.

The facts abundantly confirm this conclusion. The only schools giving a really high education gratuitously to a large number of scholars are Birmingham, Bedford, and Manchester.(4) Manchester has £2,500 a year, and the whole educational system is starved by the 250 free boys who are of a class abundantly able to pay fees; Birmingham spends over £9,000 a year on the upper schools, and even this money is not enough at Birmingham; at Bedford nearly £3,000 is spent on the grammar school, and it cannot be said that such good results are produced as the £900 of endowment, aided by fees, produces at the City of London School.

The other schools which have remained gratuitous have accordingly reduced the character of the education. The effect is that the school offers, not indeed exclusively but mainly, a similar education to that which may be obtained in our National and British schools. The school becomes flooded with those who

(1) £9 (or with drawing £9 15s) is the fee at the Philological School, Marylebone , "one of the best specimens of the middle schools of the second grade in the district." Fearon, p. 347.

(2) See the account of this school in Mr. Fearon's Report, pp. 277-288. Evidence of Rev. Dr. Mortimer, Q. 3512 et seq.

(3) See above, p. 110, and the tables in the following chapter.

(4) At Christ's Hospital only 40 boys out of 1,200 stay beyond 16, and only 80 beyond 15 years old.


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seek the merest rudiments of knowledge. They would have to pay something, - a trifle it is true, but still something, - at the National school, and they consider that they have a right to the grammar school. Claiming it as a right, and making no sacrifice for it, the parents are careless of their children's attendance, and careless of their conduct. The entrance examination often prescribed is no longer enforced, and the grammar school ceases to have any feature to distinguish it from an ordinary elementary school under inspection, excepting that the master is under strong temptations to be careless, the children are irregular in their attendance, and the benefit of inspection is lost. There are some exceptions, but they are rare;(1) a very conscientious and capable master, or very solicitous trustees, will occasionally prevent the complete decline of the school; but those who might profit by an education in grammar have to seek it elsewhere, or to go without it altogether; and the only result of the founder's bounty is to give the parents an alms of one or two shillings a week, and to save the well-to-do residents of the town or village their subscriptions to the elementary school.

In a hundred schools or more our Assistant Commissioners have noticed and commented on the fact of free admissions and their effects. Either the free boys are very irregular in their attendance, the master careless and dispirited, the parents unwilling to supply the necessary books, grammar no longer taught, and those who need it practically disfranchised, the village worse off for education than it would be if there were no endowment at all, invidious distinctions made between the free scholars and others, and the school starved: or the freedom is not indiscriminate, the free scholars are selected carefully by the trustees, or chosen by competition: or, finally, what is a more common case, they are too few to affect the mass, and the school having been long devoted to grammar teaching offers no attraction to those who require a merely elementary education.

To take a few instances, almost any of which might easily be paralleled over and over again: At Tadcaster, a graduate of Cambridge instructs about 60 children. "Only one child in the upper division of the school could write from dictation a sentence of words of one syllable without mistakes. Nothing could be more disgraceful than the aspect of the copy books and written exercises generally. No boy is learning Latin." At Kirk Sandall Mr. Fitch "found only two children who could have passed the examination for the first or lowest standard in

(1) See reports on Cromer, Hartforth, Abbeystead, Bispham.


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an inspected school." At Parker's school at Hastings "no fee is charged except 1d. to 4d. weekly for stationery. The school is of the level of a second-grade National school, and answers", says Mr. Giffard, "neither the purpose of the founder nor any a other useful end." At Tottenham, Mr. Fearon says, "An extremely bad elementary education is given to 42 sons of labourers at a cost entirely from endowment of about £3 15s per head per annum, or more than twice the cost of the best elementary education under Government inspection." At Edmonton Mr. Fearon found a similar education to be given (when he visited it) to about 70 boys, at a cost of about 5 guineas each. A Church of England school close by, which is inspected, had as good an average attendance, and the annual grant was only £27 9s 2d for all. At Penwortham the whole result of an endowment of nearly £1,000 a year, "the largest in Lancashire, except one, is to give an indifferent elementary education to the children of one parish, and a slightly classical education to about 10 of them yearly." At Stamford, with an endowment of above £500 a year and two masters, reported to be industrious and efficient, "80 boys were present" at Mr. Eve's visit, "all of whom were educated gratuitously. Two or three boys were learning classics to some purpose, some others were struggling with Greek delectus and Cæsar, and the rest receiving an education no better than that of an elementary school." At Horsham there is an "increasing endowment of £540 a year, good school buildings, two good houses, and two masters who bear a high reputation in the town. There are 80 boys who pay nothing, not even for slates, are not allowed to remain after 14 years of age, and are admitted on an examination the stringency of which may be estimated from the fact that the majority of new comers spell simple words with the utmost difficulty. The education is no better than in a respectable National school, excepting that "ornamental penmanship" is much and successfully practised. At Bath, with a net income of about £400 a year, there were at Mr. Stanton's visit 65 boys, of whom 50 were free boys paying nothing and elected by the trustees, after much solicitation and canvassing, The boys were all young and seldom stayed past 14 or 15 years of age. "The state of things is this: the sons of the smaller tradesmen now get for nothing at the school a costly education which they do not appreciate; they could get elsewhere a much cheaper one of the kind they prefer, for which they could well afford to pay, and the presence of their sons at the school as foundationers effectually discredits and lowers its social and intellectual character." At Newland Mr. Stanton noted the number of days on which the 12 foundationers had


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been absent from August 13 to December 14. The days of absence averaged 24½ days for each foundationer.

Mr. Green says,(1) "The effect of free admission I always found to be so to lower the general character of the school as to deprive promising boys of the humbler class of any real benefit they might gain by entering it. It leads to the invasion of the school by a mixed multitude of boys too numerous to be absorbed in a higher element than their own, who get no good from it themselves which they might not get elsewhere, and prevent it doing good to others."

Mr. Hammond says: "Gratuitous instruction when confined to grammar, having had the effect of emptying the schools where it was enforced, has been abolished altogether, or else it has been transferred or extended to other subjects; in the latter case the character of the schools and the quality of the education have been invariably lowered."(2)

Mr. Bryce says: "Some two or perhaps three of the free schools which I have visited were in a satisfactory state, and one indeed, the school at Abbeystead in Over Wyersdale,(3) might claim to stand almost at the head of schools of the same social rank in the county. It is easy to conceive of circumstances under which gratuitous education may be right and necessary. But looking at the phenomena as a whole, it cannot be doubted that the most frequent and most glaring instances of inefficiency, neglect, and general mismanagement are to be found among the free schools, and that these faults have become more rare in the same proportion in which, during the last 50 years, the number of free schools themselves has been diminished."(4)

Mr. Fitch says, "If there be two neighbouring towns of which the one has a free grammar school and the other has not, the latter is always the better off for the means of instruction; for it is sure to possess a school which stands or falls by its own merits. The former gets instruction, which is not paid for, it is true, but which is worth nothing."(5)

The grammar school endowments are wasted if they give no more than can be, without serious difficulty or undue pressure, obtained without them. They are worse than wasted if they tend to keep out better instruction, better superintendence, and a healthier sense of a parent's duty towards his children, and of a rich man's duty to his poorer neighbours and dependents. Nor

(1) Page 170.

(2) Hammond, p. 457. See also p. 440.

(3) See Mr. Bryce's account of this School, p. 693. The education is slightly above a National school. See also Report on Drax.

(4) Bryce, p. 474.

(5) Fitch, p. 153.


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can it fairly be alleged that indiscriminate gratuitous instruction is necessary in order to avoid a breach of the founder's intentions. It almost inevitably ensures a breach of them. The locality loses its distinctive grammar school, and the poor lose a benefit which they have no other means of obtaining.

In the majority of cases, either by the original rules or by a subsequent scheme of the Court of Chancery, fees have been imposed on all beyond a limited number; but the number of free scholars allowed is often too great for the means of the school, and the class who come in as free scholars do not assort with those who pay. This is a difficulty foreseen by the founders, but not sufficiently regarded by trustees and legal tribunals. The difficulty is a real one. The endowment does not furnish adequate remuneration for a master who can teach anything beyond English subjects, sometimes for any master at all. There is, therefore, a necessity to get some scholars who can pay fees. This is done in one of two ways: either the freedom is left unrestricted to the residents, and the master is allowed to receive boarders, and charge them what he likes, or the number of free scholars is restricted and all beyond that number, whether day scholars or boarders, pay fees. But the trustees frequently do not take sufficient pains, or do not know how, to prevent the collision of classes.'(1) It is for the good of the foundationers that an able teacher should be appointed and retained, and if he cannot be paid sufficiently from the endowment, the trustees seem to think it fairer and easier to allow him to fix his own terms and make his bargains as he finds most to his advantage. The result depends on the numbers of the free and the paying boys, and on the traditions and instruction of the school. Rut it is the general though not the invariable experience, that either the one class or the other go to the wall.(2) Boys who call add much to the master's earnings must be boys from a superior class, and they will not be attracted to the school to associate with boys of the same position in life as those in the National schools. Sometimes even a few such boys seem to form an obstacle to the schools becoming attractive to others. If, on the other hand, the reputation of the master is high, boarders or paying day scholars come, but the foundationers are, to say the least, often slighted, and, even where well taught, are yet separated from the others by some distinction, which is in fact invidious. The fee for day scholars not on the foundation is sometimes fixed so high as to be prohibitory of all but a few; and the classical character of the instruction is even enforced with additional stringency in order to exclude any resident's son who is intended for trade.

(1) See Bompas, p. 73.

(2) See Fitch, p. 199. Green, p. 55. Giffard, p. 121.


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Thus, at Dedham, "the 20 foundationers are not allowed to use the playground or to associate with the boarders out of school hours. The playground is hired by the master at his own private expense, and he therefore thinks that the day boys have no claim to admission. The trustees of the school have proposed to exchange a distant piece of land for it, so as to secure a playground for the whole school. The head master opposes this plan." At Bromsgrove, where the endowment is very small, but the exhibitions good, "there are 90 boarders, 10 or 12 paying day scholars, and 12 foundationers or 'blue' boys. Between the two former of these classes there is no external distinction, both are of the same social rank, the high fees excluding the bulk of the tradespeople. The 12 foundationers are sons of artizans and small tradespeople, and are dressed in blue coats and knee-breeches. They are objects of scorn to the rest of the school, and, although pains are taken to keep them apart, it is found hard to prevent frays from occurring."(1) At Deythur, Howden, and, Easingwold, though the free boys are well instructed, a separation is made. At Deythur the "master's boarders are taught in a room divided from the free boys, who are cottagers' sons, by a glazed partition. The first class of the free boys say their lessons with the master's private pupils, but prepare them apart." At Howden the free scholars sit in a different part of the room. At Easingwold "the two sets are divided by a partition breast high; the master's desk was in an elevated position, and enabled him to give some of the lessons to both classes of scholars together." At Alton the small playground is divided "by an imaginary line between the boarders and free boys, and a penalty imposed on transgressors." At Kingsbridge "the 16 free boys occupied one side of the same room as the others, but were kept quite separate and heard in classes by themselves. They made use of the playground at stated times, but the boarders were forbidden to use it on those occasions." At Guildford the 10 foundationers, though very well taught and standing well in the school, and carrying off in 1864 six out of 14 class prizes, yet were excluded from the school playground, which was used only by the masters' 90 boarders. At Lewes the playground is used by the boarders only. At Appleby (in Westmoreland) the arrangements are such that "the day boys are to a great extent deprived of the presence of the head master."

To add to the dislocation of the school thus caused, the master

(1) See also Reports on Lewes, Brentwood, Enfield, Brandon, Frodsham, St. Chloe, Blechingley, Crewkerne, Yeovil.


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sometimes regards the paying scholars, especially the boarders, as private pupils, and his relations to them are treated as quite independent of the ordinary powers of the trustees or of the obligations of the Statutes.(1) Thus at Hungerford the master presented only the eight free boys for examination to Mr. Fearon, the day scholars and boarders having been dismissed for the Easter vacation a day earlier than usual. At Deptford, where the foundationers were found to know almost nothing, "the master said that he would on no account permit his private scholars to be examined." At Easingwold, the foundationers are obliged to learn the Church Catechism and attend the services of the Church, the paying scholars are exempt from both. This differs but little from the plan adopted by other trustees, who simply bargain with a private schoolmaster to receive free of charge a few boys, and allow the name of grammar school to be attached to the private establishment without professing to be responsible in any way for its due conduct.(2)

Some of these evils might be removed by requiring the master to treat all scholars that were under his tuition in every respect as on the same footing. A school should have no respect of persons. If the prejudices of social caste be too strong to be wholly neglected, they should at least not be sharpened by harsh recognition. This is hurtful to those who are scorned, and is still more hurtful to the scorners. But, in dealing with the present system, it must be remembered that the distinctions of rank coincide roughly with kinds and cost of education, and with the ability to pay for it. If the school is to be a high grammar school, the requisite funds must be procured, and it is most unwise to squander the endowment on the indiscriminate admission of those who do not require such an education and cannot profit by it. If the school is to educate mainly those who stay there till 14, or 15 or 16 years of age, and not longer, boarders at expensive terms are as much out of place as unselected free scholars, and almost all persons who seek an education reaching to such an age can afford to pay moderate capitation fees. At what amount fees may fitly be put we shall discuss presently; we now proceed to show the effect of the failure to enforce an entrance examination, and to examine the mode of electing free scholars.

(b) The Requirement of an Entrance Examination

In order to keep the schools to their proper function the founders often prescribed the enforcement of a sufficient

(1) See also report on Newbury.

(2) See reports on Knaresborough, Scarborough, Bridlington, Plymouth, Penzance, &c.


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entrance examination. Nothing can be plainer than the evidence which the present state of the schools affords of its necessity. The cases are numerous in which the want or more frequently the neglect of such an examination, combined frequently with the absence of capitation fees, reduces the grammar school to the level of a bad elementary school, or even of an infant school.(1) To take only one or two instances: at Butterwick the fifth class "cannot read, though by a byelaw of the trustees it is required that they should do so before entering the school. The third and fourth classes read and understood a simple story in words of two syllables. The second class did not spell well and knew no geography at all." There are two masters, with a total net income from endowment of £285 a year and a good house for the head master. At Brigg where the annual net income is £529, "though boys are required by the rules to read decently before admission, very few of the lowest class of 20 boys can do so. The dictation was bad throughout the school, and many of the boys had not heard of the Thames or of Europe. One boy, the master's son, was learning Greek." At Walsingham, the master complains that the trustees admit boys grossly ignorant. "Some of the scholars are said to be unable to read a verse of the New Testament on their first coming to the school." At Loughborough(2) (a school of a very different type from these) "the examination for entrance is entirely in the hands of trustees, the head master having nothing to do with it. Reading and writing are nominally exacted, but the exaction appeared to be very lax." At the Mercers' School, on College Hill, "the examination consists solely in writing from dictation an easy verse of Scripture. Boys of 12 or even 14 years of age are often admitted into the lowest form totally uninstructed." At Monmouth(3) the admission is determined by a competitive examination in reading entirely irrespective of age, boys spending their time till 12 or 13 years of age in practising themselves in reading the book which it is known the visitors usually use in their examination. At Walsall the boys are required to be able to write their own names, spell simple words, and read the Gospels. But after passing this examination, they have to wait at least one year, sometimes two, before they are admitted to the school, and have thus ample opportunity of forgetting even this minimum of knowledge. The result is "they enter the school about the age of 10 or 11 in a state of elementary ignorance and

(1) Hammond, p. 427.

(2) See also reports on Crewkerne, Hartlebury, Islington, East Retford, &c.

(3) Mr. Bompas mentions that some change will probably be made in this respect.


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(the demand in the town for clerks and apprentices being brisk) scarcely stay three years." It appears to be hardly ever the case, that when the general freedom of a school is insisted on and retained, the entrance examination is made a serious test. Mr. Green says: "The entrance examination did not at any school that I visited, even where it was strictest, preclude the necessity of teaching the simplest spelling to the majority of the boys that entered it."(1)

Such instances as the Mercers' School and Monmouth point to the necessity of prescribing not merely a good entrance examination, but an entrance examination graduated by age. "If a boy of 15 is admitted, who has been so neglected that he is unable to take a fair place along with the average boys of his age, but must be placed in a class amongst much younger boys, he is a perpetual fester in the school. The chances are enormously against his being industrious, and in favour of his being tyrannical and immoral. Yet", continues Mr. Fearon, speaking of the metropolis, "few secondary schools in this district have a system of admission examinations graduated by age. The private schools are entirely without it, so are frequently the proprietary schools, and even among endowed schools it is rare."(2) Nor is it more common in other parts of the country.

It is evident that such an examination as that which we have recommended in our first chapter, to be put between the lower and upper divisions of each grade of school, would in all cases protect the education in the upper divisions from sinking to the level of an elementary school

(c) The Selection of Free Scholars

Of two ways by which free scholars may be selected, by far the most common in fact is nomination by the governors. In some schools the governors nominate in their collective capacity, in other schools they exercise individual patronage. Collective nomination is liable to mistake for want of personal knowledge and responsibility,(3) but it often proceeds on some principle, the governors either choosing carefully those likely to profit by the education, or more frequently the poorest.(4) To choose the poorest of those to whom admission would be a real benefit is

(1) Green, p. 170.

(2) Fearon pp. 282, 533. Such an entrance examination exists at the City of London School and at Dulwich College.

(3) See report on Howell's School, Denbigh.

(4) e.g., at Kingsbridge. More favourable cases are Yarm, Stokesley, Guildford, Aylesbury.


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one thing; to choose the poorest absolutely is quite another. The former, if it can be satisfactorily done, is very desirable; the latter is at best a waste of a portion of the grammar school endowment. Nor is the waste confined to cases where real poverty may be pleaded. Mr. Fearon draws attention to the case of some of the schools kept by the city companies. Thus the Mercers, in accordance with an ancient obligation to keep a school to teach 25 scholars, maintain at an expense of £1,000 a year a school for 70 children on College Hill, who are educated gratuitously and fairly well. "It seems probable that twice as much good might be done with half the money, if the school were larger and differently managed. It certainly seems a most extraordinary policy to bring in daily from the country and elsewhere boys whose parents could almost all of them perfectly afford to pay a reasonable sum for their education, and to shut them up in a small school on the river side." So in the case of the Brewers' school at Aldenham the teaching appears to be good, but the "free" places are not used so as to give a stimulus to education; they simply save the members of the company a few pounds a year.(1)

Where the trustees appoint individually, the nomination is liable to be capricious, and to be decided by the same personal motives which may affect the disposal of any other patronage. In either case much depends on canvassing, and something may depend on political interest;(2) and where the freedom is coupled with the gift of clothes, or food, or money, the favour is sought by the parent far more for the sake of these than for the education, and the poverty of the parent is apt to be more regarded by the trustees than the prosperity of the school.

No better illustration of the evils attendant on a selection by individual trustees can be found than at King Edward VI's School, Birmingham. For there is no question of the high position and character of the governors, nor of their real desire for the good of the school. But Mr. Green says(3) the effect is "that it makes the primary education of boys, destined for the free school, worse, than it would be if there were no free school at all. A parent relies on getting his son educated for nothing sooner or later, but cannot tell whether it will be sooner or later, and the chances are that he does not keep him regularly at a good school in the interval. The consequence has been, first, a dead weight of preliminary ignorance to be dealt with in the lower

(1) See also Fearon, p. 337, and reports on Bow, and the Corporation Schools at Alnwick, Berwick (Hammond, p. 291) and Great Grimsby.

(2) Alleged at Birmingham, Colchester, Totnes, &c. See some correspondence respecting St. John's Hospital, Exeter, in vol iii. pp. 200-203.

(3) p. 99.


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classes of the grammar school, and, secondly, the degradation of the private schools. One day when I was in the school a boy of 14, who had already been admitted, was examined by the head master in order to ascertain what class he was fit "for. He knew no Latin, spelt wrong roung, did not know the name of any river in England, or of any English king but Charles I, or the capitals of Scotland, Ireland, or France, or how much 30 pence made. He had been trained at a private school, where 65 boys were taught by only one master. This I was assured was by no means an uncommon case. Another instance fell under my notice of a boy 16 years old, and the son of parents rich enough to keep a carriage, who had not even the qualification in reading and writing necessary for admission. His parents, expecting the school ultimately to teach him everything, had let him run idle."

The experience of Christ's Hospital is similar. Mr. Fearon has given the result in each case of his examination of 52 boys then newly admitted.(1) He sums up thus: "Most of them were ill taught and backward for their age, which was on the average 8½ years, though some were nearly 10, and one, the most backward, who could do nothing but read a little, was just 10 years old. It was clear that hardly any of them had had a good preparatory education, and that the application of even the most rudimentary test of intelligence and general knowledge would have caused the rejection of most of them."

Admission by competition has been tried in a considerable number of cases, and there appears to be no doubt of its success. It is uniformly recommended by our Assistant Commissioners as likely to be the most successful remedy for the present state of things,(2) and seems to meet almost all of the objections to any other system of nomination or to indiscriminate admission. It is above partiality, whether personal, social, or political; it marks by natural selection those who can profit by an education higher than the rudiments; it puts the free scholar in the place of honour instead of the place of reproach; it stimulates the education without, and leavens the mass within; it encourages parents, masters, and scholars. As an illustration we may take the case of Doncaster,(3) where the system lately introduced is so remarkable that we shall give our Assistant Commissioner's remarks at length:

(1) Fearon, pp. 490-493. Mr. Gilpin's evidence, 7886-7902.

(2) Fitch, p. 159. Bryce, p. 478. Green, 104-109, 227. Hammond, p. 458. Mr. Elton in his reports on Dedham and Newport recommends the exemption from capitation fees to be made dependent on the yearly examination.

(3) See also report on Chipping Campden.


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"At Doncaster there is a grammar school, founded about 1618, and endowed with an insignificant sum. At the time of the inquiry of the Charity Commission in 1827 the property of the school was returned as derived from a small piece of land let at £3 a year, a further allotment producing £6, and the rent of three pews in the parish church, let at £10 10s a year. Besides this sum of £19 10s the corporation of the town made a voluntary or customary gift of £8 per ann., in consideration of the gratuitous education in classical learning which the master undertook to give to all the sons of freemen who were sent to him. At the time of the inquiry seven such scholars were in the school, paying a quarterage for writing and accounts, and a few others were admitted by the master as private pupils. In the year 1862 a new scheme was framed by the trustees, under the authority of the Court of Chancery. Under this scheme the corporation of Doncaster agree to subsidize the school with £250 per ann. - not as a fixed payment in aid of the funds, but in the form of capitation fees - at £25 each for 10 free boys. These are called 'Corporation scholars', and are elected by competitive examination. Every year there are about three vacancies. The masters of all the elementary schools in the town receive notice that a competitive examination will be held, and an examination takes place in reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geography, English and Bible history. I learned that the greatest interest was excited in the competition; that the teachers of the National and British schools sent up their choicest pupils, and were very eager to secure for them a good place in the list.

The privilege of election is deservedly prized by parents, for the grammar school is under very able management, is crowded with scholars, and is about to be transferred to new and handsome buildings, towards the cost of which the corporation and the inhabitants have liberally subscribed. The school has two departments, a classical or upper school consisting of 91 boys, and an English or commercial with 53 scholars, and the parents of every corporation scholar when elected, have the right to place him in either, according to their own choice. I learned that seven-tenths of the corporation scholars entered the classical department, and that most of them retain high places, and either have had or promise to have a distinguished school career. Selected as they are from the elementary schools of the town, they are necessarily of inferior social position to the mass of the boys in the school. But the head master assured me that the intellectual superiority evinced by their success in the comet petition and by their standing in the classes more than out-


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weighed any disadvantage of rank, and that these boys were looked up to with respect by every one in the school. Moreover, the fact that a lad had been thus distinguished caused his parents, even when poor, to take a pride in his appearance, and to make personal sacrifices with a view to maintain him honourably in the position which he had won."(1)

Now here we have a solution, which appears to have satisfied those most concerned, a solution of most questions which arise in connexion with this subject. The school is an object of common interest to the whole town, and is recognized as such by the municipal authorities. Classics are retained not merely as the legal representative of the ancient grammar, but as at least one of the most important elements of high education. But the string is not drawn too tightly; classics are neither made the exclusive object of the higher education, but have mathematics and modern languages thoroughly associated with them, nor is there any refusal to those who prefer and have time for only an English education, to allow them to seek it in the grammar school. Yet the grammar school maintains its proper position above elementary schools, and exerts a beneficial influence upon them. The freedom is maintained without imposing a sacrifice on the master, and the poor boy has the avenue to high learning carefully kept open to him and enters it under encouraging auspices, and with the goodwill and respect of his companions.

But the same solution is not available in all places. Doncaster is a considerable town, and has therefore ready at hand the means for keeping up a grammar school, and for giving the preliminary education outside of it. TIle essential features, however, are independent of these advantages. A grammar school may be supported either by boarders from a distance or by day scholars of the place. If there be not a sufficient population within reach to supply a full complement of day scholars, the school may have the means of attracting some boarders. Good buildings or a considerable money endowment or good exhibitions will get a good master, and a good master soon finds means to create a school. If there be neither good buildings nor a good income from endowment, nor good exhibitions, the grammar school money may yet be applied, and applied with admirable effect, to grammar school purposes. And this in two ways: either by being converted into one

(1) Fitch, p. 159. He adds, "The parishioners of Doncaster owe the resuscitation of the grammar school to the wisdom and experience of their vicar, the Rev. Dr. Vaughan, who suggested the details of the scheme, and who has watched over its execution with unfailing zeal and interest."


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or more exhibitions to be held at some other grammar school or by being amalgamated with the elementary school, so as to enable this to have a higher class or department. Sometimes the endowment may suffice for both. We shall have occasion to speak of this matter in a later part of this report.

(d) The Rate at which Capitation Fees may be fixed

We have already shown that to press unduly the claims of poverty as the primary consideration is to withdraw from the poor as well as the rich the help intended in proportion as it lowers the character of the school. On the other hand, to impose fees at a rate which only the upper classes can afford, or to make the instruction of a character which none but those going to the Universities require, is often to inflict no less a wrong. That fees should be imposed is necessary in order to supplement the endowment, and to prevent the grammar school from competing with the elementary school. Nor are parents unwilling to pay fees, provided the fees are not excessive, and the education is suitable. At Atherstone (population 3,851), indeed, though the education was thought too classical, yet every boy of every class that could in any sense be reckoned fit for the grammar school went to it. In 1865 there were besides 20 boarders 60 day scholars, all paying a fee, which, except in a few cases, was not less than £4 4s a year. "Almost the best boys of the school were severally sons of an exciseman and a gardener."(1) Good buildings, active trustees, and, above all, an energetic master made this school present a striking contrast to the school at Nuneaton, a few miles off, where, with twice the population and no fees, there were only 25 boys in the school, "At Woodbridge, in Suffolk, the fee for all but the 20 free boys is £4 a year, and the attendance includes almost all the possible town scholars (75 in all) besides 15 from neighbouring parishes."(3) At the Grammar School (4) at Marlborough (population 3,684,) where the fee is £5 5s for the modern department, and £6 6s for the classical, there were besides 60 boarders, 30 day scholars, the majority of whom were in the modern department. The poorer tradesmen sent their children to the National school: the grammar school appeared to take all the rest in the town.

(1) Green, pp. 158, 161.

(2) Mr. Sanderson; who had, however, left before our Assistant Commissioner visited the school.

(3) Richmond, vol. viii. p. 649. The population of Woodbridge is 4,513.

(4) The Grammar School is quite distinct from the College.


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But so simple an account cannot be given of other towns. It is clear indeed that to determine what is the amount which parents are able and willing to pay is a problem which is complicated by several indefinite elements. The character of the instruction, the ability and popularity of the master, the reputation of the school, the social rank of the scholars, the habit of the district, are all matters which affect the willingness of parents to pay a fair or considerable fee. Nor is the willingness in any precise relation to the ability of the parent. In all ranks there are some persons, "the salt of their class",(1) who put education among their primary needs, and the clergy and professional men especially, though very thankful if a good education is cheap, will not be deterred by a comparatively high fee, from seeking for their children an education which is really good. On the other hand many persons (and this appears to be particularly the case with farmers) are swayed far more by the cheapness than the goodness of the education, provided only the scholars are not of a lower rank than themselves.

No class of school appears to furnish a true measure of the amount at which fees may wisely be put. For first, the effect of the numerous endowments which exist for education is to lower generally the scale of fees below its natural standard - in the endowed schools themselves directly, in others through the necessity of competition with them. The Privy Council grant and subscriptions have in the case of the lower schools a similarly disturbing influence. And, secondly, while an endowed school has often special attractions, such as exhibitions or apprentice fees,(2) the natural effect of which is to raise the amount of the fees it could charge, private and proprietary schools often fix their fees at an amount which is intended to make their scholars select.(3) Thirdly, the existence of numerous boarding schools of every quality and cost, and the preference which is felt by many parents for a boarding school over a day school must tend to prevent a day school from finding in its own neighbourhood an adequate number of scholars at the fee it might otherwise have commanded. Where the boarding school is also a day school, the day scholar's fee is sometimes regarded as an unimportant element in the profits of the establishment, and is only kept up by the necessity, real or supposed, of excluding boys of a lower social rank.

(1) Green, p. 153.

(2) As a matter of fact apprentice fees are usually found only in company with gratuitous education.

(3) Hammond, p. 340.


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In large self-supporting proprietary schools under good management the fee at least approximates to the cost of the education, though the contributions of the original subscribers and the desire of social distinction in some degree interfere. Liverpool is in a very favourable position for furnishing evidence on this point. There is not and has not been for at least 60 years any endowed grammar school, but there have been established within the last 30 years large proprietary(1) schools which deservedly bear a very high character. "It seems probable that the proportion of the middle class to the working class is greater in Liverpool than either in Manchester or in any of the other manufacturing towns. It contains an immense number of persons ranking as gentlemen, but receiving fixed and very limited salaries. The College and the Institute cover the whole social area of what is called the middle class. The brothers of many boys in their lower departments may be found in National or British schools; the brothers of others in the higher departments are at Eton or Harrow."

The College contains three schools, the boys of which do not mingle with one another, but the distinction is made entirely by the fees. The Institute has two schools, and the Royal Institution has one.

The lower school of the College has 370 boys, children of small shopkeepers, clerks, and the better class of mechanics: and the average age of leaving is a little over 14. The fee is £5 5s. The commercial school of the Institute has 700 boys, of the same class in life as those just mentioned. They seldom remain at school after 13½ or 14 years of age. The fee is £3 10s to £4 4s, according to position in the school. In neither of these schools are Latin and French learnt by more than a few of the boys and in the Institute there is an extra fee for these subjects.

The middle school of the College has about 300 boys of a higher social position; they generally leave at 15. The fee is £11 11s, Latin, French, and mathematics being taught throughout. The high school of the Institute has 225 boys of about the same social position, paying fees varying from £6 to £16, according to the position in the school. Latin is taught throughout, mathematics to a half, chemistry to a third, and French to most. Some also learn Greek.

The upper school of the College has 180 boys, four or five of whom go to the universities every year. The rest go to business, and rarely stay later than between 16 and 17 years old. The

(1) The Liverpool College appears however to be really not a proprietary school, but an endowed school, the endowment consisting of the school buildings.


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fee is 17 to 22 guineas. The high school of the Institute partly occupies the same social ground, but the Royal Institution is a complete parallel. It has 100 boys, who leave at from 15 to 18, and pay £26 5s.(1)

In the College and Institute the salaries allowed for many of the lower masters are inadequate. The Institute is probably entirely self-supporting. The College and Royal Institution have had part at least of the expense of their buildings defrayed by subscriptions. Otherwise these institutions also are now self-supporting, and the fee is an index not merely of the amount parents are willing to pay for a good education, but of the cost also. It appears, therefore, that for the three kinds of education, classical, semi-classical, and non-classical, corresponding in the main to the three grades of scholars, parents in Liverpool are willing to pay from £16 to £25, from £6 to £12, and from £3 10s to £5 5s respectively, the lower extremes being for younger boys. Large as these schools are, they do not, according to Mr. Bryce, receive amongst them more than from a third to a half of the whole number of boys at Liverpool whose education is included within the scope of our Commission. Of the rest, some are sent to boarding schools, many to private day schools, where the fees range from £2 10s to £8, and not a few to the schools aided by the Government grant.

All towns probably contain some persons who are able and willing to pay fees equal to those of the large Liverpool schools which we have named. But a day school fee must in ordinary cases be adjusted to the amount which will be paid without much straining by huge sections of the people in the town and neighbourhood. If it is pitched higher, it soon becomes prohibitory of all but a few. Even in Liverpool it is clear that the lowest section of the class with which we are concerned does not go to the above-named proprietary schools. One out of a family may be sent there; his brothers will go to the Government schools or to schools connected with particular church or nonconformist congregations,(2) or to private schools, where they pay about 1s a week, i.e., £2 4s or £2 6s a year. At Halstead where the fees have been raised from 5s or 7s 6d per quarter to 15s and

(1) Bryce, pp. 733-636 ; Ibid., pp. 590-598, and 310,311, and evidence of Rev. Dr. Howson and Rev. Joshua Jones, then the heads respectively of the College and Institute, Q. 2546-2828, and 6164-6364. Mr. Giffard gives £18 to £28, £8 8s to £10, and £2 as the day school fees of three probably similar classes of schools at Brighton; the corresponding boarding fees being £47 to £63, £25 to £35, and £18 to £21 (p.134).

(2) e. g. Some schools at Brighton (Giffard, pp. 154, 155), and some in Manchester, Liverpool, and Bolton (Bryce, p. 599). See also those named below p. 198.


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25s, some of the poorer inhabitants have in consequence removed their children to a private commercial school in the town, where the fee is £2 per annum.(1) Taking this class into consideration, we have four sections of the people above those for whose education the Government grant was intended. On comparing the fees paid with the number of day scholars at well-conducted grammar schools, and the probable number of boys of the classes with which we are dealing in the respective towns, we come to the general conclusion that as soon as ever the fee is placed above 1s a week it begins to be practically prohibitory of some scholars of the classes in question; that when the fee is above £4 4s a year the school loses almost all those who seek an English education only,(2) and that a higher fee than £6 6s a year is rarely paid except by those who either seek a high education, or object to the society of school companions consisting mainly of the sons of ordinary farmers or tradesmen. When we pass the line of £6 6s the school professes to give classical education, looks to the Universities for its standard, and appeals mainly to the clergy, professional men, and generally the upper section of the community. It is doubtful whether between £6 6s and £15 15s any particular sum could be named as creating any decided demarcation. But these limits are wide, and it cannot be doubted that as the fee rises towards the higher limit it becomes in some degree prohibitory,(3) especially when there are several sons in the same family requiring education. On the other hand, it has a better chance of excluding boys of a lower social rank, and thereby drawing to the day school some who would otherwise have been sent to a boarding school. A higher fee than £15 15s is very rare in grammar schools and indeed in any except high proprietary schools.(4) It appears to be almost confined to large towns, where a sufficient number is found of those who would otherwise have gone to schools like Rugby or Marlborough, but whose parents

(1) Elton's Report. See also Richmond, vol. iii. p. 649.

(2) See, for instance, Rev. J. Wallace, Q. 10,546-7.

(3) At Hammersmith the master thought it would not be safe at present to put the fee higher than £10. The education is mainly classical. (Rev. H. Twells, 10,100). At Swansea it was thought a rise from £8 8s to £12 12s might be made without diminishing the number of day scholars. (Mr. Bompas' Report).

(4) Cheltenham College, £16 to £20; Clifton College, £18 to £25; University College School, £18 to £21; King's College School, 18 guineas, but including books and stationery,&c £24; Malvern £25 to £31; Brighton, £18 to £28; lslington, 12 to 17 guineas; Heston International College, 24 guineas; Blackheath, £20; Kensington, 20 guineas; Bath Proprietary College, 10 to 18 guineas , Somersetshire College, Bath, 12 to 18 guineas, with extra fee for French; Sheffield College, £10 to £18; Walthamstow Forest, £21. The Liverpool fees have been already mentioned.


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prefer a day school if they can get an education of the same character, and are all the more willing to pay the full cost of the education, because they can thereby maintain the social rank of the scholars.

The private schools give confirmatory evidence. The offer of greater domestic comforts, more individual attention, and a greater freedom from admixture of lower social ranks enables them to maintain a somewhat higher scale of fees than these of grammar schools notwithstanding the active competition among them. Mr. Bryce's account seems to apply to most parts besides his own district: "Taking one school with another it may be said that the average cost of a good education in a private day school, including Latin with some little Greek, mathematics, French, and the English and commercial subjects, is from £12 12s to £21 per annum. Similarly a plain commercial and English education costs £4 4s to £8 8s. An education scarcely more than elementary i.e. reading, writing, and arithmetic, with glimpses of geography and crumbs of grammar may be had for £3 3s. French, when an extra, averages £2 2s per annum; drawing, £2 2s to £3 3s ... Above the line of £6 or £8 per annum the commercial school begins to pass into the classical, and the £16 or £20 school is pretty certain to undertake not only classics and modern languages but chemistry, gymnastics, and popular lectures on natural history."(1)

To sum up, it may be said that, as things now are, all classes habitually frequenting the schools within the scope of our Commission are able, and, at least, where they have no cherished claim to gratuitous education as a right, are willing, to pay from £2 to £2 10s per annum; that most are able and willing to pay about £4 4s;(2) that a considerable number are able and willing to pay £6 6s; that those able and willing to pay a higher fee than this are a much smaller number, but having a much larger proportion of persons who are willing for this purpose to strain their ability to the utmost. It is probable that a real and visible improvement in the schools will greatly increase the willingness to pay higher fees. On the other hand there is no doubt that in many cases a lower fee will cæteris paribus [other things being equal] make the school more attractive.(3) Comparing these facts, both with the actual cost of good education and with the purpose of the endowments, which was neither to save those from paying who could afford to pay, nor to keep up schools giving a merely primary

(1) Bryce, p. 550.

(2) See Green, p. 188 ; Wright, vol iii. p. 674.

(3) See Report on Oundle.


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education for those who are unwilling to associate with their inferiors in social rank,(1) we come to the following conclusions: That as a good elementary education and something more can be given for about £2 10s(2) if the school be on a large scale, and a fairly good commercial education can be given for about £4 provided in both cases, that the building be given and kept in repair, there is no necessity or obligation to apply the endowments in cheapening to more than a slight extent the education of those who belonging to the commercial class seek no more than an elementary or commercial education; that any higher education is more costly than can at present be paid by many who might profit by it; that consequently an application of endowments becomes increasingly needful as the education becomes higher, if the fee for such higher education is not to be seriously prohibitory; but that the strain which would thus be put upon the endowments is lessened by the willingness of those to whom high education is both a necessity of their hereditary position and an object of hereditary desire, to pay fees in a higher ratio to their means than is usual in other ranks of society. Consequently, in order to enable a school fully to reach those who are desirous, and lightly desirous, of using it, a third grade school and a school of a still lower grade require, if buildings be provided, but little help from endowment; a second grade (costing £8 to £10 per scholar, besides buildings) requires more; a first grade school (costing £15 to £20 per scholar besides buildings) requires more still. In the case of all, however, the aid is necessary, not so much for those who belong to the class, habitually seeking such an education, as for those of a lower class or of means much lower than their class, who must if not aided put up with an education of a lower grade. The aid is especially useful in the case of second and first grade schools, because it is very desirable to extend the school life of all, and there is a clear gain to the general intelligence of the community in lightening any pressure upon parents which induces them, as soon as the instruction which appears absolutely needful is acquired, to withdraw their sons from school.(3)

3. Area from which privileged Scholars must be taken

The third matter to be now considered is the frequent restriction of the benefits of a school, or at least of its endowments

(1) Green, p. 191.

(2) Rev. W. C. Williams, Q. 5167-5174; Fitch, 246, 247.

(3) See Hammond, pp. 440-444; Green, pp. 188, 221; Fitch, p. 164. "If a graduated scale of fees be adopted, it should be regulated by the age of a scholar, not by his standing in the school." Hammond, p. 458. "Never according to the number and nature of the subjects taught." Fitch, 143, 144, 164. On separate fees for the several subjects, see below, p. 241.


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to a small area such as a town or parish. These restrictions are often not found either in the charter or the original deed of endowment, but have been introduced by subsequent benefactors or by decrees of the Court of Chancery.(1) Where it is due to the founders it is still very difficult to tell how far they held it to be important. But it is plain that many circumstances which probably weighed with them are now changed and changing every day. The endowment is often no longer what it was; and it seems hazardous to conclude because a founder has given £50 to a village, that he would also have given ten times £50. The ancient boundary often no longer means what it did: it was the boundary of a community; it is, for any but legal purposes, a mere geographical line, identified with difficulty.(2) The population is changed in number and class and character; warehouses and manufactories have supplanted houses, and the old inhabitants have moved to a distance.(3) To impose such a restriction was then, both a defensive measure against the local restrictions imposed in other places by other founders, and a necessary measure, if the education was to be gratuitous, in order to prevent the endowment being inadequate. But if the community has outgrown its ancient limits, if the schools are rendered poor and meagre by depending only on the local supply of scholars, if the freedom must be select to make it really useful, the ground of the restrictions falls away altogether. Moreover, fellow-townsmen and fellow-parishioners held much more closely to one another, and against men of other towns or parishes, two or three centuries ago, than they do now. It is, indeed, only by the gradual effect of civilization, that attachment to the locality of a man's birth or residence becomes purged from jealousy against other localities, and chastened by the feeling of a wider kinship. The increased facilities for travelling, and greater tendency to migration, have a moral and political, as well as a commercial bearing and importance. A man learns to love his own district less exclusively, but not less kindly, as he sees it is but a part of a far larger whole, in which all have a common interest, and as he realizes the necessity, if the whole is to be a living body, of an organization, which shall remove local barriers when they impede a healthy circulation.

(1) Giffard, p. 125.

(2) "At Walsall sons of residents in the parish pay nothing for admission to the grammar school. Extra-parochial boys pay £10 a year, a higher fee then is charged at any private school in the district except one. In the same street as the grammar school, a few yards higher up, are several rows of respectable middle-class houses, which are in Rushall parish." (Green, p. 167.)

(3) Fearon, p. 248.


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Three classes of cases require notice: (1) Where the privileges relate to the admission of day scholars, and consist in the natives or residents being admitted either gratuitously, or, if all pay capitation fees, at a greatly reduced rate compared with outsiders: (2) Where the admission of boarders: is jealously restricted or prohibited altogether: (3) Where eligibility for exhibitions to the universities is similarly restricted. Some restrictive conditions of tenure may also here be considered.

(1) Of the first no better instance can be found than Bedford. This town enjoys among other charities Sir Wm. Harpur's foundation, the income of which amounts to £13,000 a year, and of this over £8,000 is expended on schools practically almost confined to the town of Bedford. A non-resident pays £10 10s for his son's education, a resident of at least one year pays £1 1s; for a child born in the town, or one of whose parents was born in the town, no payment whatever is made. Yet the founder like many other founders, whilst he limited some subordinate charities to Bedford, appears to have intended no such exclusive privileges for the locality as regards the school. He put the school in Bedford, but expressed no desire or intention to confine its benefits to the town of Bedford. The property which forms the endowment being situate in London increased enormously in value. Yet in 1764, two centuries after the foundation, a restriction was put (by Act of Parliament) on the qualifications for enjoying it, and thus an endowment to which Bedford had no exclusive claim, augmented by causes with which Bedford had nothing to do, simply increases the number of householders in a country town, and provides it with schools no better and little larger than are gathered around endowments of a fifth of the value judiciously applied elsewhere.(1)

St. Olave's School, Southwark, was intended for the sons of parishioners, rich and poor. But, as in the other parts of London, the class who formerly inhabited the parish have mostly migrated to the suburbs; and though railways have removed all physical obstacles to their continued use of the school, the legal limitation remains. The school has £2,400 a year; it gives gratuitous education, and was, when Mr. Fearon visited it, except as regards two or three boys, little above a National school.(2)

(1) See Mr. Wright's report. The number of boys in the grammar, commercial, and preparatory commercial schools, is 751. The amount expended, excluding repairs, rates, &c. is nearly £5,000. The number at the City of London school is 630; the endowment, £900.

(2) Fearon, pp. 326-329, and special report. See, however, his note on p. 328.


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Such endowments as those at Bedford and St. Olaves' are very rare; but cases where the endowment is squandered on a free education, good or bad, as chance may rule, for sons of residents, admitted without any sufficient guaranty of fitness, instead of being applied to secure a good school within the reach of the residents, are too numerous to be mentioned. Nor is the privilege which is thus fatally protected, by any means fully appreciated. Mr. Stanton gives a long list of grammar schools in Devon and Somerset, where the number of actual foundationers falls below the number allowed.(1) But a small number of foundationers so admitted are often quite sufficient to destroy or impair the character of the school.

(2) The second matter in determining which the restrictions of place are often pressed is the admission of boarders. In some cases, as at Dulwich, the distance of parts of the favoured district is great enough to make some parents unwilling to send their sons as day-scholars. In other cases the limits are so narrow, that the admission of boarders is the admission of "foreigners".

Now there are two practical reasons why it is undesirable to prevent foreigners coming to a school. The first is because they add by their payments to the resources of the school; the second is because they help to make the school effective by making it numerous. The latter reason is indeed almost conclusive if the school is to prepare boys for success at the universities. It is very rare to find a school even in a large town which without the aid of boarders sends frequently and regularly to the universities successful candidates for high distinctions. Large competition of well matched antagonists is usually as necessary to the preparation for the contest as it is to the right conduct of the contest itself. Nor is this necessity confined to those subjects of instruction which are at present fully recognized. If new subjects, such as natural science, are to be adequately worked, high standards must be not only erected by boards of examiners, but, as it were, embodied in students who breathe and impregnate a scientific atmosphere. A few students here and a few students there are better than none, but they are taught at a disproportionate expense and work under serious disadvantages.

Both reasons for the admission of boarders are illustrated by the circumstances of education in Norfolk and Northumberland, as compared by Mr. Hammond. "In Norfolk it is simply impossible to establish a classical day school without boarders.

(1) Stanton, p. 32.


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At Norwich, Great Yarmouth, and possibly King's Lynn, semi-classical day schools might under very favourable circumstances remunerate an able certificated teacher. But as a matter of fact, no private school in any one of these towns, (the largest in Norfolk) which is exclusively a day school, is any better than a National school: à fortiori this is true of smaller towns and villages." At Norwich and Yarmouth there are excellent commercial schools, but Mr. Hammond points out that they are supported to a very considerable extent by endowments.(1) In Northumberland, Mr. Hammond says there were only four boys boarding in masters' houses in the whole county, exclusive of Newcastle, and the number is very small even in Newcastle, probably 50 at the outside. In some cases boys lodge in the neighbourhood in order to attend the day schools, but the number of such boys is small. The result is, the schools are purely local, and as at least partly the result of that, "except in very rare and exceptional instances no higher education has been supplied by any schools in the county for many years."(2) "On the average not one boy in two years proceeds to any of the English Universities direct from a Northumberland school, and no boy entirely educated in the county could ever attain any distinction at Oxford or Cambridge.(3) Eight boys a year at most may pass onto Scotch Universities, but these would in many cases be unable to join any class above the lowest. Moreover there is no local centre in Northumberland for University local examinations, and only two or three schools in the county have ever sent in candidates for them."(4) Thus in Norfolk there are schools preparing for the universities, and they have boarders; in Northumberland there are no boarders (except at Newcastle), and there are no schools preparing successfully for the universities.

The current of practice and opinion as regards the admission of foreigners is by no means uniform in the case of different schools. The danger usually apprehended is the neglect of the special interests of the locality in the endeavour to make the school attractive to others. We have already spoken of this(5) and pointed to the securities which may be taken to prevent for the future any abuse. Where abuses have existed they are generally found to colour the opinions of the locality for a considerable time, unless they have been thrown into the shade by the

(1) Hammond, p. 459.

(2) Ibid., p. 386.

(3) Ibid., p. 279. On the position of Lancashire in this matter, see Dryce. p. 784.

(4) Ibid., p. 273.

(5) See above, p. 154.


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experience of manifest advantages. "At Pontefract, Giggleswick, Sedbergh, and other places," Mr. Fitch says,(1) " great dissatisfaction was expressed at the absence of boarders. The townspeople seemed to believe that whatever made the school larger would make it more famous and efficient, and that some advantage to the town boys would arise from their associating with lads of a different class who came from a distance ... On the other hand, at Burnsall, at Keighley, and at Pocklington, complaints were made that the boarders were too numerous, that they absorbed too much of the masters' time, and that the advantages of the endowment were unfairly appropriated by foreigners." At Ashborne, "boarders are the chief object of the inhabitants' desire." At Wirksworth, trustees and parents agreed in complaining against the master for not taking boarders," some parents desiring thereby to improve the classical teaching, others to benefit the town and its trade.(2) The same complaint is made at Newport in Salop. But at Bristol, where a recent judgment has forbidden any master to take boarders, and the school is suffering from want of funds, and many boys live in lodgings by themselves in the city in order to attend the school, a large party of the tradesmen and inhabitants are still opposed to the admission of any boarders. Mr. Bryce says, that in Lancashire though the answers of the inhabitants to his queries on this matter betrayed a little jealousy of the boarders, yet only at Clitheroe did he hear of any "insinuation that the day scholars were at all neglected for the sake of their more profitable classfellows. At Preston, Hawkshead, Cartmel, and indeed generally wherever boarders are taken, their presence as by all but a few grumblers looked on as a gratifying proof of the master's popularity."(3)

(3) The third head of restrictions relates to eligibility for exhibitions to the universities. Sometimes a part only of the day scholars are eligible, sometimes the exclusion of foreigners applies only to the boarders, the day scholars being all from within the privileged area. In the former case the restriction is peculiarly absurd. Thus "at Bolton only boys born in the parish of Bolton are eligible, although part of Bolton town lies in the parish of Dean, many boys from which attend the grammar school."(4) At Birmingham, "where there are 10 exhibitions of £50 a year for either university, if a son of an inhabitant of the parish or manor

(1) p. 194. See also Report on Ripon.

(2) Mr. Wright's Reports.

(3) Bryce, p. 503, and Report on Oswestry. Similarly Bompas, p. 93.

(4) Bryce, p. 59.


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in the opinion of the examiners is fit to go to college, he can claim the exhibition over the head of a first-rate scholar, although a foundationer, and perhaps residing nearer the school, within the borough, but outside the parish."(1) In the latter case, that of boarders being excluded from competing for the exhibitions, the effect is very commonly in no way a benefit to the town. It is true foreigners do not carry off the town boys' privileges, but the town boys either do not value the privilege enough to protract their school life in order to protract still longer their educational career, or those who do value it fail to find in a school so cramped either the standard, the stimulus, or the instruction which can alone qualify them to put the exhibitions to good use. A town boy really desirous of getting a good education, still more one who had the ambition to do well at the university, would be far more benefited by a school which forced upon him a competition with others, even if he lost the exhibition eventually, than by a school which gave him the prize without giving him the struggle. It is bad when either a school is drawn from its proper course by having a university exhibition attached to it, or a boy is brought to a bad school by the prospect of an exhibition when he would otherwise have gone to a better.(2) It is bad also when any means of enabling fit boys to get the highest education are wasted, or when an unfit boy is sent where unfitness is often the precursor of idleness and extravagance. All of these evils are clearly encouraged by narrow restrictions upon the eligibility to university exhibitions.

Blackrod Grammar School has an exhibition of £65 a year tenable for five years. "The children attending the school are coal miners' children, who come to it from the National school for the sake of a clothing charity, and leave school altogether for the pit at 11 or 12 years of age. The present holder of the exhibition came from Bolton by rail, six or eight miles, every day in order to be taught, or rather to be physically present, in Blackrod school, merely for the sake of this £65. In other words its effect was to bring a lad from a place where he might have got a good education to a place where he must get a bad one."(3)

The exhibitions from Macclesfield Grammar School "are

(1) Rev. C. Evans, Q. 5836-9. The Worfield Exhibition at Worcester is restricted in a similar way. See Mr. Bryce's Report.

(2) See the list (Appendix vii Table iv) of schools having scholars at the University. The number of scholars holding restricted scholarships is given.

(3) Bryce, p. 482.


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restricted by the Act of Parliament of 1838 to sons of inhabitants of Prestbury (the parish in which Macclesfield is), that is in effect to day boys ... At present the exhibitioners sometimes fail to pass their examinations at the universities."(1) Chipping Campden School has "every fourth year a Townsend exhibition of about £80 a year, to be held at Pembroke College, Oxford. It is instructive," says Mr. Stanton, "to see the fate of this supposed boon to the school on the last six occasions. On the first the holder, having been twice plucked, left the university degreeless; on the second the holder was unable to matriculate; on the third he was plucked for his last examination; on the fourth he got a first-class in mathematics; on the fifth he failed to matriculate; and on the sixth no candidate was even nominated." Mr. Stanton also gives an account of the result of a charity left in 1722 for (amongst other things) "the maintenance, education, schooling, and qualifying for, putting to, and keeping at, Oxford, of a lad to be chosen out of certain parishes in Gloucestershire. The only known instance of a youth chosen out of the privileged parishes was the son of a professional gentleman, who was elected in 1860, and sent to a clergyman to prepare for Oxford." During seven years he received from this fund in all nearly £900, and at last failed to pass his Responsions and had to remove his name from the college.(2)

Very frequently the exhibition is not filled up at all.(3) Mr. Stanton gives the following account of the grammar schools in Devon and Somerset. "At Kingsbridge there were three vacant for want of boys to fill them, of the value of £40 each, and there were none in the school at present likely to apply for them. So also an exhibition of £60 has not been filled up at Crediton, and at Ashburton the Gifford exhibition to Exeter College had not been carried off by the school for 20 years. At Ottery, an exhibition had long not been filled up, and the Glanville exhibition at Tavistock was in a similar predicament. At Exeter, I understood from the head master that till within the last 10 years the exhibitions, which average two a year, were not, for dearth of candidates, always filled up; and even now, except in two instances where the contest lay between only two candidates, there had been no competition for them, the examiner merely having to report that the candidate reached a certain mark. At Bristol in a school of 230, although

(1) Mr. Wright's Report.

(2) He afterwards entered at a Hall, but with what result is not yet known. See Mr. Stanton's Report on Wick and Abson Charity.

(3) St. Olave's, Southwark, and Monmouth are instances. See below pp. 452, 541.


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the exhibition is filled up, up to the present time there has been little or no competition for it. At Bruton two exhibitions of £30 have been vacant since 1861. At Crewkerne, where on the average one exhibition is vacant every year, there is not always competition, and an exhibition which is open only to foundationers, (i.e., the inhabitants and the parishes within six miles round, a population of some 12,000), had only one applicant during 10 years, and that applicant the son of the head master himself. At Ilminster, during seven years only three boys have applied for an exhibition, one being vacant every year. At Bath an exhibition was offered to the school a few years ago; three years elapsed before a candidate could be found. Tiverton is the only school where the exhibitions seem to have been filled up with tolerable regularity and to have formed the subject of bonâ fide competition. Even here an exhibition confined to natives of the town had not in 1862 been filled up for several years."(1)

The condition of other parts of the country is similar. The want of some more elastic system is clearly shown by such cases as Hull, where the grammar school has an exhibition not filled up since 1848, and a new proprietary college is being established for the purpose of giving a university education, but to which this exhibition cannot be attached;(2) and Gloucester, where of two old foundation schools, one (the Cathedral school) trains boys for the Universities but has no exhibition, the other (the Crypt school) has only two boys learning Greek, but has every fourth year an exhibition of £80 per annum, which has not been filled up since 1853.(3)

A rare instance of elasticity is afforded by the foundation of Lady Elizabeth Hastings in 1739, who left valuable estates for exhibitions, now ten in number, to Queen's College, Oxford, for scholars from 12 schools, viz., eight in Yorkshire - Leeds, Wakefield, Bradford, Beverley, Skipton, Sedbergh, Ripon, and Sherburn; two in Westmoreland - Appleby and Heversham; and two in Cumberland - St, Bees and Penrith, and the foundress wisely provided that if any of these decayed, others might be substituted in their place. Though the foundation is only 130 years old, the need for such a provision has already been shown. Accordingly Beverley, Ripon, Sherburn, and Skipton have been

(1) p.40.

(2) The local Charity Trustees rejected a proposal approved by the Corporation for combining the Grammar and Proprietary schools. Fitch, p. 204, and Report on Hull.

(3) Mr. Stanton's Report on Gloucester Crypt School.


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replaced by Hipperholme, Giggleswick, Pontefract, and York. Each school may send a candidate to compete for a vacant exhibition.(1) A similar fund in Shropshire furnishes 18 exhibitions tenable at Christ Church, but unfortunately they are allotted in certain proportions to six schools, being open in default of candidates to competition from all. Mr. Bryce points out that the only Shropshire grammar schools (besides Shrewsbury, which gets most of these exhibitions) that are at all flourishing as classical schools are Oswestry and Whitchurch, neither of which is in the number entitled to the Careswell exhibitions. Of those which are entitled, Wem had only 14 scholars, three only of whom "could get beyond the present tense of rego"; Newport had only 13 scholars in the upper school, with which alone the head master was concerned; Bridgnorth had six pupils, and Donington had none whatever. Shiffnal had sent no exhibitioner for 25 years, and it was uncertain whether the school was not a purely private one. We may add that another Shropshire school, Ludlow, has an exhibition vacant every year, but not open to the boarders, and only thrice since 1849 has one been filled up.(2) At Beverley there are eight small exhibitions unfilled, amounting in all to about £60 a year. Instead of consolidating them the trustees actually distribute the amount in doles to the poor.(3)

While exhibitions attached to some schools are thus wasted, other schools are endeavouring to found exhibitions for the purposes which these ought to fulfil.(4) The like phenomena are constantly occurring in every part of the field of our investigations. There is in the country quite as much desire as ever for a grammar-school education, and quite as much desire for the continuance of that education at the Universities: but the old grammar schools often do not give the education or do not attract a complement of scholars, and new schools have had to be started almost by their side.(5) So also there is quite as much need and desire as ever for an education stopping short of the University, but yet higher than the bare elements, and few grammar schools have succeeded in adapting themselves to this need. The whole system of grammar schools is out of gear. The schools require subordinating one to another just as the highest of them are already subordinate to the Universities. An exhi-

(1) Fitch, p. 204.

(2) Mr Bryce's Reports. Ludlow is, however, beginning to rise.

(3) Mr. Fitch's Report.

(4) e.g. Lancaster, Preston, Felsted, Swansea, Monmouth.

(5) e.g. Cheltenham, Marlborough, Framlingham, Bath, Leamington (near Warwick), Clifton (near Bristol).


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bition from a small school in Shropshire to Shrewsbury would be far more useful than an exhibition direct to the University; still more useful would be an exhibition, which the holder might take to any recognized place of education whatever at his own choice; and a relaxation of the conditions which now compel the holders of exhibitions to proceed to a University would sacrifice no interest which was worth preserving, and confer on the selected students and on the cause of higher education inestimable benefits.

But before discussing such arrangements at length we must mention another restriction and that is the restriction to a particular college. For instance the Careswell exhibitions are restricted to Christ Church, and the Hastings exhibitions to Queen's College, Oxford. In the former case the estates which supply the funds are in the hands of independent trustees; in the latter they are in the hands of the college. In other cases, again, they are vested in the school trustees.

It seems probable that in cases like the first, there would be little difficulty in widening the area of selection as regards both the schools which should send candidates, and the college to which the candidates should be sent. In cases like the second there would be little difficulty in widening the area of schools; in the third case there would be little difficulty in widening the area of choice as regards the college. Under the recent University Acts It considerable number of exhibitions limited to particular schools, but which had not been filled up on several successive vacancies, were thrown entirely open, and the college thus obtained the benefit.(1) There can be no doubt that an analogous benefit would be reaped by a school which was set free from the tie to a particular college. Apart from the preferences which are felt for one college more than another, the poor exhibitioner is under a serious disadvantage in this, that he may be unable to obtain an open scholarship at the college to which he is thus sent, but may be able to do so at another. He has thus to take his choice between losing the scholarship at another college or giving up his exhibition. He cannot hold both as he otherwise might; and yet he may be in such circumstances as to require both to enable him to support his University expenses. Nor should it be for gotten that even a limitation to one University may seriously limit the attractions of an exhibition, and therefore, limit both

(1) See Reports on Dorchester, Sandwich, Cowbridge, Abergavenny.


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its use in exciting competition and its real power of aiding successful candidates.(1)

iii. MODE OF FULFILLING THE FOUNDERS' INTENTIONS

We have now to discuss the facts which point to the practicability of a more complete and successful fulfilment of the founder's intentions than is at present the case. First, we shall illustrate the necessity of fixing the grade of the schools; secondly, the means of bringing these schools within the range of the scholars needing them; thirdly, the need of exhibitions to enable boys to continue their education longer than they otherwise would; and, lastly, we shall point out classes of endowments which may profitably be used for the supply of new schools and of exhibitions for selected scholars.

1. Illustration of the Reasons for grading the Schools

We propose here to discuss, in connexion with the facts, the permanent difficulty (already named in the preceding chapter) under which grammar schools labour, and which, though aggravated by indiscriminate gratuitous instruction, and by local restrictions, is not removed by their abolition. This difficulty was partly foreseen by many of the founders, when they instituted a "petty" school as preparatory to the grammar school. But they did not see the whole of it, for education was then much more uniform. The difficulty is this.

Except in a school of very large size it is not possible to carry on economically and satisfactorily the whole education of boys, from learning the elements to preparing for university contests. Still less is it possible to combine the education of different sections of boys who are intended to leave school entirely at all ages from 10 to 19. For, first, the methods and subjects of teaching are rarely quite the same, and may often be well made very different for boys whose school career is to continue till 18 or 19, compared with that of boys whose career is to end at 13 or 14.(2) Instruction, when most suitably ordered, is not one continuous piece of which any length cut at discretion shall yet be a whole. At any rate the last

(1) We may call attention to the fact that there are a considerable number of Exhibitions in the gift of the City companies. One witness stated that they are (at least sometimes) given away as matters of private favour, Mr. Isbister, Q.9231.

(2) Giffard, pp. 194-5. Fitch, p. 167. Bryce, p. 502. Fearon, pp. 292, 295. Green, pp. 158-191. See also Mr. Green's separate reports on Walsall, Wolverhampton, Appleby, Atherstone, Loughborough, Wellingborough, Stratford-on-Avon, &c.


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year of a boy leaving school at 15 years old should be differently spent from the same year of age in the case of a boy going on till 18. Secondly, the oldest boys in the school are usually those to whom the head master gives most of his attention. If boys who are leaving school at 15 are found in the same school as those leaving at 18, the former obtain little of the personal teaching and immediate influence of the man of highest ability in the school. Nor, thirdly, is the economical argument less strong. The advantages of the division of labour are as great here as in other processes requiring human skill. It would be as unwise to distribute among the teachers in a school all the boys as they first enter, and leave each master to conduct the education, throughout all subjects, of boys in every stage of proficiency, as it is to assign to the grammar schools the same task of training for their widely different destinations the inhabitants of each small town or village in which the school happen to be situated. The trial has been made, and no one can read the Assistant Commissioners' Reports, or the evidence of our witnesses, without seeing that the plan completely breaks down, and is constantly and necessarily breaking down. The scholars do not get what they each most want. The boy training for the University does not find in the master of a small school the scholarship necessary for the highest teaching, nor in his companions the traditional aptitude which makes them helpful rivals. The boy destined for a profession requiring scientific knowledge is besides hampered by an over-proportion of classics, and discouraged by the little weight which the school attaches to success in science. The boy seeking a commercial education finds himself regarded as an inferior being, who may be left to the lifeless teaching of a lower master, and cannot expect any further culture than can be extracted from the Latin and Greek accidence. Nor is there any self-adjustment in the present system. The success of one school does not thereby, at once and naturally, determine others to adopt a different and subordinate function. They struggle on hopelessly and wastefully with the majority of their scholars either younger or less forward than three or four of their companions, who lose for want of competition and example, while yet they attract an undue share of the attention of the head master, and colour in an undue degree the general course and management of the school.

At present, as Mr. Wright has observed, there are in use three modes of reforming Grammar schools so as to make them suitable for different classes of scholars, requiring a different education.(1) The first is to cut the knot at once by making

(1) Wright, Sum. Min. vol viii pp. 668-671. Bryce, p. 500.


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two schools, a Grammar and a Commercial school, entirely separate, excepting so far as they both share in a common trust. On this plan the Head master of the one owes no allegiance to the Head of the other; and each school has its own subjects of instruction, which are sometimes strictly limited, so as to avoid direct rivalry. Bedford, Norwich, and Macclesfield may be taken as affording instances of this plan. The second plan is to keep the school as one, but to enlarge the course of studies, and offer a certain choice among them to the scholars. This plan is exemplified in the City of London School and in Chesterfield Grammar School. In both these schools there are lower departments; but the lower department is strictly preparatory to the upper and ruled by it. The third course is to divide the school into two, a Grammar and a Commercial school, but under one common master, who usually takes especial charge of the upper department, but has the other also under his general control. Under this arrangement a transference of some boys from the Commercial school to the Grammar school is usually provided for, but the one is not mainly intended and guided so as to prepare for the other, though the superior control being common to both enables some adjustment to take place. This arrangement is one introduced by several recent schemes of the Court of Chancery and the Charity Commissioners, as in the case of Derby, Stockport, Sandbach, Cheltenham (Grammar school), Dulwich, and others, but it has not yet come fully into operation.

The first course has often been adopted in order both to satisfy those persons who desire for their children a Commercial education only, and also to avoid a mixture of boys belonging to different ranks. The fee, if any, is usually lower, often much lower, for the Commercial than for the Grammar school. The difference in the instruction is that Greek is not taught in the Commercial school and Latin not carried very far. At the Commercial school of Macclesfield, both Latin and Greek are absolutely forbidden. The advantages of this plan are simply those of independent management, a greater freedom in selecting subjects and method, less embarrassed action on the part of the Head master. The disadvantages are very serious; the interval between social ranks becomes increased, the schools are thrown into a kind of antagonism to one another, the standard of education in the Commercial department has a tendency to become lower, because there is no higher education set before either boys or master, no other aim for education visible than the attainment of merely business qualifications; and, finally, the poorer parents choosing the cheaper school, little chance remains for the poor boy of ability to be selected for a longer and higher education. Meanwhile the Grammar school,


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unless it have a very large endowment or can attract many boarders, is starved, both in money and in boys. Many who otherwise might have come to it are now drawn off to the Commercial school, often not because their parents could not or would not afford the higher school fee, but because they do not know that their boys can profit by the education which that fee would obtain for them.

The second plan of combining different courses of study in the same school is exposed to the great dangers of either forcing all into a curriculum too exclusively classical, or of losing thoroughness in teaching any one subject, or any one class of boys, by striving to accommodate all. If by any alterations in the age at which Latin and Greek are begun, and the method of teaching them, this danger might be at least partially obviated - and we believe that this is not at all impossible - there would yet remain the dislocation previously named, arising from the mass of boys leaving at 15 and a small proportion only staying on later.(1) In a large town this small proportion might yet form a considerable school, and allow of good teaching in high subjects with an active and healthy rivalry between the boys. But in a small town, dealing only with its own limited population, the inherent difficulties of combining a thorough classical and a thorough commercial education appear insurmountable. There is more sensitiveness on the subject of the mixture with boys from lower ranks of society, because they are neighbours as well as schoolfellows; there is greater pressure against the grammar school's having a predominantly classical character, because there are fewer schools within reach to choose from; and behind all other obstacles rises the economical one, that high education requires able teachers, and the cost of only one able teacher exhausts any resources but those of a large endowment, or a profitable boarding establishment, or a large number of capitation fees. It is hopeless therefore to expect boys to be thoroughly trained for success at the Universities in the unaided Grammar School of any but a large town. Nor for the purposes of this plan can aid be sought in the admission of a large number of boarders. For boys seeking a boarding school will be deterred by a union of social classes and of different grades of education which a day scholar may be glad to accept. And yet these are the very advantages of the plan. It is an endeavour to unite social classes, to spread the benefit of able supervision over scholars who are to leave at an early age as well as over those who are to stay till later, and to keep open to poverty better nutriment for

(1) See Loughborough and Christ's Hospital, &c.


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budding ability than the course of an ordinary commercial school offers. In the City of London School this produces good fruit; but the school is large, the endowment is considerable, and the fee, though not too high for the instruction, is yet higher than can at present be expected from those who are seeking only a commercial education in a country town. In Chesterfield very few boys stay beyond 14 years of age, and, as regards the University, the school acts rather as preparatory to other schools than sends scholars directly from its own training.(1)

The third plan, namely, a division into two schools separate, yet with a common head master and provision for promotions from one to the other, is in fact a compromise between the two other plans. It is of course not possible where, from lack of numbers or of endowment, a single common school is not possible; but where social prejudices are strong,(2) it may enable as much concession to be made to them, as is necessary, without driving the upper boys from the school, or the lower from the chance of rising. As a matter of fact it has been adopted partly for these reasons, and partly to shut out the evils of gratuitous education from the grammar school proper. Of the two links named, the common head master and promoted scholars, the last is quite essential, and the first too appears at present to be of considerable importance. Thus at Faversham, a certain number of the most promising "boys of the National schools are drafted by competitive examination into the Commercial School", and provision is made for similar promotion from the Commercial School to the Grammar School. But this is not carried into effect. "It is not to be expected", says Mr. Elton, "that the head of a commercial school of great excellence would wish his best pupils to be periodically promoted into another school in no way connected with him. To ensure the carrying out of the scheme with complete success, the whole set of schools ought to be under the supervision of the same trustees and the management of the same principal." At Norwich, where a similar provision exists, not only has it not been acted upon, but proposals have even been made "to convert these exhibitions from the Commercial School to the Grammar School into gratuities for the best commercial boys on leaving school." Both these schools are highly praised by Mr. Hammond; so that it is not the fault of the masters, but the not unnatural rivalry which arises between schools thus situated which prevents the achievement of the connection intended.(3) This difficulty is however

(1) See Report on Hartlebury.

(2) See Reports on Aylesbury, Walsall.

(3) Compare Reports on Caistor, Ruabon.


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probably not more than temporary. The relations between school and school, and between grammar and the claims of commerce throughout the country have hitherto been conducted under a cloud of uneasy suspicion and irritable prejudice: for lack of distinct functions definitely recognized each school has been thrown back involuntarily into an attitude of self-assertion, instead of many being united in reciprocal support. The gulf between the Universities or higher professions and the elementary schools is now filled by a loose mass of materials, which require selection and arrangement in order to make a firm and continuous path.

We have spoken in the preceding chapter of the organization of schools which we believe, on the evidence brought before us by our witnesses and Assistant Commissioners, will best promote the cause of the higher education, and at the same time satisfy the wishes of parents. There are two great objects to be secured; first, the supply of good schools, readily accessible, giving the education needed and desired by an large sections of the population of the district, and secondly, the means of enabling the smaller sections, which consist of too few persons to make an effective school possible in the neighbourhood, to combine at the least possible cost with others at a distance. The sections of the population, which require an education terminating at the ages of 12, 14, 16 and 18 or 19, are respectively smaller as the age is greater. If it is unwise and cruel to the majorities to adjust the mode of spending their briefer period of school life to anything but their own greater profit, it is no less unwise and cruel to deprive the minorities of any chance of reaching a high education which they already have, or which they will make an effort, it may be at much sacrifice, to obtain. A bad organization of schools wastes the precious seed-time of the former, and prevents the full harvest of the latter. No scheme for remodelling the grammar school endowments can be satisfactory which does not aim at first securing a sound knowledge of the common elements of education, and then giving to all some culture which they are less likely otherwise to get, and increasing the number of those who desire more culture than satisfies others of their class.

The first requisite, as we stated in the second chapter, is to assign definite functions to the schools, so as to prevent all trying to answer every purpose and thereby few succeeding in answering any. The second is to enable those who desire a higher or different education than that given in the school of their town or village to pass readily to another school.


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1. The functions of a school are best fixed by fixing the grade of the school, that is, by determining which of the three grades of scholars it shall serve, and requiring it to conform its course of instruction to the needs of that grade only. To do this effectually a maximum limit of age for the scholars must be prescribed, and an entrance examination enforced. Both limitations are necessary to keep a school to its proper task; the former to guard it against the temptations incident to its own success, the latter to keep off obstructions which would impede it in its proper course. What the precise course of instruction should be it is well to leave as open as possible, nor is it at all necessary to give a precise definition, excepting in two particulars: one is that Latin should not be begun at least in second or third grade schools till the elements of a sound English education are thoroughly secured, the other that Greek should not be taught, except as an extra, in a school of either grade below the first, and not in all first grade schools. There is no advantage in fixing a minimum age for the scholars, beyond what is implied in the necessity of passing a good entrance examination. The knowledge necessary for passing this may be obtained either by attendance at a lower grade of the secondary schools or at the elementary schools, according to the particular grade of education for which a boy is intended, or at specially preparatory schools, or departments. The difference would be this, that the preparatory schools though losing their scholars, say at 12 or 14, would teach them on the assumption that they were to continue their education afterwards; the schools not specially preparatory would contain two classes of scholars, first those for whose needs the education is intended and who would leave for business when the maximum limit of age was reached; secondly, those who found the education suitable for a time, but left when they had exhausted it (in the case of clever boys, at an earlier age than others), with the view of continuing their education in a school of a higher grade.

The three grades of schools which we have thus described do not differ from a large number of schools which have been recently established, except in the restrictions we have proposed should be put upon them. The three schools of Liverpool College, the Royal Institution, and two schools of the Liverpool Institute, the three boarding schools established by Mr. Woodard in Sussex, are all analogous respectively in the classes of scholars intended to be served. Instances again of the first grade are found in Marlborough, Cheltenham, Rossall, Clifton, and Haileybury; of the second, in the County schools at West Buckland, Samp-


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ford Peverell, Framlingham, Dorchester, and Cranley; of the third grade, the most prominent instance is the school just started in Finsbury, by the Middle Schools Corporation, whose existence is due to the active and well directed exertions of Mr. Rogers.

We believe the restrictions which we have proposed to be essential to any reform of the endowed schools, which is really to meet the needs of the country. All these restrictions exist; some in one school, some in another, but mostly in theory rather than in practice. Moreover, they are not adjusted to the circumstances of the particular school, because the school itself is not adjusted to its proper place in an organized system.

(a) Thus at Dulwich a maximum age of 18(1) is fixed for the upper school, though most schools giving a classical education can retain their pupils till 19, and a maximum of 16 for the lower school, though the low amount of the fees (5s a quarter) make it attract rather scholars of the third grade. At Christ's Hospital the education is mainly classical, yet not a twentieth of the scholars are allowed to stay beyond the age of 15. At Horsham the age of 14 is the maximum allowable, and the education is certainly not of a higher cast than that age presumes, but all endowment of £500 a year is wasted on a day school of that grade with only 80 boys. At Rishworth, near Halifax, where £2,000 a year is lavished on the entire maintenance of 15 girls and 55 boys, no girl is allowed to stay beyond 14 and no boy "beyond 16, except those whom the trustees may see fit with the advice of the head master to select as candidates for the University." Such a rule, though at first sight plausible, is not likely to work well. If the school is intended to be one of the second grade, a candidate for distinction at the University had much better leave it for one of the first grade; for he will either suffer himself or cause the education of the rest to suffer. If the exception is allowed to become the rule, the purpose of the school is altered. As a matter of fact only one scholar in seven years has been qualified to avail himself of a valuable exhibition to the Universities which the school supplies, and the master sees none now likely to be eligible. So at Stamford only the six head boys are allowed to stay after 15 years old. In recent schemes a maximum limit of age is usually fixed, especially where the school is distinctly intended to give a commercial education. This is the case at Norwich and Yarmouth Commercial Schools.

But how little correspondence there is between the curriculum actually in use at a school and the age of the great

(1) So also at Brentwood, Wimborne, &c.


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majority of the students, will be best seen by a comparison of the tables which will be found in the following chapter. Thus in the county of Stafford there are eight schools giving a classical education. Only two of these have ten per cent of their scholars above the age of 16. In Warwickshire(1) there are six classical schools; only three of these belong, according to the same test, to the first grade. And the calculation on which this is made includes boarders as well as day scholars. The actual number of day scholars in all the grammar Schools (except Brewood and Birmingham), within these two counties, who were above 16 years of age at the time of Mr. Green's visit, was not more than about 20(2). Again, of the grammar schools in the West Riding there are 12 which teach Greek and Latin; only six belong to the first grade. In Lincolnshire there are 10 classical schools, and only three are of the first grade. In Devonshire there are 11 classical schools, and only two are of the first grade. In Somerset there are six classical schools, and only one is of the first grade. But even this does not represent the full extent of the divergence. For we have not counted as classical schools any which teach Greek to one or two scholars only. And yet even in these the school may cling to its supposed classical character and offer little good instruction besides. Mr. Fitch visited "one village school endowed with more than £200 per annum, in which there were 50 children, of whom four boys at the head were learning Latin, and these four were arranged in three separate classes; two elder lads working together at Homer and Virgil, and each of the other two preparing every day a separate Latin exercise." The master told Mr. Fitch "that so much of his time was taken up in hearing the lessons, that he was unable to give much attention to the rest. There is an exhibition of £50 a year to Cambridge and one of the boys was seeking to qualify himself for it. The trustees and the Head master pointed with much pride to the fact, that one boy from the school was now enjoying this exhibition at Cambridge, and that another would be prepared to succeed him. This was their only test of the soundness of the school. Yet it is the only school in the village. Its existence makes the establishment of a national school impossible, and its general character is very low."(3) At Wisbech,(4) the grammar school with one boy qualified for an exhibition to Cambridge, which the school possesses, and 20 others, all under 16 years of age, of whom seven are

(1) Omitting Rugby.

(2) Green, p. 174.

(3) Fitch, p. 175.

(4) Richmond (vol viii) p. 641.


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boarders, contrasts very unfavourably with a private school close to the town, which has eighty boarders and thirty-five day scholars, most of the latter being sons of inhabitants. The private school gives a commercial education including Latin and French, the grammar school makes French an extra, and Greek a part of the regular course.(1)

(b) Of the lax way in which an entrance examination is now conducted at many schools we have already spoken, and of the consequent degradation of the grammar school. Mr. Green, whose report is very largely devoted to a solution in all their bearings of the questions which we are now discussing, says upon this point: "This state of things is evil negatively and positively. Negatively, because the grammar schools, if they would raise their education throughout above that which is to be had elsewhere, and then give admission to it, thus elevated, as the reward of early knowledge, have the power to advance the elementary teaching of ordinary boys, by a space of two or three years, and to put the stamp of public discredit on the inability, now very common, of boys, born in competence, to read and spell at the age of 12, a power, which by their present system, they throw away. Positively, because not only do the mass of boys, owing to the waste of some years which might have been given to elementary learning before entry to the grammar school, lose all chance of availing themselves of the higher education which the grammar school has to give, but the few of more promise are kept back by the dead weight of ignorance in the lower classes and by want of competition when they reach the upper. It was my general experience to find in the lesser grammar schools, one boy, in the larger, two or three, so far superior to the rest as either to have to be taught separately, thus seriously trenching on the master's time, or to be distinctly kept back by classification with inferior boys.(2) These inferior boys, however, would be themselves quite an aristocracy compared with those in the region below the two first classes, a region from which the majority never emerge. Low as is the level of the first class in a grammar school, it is a level which it is quite the exception to reach."

(c) The third regulation is one of the utmost importance, because it relates to the promotion of boys from the primary and

(1) Comp. Wright, Sum. p. 669.

(2) He says the same of private schools: "In almost all the decent private schools I found one or two boys, 13 or 14 years old, who seemed to have more faculty and desire of learning than was ever likely to be brought out." (p. 207).


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commercial to the higher schools. Mr. Green clearly sets forth this difficulty in both cases. "I never met with a school where a system of transfer from the commercial department to the classical was effectively worked. The transfer is useless, unless made when a boy is still very young. A head-master may, no doubt, by keeping up an active supervision over the lower department, occasionally catch a promising boy in it while still quite young, and get him transferred to the higher. But here is a double risk. The head master may fail to notice the boy, and the parents, accustomed to the lower fee, may be unwilling to pay the higher. If, as at Burton, regular provision is made for the admission of certain boys from the commercial department to the classical without payment of a fee, boys do not generally avail themselves of this till they are near the top of the former. Then, having learnt little or no Latin, they are not fit to be placed in the higher classes of the classical department, while they are too old and too far advanced in English subjects to improve themselves in the lower. Thus a boy, whom parental ignorance or selfishness has once placed in the commercial department, is pretty sure to stay there, whatever his latent capacity. With nothing to stimulate his ambition, he learns even the commercial subjects (this was my uniform experience) no better than Iris neighbour in the classical."(1)

Of the difficulty in the second case Mr. Green speaks thus: "The only case I have met where boys were transferred systematically from the National or British school to a grammar school was that of the Bridge Trust School at Handsworth. There a certain number are every year admitted freely by competition from the schools for the poor. The trustees fix the number at their discretion, so long as there be not more than 30 such boys in the school at any one time. When I was there, the practice had been to admit two free boys in this way each year. The master considered that he could fitly absorb about one such boy to every 20. In other cases where boys had been transferred from a National school to a grammar school, the experiment did not seem to have succeeded very well. The reason for its failure was generally the same as that for which a transfer from the lower to the upper department of a grammar school is generally a failure. It had been made too late. The system of the grammar school supposes that an average boy at 13 or 14 knows some Latin

(1) Green, p. 190.


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but is still imperfect in arithmetic; the advanced boy from the National school, on the other hand, at that age (which is the age at which he generally makes the transfer in question), is perfect in arithmetic but knows no Latin; in consequence he cannot adjust himself to the system of the grammar school and gains little from it. If the grammar school maintained a severe entrance examination for all boys in elementary knowledge, through which the best boys from the National school under a certain age might gain free admission to it, the case would be different. These latter would be caught younger, while the ordinary boys at the grammar school would get their arithmetic over at an earlier age."(1)

(d) The necessity of largely reducing the number of endowed schools, in which Greek is a part of the regular course, is illustrated (1) by the result of experiments, which have been often made lately, of dispensing with it in the case of some boys, while yet it is retained as the general rule; and (2) by the tendency of classical schools to become merely preparatory schools and yet retain classics.

(1) Thus in some endowed schools, and still more in the proprietary schools, established by the professional classes for the education of their own sons, a modern department has been formed; the boys being allowed, after attaining a certain position in the school, to step aside from the main course, and omitting Greek, give their chief attention to mathematics or other non-classical subjects. Such departments have been established at Marlborough College, Rossall, Wellington, Clifton, Richmond, Norwich, and other places; and they show beyond question the desire that is felt for a high, but less classical, course, than was given in the older schools. Where the modern department is really, as at Cheltenham College, a large and distinct school, with the Woolwich examinations for its test and goal, the want is more nearly met. But where it is only a side current from the main stream, it has a tendency to become sluggish, receiving the waifs and strays of classes, those who desire an escape not from any subject in particular, but from hard work generally.(2) At Christ's Hospital, the Latin school is formed of 150 boys, who have at a certain age failed to pass a very easy examination in classics. They appear to make exceedingly little progress during the remainder of their stay at school. It is true this Latin school is almost a caricature of a modern department as generally understood, but they exhibit

(1) Green, p. 253. See also Fearon, p. 295.

(2) Compare Green, p. 189.


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the same faults as it exhibits, but in a less extreme and less obtrusive form. They are either cramped by too exclusive a regard to one special examination such as that for admission to Woolwich, or, more frequently, the boys work with a sense of past failure, and with no definite and encouraging aim in the future.(1) If there were some public examination to give éclat to success, if the Universities gave a more cordial welcome to students who knowing no Greek, could yet prove their industry and ability in other branches of knowledge, if a modern department ceased to lie almost avowedly in the shadow of a successful classical school, there is little doubt that much ability now latent would find its appropriate stimulus, and the ranks of many trades and professions receive recruits with a more special, though still liberal, education.

(2) Most first grade schools would retain Greek as part of their regular course, and schools of a lower grade would not. Whether an endowed school could wisely be made entirely or primarily a preparatory school, is a question which can scarcely be decided absolutely in the abstract. But a classical preparatory school is one which would appeal in most towns to a very limited class. It does not satisfy the needs of the minority, still less does it give the majority what they chiefly want. In fact it cannot exist except by the aid of boarders and high capitation fees. Thus at Chichester the Prebendal school, which enjoys a considerable though variable endowment, gives a classical education to but eighteen scholars, all under 14 years of age. Honiton grammar school and Fauconberge's school at Beccles, with small endowments take a somewhat similar line, but have 63 and 32 scholars respectively. Mr. Hammond, in comparing the state of education in Norfolk, where there are five or six schools mainly of this kind, with Northumberland, where there are not, speaks strongly of the importance of not hastily converting such schools, "so long as they have a fair number of scholars, into cheap day schools for the trading community alone. They are extremely useful to clergymen and poor professional men, who naturally and reasonably desire for their children a more expensive education than they can well afford to give them. The ardour of this class in furthering the educational interest of their families is of advantage to the general public, who without feeling the same enthusiasm share in the benefits

(1) Rev. G. Bradley, Evid, (vol iv, p. 419). Rev. Dr. Howson, Q. 2705-2712. Fitch, p. 170. Giffard, p. 150, Fearon (on the Latin school of Christ's Hospital), pp. 487, 507.


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which result from it. If it were once repressed by the extinction of such schools, or their conversion into semi-classical establishments, the standard of education in Norfolk would sink to a lower level."(1) The difficulty really turns more upon Greek than anything else. A school retaining boys till they are sixteen years of age might give sound Latin teaching, whether the boys completed their school education there or not. All deviations from the regular course are undesirable, but perhaps if an opportunity were afforded for commencing Greek as an extra, the interests of these classes might be sufficiently considered without causing serious loss to the inhabitants of the place generally. Mr. Hammond himself does not consider that boys of remarkable promise could be wisely left at these schools, even as they are now, beyond 15 or 16 years of age, and recommends their transference "to the more successful public schools". The whole question is however part of a much larger one, which we now proceed to discuss.

2. Means of Access to the Schools

The number of boys requiring schools of these several grades is much greater for the third than for the second, and for the second than the first. A country village or small town would not be able to support any day school except of the third grade. In larger towns or populous neighbourhoods a second grade day school might succeed, but the town must be still more considerable to furnish many day scholars to a first grade school. While, therefore, boys requiring schools of the higher grades must often be boarders, there is less difficulty, as there is, owing to the more straitened means of third grade scholars, greater necessity, to provide day schools of the third grade. We have, therefore, to consider (a) how the special condition of the classes requiring third grade schools may be best met, and more generally (b) the distance from which a day school is accessible, and (c) the means of reducing boarding expenses. We shall then be in a position to discuss what further help can be given by means of exhibitions.

(a) Preparatory Education, and Third Grade Schools

For admission to schools of any of these grades the possession of some elementary knowledge will be required, and this must be obtained either at home or in a lower division of the same

(1) Hammond, p. 443. Mr. Hammond thinks Greek cannot be taught satisfactorily as an extra, p. 398.


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school, or in a separate preparatory school A school of a lower grade may often be found to serve as a preparatory school for one of a higher grade, but that is not its proper function. Nor is it the function of any of them necessarily or primarily to give elementary education. The very name of Grammar school has always been understood, and rightly understood, to imply that the school was intended to teach something more than the elements, and that some fair amount of preliminary education had already been given before the scholar entered the walls. It is worth while to consider the question how far, if at all, endowments of this character can be used for preparatory schools. Two cases will need separate discussion, since it will be found that preparatory schools of the third grade differ in some essential particulars from preparatory schools of the two higher grades, and if the same conclusion be arrived at as regards both, yet it must be on different grounds.

(1) Schools of the Third Grade. If a school of the third grade be organized as we have described in our first chapter with an upper and lower division, it is obvious that, strictly speaking, it is the upper division alone that gives secondary education. The knowledge necessary for a boy's admission to the upper division is not more than a boy of average abilities may be reasonably expected to have acquired by the time he is 12 or 13 years old. Now this is only what is already given in the elementary schools which are aided by the Government grant. It is clear, therefore, that there is no necessity to apply Grammar School money to this object. Those who are too poor to be able to pay the full cost of such an elementary education can obtain it in these schools. Those who are able to pay the full cost can have no claim on money devoted to and needed for higher education, in order either to save them from an expenditure which it is their duty to make, or to gratify their social pride by giving them a school from which labourers' children are excluded.

Nor can it be said that any such claim is made. The class who above all others seem to need such preparatory schools, are indeed the class who insist most strongly on the exclusion of labourers' children, but they are also a class who scorn to receive an alms, and will either pay for what they require or will put up as best they can with the want of it.(1) To get for his children a really good education at the lowest cost price, is a boon which would he of the highest value to a farmer,

(1) Green, p. 215.


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and is the only boon for which he asks, if he asks at all. To put this in his power is the interest of the community, and it can hardly be otherwise than the duty of the State. The need of the farmers and small tradesmen is not charity, but an education guaranteed to be good, and made, by economical administration as cheap as a bad one is now. The case is fully set out in the Reports of our Assistant Commissioners. Mr. Hammond(1) says, "There is one circumstance which tends to cripple the exertions of the most competent schoolmasters throughout the county of Norfolk. This is the very defective home teaching, especially of farmers' sons in their early years. All schoolmasters in all parts of the county complain that their boys come to school for the first time at too late an age and very imperfectly taught. Wealthy farmers in the agricultural districts of Norfolk will not send their boys as the Northumberland farmers do to a parish school.(2) It is not the fashion to do so. Moreover the prejudice against free boys and charity schools is much stronger and more deep-rooted in the class of farmers and tradespeople, than in some of the educated classes above their grade. This prejudice is further strengthened by the fear, in itself not unreasonable, that their boys may form undesirable acquaintances; or that if they should prove duller than labourers' children, the discovery might cause inconvenience at some future time, when they come to have the management of a farm. Day schools exclusively attended by children of the middle rank cannot be supported in a thinly populated district, where the farms are large. Preparatory schools are not in fashion, and would besides add to the expense of education. Thus there remains a single resource for the early instruction, viz., the employment of a resident governess, who is too frequently ill-paid and ill-educated. It is the custom to entrust the training of boys to these governesses, until they are too old to remain any longer at home. At the age of 11 or thereabouts, these boys are transferred to the teaching of a master, who finds them sometimes spoilt and always neglected, scarcely able to read and write, and quite unable to spell and cipher. Farmers' sons at the age of 10 are invariably more ignorant and more backward than the children of their own labourers." "It was always a safe guess", says Mr. Green, "that any unusually big and backward boy in a private school was the son of a farmer, and an inquiry as to the cause of his backwardness was always met by the explana-

(1) p. 346.

(2) Comp. Bompas, p. 69.


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tion that he had not been in the school long, and had been away half his time."(1) Mr. Stanton(2) gives a similar account of the facts; and adds that, amid the general indifference shown by the small farmers and tradesmen on the subject of the education of their sons, there were signs not only of wounded pride, but of a sense of grievance, as they became increasingly conscious that their labourers were being better educated through their aid than their own sons. As one of them expressed it, "I pay not only for my own sons but for my labourers' sons' education, who receive the benefit of the Government grant out of the taxes which I pay."

The position of the farmers in this matter is however not the same in all parts of the country. Where the farms are small, the social distance between the farmer and his labourer is much less than it is where the farms are large. Something, too, there may be in the habits of the country independent of this cause, which makes the farmer not unwilling to send his son to the schools aided by the Government grant.(3) Thus in Surrey and Sussex, Mr. Giffard(4) says, that "by far the greater part of the population coming under the term farmers, amounting to 7,000 families, educate their children either in the free national schools or in small private day schools where the payments vary from 6d a week to £4 a year." "In Lancashire", says Mr. Bryce, "there is not any class of schools specially used by farmers, nor has the need for such schools been as yet felt. The education of the rural districts, excluding a few dames' schools, the last and swiftly expiring representatives of their order, is entirely in the hands of the Privy Council schools and the endowed schools."(5) The objection of farmers to associate with labourers is not found in many parts of Yorkshire nor in the northern counties generally, nor in some other parts of the country.

The rural population within the scope of our Commission, represented by the large and small farmers, require an education of the second and third grade, and at present they have a manifest difficulty in getting, or show a great indifference in seeking, good preparatory education in elementary subjects. The wants of the richer farmers may be met by boarding schools, but for the others it is most desirable to provide day schools within moderate distances. Now the only schools which are spread over the

(1) Green, p. 168.

(2) pp. 14-17. See also Reports on Worfield, Abbots Bromley, High Ercal, Market Harboro'. Evidence of Bishop of Bath and Wells, Q. 7146, seq.

(3) See Reports on Tuxford, Hargrave, West Kirby. Green, p. 213.

(4) p. 107.

(5) p. 689.


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country generally, in country places as well as in more populous centres, are the National, and, in a less degree, the British Schools. It is evident, from what we have just quoted, that these schools are already used by many of the farmers; and it appears probable that, with certain arrangements, they might be used still more. The problem, indeed, has been worked out more or less in many cases, but three cases have been fully brought before us, and are very instructive as well as interesting.

At Bunbury(1) in Cheshire an old grammar school with an income from endowment of about £50 a year was, before 1854, doing as little good as many small grammar schools are now. "The school was quite free. The clerk of the parish, who kept a public house, was the schoolmaster. Upon two occasions, when the Government inspector was invited to come, and notice was given of his visit, neither master nor scholars were to be found." The school was remodelled, and made the common school of the parish. A trained and certificated master was put at the head, fees were demanded, the Privy Council grant and inspection obtained, and the result is that for a total expenditure of £240 a year, besides a good house for the master, which was built mainly by subscription, there are no scholars receiving an excellent English education. But the marked features of the school have yet to be named.

The fees are very various, being fixed according to the means of the parents: "There are 17 boys at 15s a quarter, 22 at 10s a quarter, three at 6s a quarter, one at 5s a quarter, 18 at 4s a quarter, eight at 3s a quarter, and 51 at 2d a week".(2) "They are the sons of labourers, of tradesmen, of farmers, of professional men, of clergymen, and merchants, the higher class representing about one-third of the whole school."(3) "A short time ago", says Mr. Wright, "there was in regular attendance the heir to £10,000 a year. The boys come about nine years old and stay till about 14. Three had reached 15 and one 16. The instruction is such that a labourer's son who leaves at 10 or 11 learns to read, write, and sum unusually well, and gets some knowledge of geography; a farmer's or tradesman's son who stays till 13 or 14 learns also some mensuration and surveying or book-keeping, and if he chooses some Latin, Euclid, and algebra, while a gentleman's son by 12 obtains a really good grounding in English and arithmetic,

(1) Evidence of Rev. W. B. Garnett Botfield, Q. 14,374-14,484. Rev. J. P. Norris, Q. 541. Wright, vol viii pp. 670-673, and Report on Bunbury.

(2) Rev. W. G. Botfield, Q. 14,393.

(3) Ib.


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and sufficient Latin to enable him to proceed at no disadvantage to a higher school. In May 1866 59 boys passed the local examination in drawing, of the Department of Science and Art. All classes mix freely in the school, the prevailing tone is that of the better bred, and the manners and pronunciation of the boys were in marked contrast with those of merely National schools. There is a somewhat similar though not quite so successful school at Halton near Runcorn."(1) It may be added that on the reformation of Bunbury "a school in the neighbourhood carried on for farmers' sons died a natural death directly."(2)

The second case is that of the National School of Abbotts Ann, a small parish of 600 people. Mr. Best, the Rector of the parish, informed us that the present school consists of 89 who pay 2d a week, two who pay 3d a week, 12 who pay 4d, two who are small shopkeepers and pay 6d, six who pay 8d, and 20 who pay 1s. These last are farmers and others of a similar class. The fees are fixed entirely by the status of the parents after inquiry by the master or sometimes by the Rector. In all there are 131 children, the girls rarely staying beyond 12, the boys staying in some cases to 15, 16, and even to 17 years of age. The master has a first-class certificate but was not trained. He receives £44 a year fixed, half the receipts of the school, and one fourth of the Government grant, in all about £80 or £90 a year besides a house in which he can take 12 or 14 boarders. The instruction is English with some Latin, some algebra, about two books of Euclid, and the rudiments of natural philosophy and chemistry for the elder boys. Occasionally some learn French. The presence of girls in the school raises the tone altogether. Many of the pupil-teachers have subsequently risen in the world. A large portion of the children come from the parishes round, and a great many have come from the town of Andover 2½ miles off. The school is similar to that at King's Somborne, established by the late Dean of Hereford.

The third school is one of a higher kind than either of the other two. It is at Callington, in Cornwall, a country town of 2,000 people. The school was described to us by the Rector, the Rev. F. V. Thornton. He originally established a school of the kind in Hampshire, and carried with him on his removal to Cornwall the second master, who was in orders, some under-teachers, and about 20 of his pupils, partly boarders and partly his own children. The children of every class in the town and of both sexes

(1) Wright, p. 671, and Report on Bunbury.

(2) Rev. W. G. Botfield, Q. 14,409.


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are now in the school. They come at about eight, or even younger, and begin Latin then, the labourers in common with the rest. The education is that of a grammar school, but includes French and German, besides Latin and Greek. A boy was elected on to the foundation at Eton from the school, being fourteenth in the examination, and the girl who was next to him in the school, though at a considerable distance, was a labourer's child. "The captain of the school at this moment", said Mr. Thornton, "is a labourer's child. My own children are wholly educated there; (1)the boys till they go to public schools, and the girls till their school education is finished." Boys and girls are not taught together after the age of 14. The fees are from 3d or even 2d a week to £2, £4, £6, or £10 a year. One parent of the middle class last year paid, for five children as day-scholars, and for some extra teaching for one other, £67 3s 7d. Another parent in the same town paid £1 4s 2d for the same number of children, some of them in the same classes and receiving the same education. The rates are fixed by Mr. Thornton, with the help of a kind of committee in the town; and when he was asked whether he ever had any complaint from the parents of their being rated too high, Mr. Thornton informed us, "I have had a little grumbling from the one who paid £1 4s 2d, and nothing but intense gratitude from the man who paid £67 3s 7d for the cheapness of the education." The school receives a Government grant for the lower classes, all the children of a higher class being omitted from the account. The union of the two sexes appeared, in the opinion of Mr. Thornton, to increase the manliness and industry of the boys and the gentleness of the girls.(2)

It is impossible to read these accounts without feeling how little real foundation there probably is for the objections to a mixture of classes, which are strong and widely spread in many parts of the country. Here are schools readily and gladly attended by all classes, where the poor get the assistance of the Government grant and the richer pay no more than the fair price of a good education. Their payments both preserve the parents' sense of independence and contribute materially to the support of the school.

(1) Rev. F. V. Thornton, Q. 15,534-15,665.

(2) See also Bryce, p. 708 note. Mr. Bryce also mentions the existence of a large number of parish schools in the north of Scotland, which, by a judicious application of money arising from a fund called the Dick bequest, are stimulated to carry forward secondary in connexion with primary education. The grant is made dependent on the master having himself passed a successful examination, and on the favourable result of an inspection every other year. (p. 710.)


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All these schools have masters who are allowed to add to their income by taking a few boarders;(1) two at least (the first and third) are left almost entirely to the master to manage, all are under the inspection of the Privy Council; all have been started by Clergymen of the Church of England, and in all, dissenters allow their children freely to attend the school and receive the instruction in Scripture, which is all that is given on week days in Abbotts Ann School, and is all that is pressed in the others. "The majority of the boys" at Bunbury and "many" at Callington are dissenters.

At other places, where the class feeling, probably merely from old habit, is more obtrusive, use is still made of the elementary school of the parish to assist the education of those who seek an education terminating about 14. At two schools in Suffolk,(2) examined by Mr. Richmond, one at Stradbroke, enjoying a small endowment of £30 a year, the other at Helmingham, partly supported by Mr. Tollemache, an upper department is added to the national school, and is restricted to the sons of yeomen, farmers, and tradesmen. The payments are £2, £3, or £4, according to age. At Wragby, in Lincolnshire, the old grammar school and the national school are united. The master has 20 boarders at from 20 to 22 guineas a year. In arithmetic the boys are all mixed. At other times the usher mostly takes the boarders, and the master teaches the national school.(3)

So in some town schools, as Mr. Gregory's parish schools in Lambeth,(4) and Dr. Atlay's parish schools in Leeds,(5) there is an upper department, but not restricted to any class in particular; a distinction, however, being in fact created by a fee of about 10s or 12s. a quarter being charged. Euclid and algebra are taught in both, a little French also in the former and Latin in the latter, assistance in the higher subjects being given by the curates. Mr. Fitch adds that in the best of the National, Wesleyan, and British Schools in the larger towns there are many children who are required to pay what will cover the cost of their education because they are of a higher class than those on whose account the Government grant can be claimed. This is the case with the model school of the York Training College, which has 57 per cent of its scholars above the labouring class. The Rev. H. Sandford, one of the Privy Council Inspectors, in the

(1) About £160 a year and a house rent free is said to be sufficient remuneration to secure a good master for a school like Bunbury (Wright, vol viii p. 672, note).

(2) Richmond, Summary, p. 645, and Report on Stradbroke.

(3) Mr. Eve's Report.

(4) Rev. R. Gregory's Evid., Q. 14,796-15,039.

(5) Fitch, p. 247.


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interesting paper which he has communicated to us upon this subject, mentions two other cases of the same kind, the National School of Stoke-on-Trent, and Messrs. Chance's school at Smethwick.(1)

In the large towns there would probably be no difficulty in establishing separate schools if it were desired. It is the subjection of the schools to the inspection of the Privy Council, which by securing the goodness of the schools, makes them so attractive to others above the class for whom they are established. In the country the existence of two effective schools would often be quite impossible; but the union, either partial or complete, of the education of scholars of the third grade with those scholars who have a still shorter school life is evidently thoroughly feasible under judicious management and with the indispensable guaranty of public inspection. It is obvious that the admission of children of a higher class on payment of larger fees requires careful control in order to prevent the lower classes losing the full attention of the teachers and the Government grant being applied to alien purposes.(2) But with distinct recognition this union may solve two great difficulties. It may give the lower middle class a better education than they can otherwise get, and it may retain the benefit of good masters and the stimulating presence of higher instruction for the children of the labourers. For in large towns the grant is not necessary for the support of the schools. If the managers chose, they could, by slightly raising their terms, fill the schools without difficulty and make them self-supporting. But the middle classes would then lose the inspection, and the lower classes would be turned out of the school. As it is, the position of these schools is very suggestive. A school subject to inspection and dependent for its support on the goodness of the instruction has no difficulty in obtaining fairly high fees nor even in overcoming much of the prejudice of social rank.

On the other hand we cannot but hope that as one result of our inquiry there will soon be a speedy recognition of the necessity of putting all endowed schools under some sort of periodical and systematic inspection. The third grade schools, however carefully organized at first, will not long continue efficient unless they are subjected to the stimulus of regular supervision. And if such supervision can be provided, there are

(1) vol ii p. 111. See also Green, p. 212, and Mr. Mann's Memorandum appended to his Evidence (vol v p. 656).

(2) On this subject see Fitch, pp. 218, 250-252.


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cases in which there will be considerable advantages in allowing the two divisions of the school to form part of the same institution, be taught in the same buildings, and be instructed by the same master. For each scholar in a third grade school would pay a higher fee than would be made up for each child by the pence and the subscriptions and the Government grant together in a National or British school. And the higher fee would be an attraction to an able master, and the whole school, both upper division and lower, would get the benefit of his abilities. A third grade school of 120 children in two divisions, at a fee of two to four guineas a year, would probably in many cases be able to give the master a better salary, than the upper division of the same school with an ordinary elementary school attached to it below. In this case the lower division might fairly be considered as aiding the secondary education, and rightly therefore allowed to form a part of the grammar school.

But this only applies to the buildings, and does not justify the use of the net income of any grammar school endowment for the purpose of paying the fees of the scholars in the lower division. On the contrary, the very justification of this use of the buildings is, that it will add to the efficiency of the school by the introduction of scholars paying the full fee. The net income of the endowment in such a case as this would seem to be best employed in paying the fees of scholars selected by merit at the entrance examination of the upper division.

(2.) Preparatory Schools of the Second and First Grade. Preparatory schools of the higher grades stand on a different footing from those of the third grade in this respect, that they are in some degree secondary schools, and are not confined to elementary education. It cannot therefore be said that an endowed Grammar school, that has been converted into a preparatory school of the first grade, is no longer fulfilling that part of the founder's intention which prescribed a knowledge above the elementary as the true aim of his foundation. In schools which prepare boys for Eton or Harrow education advances beyond the elementary stage. Partly the scholars come from cultivated houses, and are therefore, if backward in the drier and harder studies, such as arithmetic, yet probably more forward in reading and spelling; partly these schools, being intended to begin an education which is to last many years, usually begin very early to lay the foundation of advanced instruction. But whilst they are thus fulfilling one part of the founder's intention, they are neglecting the other. The founder intended that the benefits of his foundation should be open to all classes, rich and poor alike. These schools have a course of


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study which unfits them for the use of the poor altogether. It is too early at that point to pick out boys of peculiar talent; and among the poor it is only to boys of peculiar talent that it would be of the slightest use to commence a course of study which was intended to go on to 16 or to 18. To turn a Grammar school into a preparatory school of either of the higher grades is to confine it, as was intended, to secondary education, but also to confine it, as was not intended, to the children of the upper classes.

In both cases, as it seems, we are brought to the same conclusion. It may often be a legitimate use of the buildings to allow a preparatory division to form a part of a Grammar school, but it can hardly be considered consistent with the purpose of such a school, either to allow the buildings to be appropriated to preparatory education alone, or to allow any part of the net income of the endowment to be spent in paying the fees of preparatory scholars. If the place where an endowment is situated be unable to maintain a school of one of the higher grades, it would seem more just and more in accordance with the usual intentions of the founders to devote the funds to the establishment of a third grade school than to allow the school to be merely preparatory. The needs of those whose abilities justified a still more advanced education might be met by giving them exhibitions to take them elsewhere.

(b) Distance from which a Day School is accessible

Schools of the second and of the first grade are needed by smaller sections of the people, and must rely to a great extent on boarders. But the extent of area which may be covered by a day school is by no means always the same. The rapid public conveyances of a dense population, and the habits of a country district contribute, each in their own way, to enlarge it. Thus the average distance travelled from home to school daily, exclusive of the return journey, by the first 10 boys of the City of London School was in 1865 about seven miles, their average age being seventeen and a half years; by the first 10 of the Stationers' School, "over nine miles, two of them coming every morning from Staines, more than 20 miles distant, and a third from near Gravesend. Their average age was about 15 years. In this same school the average distance from which the 10 lowest came was more than five and a half miles, one coming from Brentford and one from Woodford, places 18 and 16 miles distant." Mr. Fearon has given a table showing that boys can attend a City School


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from distances up to 20 miles for an annual cost in travelling of from 6 to 12 guineas, and a daily consumption of time amounting at the outside to a little over an hour in the morning and evening.(1) On the other hand, within four miles from a country village school(2) in Northamptonshire, Mr. Green was informed "there were 16 other villages having an aggregate population of above 9,000 from many of which this school already had day pupils." At Daventry, Brewood, and Stafford, some farmers' sons came five or six miles. At Ashby "a clergyman's son walked four miles and back every day to attend the school." At Burneside, near Kendal, a girl, 11 years old, walked five miles and back(3). At Stradbroke "23 out of 40 pupils were farmers' sons who came in from the neighbourhood, some on foot, some on ponies or donkeys,(4) for which stabling is provided at a cost of 1s per quarter."(5)

(c) Means of reducing the Cost of Boarding

The charge for a boarder is usually fixed at a rate which shall not merely defray the actual cost which is incurred for him in addition to what would be incurred if he were a day-scholar but also yield a profit. Boarders are looked upon not only as adding to the numbers in the school and consequently to the number of scholars paying fees for instruction, but also as paying indirectly a much higher fee for instruction than can be obtained from the day-scholars. The charge for a boarder may therefore be considered to consist of three elements, (1), the cost of keep, attendance, and wear of furniture; (2), a fee for instruction equal to that paid by a day-scholar; and (3), what may be called the lodging-house-keeper's profit.

If boarders be admitted to the school at all, this profit may conveniently be added to the means of remunerating the masters by allowing none but masters to receive scholars as boarders. Thus at Tiverton, when the result of a lawsuit, which cost the

(1) pp. 243-247. See also Rev. Dr. Bruce, 16,337.

(2) Courteenhall.

(3) See also Fearon, Scottish Rep., p. 138.

(4) See also Rev. J. Simpson, Q. 14,288, 14,289. Mr. H. S. Thompson, Q. 11,758. Rev. J. G. Botfield, 14,417. See reports on Great Blencowe, Tuxford, Hampton Lucy, Coleshill, Amersham, Wycombe.

(5) It may be as well to mention the prices charged for dinner to day boys at Liverpool. It was 7d, 6d, 5d for boys of the upper, middle, and lower schools respectively, the dinner being pretty nearly identical, viz., "a single plate of beef or mutton and vegetables, a roll of bread, and a glass of water." (Rev. Dr. Howson's Evid. Q. 2680.) At the North London Collegiate School, the charge was 9d " for dinner off the joint, with potatoes and some other kind of vegetable, bread, and pudding or pie and water." (Rev. W. C. Williams, Q. 5024-5.)


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Charity £7,000, was to prohibit the master and usher from taking boarders at all, and any other master from taking more than ten, "a clergyman with the consent of the head master opened a boarding-house in the town, and gave his services as mathematical teacher in the school without directly receiving any payment from the foundation. He was thereby enabled to exceed the limit of ten boys imposed by the scheme, and looked to his boarding-house and private tuition for his remuneration."(1) At Uppingham, under the vigorous management of Mr. Thring, the profits on boarders have in fact formed the inducement to assistant masters to build houses for the reception of pupils and give their services to the school.(2) At the same time it must be remembered that if individual masters incur the trouble and risk of loss involved in the administration of a boarding-house, part of what is here called the profits is really interest on the capital invested and compensation for the special labour incurred. There are, no doubt, many advantages in such a plan; the boarder becomes almost one of the master's family, and the relation of master and scholar naturally assumes a softer and more genial shape.(3) But it is not without disadvantages. Many a man may be a good teacher without being a good manager, and to pay indirectly for good teaching on a plan which presumes good management of a boarding-house is in that respect an awkward arrangement. If the fee for instruction, whether paid by day-scholars or boarders, were made high enough to raise in conjunction with the endowment, a sufficient fund for the full payment of the teachers, the charge for boarding might be reduced to the sum necessary to cover completely the expense of boarding alone, and this sum itself reduced by the economical management of one common boarding-house. The general care and superintendence of the boys might be distributed, as it is at Marlborough College, among some of the masters, who would thus be to them respectively in loco parentis.

In the north of England and in Wales and neighbouring counties a custom still lingers at several schools(4) which was once

(1) Mr. Stanton's Rep. This is now altered by a new scheme.

(2) Rev. E. Thring, Q. 10,039a.

(3) See also Mr. Hammond's remarks on the important influence exercised by the master's wife, p. 350.

(4) In Yorkshire, Sedbergh, Giggleswick. In Cumberland, Cockermouth, Great BIencowe. In Lancashire, Rivington. In Lincolnshire, Humberstone. In Monmouthshire, Monmouth. In Gloucestershire, Newland. In Herefordshire, Lucton. In Wales, Llanrwst, Bottwnog, Llandovery, Ystrad Meurig, Lampeter, Haverfordwest. - See also Oswestry, Sevenoaks, Oundle, Loughborough: and Hammond, p. 363.


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much more common, and is still very prevalent in Wales and almost universal in Scotland. Boys from a distance find for themselves lodgings in the town or neighbourhood and attend the school as day scholars. Sometimes such lodgings are subject to the approval of the Head master, and thus might grow into regular "dames' houses".(1) Thus Sir Roger Manwood's statutes for Sandwich School require "the partie that taketh the scholler or schollers to boerd to faithfuly promise to the master before his or her admission to keep them continually from all unthriftie pastimes and games in his house, and to lett the master betimes have information in case he know that they be lewdly occupied within or without his house," on pain of exclusion from the liberty to take boarders. So at Llandovery every lodging-house must be approved by the warden, and is constantly visited either by himself or one of the other masters. "In each house there are from two to six boys who have a sitting room in common and take all their meals together, paying each £20 to £25 for lodging, board, and washing." Others have part of their food brought them by their parents on market day. But supervision by the master is rare in Wales. At Ystrad Meurig nearly 30 scholars, forming about three-fourths of the whole school, lodge in farmhouses in the neighbourhood, paying 7s or 8s a week for board and lodging. Mr. Bryce visited one room which was bedroom and sitting room for three boys, who paid 2s a week each. For this sum they got besides lodging a supply of milk and sometimes flummery [a dessert made of eggs, milk, sugar], and had their meal, which they provided for themselves, cooked for them at the kitchen fire." At Humberstone the usual payment is 5s a week, the boys being at home on Saturday and Sunday.

Such a system has some advantages which should not be overlooked. It enables a school to put forth longer arms and reach the farmers who are scattered around too far for daily journeys, but not too far for weekly communication with their sons at school. These schools are situated in or near wild and sparsely populated districts, whose inhabitants would often do without the grammar school altogether, if they had to face the usual expense of a boarding school. The scholars too are in such parts (as in Scotland) often somewhat older than at other schools of a similar class in England. At Ystrad Meurig(2) of the 38 scholars, none were less than 14 years old and several above 23. The average age was 20. "Some of these older youths are thus enabled to pick up some

(1) There are dames' houses at Wimborne, Dulwich, Holt, &c.

(2) Mr. Bryce's Report.


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Latin before they go to Lampeter or the Theological Colleges of St. Bees, Birmingham, or Birkenhead." Our Assistant Commissioners(1) generally express an unfavourable opinion of this plan of leaving the task of selecting lodgings to the boys or their parents, without the school authorities exercising proper supervision; but Mr. Bryce, who has seen many cases of it says, "As to its moral effect at Ystrad Meurig," where there is no supervision at all "the balance of testimony seems in favour of it, for boys under a 17; more doubtful, yet not wholly opposed to it for persons more advanced in years." Elsewhere he speaks in favour of it, but thinks some supervision desirable.(2) Mr. Fearon in his Scottish Report,(3) after noting the fact that it is the usual practice in Scotland, points out the advantages it possesses, not merely in the positive reduction of the cost of boarding, but also in the facility it gives for a student to adjust what may be called his optional expenditure, not to the standard set by richer boys in a common boarding house, but by his own real needs and poor means of meeting them. The cost of board and lodging to a youth attending Ayr or Stirling Academy as a day scholar Mr. Fearon's informants state to be £25; at Dumfries and Inverness, £30.(4)

At the City of London School(5) many boys attend whose parents live at a distance, and make their own arrangements to board their sons with friends. And Dr. Mortimer(6) mentions the case of three brothers, who afterwards highly distinguished themselves, having lodged by themselves without any control whatever.

But such a system would not be approved by most English parents. In exceptional instances it may be perfectly safe, but in the majority of cases it would expose youths to temptations which it is wise to avoid. Moreover, the good management of a school requires many lessons to be prepared out of school hours.(7) In a regular boarding school the masters can see that this is done; in a day school, if the boy is living at home, the parents(8) can make their own arrangements for the purpose; but when boys are attending a day school, and not living at home, there is much more difficulty in ensuring the necessary preparation, and much greater opportunity for its neglect. Nor is this free lodging necessary in order to reduce considerably the cost of boarding.

(1) Mr. Bompas, strongly, p. 64. Mr. Stanton in his Report on Newland. Mr. Fitch, on Giggleswick.

(2) Gen. Rep. p. 703.

(3) p. 9-13.

(4) p. 175.

(5) So at Oundle, Loughborough, &c.

(6) Q. 3559, 3598.

(7) Rev. Dr. Mortimer, Q. 3733.

(8) See Green, p. 169.


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A plan much more accordant with English habits is that, adopted by many proprietary colleges and the newly established county schools, of the Trustees keeping the boarding house instead of leaving boarders to masters or to dames. The Hostel system, as this plan is often called, at once prevents both the reality, which is rare, and the suspicion, which is not uncommon, of partiality on the part of the master towards the boarders. It makes it easier to prevent what it is yet more important to prevent, because the occurrence of it is more common, any dislocation of the school's proper functions by the introduction into it of boarders of a class needing different instruction and claiming more luxurious treatment than those to whom the school should primarily address itself. It enables the trustees to fix the proper remuneration of each master in his capacity as a master, instead of making his emoluments depend on his willingness to undertake, or ability to manage with profit, the care of a boarding establishment. Lastly, it enables the trustees to reduce, if they think proper, the charge for a boarder to the minimum necessary to pay the cost of his logging, food, and attendance. There may no doubt be cases where the trustees may choose still to make the admission of boys resident beyond the practical limits of a day school a matter of favour to the boarder, and use the favour so as to add to the school's pecuniary resources, by charging him at a higher rate than is necessary to put his cost on a level with that of a day scholar. But its adoption is rather to be looked to as enabling the school to collect at little or no extra cost to the parent, beyond what he would have to defray if he kept his son at home, the children of farmers and other scattered inhabitants of rural districts.

Nor need the cost be much, if at all, more than is actually paid by the average Scotch private lodgers. At the Devon County School the total charge to cover instruction, board, and interest on capital expended in buildings was, in 1865, £26 5s, and of this about £5 or £6 was the cost of instruction. The same system has been applied to at least three grammar schools of old foundation under new schemes. At Felsted, which has a considerable endowment, and addresses itself rather to the clergy and professional men, the total charge for boarding was, in 1864, £28, and the fee for instruction £8.(1) At Archbishop Holgate's School, York which is(2) intended for farmers and others of similar position, the charge for boarding is £22, for instruction £6. In both cases the actual cost (to the trustees) of the boarding

(1) Since raised to £12 to raise a fund for Exhibitions.

(2) Fitch, p. 192. Mr. H. S. Thompson, Evid. 11,668 foll.


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(washing and attendance being included) was rather less than the fee charged; though the fees for instruction required to be supplemented by the endowment in order to defray the cost. At St. Bees Grammar School the Head Master is allowed to receive boarders, but there is also a hostel for forty foundationers, who pay for their board, &c., £20 each, whereas the actual cost is about £22, a part being charged on the endowment.(1)

An instance of still cheaper boarding is afforded by St. Saviour's Grammar School at Shoreham,(2) one of the three founded within the last few years by Mr. Woodard, where the total charge, including certain extras, is £16 per annum, and this, we are informed, actually pays the whole cost of board and instruction. In all these cases, except the Devon County School, nothing is supposed to be included by way of rent for the buildings. In all the boarding is such as is usual among boys of the social class frequenting the school.

In the above account we have taken the fee charged(3) as the basis of our comparison. In Appendix III will be found an exact analysis of the cost of board in eight good schools conducted on the hostel system, from accounts furnished to us for this purpose by the bead masters. The actual cost of all boarding expenses in the year 1866 varied in the classical schools from £23 10s to £31 10s per boy for the school year of 38 weeks; in the semi-classical schools it was under £18 for a year of about 40 weeks. This, however, is the cost of board, service, washing, medical attendance, &c., but does not include any payment for the cost of the buildings, or of instruction, or for a reserve fund.

It is clear, even with an addition to these sums to allow for the cost of buildings, and for the greater age of the free Scottish lodgers, that, as regards the average boy, the hostel system can fairly meet the Scottish on the ground of expense The Welsh appears to be rather cheaper than any, excepting Shoreham, and considering the age of the scholars at Ystrad Meurig, is probably as cheap as Shoreham. But against this may fairly be set the probably much superior board and accommodation at the English schools, and the certainly stricter discipline. Nor where the school is mainly homogeneous is there so much risk as there is in

(1) An account of Framlingham College (also on the same plan) will be found in Sir E. C. Kerrison's Evid. 6673, foll., Rev. A. C. Daymond, 14,485 foll., and Mr. Hammond's Report, pp. 372-375.

(2) Giffard, pp. 143-146.

(3) At Helmingham the fee charged (besides tuition fee) is, for boys under 8 years of age, £16 16s; over 8 and under 12, £18 18s; over 12, £19 19s. No boy was over 15. The average cost of 24 boys appeared to be a little over £16 each. The school year was 43 weeks. No rent was paid. (Richmond, vol viii p. 646.) See also Giffard, p. 134.


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a mixed or small one of the propagation of more expensive habits than a boy is accustomed to at home. On either system much depends on the individual; and the temptations to which he will be exposed, though not identical, may nevertheless be equal. The Assistant Commissioners, including Mr. Bryce himself, frequently suggest the establishment of hostels to be attached to the Welsh and other schools.(1)

3. Exhibitions tenable at Schools

In adjusting to the wants of the majority of day scholars the course of instruction which the school should give, there is danger of sacrificing the interests of those who require a higher education. This danger will be partly obviated, if access to a boarding school be made easier by reducing the charge for boarding to the minimum cost. To reduce the charge for boarding still lower than its cost is in effect to give exhibitions promiscuously. But beside the expense of instruction and the difficulty of obtaining the fit instruction near a boy's home, both of which may be met, the one by sacrifice on the part of the parent, and the other by the plan we have just mentioned, the poor man's son has another difficulty to overcome before he can continue his education longer than is usual for his class.

The parent loses his boy's earnings. A labourer or small farmer or small tradesman takes away his son from school at the age of 14 or earlier, not in order to save the payment for his instruction, but to add to the family stock. To give such a lad his education gratuitously is to save the father the £4 or £5 a year which his education would cost. But it does not compensate for the £8 or £10 more which the father would lose by his son's not gaining it. Here the advantage of a system which does not squander the Founder's bounty indiscriminately, but reserves it for proved and ascertained merit, is seen in a strong light. The pecuniary interest of the parent is arrayed against the interest of the child and the interest of the State. A parent may be willing, as it is his duty, to contribute what he can to the furtherance of his boys' prospects, but further help is needed, and to give that help is a most legitimate use of endowments, a wise and faithful fulfilment of their donors' aim.

Exhibitions won by merit are thus the form which should supplant indiscriminate gratuitous education. They may be of many kinds, sometimes being simply the remission of the fee for

(1) Bryce, Reports on Bangor, Beaumaris, Llantilio Crosenny, Usk. Also Gen. Rep. p. 769. Bompas, p. 69. Giffard, p. 30. Hammond, p. 454. Fitch, p. 193. Rev. J. Simpson, Q. 14,268.


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instruction, sometimes a larger sum payable to a day scholar, sometimes the entire or partial defrayal of his cost at a boarding school, sometimes an annual sum of money (perhaps £10 to £25)(1) payable simply on condition of the holder carrying on with industry his higher education. What should be the precise form which such exhibitions would take, would naturally depend on the source from which the exhibitions were taken. If the endowments of a school were partly devoted to this purpose, the primary application would probably be either to boys coming to the school, or to scholars of the school seeking elsewhere a higher education than the school could wisely undertake to give. One of our witnesses(2) has suggested that where the endowment is small, from £60 or £70 up to £150 or £200 a year, a separate school should not be maintained, but "that those who wished to avail themselves of this eleemosynary [charitable] provision as being either burgesses or persons of reduced circumstances, who in fact would be eligible as foundation scholars in the grammar schools, be certified by the trustees and a fixed payment (say £8) be made out of the endowment to those of them who passed the best examination every year wherever they were educated. A great stimulus would thus be given to provide schools in the town and neighbourhood." We shall have occasion to point out subsequently the desirableness of some such application being made.

4. Endowments which may profitably be used for the Supply of new Secondary Schools or of Exhibitions

It is clear that means are required for providing good middle schools of the third grade (either separate or as upper departments of primary schools), and exhibitions to enable a boy to continue his education at the school he is attending, or at a higher one. There are four classes of endowments, specially noticeable, from which aid may be obtained for this purpose.

(a) The first class is composed of endowments which have been intended for grammar or other secondary education, but which have ceased to be so applied. We refer here especially to those which, by the tacit consent of the locality, or sometimes by the authority of the Court of Chancery or Charity Commissioners, have been devoted to the establishment or subsidizing of an elementary national school. It is no doubt

(1) Sir J. K. Shuttleworth, Q. 17,490-17,496. Rev. C. Evans, Q. 5850.

(2) Dr. E. Davies, Q. 12,492. See also. a communication from Mr. Mosley (vol ii p. 105).


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true that there are cases where from the extreme poverty of the inhabitants, or the indifference or neglect of the farmers and landowners of the neighbourhood, there has hitherto been no other present chance of obtaining a good elementary school, and a good elementary school is all that can, from the state of the labour market, be of any use. But it is certainly no less true that such a course has sometimes been adopted(1) where a much more legitimate use of the endowment might have been made, where at least a middle school might have been founded, where exhibitions might have been created in order to carry some of the more promising of the poor boys to a higher school, or where a higher department at the elementary school might have been secured. It is at least clear that "endowments which merely do for one parish what a larger grant and local subscriptions do for another"(2) are not really expended on the poor: the founder's bounty is enjoyed either by the general taxpayers of the country, who profit by the diminution of the grant, or by the landowners and well-to-do people of the locality, who are saved their subscriptions. The plan is one which has so much prima facie to recommend it, that it seems to be accepted without due consideration by many persons, who look simply to the immediate apparent benefit, and not to the real incidence of its effect. But whatever other results it may have, such a plan is not one which fulfils the intentions of the founders, to give the locality the means of obtaining a higher education than the rudiments; and the endowments which have been left for this purpose can ill spare any subtraction to serve another purpose.

At Hanley Castle, "The sole result of an endowment of £247 gross, with a master's house, is to educate some 40 boys (this being average winter attendance) so ill that one half of them will at 20 years of age be for all practical purposes unable to read and write. ... The labourers' children are certainly worse off than in an average Privy Council school; not so much, I think", says Mr. Bryce, "from the fault of their teacher (the under master), who is a painstaking and estimable man, as because there are no means, not even those which exist in a Privy Council school, of enforcing the regular attendance of the scholars, and no Government inspection to keep things up to the mark." Yet this is the only endowed grammar school in the whole south-west quarter of Worcestershire.

(1) See reports on Appleby (in Leicestershire), Wootton Bassett, Fotheringhay, Kirton in Lindsey, Bampton.

(2) See Bryce, p. 699; Bompas, p. 74; Wright, p. 667; and Mr. Hammond's remarks on Feltwell.


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The parish of Wolverley,(1) "in the extreme north of Worcestershire on the skirts of the black country and close to Kidderminster", enjoys the greater part of the produce of an endowment given in 1620 for bread to be distributed to the poor of seven parishes, and for a free grammar school, the surplus to be applied in repairing the church and four bridges, and increasing (if expedient) the wages of the schoolmaster. The total revenue was then about £67. It is now £657 gross. "The trustees seeing no other way of spending their income as it increased, erected elementary schools in the parish, keeping up the dole of bread and repairing the bridges and church." There are now a grammar school educating freely 14 boys (promoted from the elementary school), but in which neither Latin nor mathematics nor French were taught at the time of Mr. Bryce's visit, two elementary schools educating about 90 boys and 90 girls who pay 2d a week, and two infant schools, one at Wolverley with about 70 children, and one at Cookley, 1½ miles off, with more. The trustees appoint an examiner to examine and report once a year. "These five schools are wholly independent of one another. The head master of the grammar school has no more authority to superintend the inferior teachers than they have to superintend him ... All five are restricted to the children of residents in Wolverley parish; there are therefore no boarders. If Seabright's Charity had not existed, elementary schools would long ago have been established by local subscriptions, with the aid of the Privy Council, and would be regularly visited by Her Majesty's inspectors. As Seabright's Charity does exist, the landowners and employers are relieved from the burden which landowners and employers in other parishes have felt it their duty to undertake. The poor gain little, for though the schools are numerous they are uninspected, and in so far inferior to Government schools in other parishes; and this foundation, with its £700 a year, might almost as well be away."

Numerous cases may be mentioned where a primary school or schools, sometimes good, sometimes bad, absorb large endowments for grammar, while the grammar school is represented by a few boys receiving such morsels of a higher education as are contained in the rudiments of Latin. Penwortham, with £966 a year gross, has 20 grammar boys; Butterwick, with £312, has two learning the declensions; Humberstone, with £737 a year, has

(1) Mr. Bryce's Report.


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five or six; Risley, with £419 a year, has four, the founder having specially enjoined mathematics, and none now learning them; Bosworth, with £1,120 a year, has three boys learning grammar. The Pottery district of North Staffordshire has several endowments similarly employed, while a slight change in the site of the schools would give the opportunity of higher education to a vast population greatly in need of it.(1)

There are some other schools which from one cause or another are producing little good, and are so situated as to be little likely to admit of effective restoration. Thus, the establishment "of Norwich Grammar School on a new footing, and the proximity of Holt School, a better endowed foundation, supplying the same course of instruction, are", in Mr. Hammond's opinion, "sufficient reasons for dissolving the school at North Walsham, and appropriating its funds to some useful educational object." "Five other schools in Norfolk might be treated in the same way, viz., a portion, determined in each instance by the wants of the district, to be paid in aid of the parish schools, and the residue converted into exhibitions tenable at some superior classical or semi-classical school."(2) Mr. Bryce speaks of Blackrod Grammar School, which, with a revenue of £254 per annum, "educates badly 30 or 40 children. The subjects of instruction are elementary, exactly as in the National school a few yards off." Two miles from Blackrod stands Rivington, with an income of £281, which gives little more than an elementary education to about 80 or 90 children. "It would be well to fuse Blackrod and Rivington into one, or to unite Blackrod Grammar School with the National School, so as to improve the latter."(3) Mr. Fearon calls attention to the existence of four little Grammar schools within two miles from Ware; none at all satisfactory. Hertford and Wareside teach a little Latin and algebra. Ware is bad. Stanstead Abbot has a teacher of whom Mr. Fearon speaks well, but "the endowment is a misfortune to the parish," for it keeps out a Government-aided school.(4) Similar remarks and recommendations are constantly made by our Assistant Commissioners in their separate reports on the Grammar schools.

(b) The second class of endowments referred to consists of those which were given for primary education, and are now rendered unnecessary by the schools aided by Government. There are, as we stated at the commencement of this chapter,

(1) See also Mr. Eve's Reports on Donington and Moulton.

(2) Hammond, p. 448.

(3) Bryce, p. 705.

(4) Mr. Fearon's Reports.


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more than 2,000 such endowments,(1) and in this number we do not include such as have been given for charitable purposes, at the discretion of the trustees, but are in fact applied wholly or partly to the assistance of the parish school. Some of these 2,000 endowments are now paid, like those last mentioned, to a primary school, supported mainly by subscriptions. If the school is aided by a Government grant, the amount of the grant is reduced, and the endowment is thus really applied in relief of the general body of taxpayers. But others maintain an independent primary school, and independence in such a case frequently involves a waste of money, a lack of proper control, and exemption from the salutary visits of all inspector. Thus at Leyland, a few miles south of Preston, is a grammar school with £27 a year, a bad building, and 35 children, "one of whom could decline dominus with only three or four mistakes." Not far off stands a Government school, having young boys and girls. Within half a mile of both these schools is a third, called the Golden Hill School, and endowed for primary education with £235 a year. It gives, as Mr. Bryce was informed, elementary instruction to about 90 boys and 30 girls. Thus "all three give the same elementary instruction (not good of its kind), and none attempt to provide some higher teaching."(2) At Wakefield there is a charity school, called the Green Coat School, which is under inspection, and occupies the position of an ordinary National school, excepting that the fee is only a penny per week, while at the other parochial schools it is 3d or 4d. Mr. Fitch points out that this school only damages the parochial schools without educating a different class, and reports that eight out of the eleven incumbents of district parishes in the town have formally stated this in some recent resolutions sent to the governors.(3) At Bridgnorth, the Grammar school has only £31 a year; a Blue Coat school, with an income of £200 a year, is at present "quite useless, since the town has a good supply of elementary schools under Government inspection." The master of one of these told Mr. Bryce "that he often had boys who would have profited by the superior instruction of a Grammar school, and might have proceeded there, if their parents could have paid the fee."

(1) Some information respecting these will be found in the volumes for the several Registrar General's divisions. See also Hammond, p. 449.

(2) Bryce, p. 705. Mr. Bryce did not inspect the Golden Hill school, it not being a Grammar school.

(3) Fitch, p. 155, and Report on Wakefield Grammar School. See also pp. 200-202 and Stanton, p. 49 (Morgan's School, Bridgwater), and 53 (Silverton). Also Reports on Thornbury, and St. Chloe.


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(c) In a considerable number of the schools named in the last paragraph and in some Grammar schools a portion, often a large portion, of the income is expended in clothing or apprenticing the scholars. It appears to be certain that the great majority at least of the scholars who receive these benefits are not in real want of them. Of apprenticing we shall speak shortly. The gift of clothing does not seem even to act in the way of keeping the boys longer at school. Thus at Hill's School, Westminster, Mr. Fearon was informed "the a boys are the sons of artizans or others in the condition of skilled labourers. They never stay in the school beyond the age of 14 years, and seldom beyond that of 13 years." At (1)Berkhamsted Bourne's school has an income of more than £300 a year. "The master receives only £30, and the mistress only £15 per annum as salary; the sum of £78 is actually expended each year in weekly payments to parents who send their children to the school. In other words, about one-third of the whole expenditure of the charity is paid in the shape of douceurs to parents in consideration of their allowing their children to come and be clothed, taught, and apprenticed by this charity." This is done in accordance with a scheme of the Court of Chancery.

There are other schools still more largely endowed which board and lodge as well as clothe the scholars. Such are Colston's Hospital (net income, £3,400), and Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (£2,000), at Bristol; Christ's Hospital, Lincoln (£2,200);(2) Cheetham's Hospital, Manchester (£2,600); Henshaw's Blue School at Oldham (£2,200); Old Swinford Hospital (£2,000); three in Westminster, viz. Grey Coat Hospital (£2,000); Green Coat (£700); Emanuel Hospital (£700); Aske's Hospital Hoxton (£5,000); Bancroft's Hospital, Stepney, (£2,000); the Great Hospital Schools at Norwich (£1,700), and many others of smaller amount. Mr. Fearon visited and inspected six, which lay in his district. In some, as in the Emanuel and the Grey Coat Hospitals, an English education only is given; in others, as in Bancroft's and Aske's, Latin, Euclid, algebra, and French are added. "The discipline and order in these hospital schools are almost always excellent," but "the boys show much less quickness and intelligence under examination; they are much more apathetic and drowsy than day scholars." "There is not", Mr. Fearon believes, "in any one of these hospital schools (in his district) any admission examination. The result is, the majority of these boys come in

(1) Fearon, Report on (Grammar School) Berkhamsted, sub fine.

(2) See Mr. Eve's Report.


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at the age of eight or nine years totally ignorant." "Their parents", said one of the masters to Mr. Fearon, "look forward to getting them, before they are 10 years old, into one of the hospitals, and make, no attempt to educate them previously. There is a certain class of persons who can always make pretty sure of getting their children in. Such are messengers in the House of Commons or House of Lords, or persons in the employ of the governors."(1) Similarly, Mr. Stanton was informed, "the boys at the two Bristol hospitals are mostly sons of the workmen or servants of the electors. ... But at both schools I believe what is called a deserving case would have priority of attention."(2)

Many of these endowments are, as has been shown, very large. They were given to promote education, and to assist in the maintenance and advancement in life of children, while and after receiving such education. They now act largely, though indirectly, in discouragement of education, and they are applied very frequently to the relief of classes of persons who could hardly have been regarded by the founders as within the immediate purview of their intentions. Whether it be desirable to spend such large sums in relieving parents selected at the pleasure of irresponsible trustees, not of the most destitute class, or even of a destitute class at all, of all cost for the board and clothing of some of their children, is, to say the least, a very doubtful question, but this much appears certain, that if the admissions were made a reward of merit, and a means of progress, to the scholars in primary schools, - if the education were put by the enforcement of good entrance examinations on a level superior to that of a National school, - if day scholars were admitted, some on payment, and some freely, winning their freedom by competition, - the "Blue Schools" and others of the same class throughout the country, would be quite as certainly as now fulfilling every intention of their founders, and would be exercising a far wider and safer beneficence.

(d) The fourth class of endowments to which we desire to draw attention here, is composed of some which have been given for non-educational purposes unconnected with schools, but are now useless or harmful. The Commissioners who inquired into charities, from 1818 to 1837, the Popular Education Commissioners, the Inspectors of Charities, have all expressed decidedly their opinion that there are many charities of very considerable aggregate amount- which might advantageously be applied to educational

(1) Fearon, p. 337.

(2) Stanton, p 59.


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objects. The Charity Commissioners have endeavoured to carry into effect some schemes for this purpose, but have frequently failed owing to strong local opposition. On the other hand there are not a few cases where the conversion has been made, and the place has gained a good school, and lost nothing which was of any real service. The subject is too large to admit of a minute examination here, and much striking evidence on this subject has been already given in the report of the Popular Education Commissioners, and the special report on the subject, made for them by Mr. Cumin, one of their Assistant Commissioners. But we may mention some particular classes of charities which appear to require a different application from that specifically directed by the founders, and which might not unsuitably and most beneficially be applied to education. If any particular charity were found to be really useful, there would of course be no desire to interfere with it; nor, if primary education were insufficiently supported in the locality, would it be reasonable to prefer altogether the claims of a higher education. But if due provision for primary education be recognized, as in one shape or other it now is recognized, as a duty incumbent on the locality, and on the general government, the application of these charities to the establishment of higher departments in the elementary schools, or of separate schools giving a higher than elementary education, or, it may be, specific technical instruction, or of exhibitions to enable the poor but apt child to continue his education, either general or special, longer than he otherwise could, would be really, though in a different form, a satisfactory fulfilment of the intentions of the founders. The classes of charities to which we particularly refer are the following:

(1) Doles in Money or Kind, as Bread, Coals, &c. There are some cases in rural parishes, where, if very carefully distributed, doles are reported to be useful.(1) But, in far the larger numbers of cases, and particularly in towns, where they often are of large aggregate amount, they encourage pauperism, they attract an idle and helpless population, and they do no good whatever. "At Almondbury, a small village close to Huddersfield, the vicar says that £450 per annum are distributed among the poor. This amount is given in sums of 5s or 6s, and the beneficial result is neither seen nor felt longer than two or three days at most."(2) Mr. Fearon says;(3) "The general charities of one parish are said to be worth at least £500 a year, and as they arise principally from rent of land, their value might be improved by re-letting

(1) Fitch, p. 225.

2 Fitch, p. 224.

3 Fearon, p. 273, 472.


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and judicious management. Their management, however, is in the hands of the vestry, and they are almost entirely distributed in doles, sometimes of money, sometimes in kind. The vestry at its meeting appoints distributors for the several districts, who are generally tradesmen. Thus at one time the distributor is a baker, and then the dole is a bread dole. At another time he is a coal-factor, and then it is a coal dole. The working of the whole system is rotten to the core. Like the ancient monastic relief, it creates as much poverty as it relieves, and is the fruitful parent of vice. I heard of one parish in which there were large doles, the effect of which was, that for two weeks before and one week after the distribution, extra waiters were put on at the gin-shops."

Mr. Bryce says, "Of the many cases in which I heard doles of money condemned I may mention two. In Worcester an immense sum of money is annually spent in charities, some of which are said, with what truth I know not, to be applied to political purposes. The particular charity of which I speak is applied honestly enough, but most absurdly; £300 a year or more is distributed in sums of 2s, the trustees giving tickets to those who solicit them, which entitle the bearer to have the 2s paid him. As my informant remarked, the time consumed by an applicant in finding a trustee, begging the ticket from him, and going to the place of distribution at the day and time fixed would have enabled him to earn 2s in an honest way. The demand for tickets, however, is always great, and the results are what might have been expected. On one occasion some man of forethought among the distributors sent to London and had down a great number of florins which were duly given away to the ticket holders. Next day he sent round to the public-houses, where the influx of florins had been immense, and got them in again to serve for next year.

In Bewdley, a small town on the Severn, in North Worcestershire, there is a charity called the Mill Meadow Charity, whose income, amounting to about £100 a year net, is given away in sums varying from 2s to 8s 9d, according to the size of the applicant's family. The town contains 3,158 people, and on the last occasion 1,300 applicants appeared, among them many persons of substance. All the trustees of the Grammar school, from whom I heard this, agreed that the charity did nothing but mischief."(1)

(1) Bryce, pp. 841, 842.


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"Lichfield", says Mr. Green, "abounds in charities, and has in consequence an ill-conditioned surplus population. About £600 a year, I believe, is spent in doles and gratuities of various kinds, and with a very bad effect. A quantity of the inhabitants work as market gardeners, and in the summer earn high wages, which they waste, in expectation of living on charity during the winter."(1) "At Chesterfield", Mr. Calder informed us "that out of £1,400 a year of charity, £1,100 is spent in a manner which almost every intelligent person considers unsatisfactory. It is disposed of mostly in small sums of half-a-crown, five shillings, ten shillings, and a sovereign, and mostly at one time of the year."(2)

It seems that the amount of charities in England applicable to doles can hardly be less than £120,000 a year.(3)

(2) Apprenticeship and Advancement in Life. "The charities for apprenticing the children of the poor are calculated to amount to £50,000 a year. ... Apprenticeship is in effect industrial education; but it is the industrial education of a past, rather than of the present age."(4) It appears clear that good masters do not require apprentice fees to be paid, that in many cases very few applications are made for these charitable sums, and that, in fact, the system of apprenticing is in most trades extinct. "Where the fee is taken, it is believed by the Charity Inspectors, whose opinions Mr. Cumin had an opportunity of ascertaining, that it is divided by an underhand arrangement between the parent and the master to whom the boy is apprenticed."(5) At Chipping Sodbury only 38 applications have been made in 20 years, and there are accumulations to the amount of £660. At Aylesbury "there is an apprenticing charity which has considerable accumulations, and already gives prizes to the grammar school." But education is not always so fortunate. At Bingley there is an apprentice fund of only £61 per year, and yet there is an accumulated balance of £400, the applications averaging (for the last four years) only two a year; but a scheme of the Court forbids the application of it to education. At Cavendish, the deed regulating the school provides for apprenticing two poor lads annually from the school, or if any one should be found to be

(1) Green, p. 223.

(2) See also Reports on Aylesbury, Barmby-on-the-Marsh, Kirton-in-Holland, Worfield, Cirencester, &c.; and the evidence of Mr. Hare and Mr. Martin before the Popular Education Commission, and Mr. Hare's eloquent letter to the Mayor of Salisbury (appended to his evidence).

(3) Pop. Educ. Com., Rep. p. 531.

(4) Pop. Educ. Com., Rep., p. 532.

(5) Ibid. Compare Wright, vol viii p. 697.


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more pregnant", maintaining him at the University of Cambridge. "There is no reason to suppose a scholar has ever been sent to Cambridge." At Keighley, a fund of £540 a year net is wholly distributed in doles, part having been left for apprentice fees, which are now obsolete.(1)

(3) Marriage Portions appear to be for girls what apprentice fees are for boys, and an application to higher education would be all the more desirable, as there are so few endowments applied to the higher education of girls.

(4) Redemption and Relief of poor Prisoners and Captives. The cases of imprisonment for debt are so much less frequent than they were once, that large sums left for the relief of prisoners are now unused. In the City of London there are charities for this purpose, the annual income of some of which was, in 1852, £1,740 a year, and the accumulations of which since that time, omitting any interest on the same, may be taken as upwards of £15,000, for which there is little, if any, use at present.

(5) Loan Funds. These are very numerous, and some of them, particularly those founded by Sir T. White for the benefit of 20 or more county towns, are very large. The capital of Sir T. White's loan charities is at least £125,000. Mr. J. P. Fearon told us of another in Westminster "with upwards of £30,000, and with very little purpose to which it could be applied." Sometimes "persons have borrowed £200 or £300 from such charities at one or two per cent, and placed it in one of the joint stock banks at five or six per cent."(2) It is evident that in such cases the charity gives a dole to a young tradesman.

(6) Charities, for objects which have failed altogether, as aids in the payment of the old tax called fifteenths, and other charities which have outgrown their original purposes, must necessarily be converted to some new purpose, and education is one of the most clearly beneficial. There are many such in the City of London. Mr. Rogers mentioned that "in the parish of St. Andrew Undershaft there was a sum of £30,000 which they did not know what to do with."(3)

(7) Charities for general public purposes, such as repairing roads and making bridges, clearly act in relief of the ratepayers, and the application of them to education, now that roads and bridges are provided for out of the town and county rates, would be merely substituting one form of relief for another. "At Market Harborough", says Mr. Green, "the Union estate

(1) Fitch, p. 230.

(2) Evid. 13,353-4.

(3) Evid. 13,577.


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produces £700 a year, and this income under various decrees of the Court of Chancery has been applied to the three purposes of apprenticing, relieving 'decayed housekeepers', and repairing highways. The new Highways Act has taken the highways out of the hands of the feoffees, and at the time of my visit the money that would otherwise have been spent on this object was accumulating." Some proposed to aid education, and especially the grammar school out of it, but "here, as elsewhere, what was wanted was clearly an initiative from without."(1) Meanwhile the grammar school has only £36 a year, and a decayed schoolroom. Another school in Leicestershire, that at Loughborough, has been already provided with admirable buildings out of a similar fund."(2)

At Melton Mowbray there is a town estate (not technically a charity) which used to supply some money for the support of a grammar school, but does not do so now. It is administered by a tumultuous town meeting, and, as no poll is taken, the decision depends on the first 100 people who can get into the small town hall.(3) The corporation of Berwick "possesses property to the amount of £10,000 a year, and after the expenses of the corporation (including the interest on a debt of £55,000) have been defrayed, the residue of this property derived from allotments is divided among the freemen under the name of 'stints and meadows'. The town clerk informed me", says Mr. Hammond, "very candidly, that he himself as the oldest freeman received the largest dividend, something between £10 and £11 per ann.; but he lamented the existence of the system and thought that the residue of the Corporation property, instead of being portioned out among individual freemen, should be applied to public improvements, and more especially to education. If this could be done in such a way as not to affect existing interests, there would be a considerable sum which could be converted to public use with but little private loss."(4) The Corporation already pay £800 a year to a school called the Corporation Academy, which is quite gratuitous to freemen's sons, but is not large enough to accommodate others. Town estates, already partly supporting secondary education, are found at Lancaster, Alnwick, Great Grimsby, and other places. If a system of secondary education were once set on foot under adequate public guarantees of efficiency, more of such funds

(1) Mr. Green's Report.

(2) Mr. J. P. Fearon's Evid. 13,318-13,323.

(3) Mr. Green's Report.

(4) Hammond, p. 291.


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would probably be devoted to its support. But a system, an initiative, and public confidence are necessary for this purpose.

Before leaving this main division of our subject, viz., the scholars of the endowed grammar schools and the education intended for them, we desire to draw attention to the fact that though the changes required are large, they are in truth not larger than have been actually wrought by the uncontrolled drifting of the schools, or the uncertain interference of Parliament and the Court of Chancery. Mr. Fearon has drawn up a list of the foundations for grammar schools in the metropolitan district, which came under his inspection. They are thirty-three in number. The schools have been established at different times, from 1418 to the present time, i.e. during four centuries and a half. "Of these 33 foundations, 24 were expressly designed for the teaching of grammar, or Latin, 6 of which expressly included Greek, 2 for the teaching of mathematical science, and 4 for education generally without mention of any particular subject; while 3 were not designed by their founders for educational purposes at all, but were converted to such purposes by the Court of Chancery. It appears further, that of the first thirty schools, three were designed by their founders for the education of poor children, without distinction of sex, but with preference to those who were poorest, or who were orphans or destitute, or the children of day labourers; four were designed for poor children, without distinction of sex, or limitations of the notion of poverty; eight for poor boys or male children, to the express exclusion of females; eleven for children without any limitation as to sex, poverty, or social condition, and four expressly for children of the rich as well as of the poor."(1)

Now if we look to what these schools are now, we find that, "even in important matters, all have been metamorphosed from the original form given them" by the founders of the charities. Three do not at present exist as schools at all; another has a master, but no scholars; in another the masterships are suspended during the preparation of a new scheme; eight or nine give a purely elementary education, and are inferior to a decent national school; none educate girls, except Christ's Hospital which has 17 girls in its list of over 1,000 scholars. Two very wealthy institutions, Christ's Hospital and Dulwich College, are utterly changed from their specific original purpose; and the four schools which

(1) p. 256-259.


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Mr. Fearon selects for especial commendation as really useful schools are the City of London school, which was founded "for the clothing, maintenance, and education of four poor children", and is now purely a day school for 930 boys paying fees, and the three schools(1) which have been created within the last 30 years out of funds left for eleemosynary [charitable], not educational, purposes. In other words, with perhaps the exception of Highgate and Stepney, which were founded with few if any restrictions, the most useful schools are those which have been most changed.(2)

But it is, we repeat, not enough to change, unless the change be made in harmony with other changes. There is no part of this subject which does not show strongly the need for reforming the grammar schools upon a comprehensive plan, which shall do justice alike to the intentions of the founders and to the wants of the locality. A place is not really benefited by indiscriminate gratuitous education; nor by the practical exclusion of others from its school, nor by protection from the healthy stimulus of competition. It is benefited by ready access to the means of learning, and a visible standard of high education. But this ready access and high standard cannot be produced by isolated dealing with particular schools. There are few places so large and varied as to be self-sufficing, few endowments so great and so happily placed as to be enough and not more than enough. It may be a hard lesson to learn, but it is none the less true, that a place need not lose a privilege because others share it, and that selfishness brings no blessing even in the matter of school endowments.

The imposition of capitation fees adds to the means of efficiency by the supply of additional funds, and by the removal of the dead weight of boys who do require other education, and do not require that given in a grammar school. The selection of free scholars by merit helps the persons who, if any, have a right to be helped, and it helps also those from whom they are selected, and those into whose ranks they come. The affiliation of schools sorts the scholars still further, and giving the locality generally an education which is higher than elementary, but not higher than they can really use, enhances the benefit to the selected scholars. because it improves the schools they enter.

(1) The three schools are the Stationers', Whitechapel Foundation, and St. Clement Dane's. Fearon, p. 372.

(2) Comp. Wright, p. 667. "Those minor schools are amongst the least useful which have changed the least; those which are now doing good service have for the most part done so only since the time when they were modernized."


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II. MASTERS

The preceding part of this chapter has been devoted to the discussion of the changes required according to the evidence of our:Assistant Commissioners in the functions and position of the endowed grammar schools. We have now to show how far the machinery which at present exists for the teaching of "grammar" in endowed schools is working satisfactorily, and in what respects in particular it stands in need of improvement. This machinery consists of a master or masters to teach the scholars, of trustees to hold the property, apply the income, and control the masters, and of the site and buildings in which teaching is carried on. There is no general educational control superior to the trustees of the individual schools. The visitor, if there be any, and if his aid be ever invoked, or the Court of Chancery, from its general jurisdiction over all trustees, may occasionally intervene; and the Charity Commissioners, exercising a similar jurisdiction, may also give advice on points of law, and of their own motion inspect; but the control is partial and uncertain. The Universities and various other examining bodies exert an indirect influence, which is powerful in the case of the higher schools, but slighter in the case of the lower. Subject to these qualifications it may be said the grammar schools stand side by side, affecting in many important ways the well-being of education and the growth and direction of English intellect; but each shut up, as it were, in itself, with no authorized source of guidance to which they can resort, and no public tribunal to call them to account for their stewardship of the high interests which the State has permitted their founders permanently to entrust to them.

The appointment of the master is amongst the most important duties of the trustees, and we shall therefore reserve our remarks upon it till we treat of their duties. But the master, when appointed, is in some schools in a very different position from that which he fills in others. He has a different tenure of office; his powers are different in theory and still more different in practice; his emoluments are calculated on a different scale and made dependent on different circumstances; the work assigned him may be definite and limited, or it may be such as readily to yield to energy and enthusiasm, and assume from its expansion a much more important character. But the tenure, the powers, the payment of the mastership are but the means to an end; the end of these is to get and keep a capable master, as a capable master is in his turn the means to produce intelligent


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scholars. "Such as the master is, such is the school", says Mr. Fearon(1) and to this must always be added, the school is not for the master, but the master for the school. The present state of the endowed schools preaches both lessons, but preaches them together. The work which the school is to do, that is, the length of school life which it is to cover, must be first fixed, and then the abler the master who can be obtained for this work so fixed the better. The particular tenure, the limitation of the powers, the scale of emoluments of the mastership, must be judged, according as they tend to attract ability to the post and to secure devotion to the work.

i. Tenure of Mastership

What should be the precise conditions on which a mastership should be held may admit of much discussion, but one thing seems to be put by the evidence beyond all doubt, that any tenure which legally or practically makes the master irresponsible does not do justice to the school. The mastership of a school cannot justifiably be treated as a sinecure post of dignity, or a reward of family affection, or a prize of pleasant companionship, or a pension for the unfortunate and aged, or the means of eking out an insufficient ecclesiastical stipend, or of supporting literary labour. The interest of the scholars is paramount, and unless that be made paramount by the master, however fit he may be for other posts, he is not fit for this. No man in founding a permanent school, whatever regulations he may have given, can have intended his school to be inefficient; and if he had, the State would not be justified in permitting it to be permanent. Yet instances, though not so common as they once were, are still found in which, whatever be the precise cause, the income of the mastership is at least not promoting the interest of the school.

Thus,(2) at Ottery St. Mary's, the master was elected, as it is stated, on the understanding that he should take boarders, but he fixed the terms so high (£120 a year) that they were practically prohibitory. Six day boys, all very young and paying fees, composed the school. The boarders' dining room was occupied as a coach-house by two of the master's carriages, the night study was a laundry, and the large dormitory a billiard room. At Earl's Colne our Assistant Commissioner found a master (since dead) receiving over £200 a year and occupied in preparing

(1) Scottish Report, vol vi p. 55.

(2) See also reports on Kidderminster, Kibworth, Normanton, Thornton (near Bradford), Stainmore, Selside, Woodhouse, Presteign, Petersfield (Churcher's College), Hastings (Parker's school), &c.


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a system of "teaching prime numbers", the system being contained in two perfectly unintelligible cards which were shortly to bp, brought into use in the school. "Of late the master had attended the school a short time daily." "The head master of Kington grammar school told" Mr. Bompas "that it was not worth his while to push the school, as, with the endowment (about £200 a year) and some other small source of income, he had enough to live on comfortably without troubling to do so." At Drighlington the mastership is held by the incumbent of the district parish, and "the school is in a pitiable state of squalor, disorder, and ignorance." "At Skipton (£651) the head master had appointed his nephew and his son to the second and third masterships, and" Mr. Fitch "found the discipline most inefficient, and the instruction slovenly, immethodical, and unintelligent; there was no one subject in which the boys seemed to take an interest, or which had been taught with average care or success." At Sedbergh (with an income of £610 a year) there were 13 pupils at the time of Mr. Fitch's visit, and it appeared as if even this number would he reduced; the school rooms were in a shameful state, and the scholars, though showing signs of having had teaching, were in a thoroughly bad state of discipline, and apparently only staying on to qualify for the school exhibitions. At Bingley (£204) "the sons of the master and of the incumbent of the parish appeared to absorb an inordinate share of the teaching; none of the town boys had made even respectable progress in the ordinary rudiments of education." At Bosworth (net income of school £792 a year) the head master taught three boarders and no others; the under-master only attended when he chose, the usher taught an inferior village school. Thame had two masters receiving £300 between them, one of whom had a good house also. Mr. Fearon found one boy in the school. A private school close by had 80 boarders and 40 day scholars paying higher than the grammar school fees. At Witney the head master contented himself with teaching Greek to one boy. Reading had three scholars, and there was no hope of the school reviving under the then master.(1) Aynhoe had five scholars, the master having once had a flourishing school at Banbury, and having come to Aynhoe for retirement. North Walsham (£266) had only 11 pupils, and "the whole place wore an aspect of decay and desolation", but the master objected to a new scheme being procured. Stamfordham

(1) The master has, we believe, since resigned, and the school is being reorganized.


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had 20 boys and girls, most of them extremely ignorant. At Burton (in Westmoreland) the school was without a master, the last having held office for nearly a year without attending personally to his duties or even being resident in the neighbourhood. At Whitgift's Hospital, Croydon, the late master (who died last year), Mr. Fearon was informed, found no pupils attending the school when he came, and never had any at all during the 30 odd years that he was master. At Netherbury the master has other business, and at one time carried on continuously with the school the business of a flour and spinning mill. Mr. Stanton examined the upper half of the school: "they were profoundly ignorant on all subjects". At Botesdale the six free pupils were taught at a private commercial school; the master pays the small income from endowment to the private schoolmaster, and himself resides in the school house without ever having personally discharged the duties of his office. This arrangement has lasted for 40 years. At Coxwold the vicar lives in the schoolhouse, the boys are sent to the national school under a similar arrangement. At Snareston the master chiefly occupied himself in farming eight acres of the school land. At Butterwick the head master attended for about two hours a day; at Heptonstall for about half the school hours; at Hawarden he gives little attention to the school; at Risley, "a gentleman for many years held the appointment of head master and drew the pay without performing in person the principal duties of his office, which were left to a deputy, who seems to have paid himself chiefly by private boarders. This state of things lasted till Midsummer, 1865."(1)

In other cases it is not from neglect or want of capacity on the part of the master but from his physical infirmities that the school is suffering.

At one school in Mr. Giffard's district "the master was at the time of his election and is still very deaf. He had previously conducted a private school in the town and had made himself useful to his fellow townsmen as vestry cleric. It was feared that if a competent man were put into the school, poor -----'s school would be ruined; so the trustees determined to give the vacant mastership to ----- himself."(2) Among the schools Mr. Richmond visited in Suffolk, "at one, the master did no work whatever, but supports an old age in the comfortable

(1) It may be noticed that our forms of inquiry were issued in May 1865.

(2) Giffard, p. 123.


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schoolhouse; at another he was almost helpless from age and paralysis; at a third, he was honest enough to declare that he was no longer fit for work; at a fourth he was deaf; while at three others he was no longer in the prime of life and languishing under his work." That is to say, more than a fourth of the grammar schools in one county were suffering from the bodily infirmities of the master.(1)

A third class of cases is formed by those in which the master holds, either in virtue of his mastership or independently, some other office, usually an ecclesiastical office. Mr. Green, after saying that in Staffordshire and Warwickshire he did not meet with a single case of positive neglect of duty, proceeds: "Excluding chaplaincies of unions, which seem generally to be filled by masters of grammar schools, there are eight schools" (i. e. about one-fifth of the schools) "in the two counties, of which the masters hold other appointments. In one of these cases - that of Walsall - the master is necessarily under the scheme (of 1797) minister of a chapel of ease, which involves his preaching two sermons on Sunday; owing to the size of the place and school, this is a most mischievous arrangement, and is felt as such by the master. The master at Stratford is in a precisely similar position. At Newcastle, again, the master of the grammar school has the care of a large parish in the town, and has his attention diverted from the school to a most unfortunate extent. At Kinver the master of the grammar school is also vicar of the parish, and has till lately given up the care of the school almost wholly to a deputy. In the other cases the work is of a less absorbing kind, but in all, I think, it tends to divert the master's interest in greater or less degree from the school; in two of them the master avowed to me his desire to be rid of his scholastic work altogether."(2) Mr. Bryce mentions "a school in Shropshire which had gone almost to nothing. The master was incumbent of one parish, curate of another, and chaplain to a workhouse besides.(3) At Barmby-on-the-Marsh, the holder of Blanchard's lectureship is required to preach twice every Sabbath day and to teach a grammar school. The incumbent of the parish is Blanchard's lecturer, and receives £97 a year from the estate." There is no grammar school whatever; the master simply subscribes "volun-

(1) See also reports on Holt, Huntingdon, Hampton (in Middlesex) Towcester, Crosby Ravensworth, Measand, South Leverton, Barnstaple, &c.

(2) p. 157. See report on Bishop's Waltham.

(3) Bryce, p. 528. Compare Thetford, Trent (in Somersetshire), Spalding, Wotton-under-Edge.


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tarily" £2 to the village school, which is not under inspection.(1) "The founder of the grammar school at Dolgelly, himself a clergyman, expressly forbade the schoolmaster to have any cure of souls. For a long while past the mastership has been regularly given to the curate of the parish, who reads two or three services every Sunday, and has an extensive parish to look after. A few years ago some persons in the neighbour" hood appealed to the founder's will, and took the question to a court of law, when it was held that the curacy was not technically a cure of souls, and that the letter of the rule was therefore not infringed. Infringed in spirit it certainly was, and the school ruined in consequence. When I visited it", says Mr, Bryce, "I found it held in a small parlour in the curate's lodgings; there were two scholars aged respectively 8 and 11."(2)

In other cases the master holds no other office, but takes private pupils. So far as these pupils are treated as part of the school the practice is beneficial; but so far as they are regarded with peculiar favour, are kept distinct from the regular scholars, receive exceptional privileges, and draw off the head master's attention from his proper work, so far the practice is seriously injurious. Sometimes, indeed, the private pupils are in every way separate from the school; thus, at Newbury,(3) Mr. Fearon was informed, the master took (besides boarders who were taught in school) private pupils to prepare for the competitive examinations. The schoolboys appeared to come ill prepared, and the teaching of the school was evidently by no means in a satisfactory state.

Three classes of cases have thus been mentioned in which the schools suffer from the insufficient services of their masters; their tenure of office being legally or practically compatible with neglect of the schools, or with incompetence produced by bodily infirmities, or with other occupations which distract the master's attention. All of these are matters of no recent origin. The founders frequently endeavoured to provide against their occurrence; the Commissioners who inquired into charities drew special attention to them(4); the new schemes frequently make their prevention the object of special provisions. Where the head master of a school, as was very commonly the case, had a freehold tenure of his office, new schemes have in the case of inferior

(1) Mr. Fitch's Report.

(2) Bryce, p. 527.

(3) Compare also Colwall, Enfield, Yeovil.

(4) See especially their last Report, xxxii p. 1. For the general law upon this subject see below in chapter iv p. 446.


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schools made future masters subject to dismissal at the will of a majority of the trustees, in others have given the power to a large majority or to a majority with the consent of the visitor or Charity Commissioners. "At Ruthin the governors, by the Act of Parliament of 1863, can dismiss the master without alleging any cause, on giving him three months' notice; a regulation most unusual in grammar schools, but", says Mr. Bompas, "I should think most advantageous." At the City of London and some other London schools, the masters are all appointed subject to annual re-election.(1) Dr. Howson told us that he had a strong conviction that no constitution could work so well as that of Liverpool College, of which he was then principal. "I am absolutely removable at a moment by the directors, and all the masters are removable at a moment by me."(2) Power has been frequently given to the trustees to pension a master whose age or other infirmity renders him unequal to discharge his duties with vigour, and to prohibit or control his engagement in other employment or his reception of private pupils. Besides these more regular methods of securing the responsibility of a master, two expedients have been resorted to, which speak forcibly of the need which has been felt for adequate legislation. One is the practice of requiring from the master a bond to resign on notice being given, a practice which appears at least in some cases to be illegal(3); the other is that of appointing to the mastership of schools which have become merely elementary the incumbent of the parish, in order that the acting master may be his paid deputy, and therefore readily dismissible. Sometimes this plan is adopted for another reason also; because the deed of foundation or scheme requires the master to be a graduate, and it is felt that a certificated master would be really much more suitable. Frequently,(4) but not always,(5) when this course is adopted, the nominal master pays over the whole of the salary to the acting master, or to the school account, and sometimes himself assists gratuitously in the work of the school. It is obvious, however, that such an arrangement gives the incumbent almost absolute power over the school, and it is not always desirable that he should exercise such a power alone.

(1) Fearon, p. 285. At Holt the master is subject to biennial re-election.

(2) Evid. Q. 2590. See also Fitch, p. 131.

(3) Fitch, p. 129. Bryce, p. 445.

(4) See Reports on Howden, Bourn, Snaith, Ilkley, Shipton, Brough, South Leverton, Eardisland, Attleburgh, Harleston.

(5) See Reports on Llan Egryn, Walthamstow.


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The power of pensioning cannot of course be exercised except at the expense of the school funds. Frequently these are already too small to admit of any subtraction for the purpose. Where a master has served the school faithfully and long, it is an act of justice and gratitude as well as of policy, if the funds be sufficient, to pension an old or failing master before the school is seriously affected by the decline of his powers.(1) But pensions do not always rest on such satisfactory reasons. Cases occur in which the trustees have in effect to make the choice between three alternatives; whether they shall allow an incompetent or negligent master to ruin the school by treating it as a sinecure, or shall risk a suit in the Court of Chancery by dismissing him, or, in fact, buy him out with a pension. The last is often the cheapest and best course. As to the first course there is no knowing how long the undeserving master may continue. Mr. Martin, the Inspector of Charities, said, in 1860, "I reported 24 years ago a schoolmaster in Borough Green, in Cambridgeshire, as deserving to be removed. I found him there four months ago teaching or pretending to teach two little boys. He is since dead."(2) As to the second course trustees will not be willing to incur costs to the extent of £1,200, as the trustees of Fremington School (income £80 a year) did in the rightful exercise of their plain duty,(3) or if the decree should throw the costs upon the school funds, to cripple for many years the finances and consequent usefulness of the school. Thus more than 20 years ago Mr. Fitch says, "the number of scholars in a famous school was reduced to six. The governing body, dreading the expense of legal proceedings, offered if the master would retire to secure to him a pension of £187 10s per annum, which he still enjoys."(4) Boston Grammar School is deprived of two exhibitions, the money (£80) going to a late head master, "now vicar of Frieston, under whom the school had dwindled to nothing." At Moulton(5) "an annuity of £100 has just fallen in, which was paid for many years to the late master, who is said to have made the place a sinecure.(6) At Dilhorne, the late master, who did not use the school building in Dilhorne, but built himself a large house two miles off, where he had at one time a flourishing establishment for boarders, was pensioned off in 1852 with £130 a year, which he still enjoys." At Bolton-on-Swale,(7) a master who had during 25 years never

(1) Stanton, p. 55. Bryce, p. 488.

(2) Pop. Ed. Com. Evid, Q. 4052.

(3) Letter of Rev. Scott F. Surtees (vol ii p. 119).

(4) Fitch, p. 128. See also Bryce, p. 445. Mr. Hammond's Rep. on Grimston.

(5) Mr. Eve's Reports.

(6) Mr. Green's Report.

(7) Mr. Fitch's Report.


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done more than take his private pupils over to the schoolroom and instruct them with such of the free boys (never more than two or three at a time) as learnt Latin, leaving to an usher all the other instruction, received a pension of £100 a year on the school being closed by the trustees in consequence of its inefficiency.

But more is wanted than a power of dismissal, or a power of pensioning, or a restriction upon extraneous employment; more even is wanted than the determination to put such powers into effect, or the constant watchfulness which shall rouse the trustees and others to their duty, or the provision of a cheaper and quicker tribunal than the Court of Chancery. All of these are but awkward methods of repairing the machinery when broken. What is needed is, first, that the machinery should be good, and, secondly, that it should be self-acting. If a master fit for the particular position were selected, if he were entrusted with ample powers for the administration of the school, if his emoluments were made largely and intimately dependent on his success, there would be less need for the exercise of powers of removal, which might then wait for extraordinary emergencies. We propose to discuss each of these points in order.

ii. Qualifications of Masters

We have already shown that the character and functions of a school are at present but loosely fixed. But, whatever the scheme or deed may say, the circumstances of the place and the endowment often leave little doubt as to the position the school will assume. If the income from endowment is small, and the neighbourhood sparsely populated, the school must, if continued as a school at all, be predominantly either a boarding school, or an elementary school. If it be allowed to become an elementary school, it ought at least to be a thoroughly good one and something more. Yet a University degree coupled with Holy Orders, or at least a degree, is often the necessary qualification for the mastership. The only means of obtaining a graduate master is in some cases to appoint to the mastership the incumbent or his curate. It is true there are a few cases in which this course appears in the present disjointed state of secondary education to have in some degree raised the character of the school.(1) And some time since, under a different state of circumstances, in the northern counties, the combination of the offices of parish clergyman and schoolmaster was frequent and useful. "Two generations ago", said one of our witnesses, the secretary to

(1) Daventry, Horton in Ribblesdale, King's Norton.


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the Carlisle Education Society, "this practice prevailed almost invariably in Cumberland, and the teaching was very much better than it is now. If the schoolmaster was not a clergyman he expected to be so. Bishop Percy cut off the connexion. He refused to ordain the country schoolmasters, and the consequence has been that they deteriorated directly. But the clergymen have been improved."(1) Mr. Richmond shows that in Westmoreland the change has often left the form only of classical instruction, while the elementary education has not been made wider or more thorough in order to supply the loss of the reality.(2) We can hardly be wrong in thinking that, so far as the improvement of the clergy has been due to the change spoken of, it is due to the greater freedom, secured by the separation of the two offices, in prescribing and enforcing a higher standard of clerical qualifications, and a stricter devotion to clerical duties. A precisely analogous course is required for the improvement of schoolmasters. If elementary education is all that the village containing the school requires, a University graduate and a clergyman will rarely make the school his chief care, or find in it a spring to rouse his enthusiasm. The qualifications which he possesses are not those which are best adapted to this work, and it is obvious that a man with only half his heart in his work and only half his time given to it, is not nearly so useful to a school as one who, with nominally inferior qualifications, has studied the art of teaching, is in sympathy with his pupils, and takes interest in his work. "Some of the worst schools", says Mr. Fitch, "which I ever saw in my life were conducted by clergymen; they were nominally grammar schools, but no Latin or Greek was taught in them. They were the only schools in their respective villages, and they were filled with the children of the poor. As to methods and results the work was such as would have disgraced a pupil-teacher in his first year."(3) Yet only the other day, when it was proposed in a new scheme for Slaidburn school to remove the restriction to clergymen the Vice-Chancellor refused to do so. The salary of the master is £50 a year; the curate is always appointed master, and the school endowment is thus converted into a subsidy for the church.(4) It is noticeable that Archbishop Harsnet in his statutes for Chigwell school

(1) Rev. J. S. Hodgson, Q. 17,618.

(2) Memorandum on Westmorland (vol ix).

(3) Fitch, p. 189. See also Mr. Stanton's Report on Trent in Somersetshire, and Mr. Hammond's Reports on Stamfordham and Walsingham.

(4) See also Reports on Clipstone, Haydon Bridge, Bungay, &c.


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in 1629, though dwelling particularly on the importance of religious instruction, ordered "as soon as the schoolmaster do enter into holy orders, either deacon or priest, his place to become void, ipso facto, as if he were dead."(1) Even the usher might not, said Bishop Pilkington, at Rivington, unless in case of pressing need, be curate of the parish church.(2)

Nor is it in elementary schools only that such a restriction is often injurious. Mr. Stanton says: "I was struck with the number of well-qualified laymen who are now doing good work as head masters or subordinates in other schools. In truth if a school be essentially a middle-class school, intended chiefly for farmers and tradesmen, the master who is of the same rank as his pupils, who understands their habits, sympathizes with their prejudices, and knows by personal experience their peculiar failings and temptations, is more likely to succeed in humanizing and teaching them than one whose associations are more entirely connected with an upper class."(3)

But there is another point from which the frequent limitation of the office to clergymen has to he viewed. It impairs the chance of the school being regarded as an object of common interest and support by the whole of the inhabitants, That a clergyman is often the best qualified person is doubtless no less true, than it is right that the best qualified person should be appointed; but the limitation may be hurtful to the school:in the same proportion that it is felt or fancied to be offensive to a large number, perhaps the majority, of the inhabitants. Even the restriction of masterships of endowed grammar schools to churchmen has something of the same effect. Moreover it forms, as Mr. Green points out, one among several hindrances which exist to a nonconformist's protracting his school life and looking forward to a University career at least at the old Universities. There are so few scholastic places which he can aim at. It is the more important to notice this, "as the better boys at grammar schools are often dissenters. The ministers of nonconformist congregations are among the few educated parents who habitually use them."(4)

It is not uncommon to find it prescribed(5) that the master should be a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge or even be a master of arts of one of them.(6) There can be little use in such a restriction to the older Universities, or to any particular degree. A master of arts degree as distinguished from that of a bachelor of arts

(1) Carlisle, i. 418.

(2) Bryce, p. 527.

(3) Stanton, p. 54.

(4) Green, p. 173.

(5) Fitch, 135-137.

(6) At Abergavenny the master must be a graduate of Jesus College, Oxford.


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means at Oxford or Cambridge only that a man is three years older, and has paid £20 or £30. In some cases again marriage is a disqualification for election at any rate, if not for tenure. The restriction is not always regarded, and it is hard to see what can be said for its maintenance.(1)

But the requirements of a University degree, or what in some later schemes is allowed as a substitute, that of a government certificate, is at present the only means of securing a certain amount of knowledge and ability in the master. The school is less at the mercy of a body of trustees who may wish to pension an old fellow townsman,(2) or of the founder's heirs who may have a protege to provide for. But neither a university degree nor a government certificate supplies exactly the test required. The former does not necessarily mean more than that a man has only just escaped rejection on a low pass examination; it does not imply any experience in teaching, still less any portion of the gift of teaching. On the average it does imply a fair amount of positive knowledge of Latin, of Greek, of the elements of mathematics and divinity. But the graduate may be nevertheless, and in many cases he is, destitute of the power, or at least of the habit of realizing a boy's difficulties, and of himself grasping a subject with clearness, and presenting it to his pupils by the side which they are best able to comprehend. He is probably destitute of any knowledge of the best practical methods of teaching a class, and of testing and recording their progress. On the other hand a University degree, at least at the older Universities, is some evidence of three or four years spent in an intellectual and cultivated society. "Graduates", says Mr. Bryce, "often come as head masters to a grammar school, knowing little of modern methods of teaching, and wholly unpractised in matters of discipline or domestic economy. But they usually set to work with more energy and in a higher spirit than any other class of teachers. These merits belong in some measure to all Universities, although much less to those which, like the Universities of London and Dublin, give degrees without residence."(3)

The certificated master has something more than attested knowledge; he must have had some experience and have conducted a school with some success. The master who has been trained as well as certificated has a very distinct advantage within the range of his training. He is no doubt apt to be mechanical, apt to explain too much, prone to recognize only one form of excellence,

(1) Fitch p. 137. So also at Beaumaris.

(2) Giffard, p. 123. Mr. Stanton's Report on Thornbury (Attwell's school).

(3) Bryce, p. 679.


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that of conformity to a closely defined type, and to judge progress, not by the hesitating results of silent growth, but by the readiness of superficial display.(1) But, as compared with an untrained and uncertificated teacher of the same class, he is, with rare exceptions, vastly superior. The untrained man commonly, if he be attentive to his work, becomes mechanical also; but the methods to which he clings are unskilful; his standard of order and knowledge is low; he judges progress by tests no less superficial and more misleading than those of a trained master.

Now, while it is clear on the one hand that for all the higher teaching in first grade, and the highest in second grade schools, a graduate is required, for he alone in any but exceptional cases has the requisite knowledge, and on the other hand that the third grade schools will be better taught by certificated masters than by either inferior graduates or uncertificated teachers, there is a middle region of great importance, which neither is well fitted to occupy at present. Some of the lower "teaching" in first grade schools, and most of the work in second grade schools requires a class of men who shall have more knowledge than all but the very ablest of the certificated teachers, and more skill and ability than inferior graduates. Mr. Green, speaking of assistant masters, dwells on "the want of men better suited to the grammar school system than the certificated masters, and to whom £150 a year is not so poor a pittance as it is to one who has spent £600 or £700 on his education at Oxford or Cambridge. At present", he adds, "so far as I have seen, the want is best met by men from the Scotch Universities, especially from Aberdeen. Loughborough and Oundle afford very favourable instances of their employment."(2) Mr. Hammond, speaking particularly of the need for more oral teaching in the lower classes of all schools, says, "the certificated masters" that he met with "were in no instance equal to the best Northumberland teachers, either in their method of instruction or apparently in the range and reality of their knowledge. They were fond of hard technical words and unintelligible rules, whereas the best oral teachers employed simple terms and homely illustrations."(3) Mr. Fearon in his Scottish Report(4) says, that "the Scottish teachers in secondary schools come to the work better prepared on the whole and better qualified than the ordinary teachers of middle schools (especially those of the second and third grade) in England." It cannot be said that there are at present many teachers in England, who have pre-

(1) Comp. Fitch, p. 324.

(2) Gen. Rep, p. 183.

(3) Gen. Rep. pp. 392, 302.

(4) p. 47.


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pared themselves to give methodical instruction in English or in natural science, or even perhaps to teach arithmetic, on thoroughly scientific principles. The certificated teacher has rarely had those social advantages which would enable him to move freely in the society of graduates, and himself to occupy and to make his subjects occupy a good position in the school. Nor will French and German be thoroughly taught, unless the teachers are gentlemen, scholars, and thoroughly acquainted with English. Mr. Fearon suggests that the best plan would probably be "to appoint as the master of modern languages in a grammar school an Englishman who has had a superior education but who has also resided abroad, and to supplement his labours with those of a visiting French master."(1) He adds that teachers of foreign languages are now inadequately paid.

Mr. Wright has called our attention to a very objectionable custom. New French masters are sometimes required to pay money, sometimes to a large amount, in the nature of goodwill, to those to whom they succeed. "This custom", he says, "exists at three of the most considerable grammar schools in Derbyshire, and probably elsewhere. There is said to be a similar custom in the case of German masters and drawing masters, but no instance was discovered." Any such custom must tend to narrow the choice of a new master, and put obstacles in the way of dismissing him.

iii. Powers of Head Master

The powers of the head master are sometimes much restricted, sometimes, either of right, or by the practical non-interference of the trustees, very large. The matters on which discussion is often raised are the amount of the fees, the admission of boarders, the enforcement of an entrance examination, the punishment and expulsion of foundationers or day scholars, the introduction into the course of study of new, or omission of existing, subjects, the enforcement of the same course on all the scholars, the examination or appointment of external examiners, the length and frequency of holidays, the appointment and dismissal of assistant masters.

To most of these matters we have already referred, and our specific recommendations on all, so far as we think it necessary to make any, will be found in the seventh chapter. The last here requires a longer notice. In many grammar schools, for instance in a fourth of those in Lancashire, a second

(1) Gen. Rep. p. 298-9. See also Bryce, p. 646; Hammond, p. 403 ; Stanton, p. 20; Giffard, p. 193.


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master, called the usher,(1) was provided for in the foundation, and ordered to be appointed by the trustees with or without the concurrence of the head master. In other schools where a second master is a modern addition the appointment is left to the head master with or without the concurrence of the trustees. "Where the assistant master or masters is or are paid by the head master out of his profits without recourse to the trustees, the power of appointing and dismissing rests with the head master alone."(2) In the West Riding of Yorkshire out of 64 schools, 31 have more than one master. Of these in 15 the appointment of the assistants is in the master, in 16 it is in the trustees.(2)

To the usher was sometimes assigned a certain number of the boys, at other times the more elementary subjects of the school course, at other times "he was to be ruled by the schoolmaster in his discipline, and for matter and manner of teaching whom or when."(4) The duty of the master (says Mr. Bryce), "as appears by an examination of the original statutes, was to instruct the elder boys in Latin, Greek, and Theology, while the usher taught the younger ones reading and the Latin accidence; and also, in the case of more recent foundations, writing and arithmetic."(5) Nor is it at all uncommon to find the master and usher teaching to a great degree independently of each other. "If a grammar school", says Mr. Fitch, "becomes large enough or rich enough to have a second master, it is cut boldly into two. It has little vital unity to be destroyed by this process; with schools as with animals the lower the type of organization the less important such vivisection becomes. Many a school has two masters, but they generally sit in separate rooms and work quite independently." Even within the last three or four years a scheme has been framed for Halesowen school, which divides the school in this way, "a provision which the master had had the good sense and boldness to disregard."(6)

This system or absence of system is due in a great degree to the practice which is usually continued in modern schemes of giving the appointment of second master to the trustees and making him responsible directly to them. There are cases

(1) Usher is the Latin ostiarius, i.e, the doorkeeper. Ostiarius was the name of the lowest order in the Church ministry, and hence became applied to the master under whose teaching the boys first came.

(2) Bryce. p. 522.

(3) Fitch, p. 132.

(4) Archd. Johnson's Statutes for Oakham and Uppingham Schools.

(5) Compare Alford.

(6) Mr. Bryce's Report. See also his Gen. Report, p. 500.


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where this independence has evidently been mischievous, and there are others in which it would be mischievous were it not for the happy dispositions of the persons holding the offices of master and usher.(1) Even at schools such as St. Peter's, York and at Monmouth and Norwich grammar schools, the head master has not by the schemes the appointment of any one of the assistant masters. At Grantham the power is taken from the head master in another way. "If any master has more than 25 boarders, the trustees may require him at his own expense to provide an additional master. The case has occurred in the third master's house." Mr. Eve was informed "that he provided a master who was of very little use to the school."

It would be possible to give the appointment of all assistant-masters to the trustees, and give the control and dismissal to the head master. But there is good reason for giving him the appointment also. It is not merely a question whether the trustees or the master would appoint best. That would depend on the judgment of the particular persons for the time being, and in neither case hitherto has the welfare of the school been always the first consideration.(2) The head master is not always bold enough to appoint one better or stronger than himself, and the trustees, even if they are careful in their selection of a head master, sometimes look upon the inferior appointments as pieces of patronage in the bestowal of which they may gratify feelings of personal liking or pity. But if the master has not the appointment and control of his assistants, it is impossible to hold him responsible for the good conduct and teaching of the school.

iv. Emoluments of Masters

The emoluments of a master in many of the old foundations consisted in a residence and fixed salary, which was frequently increased by voluntary gifts on the part of parents of the scholars; in other cases, the benefit of the foundation being confined to a limited class or number, he was allowed to make charges to others for instruction in the school. This liberty was made more profitable in many cases by the master being supplied with a house in which he could receive boarders. Occasionally, instead of a fixed salary being given to the master, he was

(1) See Reports on Bradford, Giggleswick, Boston, Caistor, Thetford, Market Rasen, Louth, Sandbach, Rochester (Williamson's School). Fitch Gen. Report, p. 132.

(2) See Reports on Ashborne, Spalding, Skipton, Ludlow.


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entitled to the whole produce of the estate, but at the same time bound to keep in repair the house and school buildings.

It is obvious that when the net produce of an estate or the amount of the fixed salary is considerable, the master is independent of the success of the school; his income may, perhaps, not be large, but it is large enough to make him indifferent to the prospect of an increase, if the increase of income must be purchased by an increase of exertions. Mr. Bryce says, "In many schools, as for example Burnley, Clitheroe, Kirkham, Warrington, the fixed income (that from endowment) bears a large proportion to the variable (that from fees), while in some, such as Bolton, Rivington, Penwortham, Blackrod, there is no variable income whatever. It is now generally admitted to be an evil that that part of the master's gains which does not in the least depend on his own exertions should equal or exceed the part which does; and I saw abundant proof in the torpidity of many masters, and in the stories that reached me of the state of the schools in past times, to believe it a very serious one."(1)

Modern schemes usually assign the master a small fixed salary, and treat this as the payment for teaching a certain number of scholars; any further payments from endowment consist of a capitation fee on each scholar beyond this number. Besides this to the master is usually assigned a fixed proportion, frequently one half of the fees paid by the scholars. The other half is usually divided between the second master (or usher) if there is one on the foundation, and the general school expenses. There can be no doubt such an arrangement is a great improvement upon former modes, and is in the right direction; but there are two points which seem to require further consideration, first, whether it is necessary to give permanently any fixed salary at all; and, secondly, whether it is necessary to fix in the scheme itself the precise proportion which the master is to take out of the scholars' fees. As to the first point, it is of the utmost importance for the school to he freed from an incompetent or unsuccessful master as soon and as easily as possible. However ample may be the powers of dismissal given to the trustees there will always be great reluctance to use them, and the greater the fixed salary the greater the loss which the action of the trustees would thus inflict, and the greater probably the delay which will be made before the necessity of inflicting it is brought home to the managers. But if the masters' emoluments are derived from the scholars' fees, or

(1) Bryce, p. 524. Cf. Hammond. p. 458. Fitch, p, 163-165.


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at least made dependent on the number of scholars, they drop away as the master fails to attract scholars. This system will almost secure by its own action the master's retirement.

The application of the amount raised by the fees of scholars in fixed proportions is liable to check the development of a school by leaving little to pay additional masters. It is clear that if the fee paid be (say) £8 8s and one-half of this be assigned to the head master, and one-quarter to the second master, there is but very little left to discharge the additional expenses which an addition to the school occasions. If 25 or 30 boys to one master be as many as can be wisely assigned as the proper proportion, at least in a classical school, the endowment or the profits on boarders would have to bear the difference between the £200 for the salary of a master and the £50 or £60 raised by the quarter's fees. Nor do the additional boys beyond a certain number add greatly to the labours of the head master; they probably do not add at all to the labours of the second master. At Moulton school the whole of the scholars' fees are distributed between the head and second master. At Dulwich upper school three-fourths of the fees are thus disposed of. At Grantham the head master has one-half, the second master one-quarter, the third master one-eighth. Strangely enough the same scheme leaves it free to any person in the town to take boarders. The result is that 10s 6d a boy, or £13 for 25 boys, is all that is left to help the endowment in providing the additional master which that number would require. It would seem very advisable to retain to the trustees a power, either to alter the distribution after a certain number of scholars had been reached, or to compel the head and second masters to pay an additional master for every additional 20 or 30 boys. The latter provision already exists in some old statutes.

It is rare for any but the head and second masters to have, by sharing in the fees, a direct pecuniary interest in the success of the school. Mr. Fearon gives us one instance; that of the Whitechapel Foundation School.(1) In Liverpool College all the masters are paid by shares in the fees. The rise in the prosperity of the college has thus raised the salaries from 100 or 200 shares at 15s per share to 100 or 200 shares at 23s.(2) Mr. Green(3) also notices the fact that at Brewood "the French master in addition to a fixed salary receives a certain sum on every boy who passes the

(1) Gen. Rep. Append. p. 463. On the desirableness of such an arrangement see Hammond, p. 469.

(2) Rev. Dr. Howson. Q. 553, 2644-2652.

(3) Report on Brewood.


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University local examinations and a further sum on everyone who is placed in the first class in French at the same."

Mr. Fearon(1) and Mr. Bryce(2) both advocate the introduction into at least some endowed schools of the Scottish system of fixing a separate fee for each subject of instruction and making no regular course compulsory. It is said to have at least two advantages; it gives to parents who are jealous of overmuch or of any time being given to Latin or to the higher subjects of instruction, the means of fixing their sons' subjects of study according to their own wishes. It also enables the teachers of all the subjects to be paid according to their success and directly to realize their responsibility. But we do not think such a plan generally advisable in England,(3) nor is the adoption of it necessary either to satisfy parents or to give teachers a fit pecuniary interest in their success. Parents will be satisfied if they get what they ask for, even if the interest of the child be also regarded by his getting something more. And the system pursued at Liverpool College may be extended, if it be thought desirable, by being made to rest on the results of an authorized examination and modified accordingly from time to time.

The general scale of remuneration both of head and assistant masters is low, excepting where a large boarding-house is kept. Mr. Bryce calculates the average year's income (excluding profits of boarders) of a head master in the large towns of Lancashire at £317; in small towns' grammar schools at £138; in country schools at £75. The average income of the usher or second master is probably not more than £120, £70, and £30, in the three classes respectively. About half of the head masters have also a house, which is equivalent to an increase of from £10 to £100 per annum. Five or six have also the profit of a boarding establishment. One or two second masters have boarders, and in a few cases they receive board and lodging.(4) Lancashire is probably below the average, but the difference is more in the infrequency of boarders than in the other elements of gain. The highest incomes of head masters derived from endowment and day scholars' fees are probably the following: At Birmingham nearly £2,000; at Dulwich and Tonbridge under £1,100; at Bedford £1,000; at the City of London School and Durham under £1,000; at Christ's Hospital, £850; at Leeds, £800; at York, £719; at Repton, £710; at Canterbury, about £700; at Doncaster, under £700;

(1) Scottish Rep., p. 16.

(2) Gen. Rep. p. 767.

(3) See above, p 167, note.

(4) Bryce, p. 525.


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at Newcastle-on-Tyne, £665; at Manchester, £585; at Oundle, £550; at Macclesfield, £540; at Hammersmith, £500. In all these cases (except City of London, Doncaster, Newcastle, and Manchester schools) the master has also a house free of rent, rates, and taxes. At Tonbridge, Bedford, Durham, Leeds, York, Repton, Canterbury, Doncaster, Macclesfield, and Hammersmith, he has also boarders, the profits from which amount in a few cases to £1,000 or £1,500 a year. Probably(1) in none of the other grammar schools in the country is the clear income of the head master exclusively of the fees and profits of boarders, more than £500 a year. At Uppingham and Bromsgrove it is under £200. In many it does not exceed £200 or £300. At Ipswich and Derby the income is merely the amount of the rent of the buildings. In schools which have become merely elementary schools the master's income is usually less than £100.

The above statement will show how important a consideration in estimating the means of paying masters is the question of boarders; for without them the master's receipts, under present arrangements, would be insufficient, except in a few cases, to attract men of superior ability, and to enable them to devote themselves entirely to their school work. It should be remembered also that if the profits on boarders are to be considerable (whether these profits be received directly by the master, or, as on the hostel system, by the trustees) the number of boarders must be considerable. Yet it is not at all uncommon to find a master allowed to take boarders, but limited to six or ten or twelve. On a small number like this not only the total profit, but the profit per head is relatively much smaller than with larger numbers; and moreover the inevitable fluctuations in the number of applicants are liable to tell seriously on the gains of the establishment. In schools mainly non-classical, such as Bunbury, the profit per head stands in a larger ratio to the salary of the master than it does in higher schools, and thus even a small number of boarders make a perceptible addition to the master's income. An experienced master of this class told Mr. Wright,(2) that he thought it an advantage both to the school and to the roaster that he should take some boarders; but that "ten or twelve should be

(1) Where the head master pays assistant masters, and takes boarders, it is difficult to separate the clear income furnished him by endowment and day scholars' fees from that furnished by boarders. The general statement in the text has been arrived at by considering the income derived from endowment and day scholars' fees to be free from any deduction for the salaries of assistants, unless the number of day scholars was so large as to require such additional masters paid by the head master.

(2) Wright's Sum. Mem. vol viii p. 672.


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the maximum, and perhaps six would be the wisest number for them to receive."

The range of assistant masters' emoluments exclusive of boarders is from an extreme maximum(1) of £600 and a house to £30 per annum, or sometimes even less.(2) At Christ's Hospital, out of 26 masters, the salaries of more than half are £200 and upwards. At the City of London School none are above £400; the average is £250, "and the masters are underpaid."(3) The great majority of assistant masters in grammar schools probably receive not more than £200. In many schools the salary is frequently under, sometimes much under, £100. On the other hand profits on boarders make the income of the assistant masters at Uppingham about £1,000 a year.

The income in some schools of modern foundation of a semi-classical or non-classical character may be mentioned. At Framlingham College "(310 boys in February 1866) the head master's salary is £300 and a house, and eleven assistant masters receive from £130 to £70, such of the assistants as are single men having board and lodging besides; married men, with the exception of the head master, having a larger salary in lieu of these allowances."(4) At the Whitechapel foundation commercial school (entirely a day school of 230 boys) the three highest masters received from endowment and fees £287, £192, and £130 respectively; other masters received £100, £60, and £40; some had houses provided. At Bunbury (102 boys) the total income of the head master was £160 besides house and profits on boarders. He was assisted by two pupil-teachers and one paid monitor.(5) The four excellent King Edward VI elementary boys' schools (150 boys each) at Birmingham have each a head master at £150, an assistant and a pupil-teacher. The assistant is paid £45; but "this amount is not enough to attract a teacher worth having: the only chance of filling the place satisfactorily is to retain an old pupil in it."(6)

v. Number of Masters

The numerical proportion of masters to scholars may be expected to vary directly with the character of the instruction, being higher as that becomes less elementary, and partakes more of a University character, and inversely with the size of

(1) Except at Bedford, where it is £849 and a house.

(2) Comp. Hammond, p. 307, 353.

(3) Rev. Dr. Mortimer, Q. 36-54.

(4) Hammond, p. 373.

(5) See also Wright's Sum. Mem. vol viii p. 672.

(6) Green, p. 108.


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the school, the larger numbers allowing of a better classification of the scholars. The age of the scholars is chiefly important in its effect on the character of the instruction. A school preparing boys for the competitive examinations for scholarships at Eton or other classical schools may consist of young boys, but will require a large number of masters. But backward boys require more individual attention, though the teaching be of an elementary character. To take only schools where the instruction is efficient(1): At Marlborough College (500 boys) the proportion is about 1 to 25 boys; Uppingham (300 boys), and Sherborne (180 boys), about 1 to 20; at Canterbury (106 boys), about 1 to 15; at Bradfield (109 boys), 1 to 11. Of the three schools of St. Nicolas College, in Sussex, at Lancing (containing 120 boys), the proportion is about 1 to 12; at Hurstpierpoint (340 boys), 1 to 22; at Shoreham (280 boys), about 1 to 25. At Framlingham College (310 boys), the proportion is 1 to 26; at Norwich Commercial School (200 boys), 1 to 30; at Saham Toney, a proprietary school of the same character as Framlingham, but having only 50 boys, 1 to 17.(2) Mr. Hammond points out that oral teaching, such as is practised in the Northumberland schools, requires fewer teachers in proportion than one which endeavours to prepare any considerable proportion of the scholars for a formal examination by means of written exercises. "Thus at Newcastle Grammar School there are on an average 200 boys receiving instruction from six teachers, one teacher being always off duty; and at the Duke's School, Alnwick, 100 boys are efficiently taught by a master with one assistant. On the average one teacher to 35 boys is found sufficient wherever the instruction is imparted rather with the view of arousing the attention than of developing the reasoning powers of the boys." Examples of non-classical schools have been given in the preceding paragraph.

III. GOVERNORS

An endowed school requires some means of permanent maintenance. There must be some person or persons in whom is vested the right of appointing a new master on a vacancy occurring, and of holding and managing the property of the

(1) Any average would be particularly uninstructive in this matter, because both a large proportion and a small proportion are usually signs of a bad school, but from different causes. The first implies an insufficient power, and the latter will often arise from the school being emptied in consequence of its badness.

(2) Hammond, pp. 373, 380, 366.

(3) p. 306. On the two systems of teaching, see also pp. 391-394.


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school. The management of the property may of course be given to the master himself, as in the case of the parson of a parish; the appointment of a new master is in endowed schools never vested in the master himself.(1) But the two functions, though both, in all but a very few cases, assigned to some other person than the master, are by no means always assigned to the same classes of persons, and still less with the like powers and limitations.

Patrons and trustees or governors may conveniently be classed under three heads according as these powers are vested in -

i. A body specially created and continued for the administration of the school, or of the charity or charities of which it forms a part:

ii. A society of persons already associated for other purposes:

iii. One or two (rarely more) persons, representatives of the founder, either as heirs or proprietors of certain manors or lands.

i. Governors, consisting of a Body specially created

i. The first of these classes is much the most numerous, and is that to which almost all but some of the ancient foundations belong. About three-fourths of the whole number of grammar schools are under a body of individual trustees who have the legal management of the property, appoint the master, and claim some control over him. Of the remaining fourth some wholly fall under one or other of the two latter classes, in the others the powers of government are divided.

Of these bodies of individual trustees it is difficult to give any general description. They are differently constituted, they are composed of very different kinds of persons, they have ample or narrow powers, they act on different traditions, they vary in the care and wisdom with which they administer the trust, according to the character and disposition of the individual members. But it is satisfactory to observe that there appears to be little in any evidence of present malversation [corruption].(2) The inquiries of the Commissioners, who reported to Parliament from 1819 to 1837, the subsequent legal proceedings which have been taken by the Attorney-General, and the establishment of the Charity Commission, have prevented the continuance of those abuses, which were not uncommon before, and the memory and effects of which still remain. Complaints, however, are still heard of trustees

(1) At Old Malton the master appoints the usher, and the usher has a right to succeed to the mastership, if he be competent. Fitch, p. 134.

Fitch, p. 113. Bryce, p. 433.


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becoming tenants of the school lands;(1) and the practice of lending the school money to a neighbouring landowner on personal security has not yet been given up.(2)

But the state of a great many schools is such as could not exist, if they were under active managers, who had the interest of their schools at heart. A large and important school will attract an able master, who may be wisely and safely left to manage with little control from the trustees. The school is before the eyes, not merely of a small town or remote country village, but of the county or nation. There is less need for the watchfulness of trustees, but there is also less inducement to leave their duty unfulfilled. The school gives dignity to its governors. But a smaller school, however useful it might be made by care and exertion, can only sue for their attention in formâ pauperis [by claiming poverty]. Yet in proportion to its insignificance does it require their support.

To take a few instances: At Blandford Forum the trustees are 11 country gentlemen. "Three of them met at Dorchester, 16 miles off, in April 1860; no further meeting took place till 1865, when four of them met, and they had not met since." At Evershot the master knows only one trustee, and him by sight only. The full number of trustees is 12, and they fill up vacancies in their own number. On the last occasion, when new trustees were appointed, nine members of the family of the chief landowner in the parish were chosen, no resident or near neighbour, except the landowner himself, being on the list. It is said that for the last 10 years none have exhibited the slightest interest in the school. At Lewes "the present trustees (nine in number) were appointed in 1852. One of them resides in the town; the others are noblemen and gentlemen who have seats in the county. No meeting of the trustees had been held since 1859. Two of them have paid occasional visits to the school, have given prizes to deserving boys, and have generally shown an interest in its success." It is clear from Mr. Giffard's account that this is not enough. At East Grinstead "the trustees are five in number, and all non-resident, except the vicar, who is a trustee ex officio. No meeting of the trustees has been held since 1856, in spite of repeated efforts of the present vicar to convene one." At Newcastle-under-Lyme trustees were appointed "by the Court of Chancery, who nominated the present master, and have never met since." Dolgelly, Ystrad Meurig,

(1) Bryce, p. 433. See also Mr. Elton's Report on St. Bees.

(2) Mr. Elton's Reports on Drigg and Wigton.


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and Presteign had suffered from the neglect, and Usk from the quarrels of the trustees. The property of Pwllheli Grammar School appears to have been some time ago made away with altogether, and the school is now extinct. Bitterley, Wrexham, Threshfield, Whalley, Botesdale, Bulwell, and Little Thurlow have no trustees at all. New Alresford had but two, one of whom was quite infirm. Brandon had but two, one of whom was non-resident. Market Drayton is left to one churchwarden. At Burtonwood the full number of trustees is 15. There are three surviving; two are paralytic, and one imbecile.(1) At Evesham out of 11 trustees five were still alive, but of these one had never acted, one had left the town, one takes no interest in the school, one is old and infirm. The one acting trustee could not succeed in getting others appointed because the school was concerned in a Chancery suit, and people feared lest they might become entangled. At a school near London no one seemed to know who were trustees. A chemist stated to Mr. Fearon that he received some dividends and handed them over to the schoolmaster, and added that he, too, "would shortly be out of the trust altogether".(2)

Nor is such want of vigorous supervision without its natural effects. What inattention may do is well seen in Mr. Bryce's description of the Grammar School of Oldham. "In a gloomy and filthy room in the worst part of the great and growing manufacturing town of Oldham (population 72,000), I found a teacher, who had himself received a very scanty education, hearing 12 dirty and unkempt children, none of them over 10 years of age, reading in an elementary lesson book. They read very badly, could not write down numbers on the slate, and proved, on examination, to be unable to do anything in arithmetic. For many years past no one had cared for the school, and thus it had been allowed to sink from the respectable position it had held 20 or 30 years before into a state which would have disgraced a hedge school in the remotest country district." It appears some of the trustees were non-resident, and others fully occupied with business. The endowment, it is true, is only £30 a year, but in a large town little endowment is required to make a suitable school successful. This school, like others, had been successful, and had been allowed to fall.

The opposite fault, that of undue interference, does not appear to be at all prevalent. It is an evil present to the imagination of some people, who tell stories of its ill effects, but it is rarely

(1) Bryce, p. 440.

(2) Fearon, p. 314.


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found to any serious extent in practice.(1) At Wimborne Minster, indeed, the scheme orders the governors (inhabitants of the parish,) to meet at least once every month, and gives them the power of prescribing to the master the most minute details. He has no power to use the school-room except at such hours as they permit; and a notice is hung up in the school-room, that boys who have any complaint to make of the treatment they receive in the school should first apply to the head master, and, failing to obtain satisfaction, should address themselves to the Governors. At Bath a reporter is present at the quarterly meetings of the trustees, and the pettiest details are circulated in the local paper.(2) These are instances, no doubt, of what might occur in many places, where the grammar school has been the centre of local quarrels, upon which the Court of Chancery has perhaps pronounced, but which it has failed to extinguish. If the imposition of capitation fees or allowance of boarders has been resisted, if there has been a struggle as to the admission of Dissenters to the school or to the trust, if there has been an attempt to remove the master for anything but the most patent immorality, there may continue for long a quick sensibility and a nervous state of suspicion, which may draw the trustees into an activity which is mischievous, because it is apt to be petty and jealous. But except on such disputed matters, and often even without this exception, languor is far more to be feared.

Nor is this a matter of wonder. There is almost every cause which could produce and in some degree justify such a state in full operation. The trustees are frequently non-resident gentlemen of the county, who do not use the school for their own sons, and do not look upon it as an object claiming their charity; or they are farmers of the neighbourhood who know little about education, and do not set a high value upon it; or they are tradesmen of the town, who think a grammar school education a waste of time, and grudge it the endowment. They are appointed for life, and if they took an interest once, get tired of the school, and find its concerns only a trouble. They are elected by the existing members of the trust, or are members ex officio, or appointed by the Court of Chancery, and have no pledges to redeem, and no need to seek a continuance of favour. They cannot always give the necessary time, and, acting gratuitously, they do not feel themselves bound to any unusual exertions. They are con-

(1) Stanton, p. 51. Bryce, p. 447. But see Bryce, p. 458.

(2) Mr. Stanton's Reports.


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fronted by a master who is negligent, or incompetent, or listless, or infirm, and he has a life tenure also and can obstruct improvements. They are bound by the terms of an ancient will or the minute regulations of a modern scheme, and have great difficulty in knowing what they may do and what they may not do, and are glad to rely blindfold upon their solicitor. They know that action leads more easily than inaction to a breach of trust, and that the Court of Chancery cannot always, consistently with its own rules and modes of procedure, exempt from considerable costs an honest though mistaken trustee. They have no large experience of other schools, no trained eye to see the defects of their own. Trusteeship does not convey to their minds the duty of activity, but of caution and quiet. They are used, perhaps, to the sight of the grammar school inefficient, and it does not occur to them that it ought to be, and might be, busy and vigorous and fruitful.(1)

There are not a few exceptions to this general description; but they are usually exceptions due to the fact that one or two of the trustees are men who are energetic in whatever they put their hand to, or have a special liking for the cause of education. Much, too, depends on whether the trustees belong to the class, and indeed, at least in some degree, to the highest class, of those who themselves send their boys to the school.(2)

It would not be possible or desirable to fashion all boards of trustees on precisely the same model;(3) but it is worth while to draw attention to some points in which many boards are now badly constituted.

1. It is sometimes a necessary qualification for a trustee that he should be resident in the town, or parish, or neighbourhood. In other cases, the landowners or gentlemen of the county form the board, though the place, where the school is, has grown from a village into a large town. It is clear that trustees who are non-resident, as many county gentlemen often are non-resident for all practical purposes, are often little better than no trustees at all:(4) and trustees who are chosen from a narrow area, and perpetually on the spot, if they have not a tendency to be meddlesome, are at least little likely to take wide and enlightened views. They look to the immediate interests of the parish only, and do not estimate even its interests aright. They lack boldness

(1) Cf. Bryce, pp. 448-453.

(2) Mr. Green (p. 234) speaks of this working well at Atherstone, Wolverhampton, and Loughborough. See also Giffard, p. 124. Wright, Sum. Min. p. 674.

(3) Hammond, p. 463.

(4) Bryce, p. 441. Reports on Burnley, Wigan. Giffard, 122-3.


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and they lack experience. For a town school it cannot work well to exclude the leading townsmen; for a country school, if it is to be more than a primary school, it cannot be well to confine the management to the parish. Mr. Fitch says, "In large parishes like Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield, or Doncaster, a rule which limits the governing body to the residents works exceedingly well." Of its working in smaller places he gives Haworth as an instance. "Here I found 13 boys so ill instructed that the school is a type of the worst schools in the district, yet in reply to my communication I received an official letter conveying to me the resolutions adopted at a meeting of the trustees, as follows: 'That the trustees consider the present state of the school adapted for all classes of society in the township of Haworth. That the trustees are satisfied with the present state of the school, and do not contemplate any plans for its improvement.'"(1)

2. The trustees are often persons of a different class to that of the parents of the scholars. If they are country gentlemen they send their own sons to the large public schools, and have nothing to draw their attention to the local grammar school; if they are townsmen there is a constant desire on the part of professional men to make the school somewhat exclusive, and on the part of tradesmen to reduce the standard of education to a purely commercial one. If they are farmers they may send their own sons to private schools in order to avoid contact with labourers, and may feel disposed, in conjunction with the landowners, to convert the grammar school into a primary school, that the endowment may go in lieu of their own subscriptions.(2) But though the class of the parents should be well represented on the trust, it is very undesirable that the parents themselves should have much power of interference. "In proof of this", says Mr. Hammond, "it need only be stated that judicious parents, when they have once reposed confidence in a schoolmaster, never do interfere. They are nevertheless subject to all the evil results arising from the interference of other parents more ignorant than themselves."(3) The experience of proprietary and of private schools speaks to the same effect.

3. The boards are usually composed of churchmen only, the law often requiring such a restriction, and the power of self-election supplying the deficiencies of the law. It is said that the majority of the Governors of King Edward VI's School, Birmingham, were

(1) Fitch, p. 122. Fearon, p. 313. See Wimborne.

(2) See above, p. 210. Mr. Green's Report on Appleby in Leicestershire.

(3) Hammond, p. 462. Mr. Eve's Reports on Newark and Great Grimsby.


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once Nonconformists; but that accident having given the opportunity to the churchmen, none but churchmen were ever afterwards elected.(1) As more than half the inhabitants are Nonconformists the exclusion is the subject of great annoyance. In a Lancashire school "the mayor of the town had been during his term of office an ex officio trustee, and had done so much that it was desired to retain his services, but found impossible owing to a rule excluding Dissenters."(2) The question is one which, though not generally exciting very much interest, has important bearing on any reconstruction of the schools. M.r. Green says, "The fact that a proposal to exact fees at Walsall (where the restriction is in the scheme governing the school) would undoubtedly be made an occasion by the Dissenters to press for the removal of the disabilities to which they are now subject there, has increased the unwillingness of the governors to make the proposal."(3) Indeed, in large towns where the Nonconformists are numerous and often wealthy and influential, it is not likely that those who are debarred by a rule or practice of this kind from all share in the management can view the school with any feelings other than indifference or hostility. Nor is this exclusiveness shown to be at all necessary to prevent dissension. "Those schools (as Manchester, Rivington, and Warton), in which members of the Church of England and Nonconformists sit together at the board of management, are as peaceful and prosperous as their neighbours." Of course the case is different where the question is unsettled or old disputes have left their sore.(4) Political exclusiveness has a somewhat similar effect, and is often combined with the other.(5)

4. Sometimes the trustees are a number of persons unconnected with one another, who become trustees ex officio. Usually, the majority of such persons, having no natural connexion with the school, leave the management to one or two who may happen to take an interest, or to some persons who may be resident near the place.(6) Thus the richly endowed school at Lucton in Herefordshire (net income £1,346) is under the control of the founder's heir male, with eight persons (chiefly clergymen) holding offices in London, who appoint a local board. 44 boys

(1) Evid., Q. 18,090, 18,094-5.

(2) Bryce, p. 438.

(3) Green, p. 235. See also the memorial addressed to the Commissioners from inhabitants of Skipton (vol ii p. 216).

(4) Bryce, pp. 437, 438; Stanton, p. 51. Reports on Kingsbridge and Ilminster.

(5) Green, p. 235. Elton's Report on Colchester. Bryce's Reports on Blackburn, Bury, Wem.

(6) Rev. E. Thring, Evid. 9928-9.


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educated and clothed gratuitously, 19 others who pay £1 a year, and 10 boarders, are all that this large endowment serves to educate. Nor large as it is, does it prevent the master (who is but poorly paid) from having an incumbency also. The governors objected to our Assistant Commissioner examining the school. Oakham and Uppingham have seven distinguished ex officio governors, but they rarely act, there being 18 others who are resident in the neighbourhood. Mr. Fitch says, "I have found a strong opinion adverse to the appointment of mere ex officio trustees selected on the ground of their personal or official eminence, but without any local associations or near interest in the school."(1)

5. It is needless to dwell on the inconveniences of a very large or a very small body of governors. The number is sometimes enormous. At Bedford there are 51, at Blackburn 50. At Boxford 37 trustees manage a school whose income is a rent charge of £40 a year, and which has eight scholars. At Normanton a revenue of £10 a year is entrusted to a body composed of various ex officio persons who can hardly have been thought likely to be less than 20, and might be almost any number. Our Assistant Commissioner found the master "leisurely reading 'Bell's Life in London', and eleven children following their own devices."(2) From six to twelve is the number of trustees spoken of as desirable by Mr. Fitch and Mr. Bryce.(3) Mr. Thring complains of the division of responsibility in the large board at Uppingham.(4)

6. The system of co-optation or self-election as it is called, that is, of trustees being appointed to fill vacancies by the surviving members, has advantages when the surviving members are by some accident the wisest.(5) But when trustees are selected, not because they occupy a leading position in the town, or have intelligence and public spirit, but on the ground of personal friendship, or political or theological agreement, or merely social position, there is an all but incurable tendency to an exclusive tone of feeling. However disinterested they may really be, yet if they represent, or are thought to represent, "a clique or a particular form of local opinion, they are sure to be met by a popular cry as soon as they propose a change."(5) Yet the number of boards in which the vacancies are filled up by the remaining members are very numerous. Mr. Fitch says that in the West Riding, "in two cases only are the trustees elected to their office by the suffrage of the parishioners. In five cases

(1) Fitch, p. 120.

(2) Fitch, p. 120.

(3) Fitch, p. 124. Bryce, p. 436.

(4) Evid., Q. 9968-9993.

(5) Green, p. 235.


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the whole of the governors are ex officio, in six others a portion only of the trustees are self-elected, while the rest serve ex officio; in fifteen others the only ex officio governor is the incumbent of the parish. In these last and in the remaining 36, the whole of the trustees possess the power of filling up the vacancies as they arise."(1)

The evils of a close system of appointment are greatly aggravated by the appointment being for life. Obstructive trustees may continue to prejudice the welfare of a school and of a town for many years. Midhurst school is at this time suffering from the obstinacy of a leading trustee, who has carried his opposition to a scheme of the Charity Commissioners so far, as to lead to the resignation of his fellow trustees, and to deter others from taking their places. The school has been closed for eight years and the buildings are rapidly decaying.(2)

Some means of occasionally introducing fresh blood into the management are essential. A limited tenure of office, and election or nomination from without of at least a portion of the board offer the best means of affecting this. Of nomination by the Court of Chancery or Charity Commissioners, which is not unusual, we shall speak in the next chapter.

Of direct elections by the parishioners or townsmen there are very few instances. Part of the board are thus elected at Bedford and Dulwich.

But there are some cases where the inhabitants, as represented ecclesiastically by the rector and churchwardens, or by the sidesmen (usually 24 in number), are the whole or part of the governing body of the school, or at least appoint the master.(3) Our Assistant Commissioners have frequently expressed regret at the absence of the incumbent from the trust. In country places the clergy are among the few who value and take interest in the grammar school.(4) But the incumbent with churchwardens or sidesmen does not appear to form a satisfactory or successful board.(5) At Darlington again, the three churchwardens are the governors. The one who had taken most interest in the management lost his re-election on the day of our Assistant Commissioner's visit. The Commissioners of Inquiry in 1829 pointed out the inconvenience of such a constitution of the trust, but

(1) Fitch, p. 121.

(2) Mr. Giffard's Report. Compare Mr. Bryce's Report on Usk.

(3) Bryce, p. 434. Add Hungerford, Amesbury, Market Harboro', Lowestoft (Annett's), Tuddenham, &c.

(4) Bryce, p. 435. Fitch, 117. See also Hammond, p. 443, Green, p. 234.

(5) See the case of Silverton mentioned by Stanton, p. 52. Bryce, p. 438.


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nothing has been done to remedy it. At Kirkby Ravensworth, the school and hospital, together having a net income of £800, are managed by the master and two wardens, chosen by lot, out of six selected by the master, incumbent, and churchwardens. "One of the two wardens was the master of a little village school (which has hardly any scholars), and the other a small farmer in the neighbourhood." They hold office for two years.

ii. Governors consisting of an already existing Society

We have next to examine those cases in which the governors are a society of persons already associated for other purposes. Such are the municipal corporation of a town, a City company, the master and fellows of a college at Oxford or Cambridge, and the Dean and Chapter of a cathedral. These cases seem to require careful examination.

All these foundations are old. The difficulty which is so often found in the case of individual trustees, of maintaining the body of managers in adequate number to manage the property and administer the affairs of the school, was anticipated by many of the early founders. Accordingly they often selected as the guardians of their bounty a permanent incorporation already in existence. The corporation of the borough where the school was to be, the London company, or the college of the University, to which the founder belonged, seemed to offer themselves naturally for this purpose. The cathedral schools are usually parts of the cathedral foundation, and stand on a different footing in this respect from the others. In all these cases the claims upon the property became by circumstances liable to much dispute. As the value of money fell, the terms, in which the payments to be made to masters, ushers, scholars, and exhibitioners were fixed, being usually sums of money, not aliquot [equal] shares of the produce of the estate, became out of keeping with the real annual value of the property, and with the purposes intended to be served. Many of the corporate bodies acted on the principle that they had received the estates simply on condition to pay certain specific sums to the masters or scholars of the school, and had a right to keep the overplus, were it great or small, for the general purposes of their own establishment. Frequently it was clear that the donors had intended to confer a benefit on the company, or on the college, or to promote the general comfort and relief of the burgesses, as well as to maintain a school. On the other hand, no less frequently was it clear that the donor intended that the whole, or all but the whole, produce of the estates was to be


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expended on the school, and nothing, or only a small remuneration for their trouble, was to be retained by the corporation who were the trustees. But much litigation has been requisite to decide on the respective claims of each; and the decision has sometimes been in favour of the school, sometimes in favour of the trustees. There does not appear to be any class of trustees who have been guiltless in this matter. Nor are these questions yet all settled. Our Assistant Commissioners have not unfrequently alluded to the possible claims of the schools: but the prosecution of inquiries into disputed property is not strictly within the scope of our Commission, and we do not think it necessary to pronounce any opinion on cases of this nature, except as to cathedral schools. The more quickly, however, any such disputes can be settled, one way or other finally, the better for the schools. Mr. Hammond observes in his report on Morpeth grammar school that a lawsuit in which it is engaged, though it may eventually lead to the recovery of some valuable property, acts at present as a blight on the school and all connected with it. The case of Evesham we have spoken of already.

1. Schools under Municipal Corporations

1. The schools of which municipal corporations are governors are not very numerous. The old borough corporations often mixed up the estates or funds of the charities with their own, administered them wastefully, alienated them. improperly. "Even at King's Lynn and Bungay, where there is no reasonable suspicion of malversation [corruption]," the school estates "are difficult of identification, and separate trust accounts have not been kept."(1) The Municipal Corporation Act of 18315 transferred the administration of charities then vested in the corporations to special bodies of trustees who were to be nominated by the Lord Chancellor.(2) There are, however, 20 towns(3) in which the grammar

(1) Hammond, p. 161-2. See also Elton's Report on Maidstone.

(2) See Mr. Hare, Evid. p. 12,964-12,966.

3 City of London (£900), Stockport (£278), Ipswich (£109), Colchester (£106), Newcastle on-Tyne (£105), Kendal (£70), Maidstone (£61), Preston (£55), Tewkesbury (£47), Bridgnorth (£31), Lancaster (£30), Congleton (£23), Cardigan (£21), Plymouth (£20), Alnwick (£15), Scarborough (£14), Helston (£13), Beverley (£10); Great Grimsby (£7), King's Lynn, the actual income of which is £110, but some or all of this is considered to be a gift from the corporation. We have not included Barnstaple (£13), or Wisbech, (£119), where the corporation claim the appointment of master, but no vacancy has occurred since the passing of the Municipal Corporation Act; nor Wickwar (£152), where they have one voice among five; nor Pontefract (£50), where the appointment of master is in other hands, and the corporation have the recorder and vicar joined with them; nor Hull (£35), where they have little or no power. At Reading (£50), by an Act passed last session, the corporation will have the chief power.


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schools are, from one cause or another, mainly under the control of the municipal corporation. Among these the Stockport school is governed by the mayor and 12 persons, chosen by the town council with the consent of the Charity Commissioners; at Tewkesbury there are 11 governors, of whom the corporation elect eight out of their own body; at Colchester and Ipswich the charity trustees hold the property, but the corporation appoint both master and foundationers; at Scarborough and (by invitation) at Kendal the vicar participates in the government. The rest appear to be directly under the town council. At King's Lynn the Town Charity Trustees manage the exhibitions.

Of these 20 schools the school at Great Grimsby is practically maintained for freemen's sons only out of estates belonging to the corporation, and not appropriated to the school, and therefore is rather a proprietary than an endowed school.(1) But of the rest, seven or eight have incomes from endowment under £25 a year, only five have over £70, and only two over £110 a year. Moreover, in several of them there are no buildings belonging to the school. Stockport has £278 a year, the Goldsmiths' Company on recently retiring from the trust having considerably increased the income; and the City of London School has £900 a year. Yet no less than eight of these schools are described by our Assistant Commissioners as good schools, and some of them as standing very high. The City of London School is treated by Mr. Fearon as a model; Lancaster is "one of the most prosperous and popular in the north of England"; Preston gives "general satisfaction"; Ipswich is the most flourishing and successful classical school in the eastern counties; Newcastle is "an admirable school for a boy of moderate abilities", though the oral method of teaching makes it unfit for boys seeking University distinctions.(2) Stockport, Colchester, and King's Lynn are all "good". In none of the other schools, some of which are bad or languishing, does it seem likely that other trustees would have produced more satisfactory results. The endowments are so poor that the difficulty of maintaining a good grammar school would have taxed the ability of any governing body; and on the whole it appears clear that the fears of danger to grammar schools from government by municipal corporations find no confirmation in the present state of these schools. The corporations do not seem to have selected the masters badly, nor do they interfere

(1) Berwick Corporation Academy is a similar case.

(2) Hammond, p. 288.


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unduly with the internal management,(1) nor do they show any desire to depress the standard of instruction. These schools in common with others require stimulus from without, and organization in relation to other schools. But there are some helps which may be more easily procurable if their constitution continue a popular one. The imposition of capitation fees, where the education is gratuitous, and the application of charities at present ill-applied, or of some of the borough funds, to the aid of the schools, are means of succour which they are at least as likely to obtain if the governing body of the town have an important share in the management as if it were vested in irresponsible trustees. At Alnwick, and King's Lynn, and perhaps at Preston and Lancaster the corporation contribute out of their own funds to the support of the school.(2) And it may be added that the corporation of Reading have lately obtained the conversion of some other charities to this purpose, and have claimed and obtained the main direction of the school.

We think it right to draw attention to the statement of Dr. Mortimer, the late head master of the City of London School, with reference to the value of the estates from which the endowment of that school is derived. The Act of Parliament which constituted the school about 30 years ago directed the corporation to pay £900 a year to its support. The land is in London, and at that time, being held on building leases, produced only ground rents to the amount of £900 a year. Some of the leases having fallen in, the present income from the estates is fully £3,000 a year, but the payment to educational purposes has not been increased.(3)

2. Schools under City Companies

2. The grammar schools of which city companies are trustees have in many cases incomes of large amount. Omitting St. Paul's School, of which the Mercers' Company are the governors,

(1) They are charged sometimes with neglect. Fitch, p. 211. Mr. Bryce's Report on Cardigan.

(2) At Alnwick for boys and girls, £285; at King's Lynn, £55 or £110, it is doubtful which. See Mr. Hammond's special report. At Preston the corporation pay £155, and at Lancaster, £170; but it is not clear that this is entirely a voluntary payment. The case of Doncaster where, though the government is not in their hands, the corporation contributes £250 a year to the school, we have already mentioned on page 159.

(3) Evid., Q. 3513-3523, and account of the estates in App. A. in the same volume, p. 385.


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and Merchant Taylors' School in the City, both of which came under the Nine Schools Commission, the number of companies' schools is 27, distributed among 13 companies, seven of which have the charge of only one school each. The net income of the 27 schools is between £14,000 and £15,000 a year.(1) Three schools enjoy net incomes of over £2,000 a year; three more have over £500; six more over £300. Nine, however, are under £50 a year. In eight cases the companies make additions(2) to what they consider is legally due to the schools. In three other cases the companies have in fact lent money to the schools. We do not give any opinion as to the legal or moral obligation upon the companies to make these additions; but the Clothworkers' Company are generally considered to have acted with liberality to the school of Sutton Valence, where they have lately erected new buildings, and pay £270 a year to the support of the school: the Grocers to have been liberal to Oundle, the Fishmongers to Holt. Mr. Hare informed us of the liberality of the Goldsmiths on relinquishing their positions as governors of Stockport school.(3) It will be observed(2) that the Goldsmiths make considerable additions to two other schools.

Of these 27 schools 10 or 12 may be said to be really useful, though even these are not in their present condition doing by any means all the good that such very considerable endowments ought to confer. Tonbridge and Aldenham are important classical schools. The income of the former is chiefly spent in University exhibitions. The latter school gives board and

(1) The Brewers have Aldenham (£3,600), Islington (£656), All Hallows, Barking, (£414?) The last-named school is on Tower Hill.
Drapers, Kirkham (£452), Goosnargh (£60), Barton-under-Needwood (£19), Bow (£27).
Goldsmiths, Bromyard (£35), Dean (£13), Cromer (£10).
Grocers, Oundle (£25), Witney (£55), Colwall (£30).
Haberdashers, Monmonth (£2,191), Newport, in Salop (£553), Bunbury (£50).
Mercers, Mercers' school in city (see below), Horsham (£360), West Lavington (£60), and Rich's endowment in Lambeth (£27).
Clothworkers, Sutton Valence (£39).
Coopers, Stepney (£900).
Fishmongers, Holt (£3231.).
Leathersellers, Lewisham (£209).
Merchant Taylors, Great Crosby (£379).
Skinners, Tonbridge (£2,643)
Stationers, Bolt Court, Fleet Street (£384).

(2) Bromyard receives an addition of £165, Cromer £120, Colwall £110, Oundle £395, West Lavington £187, Sutton Valence £270, Great Crosby, £63. Holt, the Brewers' school on Tower Hill, and Lewisham are in debt to their Companies. The Mercers spend £1,000 a year on their school in the City, though bound only to keep up a school for 25 scholars.

(3) Mr. Hare, Evid., Q. 12,962. See above, p. 256.


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instruction for £25 a year to a limited number, consisting of sons of residents of Aldenham and freemen of the company, the freedom, however, being purchasable by a payment of £20.(1) The Stationers' School in the City, Sutton Valence, Oundle, Lewisham, Great Crosby, the Brewers' School on Tower Hill, and the Coopers' School at Stepney are all good and useful schools. Newport, Holt, and the Mercers' School are fair. Bunbury is a model of its class, but its reformation was due to Mr. Garnett Botfleld, not apparently to the company. The other schools are not all bad, but some of them appear to involve a great waste of money, and others would not be missed if they did not exist at all. More than half of the 27 schools give gratuitous, or mainly gratuitous education; and this number comprises none of those named as useful, except the Mercers'. But Stepney makes a very low charge of £1, and Oundle of £2 2s per annum. The latter appears thereby to draw to a liberal education some who would otherwise have gone without.

The Drapers have given us no information in reply to our questions. Of their schools, Barton is a bad school, and Bow an exceedingly bad one. The Mercers have given us a little information as to West Lavington, and have refused to give any at all respecting their schools on College Hill and at Horsham. At the latter school they have declined to appoint periodical examiners or to impose capitation fees. We have already spoken of the great inutility of Horsham school in its present state.(2) At West Lavington the mastership (which is not in the gift of the Company) is a practical sinecure, the boys are very irregular in their attendance, and the average age of leaving is 9¼ years. The instruction is that of an inferior parochial school.

In some of the schools there are bodies of local governors subordinate to the companies, or even appointed by them. But this arrangement does not remove the difficulties arising from the governors being non-resident; for the companies retain the real power. But "they often", says Mr. Fearon, "take a great interest in the schools of the first or second grade which are under their management, because it is strongly for their interest so to do. In these schools they get the sons of their members educated at a trifling charge, as the Stationers do in Bolt Court, and thus add to the importance and the popularity of their guild. Or they actually increase their funds by

(1) Mr. Fearon's Report. "There is not a syllable about boarding in the foundation deed." - Report of Mr. Hare, as quoted in Pop. Educ. Com. Rep., see pp. 505-507.

(2) Above, p. 150.


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requiring persons to enrol themselves as members of their body before they admit them at all to the schools, as the Brewers do at Aldenham. ... But schools of the third grade can make no such profitable return and therefore they care little about them."(1)

The most marked feature about the Companies' schools is the waste of money in gratuitous education. It is not as if the scholars were selected for their intellectual merits. In that case the money would be well spent. But there is no ground for thinking that these scholars have any greater merits than the scholars at any other schools, or that the imposition of fees would be more severely felt. It is interesting to compare numerically the results with those of the schools under municipal corporations. The comparison shall be only of those schools, which in each case we have named as good and fairly successful, omitting, however, Bunbury as being a peculiar school different from any of the rest. The others are fitly comparable from the similarity of their general nature and opportunities. The municipal schools selected are eight in number; they have 1,512 scholars, and 45 undergraduates at Oxford and Cambridge. The Companies' schools are 12 in number; they have only 1,090 scholars, and 35 undergraduates. The cost from quasi-public sources, that is, both from endowment and contributions of the governors, is in the case of the Municipal schools, £2,000; in the Companies' schools, £9,400.(2) In other words the companies' schools cost quasi-public funds nearly five times as much, educate little more than two-thirds as many scholars, and produce only three-fourths as many university students. The public cost of the companies' schools is £8 6s per boy; of the municipal schools 27s.

3. Schools under Colleges

3. The next two classes of grammar schools are formed by those which have been entrusted to the special care of bodies expressly devoted to the promotion of high learning, good education, and sound religious principles - colleges in the Universities and Cathedral Chapters. Of these we take colleges first. The grammar schools under colleges at Oxford and Cambridge are of two kinds: first, those of which the colleges are trustees, and, secondly, those of which the colleges are not trustees, but have the appointment of head master and certain powers of visitation,

(1) Mr. Fearon's General Report, p. 312.

(2) We have only reckoned a little over £1,800 for Aldenham, that being the income spent on the school at present. See page 110, note.


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(a) Those of which the colleges stand practically in the position of trustees are 17 in number.(1) Their aggregate net income is about £3,000, and small additional payments are made (to the aggregate amount of £560), making in all £3,560. Of these two have net incomes of more than £500 a year; only three of the rest have incomes (including additional payments) of more than £200 a year. Claims have been advanced on behalf of several of these schools to increased payments in consequence of the great rise in the value of the estates. Brasenose successfully resisted in the case of Middleton, the support of which school was charged upon estates now supposed to be worth £2,000 a year; and Trinity in the case of Allyn's three schools, the estates there also being valuable. The former appears to have made a very slight addition to the old money payments; the latter has made more considerable but still small additions. They have, however, (within the last ten years) erected good school buildings and masters' houses at Stone and Uttoxeter, which they allow the school to use free of rent. Two schools were founded by William of Waynflete, (probably with Winchester and New College in his mind,(2)) in connexion with Magdalen College, one at Oxford, and one at Wainfleet. The former at least has been judicially declared to be strictly a part of the College, and therefore in a more intimate relation than an ordinary trust would imply. Cowbridge has suffered from the University Commissioners having destroyed the exclusive claim of its pupils to some

(1) OXFORD
Corpus has Cheltenham Grammar School (£790)
Brasenose has Charlbury (£40), and Middleton in Lancashire (£37, to which it has added £30.)
Magdalen College has Magdalen Coll. School in Oxford (£216), Wainfleet (£61, to which they add £39, besides doing repairs), and Brackley (in all about £100)
Queen's has Childrey (£13). The College is said to be now improving this school, but as a primary school only.
New College has Thame (£300). The master is appointed by Lord Abingdon out of two named by the College.
Christ Church has Portsmouth (£277).
Jesus has Cowbridge (£50).
CAMBRIDGE
Trinity has Stevenage (£43, to which they add £50); Stone, £15 (to which they add £85); and Uttoxeter £13 (to which they add £137). All founded by Thomas Allyn in the reign of Philip and Mary.
Caius has the Perse School at Cambridge (£563), and they also pay a pension of £220.
Pembroke has Sir H. Hitcham's three schools of Framlingham (£200); Debenham (£125); Coggeshall (£130).
Emmanuel has Harleston (£30), but we have not included this, as the trust is mixed with ecclesiastical duties. But see Hammond, p. 449, note.

(2) He was educated at Winchester; was master of the school; afterwards headed the colony which formed the first establishment of Eton, and was subsequently Bishop of Winchester.


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scholarships and fellowships at Jesus College, Oxford; so that this school is now at a disadvantage as compared with other schools which have exhibitions still.(1) Cheltenham, Portsmouth, and the Perse school at Cambridge have all had Chancery suits, in the first of which cases the costs are said to have been £14,000. Others also have been concerned in litigation with their colleges, wherein both sides have often incurred expenses which judiciously applied would have given new life to the schools.

Of these 17 schools, Magdalen College school and Cheltenham are good schools. The Perse school is rising, and Cowbridge, Brackley, and Uttoxeter are useful, though small. Thame is one of the greatest scandals in the country. There were two masters and one boy when our Assistant Commissioner visited it. Portsmouth, Middleton, and Childrey are in a miserable condition: and the others much need help, encouragement, and oversight. It appears to be mainly of late years that any of the 17 schools have received much of the attention of the colleges.

(b) At nine other schools (omitting Westminster and Shrewsbury, which came under the Nine Schools Commission), the appointment of head master and certain powers of visitation, but not the estates, are in the hands of colleges, and at two others in the hands principally of certain colleges or of their heads.(2) The president of Corpus Christi, Oxford, also appoints the master of Manchester school. Taunton was till lately in this number.

Of Bedford we shall speak at length in a subsequent chapter. Of the remaining 11 grammar schools Manchester has nearly £2,500 a year; four others have £500 or upwards; one nearly £300, and the rest under £110. It is, perhaps, owing to other circumstances that the one with which a college has the least to do is far the best. Manchester owes to the college an excellent master, but otherwise stands entirely independent, and is a highly successful school. The head and second masterships of Northleach have usually been treated as sinecure posts. The

(1) Bompas, p. 71. Comp. Fearon, p. 346.

(2) OXFORD
Queen's College has Northleach (£591). The master and usher forming a corporation.
Brasenose has Steeple Aston (£29).
Jesus College (with the vicar) has Abergavenny (£107).
New College appoints and removes all the masters, appoints examiners, and approves of regulations, of the Grammar school at Bedford (£2,898). The Warden of New College has lately surrendered his sole right of appointing to Taunton (College school).
CAMBRIDGE
St. John's College has Pocklington (£838), Sedbergh (£610), Rivington (£281), and the Master of St. John's, with the Charity trustees, appoints and visits in the case of Stamford (£500).
St. Peter's has Drighlington (£60).
St. Catherine's has Fockerby, in the parish of Adlingfleet (£55).
Emmanuel has Bungay (£43).


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present masters are not only able but willing to work. But the school is out of gear, and the actual teaching is done mainly by a commercial master, who is appointed by the head master, in accordance with an old custom, and derives his emoluments chiefly from boarders. At Pocklington the master and usher are a corporation, and the master's time is much taken up with the management of the estates. The school is not nearly as useful as might be hoped from its large revenues. Stamford is far from satisfactory. Sedbergh, owing to a recent most unfortunate appointment of master, has sunk from a flourishing school to some eight or ten boys. Rivington is barely above a primary school. Abergavenny is in a very low condition, having only 16 boys, all young, most of whom were lazy and disorderly. Fockerby is a poor primary school; Drighlington is in a shameful state; Bungay is in some respects useful, but the endowment is so poor that there is great difficulty in finding a master. Meantime the school appears to have derived no advantage in consideration of a rentcharge paid to the college out of its estates. Nor are there any scholarships or exhibitions at the college appropriated to the school.(1)

Many of these schools (e.g. Manchester,(2) Stamford, Sedbergh, Rivington.) give gratuitous education, and suffer in consequence. It is true also that the powers of visitation vested in the colleges are not very effectual. But these things being remembered, it is still impossible to think the present state of these schools creditable to any trustees, still less to bodies from whom, if from any, it might have been expected that the cause of grammar school education would have received energetic help and fostering care. The colleges are powerful and wealthy corporations, they are dedicated to education and learning, they have large staffs of competent examiners at their command, they have their attention constantly directed to the state of schools generally by their examinations for matriculation and scholarships, and often specially by scholars and exhibitioners sent up to the particular college from the particular school. But none of these advantages have been able to overcome the evils, first, of their having in some cases an adverse pecuniary interest, and secondly, of their being (in all but two cases) non-resident trustees.

Under the existing law, which gives to many masters a freehold tenure of their office, the good or ill of the school is fixed unalterably for many years by the selection of head master. It

(1) Mr. Hammond's Report.

(2) The Court of Chancery has recently sanctioned the admission of some paying scholars.


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can hardly be said that in more than one-third of these 30 schools(1) have the appointments been really successful, though the circumstances of many of the schools would probably have rendered it hopeless to expect an able man to take the post, and if he had taken it would have rendered his efforts of little avail. There is no ground to think that in any of these nine or ten cases would worse appointments have been made by ordinary boards of trustees, and in the other cases there is clear ground for thinking better appointments would have been made. For to give a college the appointment of any mastership, which yields much more than a pittance, is practically to confine the area of selection to the fellows, or at least to the members of the college. A college will sometimes have within its own circle the best man for the post, but much oftener it will not, and the school has to take the worse man because the endowment makes the mastership into valuable patronage for the college.

Only 11(2) of these 30 schools send any boys to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and these 11 have 92 undergraduates there. Of these, one, viz. Manchester, claims 36. It has 252 scholars, so that the cost of the education of each scholar from quasi public sources is £10. Bedford has 8 undergraduates, and the cost of each of its 205 scholars from the endowment is £14. Taunton has now become a Proprietary College. The other 8 have in all 528 scholars, and the aggregate net incomes amount to over £3,670, making the quasi public cost nearly £7 each.

4. Schools under Deans and Chapters

4. We have now to speak of the grammar schools which are under deans and chapters, and in order to explain their exact position it will be desirable to enter very briefly into the history and constitution of the cathedrals.

The cathedrals in England are divided into two general classes. They are known respectively as cathedrals of the old foundation and cathedrals of the new foundation,

(a) The cathedrals in England, like most of the cathedrals on the continent, were originally under the jurisdiction of the secular clergy. In the Anglo-Saxon or early English times the secular clergy were ousted from a certain number of the cathedrals, and chapters were made to consist, instead of a dean and canons, of

(1) Counting Taunton (which has a good master appointed by the warden of New College), but not counting Westminster, Shrewsbury, and Harleston.

(2) Manchester, Bedford, Magdalen Coll. School, Sedbergh, Pocklington, Cowbridge, Taunton, Cheltenham, Cambridge, Stamford, Abergavenny.


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a prior and monks, the bishop acting as abbot. This system in the Norman times was carried yet further by Archbishop Lanfranc, and until the reign of Henry VIII the cathedrals of the new foundations were under the jurisdiction of the regulars.

The general type of the cathedrals of the old(1) foundation may be thus described. Each cathedral was under the jurisdiction of a corporation consisting of a dean, three dignitaries, to wit, a precentor, a chancellor, a treasurer, and a certain number of prebendaries, the number varying in each cathedral, in some of them amounting to 30. Each prebendary formed a corporation sole and was endowed with lands. Each member of the corporation had definite duties; a prebendary had to reside for a week, to preach, to assist at the public services of the church, and to keep hospitality. Hospitality at that time consisted in providing food and everything except lodging for all the members and officers of the establishment, priests, vicars, vicars choral, &c. In process of time their duties were neglected, partly by the difficulties and dangers of passing in unsettled times from one part of the diocese to another, partly by the employment of prebendaries in State affairs as ambassadors, as privy councillors, and partly by the inadequacy of the revenues to meet the demands of hospitality. In consequence of this difficulty, and the neglect of duty on the part of the cathedral officers, certain lands were set apart to form a common fund (communia) of which all the prebendaries when keeping residence might share.

Irregularities having again arisen, certain prebendaries were chosen out of the whole body who were to keep residence, and these were generally described as residentiaries. They were sometimes called canons to distinguish them from the non-residentiaries; but this was never a statutable distinction. The residentiaries, varying in number from four to six or eight, had the sole right to the communia, and the fund was divided among them. Each residentiary received a dividend, and each was required to reside at least three or four months.

In all cathedrals the duty was recognized of making provision for general education, at first with the view of preparing men for holy orders.

The education of the cathedral body, students and choristers, was originally under a scholasticus, who seems to have taught grammar and arts as well as theology. The office of scholasticus was gradually merged in that of the chancellor, whose duty

(1) St. Asaph, Bangor, St. David's, Llandaff, York, St. Paul's, Chichester, Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, Salisbury, Wells.


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seems to have been "regere scholas theologiæ" and "conferre scholas",(1) and this seems early to have been interpreted as involving only the superintendence of the schools, except that of theology, which, so long as it existed, was probably under the direct management of the chancellor. Probably the ludi magister, who taught grammar, &c. under the superintendence of the chancellor, was not generally a prebendary; certainly it was not so when we find the first mention of the ludi magister in cathedral statutes; and the constitution of the schools of Winchester and Eton, in which the ludi magister is not a fellow, confirms this view. In some cases, as in the Prebendal School of Chichester, a prebend was attached to the mastership of the school, or an addition was made to the income of a prebendary, on condition of his undertaking this duty, which was then by statute imposed upon him. But this arrangement appears not to have been made in any cathedral before the fifteenth century; and in general it may be said that from the time of the extension of the universities in the thirteenth century, the cathedral schools of theology under the chancellor fell into desuetude [disuse], and the grammar teaching either fell with them, or was conducted by a schoolmaster of somewhat inferior position.

Under the Act by which the Ecclesiastical Commission was constituted, all the estates of the non-residentiaries in cathedrals of the old foundation were vested in that Commission. An exception, however, was made in favour of those prebendaries whose prebends were subjected to the performance of certain definite duties. In a few instances, a prebendary retained his corps because he was required by statute to deliver a certain number of theological lectures, in others because he was bound to keep a school.

There are now grammar schools in more or less close connexion with the cathedral authorities of eight of the cathedrals of the old foundation. The school at York (net income, £855) was founded by Philip and Mary out of the estates of a suppressed hospital, and the clean and chapter are trustees in the ordinary

(1) He was also librarian and secretary to the chapter. His scholastic jurisdiction is thus described: "Dignitas ipsius est, quod nulius potest legere in civitate Lincoln. nisi de licentia ipsius. Et quod omnes scholas in comitatu Lincoln. pro suo confert arbitrio; exceptis his quæ sunt in præbendis." (Statutes of Lincoln, A.D. 1212.) Again, "Is etiam præest literaturre non solum ecclesiro sed etiam totius civitatis, omnes magistri grammatices ei subjiciuutur. Is in Schola Pauli magistrum idoneum, quem ante decano et capitulo præseutaverit, præficit; et ædes illius scholæ sumptibus suis reficit." (Statutes of St. Paul's.) Cath. Com., 1st Rep., App., p. (9). He was a different person from the chancellor of the diocese. (The Schola Pauli mentioned in the last passage was a school existing before Dean Colet's foundation, the school now so called.)


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sense, It is not in any way part of the cathedral establishment. The same is the case at Bangor (£211), which was founded by Geoffrey Glynne in 1557. Lately five lay trustees have been added, but at present have not interfered. At St. Asaph the master is appointed by the four vicars choral, who have hitherto appropriated to it £25 a year out of an estate which they hold for choir purposes, and have claimed the right of nominating 24 free scholars. The choristers are educated in the school, being nominated on the free list. There is also some endowment, which produces £14 a year. At St. David's one of the minor canons is master, and receives £20 10s, in return for which he educates eight choristers, six of whom receive a payment of £3 6s 8d each. There is no schoolroom or master's house. At Lincoln the grammar school is the result of a union in 1583 of the chapter and city schools, when the two bodies agreed to pay £20 each to its support. They have lately increased these payments respectively to £80 and £139, and the school is further endowed with £145 from the Mere Hospital. In all the income is £364. The appointment of master is in the two bodies jointly. At Hereford the grammar school is in connexion with the cathedral, and receives £30 from the dean and chapter, who appoint the master and have 12 choristers educated freely. Four scholars on Dean Langford's foundation receive £5 15s 8d each, and £40 is paid to the master for their education. It has also valuable exhibitions (£919) to the Universities from private foundations. The choristers' school at Salisbury was endowed in 1319 with the rectory of Preshute, the net income of which, available for the school, is £712 a year. The master is allowed to take day scholars, but not boarders. This prohibition, occasioned by some complaints of neglect of the choristers, has broken up what was rapidly becoming a successful school. A canon is nominally head master, but acts gratuitously and appoints a deputy. The boys are boarded and clothed. At Chichester the prebendary of Highleigh, who is appointed by the dean and chapter, is charged with the duty of keeping a grammar school open to everyone. The choristers are not educated in the school. We have not been informed of the income of the prebend, which is let on lives. The fines are believed to be large, but the reserved rents and other regular payments amount to only £75. It would be an advantage to the school, if, as the prebendary suggested to our Assistant Commissioner, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners were empowered to take the estates and give others at rackrent in exchange.

It will be seen from this account that where the schools have separate estates, the incomes are very considerable, and that, so


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far as the schools are charges on the general revenues of the chapter, the payments are very small: £80 at Lincoln, £40 at St. David's, £30 at Hereford. At Salisbury the dean and chapter are saved all expense in regard to their choristers. At St. Asaph's the contribution to the school is very small, but the income of the corporate estates of the chapter is itself very small.

(b) We proceed to cathedrals of the new foundation. In the reign of Henry VIII, on the dissolution of the monasteries, the regulars were turned out of the cathedrals,(1) of which they had obtained possession under circumstances already mentioned. At the same time certain new dioceses being formed, some of the dissolved monasteries taken from the regulars were placed in the hands of the secular clergy, and converted into cathedrals.(2)

The general form of these cathedrals, from which the regulars were ousted, was as follows: A dean, 10 or 12 prebendaries or canons, with minor canons, and the usual cathedral staff, the whole forming a corporation aggregate without any non-residentiaries.

One of the main objects of every cathedral foundation was religious education,(3) and the new cathedrals were especially instituted to restore, amongst other things, that "careful knowledge of languages and sciences which was well known to have once flourished, with other virtues, in the first monasteries."(4) The Act of Parliament establishing these cathedrals states the purpose to be: "To the intent that God's Word might the better be set forth, children brought up in learning, clerks nourished in the Universities, old servants decayed to have living, almshouses for poor folks to be sustained in, readers of Greek, Hebrew, and Latin to have good stipend ..." (31 Hen. VIII c. 9.); and the charter of Ely, to which the others are said to be similar, gives as one of the purposes "ut juventus in literis liberaliter instituatur". These purposes were to be effected by the following means, which we take as described by the Cathedral Commissioners:

"(1.) By a school for the choristers of the church, who were to be trained by the magister choristarum in church music; and in the rudiments of a liberal education, and who, if they

(1) Canterbury. Durham, Carlisle, Ely, Norwich, Rochester, Winchester, Worcester.

(2) Bristol, Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, Peterborough.

(3) This is set out in 1st Rep, Cath. Comm., p. xxiv, and Appendix, pp. 8, 9.

(4) Exquisitam Iinguarum ac scientiarum cognitionem. Q. Elizabeth's Preamble to the Ely Statutes.


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made good progress in their studies, were to be transplanted into -

(2.) The Grammar School, in which a number of boys were, it would seem, to be boarded at the charge of the cathedral (de bonis eccleesiæ nostræ alendi), and to be trained in the ancient languages, Latin, Greek, and in some cases Hebrew.(1)

(3.) The appointment and endowment of two grammar masters for their education.

(4.) In some cases (e. g., Rochester and Westminster) the provision for exhibitions for the scholars towards their maintenance at the Universities.

(5.) The consignment of the school in some cases to the special care of one of the canons residentiary, who was to be its guardian, in other cases to that of the sub-dean.

(6.) The provision for their attendance at Divine worship in the cathedral."(2)

Having given the above statement the Cathedral Commissioners proceed:

"On examining the present conditions of the cathedral schools, it will be found that, although laudable efforts have been made in some instances to reinvigorate them in recent years, yet, for the most part, they are not in a flourishing state, and do not occupy the place in the capitular institutions which their founders designed for them.

This appears to be in a great measure attributable to two causes:

(1.) To the assignment of statutable money payments for the maintenance of the masters and scholars. Although these payments have in many cases been augmented in recent times, the relative importance of the school to the rest of the capitular foundations is not what it originally was.

(2.) To the want of any adequate compensation for the mensa communis, contemplated by the founder, at which the masters and scholars should be fed. At a very early period this provision was commuted for a money payment."

The Commissioners proceed to recommend, "that in every cathedral, where a grammar school is part of the original foundation,"(3) and sufficient funds can be provided, the master and second master (if any) should have commodious houses rent

(1) "Free maintenance and instruction of 50 boys at Canterbury, 40 at Westminster and Worcester, 24 at Ely, 20 at Peterborough and Rochester, and 18 at Durham, free instruction without maintenance; 24 at Chester, and 20 at Bristol, Carlisle, and Gloucester respectively." Whiston on Cath. Trusts, p. 66.

(2) Statement of Cathedral Commissioners, 3rd Report, p. xvii (1855).

(3) This is not limited to the cathedrals of the new foundation.


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free for the reception of boarders, and endowments of not less than £150 and £100 per annum respectively; that boys on the foundation should have a liberal education free of expense; that rewards should be given to the most deserving scholars; and that, if possible, such grammar schools should have one or more exhibitions annually to the Universities.(1)

On comparing these recommendations with the present state of the schools, we find the result to be that at Durham only (£835(2)) are they in correspondence. At Canterbury (£729) they are nearly so. And these schools are good and prosperous. At Rochester (£723) the site and buildings are most unsatisfactory. At Worcester (£556) there are three paid masters, but no residences; and the 40 foundationers receive only £2 13s 4d each. At Peterborough the total payment has been recently fixed at £400, and there is but one small residence. At Ely (£400) there is only one residence, and that will not hold many boarders. The 24 boys receive nearly free education, but no payment. At Gloucester (£420) there are no residences, and only one small class-room, besides the schoolroom. At Chester (£280) there are no residences, no class rooms, no playground, and the school has a stone floor. The 24 foundationers receive gratuitous education, and £3 6s 8d each. At Carlisle (£187) the school receives from the chapter only £29, a separate endowment supplying £158.(3) There is only one small house, occupied by an under master, Christ Church (£60) is a choristers' school, but the master is allowed to take other scholars as well.(4) Of the other cathedral schools we have no information; they are not grammar schools. Durham, Canterbury, Hereford, Worcester, and Peterborough have exhibitions to the Universities, not provided out of cathedral funds, and in some cases inconveniently limited to particular colleges. Rochester has, besides two other exhibitions of £45 a year each, four exhibitions of £40 10s each, provided by the dean and chapter, but not awarded on a system which is favourable to the school.(5) The other schools have no exhibitions.

There are two other schools formerly attached to collegiate churches, which require mention here, and stand in striking contrast to one another: Brecon (£435) which enjoys a large

(1) 3rd Rep., p. xviii.

(2) Of this £540 is paid to 18 King's scholars (£30 each).

(3)The Cathedral Commissioners give a statement which professes to trace an endowment of the school prior to 1391, equal now to £500 a year, but absorbed in the chapter estates.

(4) At Bristol there is a similar arrangement, but at present not very successful.

(5) See the letters addressed to us by the head master and the dean and chapter. (vol ii pp. 203-214.) The latter admit that "they do not make competitive examinations the sole ground of their appointments." (ib. p. 209.)


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portion of the estates of the former collegiate church, and has handsome buildings; and Southwell which has one house, and £20 per annum, absorbed by repairs, rates, &c. The capitular establishment of Southwell has been suppressed by Act of Parliament; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, the present holders of the estates, pay to the grammar school only the ancient stipend of £12 a year. The master of this school was formerly a minor canon, holding one and sometimes two or three benefices.

The claim of these schools to an increased share in the cathedral endowments has been often put forward as one exactly measured by the proportion of the original sums allotted to the whole endowment. This method is doubtless serviceable for a rough indication of the importance which the royal founder attributed to this part of his institution, but it would be impossible to carry it out with rigour throughout the cathedral establishment. The obligation, however, of maintaining the schools, and giving exhibitions at school as at the University to the scholars, is not affected by this. The schools are not in the same relation to the more strictly ecclesiastical establishment that, for instance, Dean Nowell's school at Middleton is to Brasenose College. They are an integral portion of the establishment,(1) and resemble rather Magdalen College school compared with the College. This appears to be true of all the schools in cathedrals of the new foundation, and of some (e.g., Hereford, and perhaps Lincoln) on the old foundation.(2)

The question, however, cannot be discussed without reference to the change in the management of the estates and reduction of the establishments of some of the chapters, effected by the Acts relating to the Ecclesiastical Commission.(3) "The Act 3 & 4 Vict. c. 113. s. 49. reserves the right to any dean and chapter to make the statutory provisions for their grammar schools, should it not have received its due provision from the divisible corporate revenues." But as the number of canons is reduced and their incomes limited, the claims of the grammar schools as against the existing chapters are seriously affected.(4)

(1) See this more fully set out in Mr. Elton's Report on Cathedral Schools, vol vii p. 637. See also Rev. R. Whiston's Evid., 16,740-16,781.

(2) At St. Asaph it is maintained that the school is not part of the cathedral at all. See, however, Mr. Bompas's report. The Cathedral Commissioners treat St. David's as merely a choristers' school. See Mr. Bryce's Report.

(3) Mr. Elton's report, vol vii p. 648.

(4) A mere exchange of estates does not affect the claim. " The exchange would only", say the Commissioners, "have the effect of substituting for the average income previously enjoyed by the chapter an income of the same amount, but of less fluctuating character, and would not affect any question touching the distribution or appropriation of the corporate revenue." Letter of the Secretary of the Ecclesiastical Commission. Evidence of Rev. R. Whiston, Q. 16,785.


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The Act of 1866, however, gives power to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners "to make out of any income arising to their fund from estates that have belonged to any dean and chapter, or any major or minor corporation of any cathedral or collegiate church, such provision as to them shall seem needful for securing adequate stipends and allowances to the minor canons, schoolmasters, and other members of the cathedral or collegiate church, or for securing adequate sums of money for the maintenance of any existing college or school in connexion with such cathedral or collegiate church."(1) The Commissioners state in their last report that they are considering the question.(2)

To turn now to a brief statement of the present condition of these schools, all (except Bangor, which is shut up at present,) are described as being well taught, though the standard of instruction and the number of scholars are, in some cases, not so high as might be expected in cathedral schools. This is ascribed in a great measure, to the poverty of the endowment in the cases of Hereford, Chester, St. Asaph, St. David's, Carlisle, and Southwell; to a bad site and buildings at Rochester; to the too great independence of the master in the case of Chichester; to the fear of injustice to the choristers in the case of Salisbury. The education of the choristers in a grammar school is a task which can hardly be accomplished successfully in conjunction with the due attainment of the other objects of the school. The better course appears to be, as recommended by the Cathedral Commissioners, to select preferentially for choristers boys who are likely afterwards to profit by advanced teaching, and, when they have ceased to be choristers, to secure to such a place on the foundation of the grammar school. Something of this kind actually exists at Ely. Several cathedrals have a separate school for their choristers. The grammar schools of the Cathedrals, it must be remembered, were established for the instruction of youth without any limitation to place or class.

Taking only those cathedral schools - fourteen in number - which have undergraduates (in all 62)(3) at the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge we have an aggregate net income, not

(1) 29 & 30 Vict. c. 3. s. 18.

(2) 19th Report of Eccl. Com., p. 9.

(3) Durham, York, Canterbury, Hereford, Rochester, Ely, Peterborough, Worcester, Gloucester, send 57. Lincoln, Carlisle, Brecon, St. David's, and Christ Church (Choristers' school), add one each. We have not included Salisbury, which appears only in Table V of Append. VII.


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counting exhibitions, of £6,097, and 1,164 as the total number of scholars.(1) The cost, therefore, from public sources is £5 6s for each boy. The income of the other six (not counting Bangor) may be put at about £1,600, the number of scholars at 167, the cost from public sources being thus nearly £9 for each boy.

We have been thus particular in examining these four classes of endowed schools, because, whilst many are important individually, they, as a whole, throw much light on the question, what are the best boards of trustees? All seem to show that the great danger to be apprehended is not interference, but neglect; that no kind of corporation constituted for other objects, however akin to those of grammar schools, can safely be trusted to apportion - we do not say favourably, but equitably - the share of the proceeds of the estates entrusted to them which the founders appear to have intended for secondary education; and that they are apt, in their selection of free scholars or exhibitioners, to think less of the advantage of the school than of that of their own members. In other words, bodies of trustees for grammar schools should be specially appointed for the purpose, or at least be resident within a moderate distance, and have a natural interest in the school; they should have no pecuniary interest in the estates; and if the schools are not to suffer, they should be controlled in their selection of free scholars and exhibitioners by a test of intellectual qualifications.

iii. Governors by Inheritance, or by Ownership of Land

The last of the three heads(2) under which we classed trustees had reference to those cases where one or two (rarely more) persons govern the school and appoint the master in virtue of their being heirs of the founder or proprietors of certain manors or lands. Frequently, when this is the case, the endowment consists merely of a small rentcharge issuing out of the lands held by the founder's representative. The schools are therefore not generally wealthy, or important, except from that permanence which gives a special position to any endowed school, and the grant of which justifies a corresponding public control. Sometimes a body of trustees have the management of the property, or of part of the property, and the heir, or lord of the manor, has only the appointment and dismissal of the master. The most

(1) The share of York (which is not a cathedral school, though under the dean and chapter) is 12 undergraduates, 171 scholars, and £855.

(2) See page 245.


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important schools thus in individual patronage are, Bromsgrove (£35), which has some rich exhibitions to Worcester College, Oxford; Brentwood (£574), Llanrwst (£368), Caistor (£301), Wotton-under-Edge (£348), West Lavington (£247), Market Bosworth (£792), Lowther (£246), Kirk Leatham (£242), and Newcastle-under-Lyme (£90). In two of these cases(1) it has been judicially decided that the patronage is alienable; and in another, Wotton-under-Edge, the "patronage was purchased for £600 by the father of the present patron, a gentleman residing in the neighbourhood, who feared it might fall into improper hands."

It is obvious that if the master receives a fixed salary independent of the success of the school there is no security whatever in these cases for the appointment of a really fit man. One of these schools is famous for its mismanagement in former times, the property having been misappropriated, and a waiter in a public house having been appointed master.(2) Manifest unfitness such as this would no doubt be a legal disqualification; but there is a long interval between that and manifest fitness. Professor Rogers says he recollects a case in which a patron, - the endowment being considerable, and the place in which it was situated being one of some importance, - appointed a person who had to his (Professor Rogers') knowledge been plucked three or four times, and had never had an hour's experience in teaching.(3)

At the present time none of the schools named above (except Bromsgrove and Brentwood) is flourishing as a grammar school. West Lavington and Bosworth are all but sinecures. Brentwood, having once been the seat of great abuses, is still the subject of not unfounded complaints on the part of the inhabitants, whose educational interests are postponed to those of boarders. Lowther is not much more than a national school. Llanrwst had, when Mr. Bompas visited it, only 7 boarders and 20 day scholars. At Caistor "there are two competing schools under the same roof". At Wotton and Newcastle the masters lack energy, and have other employment. At Stratford the master is capable and conscientious, but has other employment, and the school, like many other grammar schools, wants reorganizing. At Kirkleatham the school has not existed during the present century, the lady of the manor having fifty years ago occupied the building by her servants, and paid the income to her steward and the incumbent. Eventually its affairs were brought into the Court of Chancery, which, in 1855,

(1) Brentwood and Caistor.

(2) Bosworth in 1787. See Atty.-Gen. v Dixie, 13 Vesey, 519.

(3) Letter in reply to Commissioners' circular of 28th May 1866 (vol ii p. 73).


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approved of a scheme; but no one communicated the fact to the trustees thereby appointed for ten years, until an accident brought it to light a few months before our Assistant Commissioner visited the place.(1)

At the Godolphin school for ladies at Salisbury a lady, who is herself a daily governess, has the sole appointment, both of mistress and 12 foundationers. The present mistress is the third sister in succession who has occupied the post, and was at the time of her appointment a personal friend of one of the (then) two patronesses, (by inheritance,) one of whom is since dead. The present patroness has also the nomination of half of the foundationers of the Godolphin school at Hammersmith, and appears to select deserving cases. But there can be little doubt that it would be better for the schools, if patronage of this kind were vested in responsible trustees, or the exercise of it by the patrons subjected to further control. Where the hereditary governors are three (as at Repton, net income £1,250) or more, the management approaches more to that of an ordinary small body of trustees.

In two cases the Crown has the right of appointment, and exercises it through the Lord Chancellor. These cases are Basingstoke (£60), and Cirencester (£26). The fees payable on the last appointment to Cirencester amounted to a year's income of the endowment.

There are a few cases in which the master or the master and usher when appointed are themselves incorporated, and independent entirely of any other authority. Such cases were more frequent formerly, but new schemes have constituted bodies of trustees over them, and given the real power and management to the trustees. Old Malton, Pocklington, and North Leach appear to be the only cases now left. We have already spoken of the two latter. The first was in an unsatisfactory condition when our Assistant Commissioner visited it.

The foregoing review seems to show clearly that the government of schools requires to be thoroughly considered, and considerable alterations introduced. The appointment of a special body of trustees, with ample but clearly defined powers and complete responsibility of the master to them, will remove many causes of mischief, but it will not be enough. Trustees want guidance and want stimulus. The master often needs support from some one qualified to form a judgment on the state and needs of the school, and to advocate its cause when

(1) Mr Fitch's Report.


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the master may be suspected of speaking from interested motives, and the trustees may not command general confidence. We believe that the visits of our Assistant Commissioners have frequently reminded the trustees of their duty, and that their observations have suggested means of improvement, and given confirmation to projects which were being advocated with hesitation before. It has been an advantage that their visits were paid where they were not invited, and consequently that they were able to discover ills which else might have passed unnoticed for long. Moreover the schools need connecting with one another, and reorganizing with that view. At present each school is a unit, and the trustees can look to one only. But so long as this is the case, the endowments will be in a great degree wasted, and the secondary education of the country neither raised as it might be in quality, nor brought effectually within the reach of the smaller places and the poorer classes. We shall discuss in a subsequent chapter the conclusions to which these considerations appear to lead.

IV. SITES AND BUILDINGS

Next to a good master there is nothing more important for a school than a good site and buildings. Health, order, dignity, good teaching, and good learning, are all intimately concerned with the aspect and accommodation of the school itself; and that a grammar school may occupy its right place in the respect of the inhabitants generally, it should occupy a worthy position among the buildings of the town. The newly established schools of a public and semi-public character are usually conspicuous and convenient. The older grammar schools are too often the reverse.

It is difficult to give any precise account of the number of schools which reach or fail to reach a fair standard in this respect. The minimum requirements ought to consist of a good and well ventilated schoolroom with convenient desks and other furniture, at least one good class-room, and decent offices, a good master's house, a grass playground, and a site healthy and readily accessible. In many cases there would be needed a covered playground, several class-rooms, and accommodation for boarders, who in a school which is more or less elementary, need not be very many, but who, in a school of a higher grade, if received at all, should be fairly numerous.

If we examine in any particular case whether these requirements are fulfilled, we are met at once with the question, whether the measure of those requirements is to be the


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number and grade of scholars at present in the school, or the number and grade which a grammar school with such an endowment, or situated amidst such a population, might fairly be expected to command. The grade and number of scholars are very often what they are, for the simple reason that the site and buildings deter instead of attracting. We think we may say roughly that at least half of the grammar schools are without doubt insufficiently, and probably only one quarter can be considered fairly, provided. This provision varies in every possible degree from "a hut by the roadside in a very disgraceful condition,"(1) to the large, stately, and commodious buildings of Birmingham, Leeds, Sherborne, Ipswich, Tonbridge, Brecknock, Loughborough, and Lancaster, and of the newly established schools at Wellington College, Lancing, Hurst, Bradfield, Framlingham, and others.(2)

A good playground is also a very important agent in the indirect work of education. Mr. Hammond says, "The want of a"playground prevents the existence of that esprit de corps and moral tone among the boys which are gradually assuming greater importance as elements of education in the estimation of the higher classes. ... The master takes little or no interest in his pupils when they are beyond the walls of the school room; ... and the influence of the boys on one another, except as rivals in class, is slight either for good or evil, and such as it is, is due to the accidental contact of particular boys, and is not regulated by any school feeling or traditionary code."(3) Mr. Green noticed particularly the much better outward behaviour of the same class of boys at Handsworth Bridge Trust School than at Birmingham. "At Handsworth a good playground adjoins the school, and the head master mainly by this means sees a good deal of all the elder boys out of school hours. At Birmingham the rank and file of the boys emerge immediately on the street, and the masters can see nothing of them when lessons are over." He adds, that the best instance of an amalgamation of classes that he met with was at Loughborough Grammar School, and he believes "it to be due in large measure to excellence of building, situation, and playground."

(1) So described at Drigg.

(2) See also Kidderminster, East Retford, York Preston, Felstead, Worcester (cathedral school), Durham, Norwich (commercial school), Llandovery, Sutton Valence, Chipping Campden, Woodbridge.

(3) Hammond, p. 283.

(4) It is companionship with "underbred boys in the street which the more refined parent specially fears for his son." Green, p. 162.


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Where the accommodation is fair, the buildings or playground are not unfrequently in part the private property of the master, and therefore not subject to the school authorities. Where, for instance, a master hires a cricket field, he sometimes restricts the use of it to his own boarders, and thereby at once creates or encourages a feeling of caste separation. But so long as the benefits of the endowment are absorbed in keeping up a competition with the primary schools in cheapness and not in the efficiency and standard of instruction, a master is naturally induced to humour those from whom the support of the grammar school is really derived.

As specimens of particular kinds of faults frequently noticed by our Assistant Commissioners in the site and buildings we will give some taken, not from insignificant schools, but from the grammar schools of large and important towns. Thus at Maidstone the site is very bad, being close to the river and surrounded by factories; at Rochester the offices are injurious to health, and "the official residence of the second master near two inns of bad repute"; at Portsmouth "the school is next door to a public-house, and what is said there can be heard through the partition in the master's sitting room." At Truro, "the one school-room is below the level of the street, with no place for the boys to wait in case of rain before the schoolroom doors are opened"; at Dudley, "the school-room is ill ventilated and approached from a disreputable street in one of the meaner quarters of the town"; at Evesham "the buildings are bad, the master's house out of repair, the schoolroom dark and incommodious, the playground, which lies under the master's house, bordered by a slaughter house and by mean cottages, occupied by persons whose drunken and noisy talk the boys cannot but overhear;;" at Coventry, "the schoolroom does not admit of arrangements by which a master can have a large class seated before him at once"; at Newcastle-under-Lyne, "the schoolroom is in a bad locality, singularly shabby to look at, badly ventilated, with no class-room, and so small that two masters cannot teach in it at once with comfort"; at Burton-on-Trent "it adjoins the churchyard" (a very usual situation) "and is low and damp", so that one man told our Assistant Commissioner "he could recall 16 boys who had been taken from the school in three years on account of the situation."

Different parts of the country exhibit much difference in this matter as in others. For instance, the schools in Suffolk have usually one block containing master's house and school-room;


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they are rarely too small, but they are old-fashioned, low, and often in bad repair. On the other hand, in the north, for instance in Westmoreland, there is often no master's house and only one school-room of the rudest description. No boarding schools, and only the inferior day schools, in Norfolk are without a playground. "In Northumberland there are hardly any, and what is there called a playground would not be acknowledged as such by most Norfolk school boys."(1) Two somewhat abridged extracts from our Assistant-Commissioners' reports on Lancashire and London, will convey the liveliest description of the present state of the buildings of many schools founded for secondary instruction in the most populous parts of the country.

Mr. Bryce says: "The Lancashire towns, as everybody knows, are not the most beautiful in England; they bear all the marks of having been built in haste and built with the sternest practical purpose. In spite, however, of the general air of ugliness, the public buildings are seldom mean, and even the mills and warehouses, as well as the private houses of the richer people, are spacious, solid, and comfortable. Of late years, indeed, there has been in many places what may be called an architectural revival. Only one class of buildings remains almost uniformly mean, confined, unsuited to their purpose, and these buildings are the Grammar Schools. Out of some 60 or 70 there are but two which, both in point of elegance and commodiousness, can be pronounced altogether satisfactory. Those two - the schools of Preston and Lancaster - have been built by subscriptions, and are managed by Town Councils. Almost equally convenient, but much less handsome, is the Bury school. Two or three other among the town schools (Rochdale, for instance, and Warrington) may pass muster as quite large enough for the present number of pupils, but the remainder are old, ugly, ill-ventilated, in every way offensive. Of the numerous country schools there is hardly one which its trustees ought not to feel ashamed of; many which the Committee of Council would altogether refuse, upon this ground alone, to admit to a share in their grant.

The faults that may be charged in the existing buildings are of various kinds. I will briefly touch on some of the most conspicuous.

1. They are, as a rule, ugly without and dingy within; ugly and dingy to a degree which not even a photograph could

(1) Hammond, p. 310.


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faithfully represent. Externally, they are plain, oblong structures, with low, almost square, sometimes heavily mullioned windows, occasionally a small porch in the middle, and a bit of bare ground in front enclosed by the stone palisade so common in the northern counties. Their material is either plain brick, or more often the millstone grit or coal sandstone of the district, originally grey, but now turned almost black by clamp and smoke and age. The interior is even more repulsive; the roof is low, and the small windows admit a feeble light. The walls are mostly whitewashed, or covered with a wash which once was white, but is now a grimy brown.

The desks and benches are old, clumsy, inconvenient. There is everywhere an air of discomfort and neglect.

2. It is seldom that they have any proper means of maintaining an equable temperature. The fireplace is usually at one end - the upper end where the teacher's desk is placed - of a longish room; and the master is fried while the boys are frozen. The floor is more frequently of stone than of wood - I have even seen it of mud, interspersed with puddles - and thus the maximum of noise and the minimum of heat is secured.

3. The room is generally dirty and untidy. There is often no porch where the children may clean their feet and hang up their caps or coats; hence they bring the mud of the street into the room, and have to bestow their caps in corners, windowsills, or wherever they can find a place. Often, too, there is neither cellar nor outhouse, and the coals are heaped up in the corner of the room beside the open fireplace, which no fender protects in front.

4. The faults which meet the eye, however, are very far from being the worst to be encountered in these schools; it is another sense which really suffers, and suffers more than can well be described. The school generally consists of an upper and an under room. In both, but especially in the former (which is the more crowded), the ceilings are generally low; the windows small and few. Many have windows which do not open; in others they are not opened from fear of the violent thorough draughts which would ensue. The result must be felt to be understood. I will give some instances.

The grammar school at Burnley, one of the greatest of the newer manufacturing towns, is attended by from 40 to 50 boys. The classes are usually taught on the ground floor, in a room about 35 feet in length by 18 wide and 8 high. There is little attempt at ventilation, and the darkness is such that


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the school work can hardly go on in winter afternoons. The playground is only a scrap of ground on one side the school.

At Rivington there is a grammar school of considerable importance and large revenues. On the ground floor are two rooms. One of them is 28 feet long by 20 broad by 9 high, and in it from 30 to 40 or 50 children are taught. The other is 23 feet by 18 by 9, and in it as many as 60 or 70 children are sometimes taught. It has four windows, which do open, but in spite of this the air was exceedingly foul. The income of the school exceeds its present needs, yet I did not hear that there had been any talk of building a new room.

Leigh grammar school stands in a manufacturing town of 10,621 inhabitants. The building is placed on the very edge of the churchyard, and has two rooms, in the upper of which the grammar school is taught, in the lower an elementary school. The cubical contents of the upper room are 3,147 cubic feet, and in this room on the day of my visit there were 32 boys; that is to say, less than 100 cubic feet per boy. The number of boys is sometimes greater.(1)

5. The badness of the buildings themselves is but one of many evils under which these schools labour. They are sometimes badly situated, in an unhealthy place, or one ill adapted to the wants of the inhabitants. Thus at Manchester the grammar school is in a disagreeable lane, away from the respectable parts of the town. The rooms are in two buildings, lying some little way apart. Public-houses are all round, and I have myself seen drunken men staggering past the school-door. At Leigh, Colne, Leyland, and Chorley, the school stands on the very edge of the churchyard, and the boys have no other place for play. Oldham Grammar School, however, enjoys in this respect, as in so many others, a bad pre-eminence. It is placed in a filthy lane inhabited by the lowest of the Irish settlers, and is enclosed on two sides by a slaughter-yard.

6. Furthermore, there is a great want of proper playgrounds for the boys - a matter whose importance (even in the case of day schools), those who are practically acquainted with education will not fail to place very high. In some cases there is no ground for play, except the churchyard or the side of the public road; in others, that which exists is not sufficient for

(1) At Rhayadr, an endowed school for girls and infants; "has one room 22 foot by 13 by 10 in which are sometimes 90 children. This room was formerly used for the grammar school." Mr. Bryce's Report on Cwm Toyddwr.


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the requirements of the school. It is right, however, to add that in this respect things are mending.

7. There is in many cases a want or an insufficient provision of those offices and out-buildings with which a school ought to be supplied. And it is seldom, even in the more important of the town grammar schools, that any attempt has been made to provide a covered playground or a gymnastic apparatus, such as a private school of any pretensions to gentility could hardly venture to dispense with."(1)

Mr. Fearon's account is confined to schools of the third grade.

"The London endowed schools of the third grade entirely fail at present to meet the wants of this class in the district. There is a great numerical deficiency of them; and almost all of those that exist at present are badly distributed in locality, inadequate in buildings and accommodation, and, worst of all, very unsatisfactorily taught and conducted. They can scarcely any of them be reported as useful institutions at the present day. Almost all of them require a stringent reform. There is not one of them whose buildings could be compared with those of the numerous new National, British, or Wesleyan schools for the labouring poor, with which the town and country abound. Indeed it often struck me, when I had occasion to visit places where the Grammar and National schools stood near together, that if I wanted to give the Commissioners a clear view of one main cause why the Grammar school was unpopular while the National school was full, I could not do better than send them a photograph of the two buildings as they stand side by side. The one bright and cheerful with its principal school-room well warmed, lighted, and ventilated, its class-rooms with their galleries, its lobbies, playground, and offices, all arranged according to the best modern system. The other a decayed structure, looking like a compound of an old-fashioned dwelling-house and a hen-roost or barn, as unprepossessing and repulsive in its exterior as the other is cheerful and inviting. And then the interior! To anyone who has been used to good primary schools under Government inspection, the interiors of these smaller grammar schools are most repulsive. The desks are not generally placed in the order and according to the arrangement which experience has shown to be the most commodious for the pupils' work and the master's control of the school. They are generally deficient in quantity,

(1) Gen. Rep., pp. 490-494.


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and almost always clumsy in shape; rising up before the breasts and faces of little boys who are learning to write at an angle of 40° like an ice-slope before an inexperienced mountaineer; frequently tottering on uneven or dislocated legs; and almost always unsupplied with tolerable ink-wells. Then the walls of the dingy building are not hung with the maps, charts, physical and mechanical plans, time-table, and all the other embellishments of a good primary school, but are generally as bare as they are dirty. So again there is almost always a deficiency of black-boards and easels; or if a board appears in a dust-covered corner, there is no chalk to use with it. In short, in furniture and apparatus, as well as in the shape and construction of the buildings, almost everyone of these schools is far below the condition of a National school. Yet what must be the feelings of one of these parents, the lowest perhaps in the scale of the employers of labour, and therefore all the more tenacious of his position as a member of the great middle class, when he sees the labourer's child, who comes in to help in the cleaning on Saturday, taught all the other days of the week in so much better a building, with so much better appliances, and so much better a system, and it may be added, with so much more wholesome and substantial results than those which he is able to provide for his own boys and girls?"(1)

§ 2. Private schools(2)

The endowments for secondary education in England have not been sufficient to supply more than a small portion of the demand. They are very unequally distributed, and a considerable number of important towns have none at all. Even if they were equally distributed, their total amount falls short of the needs of the present day; and to this must be added that many of them, as we have already seen, are in such a condition as to do very little towards fulfilling the true purpose of their foundation.

(1) Gen. Rep., pp. 305-6.

(2) Private Schools for boys are specially discussed in the following parts of the Assistant Commissioners' reports.
Vol vii Stanton, pp. 63-67; Giffard, pp. 157-186; Fearon, pp. 351-380, with an analysis of the returns from Private Schools in the London district, pp. 535-553.
Vol viii Hammond. Analysis of returns from Private Schools in Norfolk and Northumberland, pp. 537-579. (Messrs. Bompas, Green, and Hammond have no separate chapter of their Reports treating of Private Schools.)
Vol ix Fitch, pp. 253-277, and analysis of returns from Private Schools in West Riding, pp. 382-402; Bryce, pp. 535-582.


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The void has been filled, as far as it has been filled at all, by the private and proprietary schools. Of the proprietary we shall speak presently; the private we shall describe now.

The private schools owe their origin to the operation of the ordinary commercial principle of supply and demand; they have all the merits and all the faults, which naturally belong to the commercial principle, when applied to such a matter as education.

The picture of these schools, that is presented to us by our Assistant Commissioners, varies, as might be expected, from good to exceedingly bad. "I was most favourably impressed", says (1)Mr. Stanton, "with the masters as an intelligent and conscientious body of men, most of them far in advance of the parents whose sons they had to educate, and whose caprices they had more or less to obey." (2)Mr. Bryce observes, that cases of honest incompetence and successful charlatanism alternate with good and solid work. "The conclusion to which I have come", says (3)Mr. Fearon, "respecting these private schools of the first grade is that a few, a very few, in this district are really first rate schools, and are doing a most valuable work; that a good many are fair, and considering their great disadvantages are giving a tolerably good education; and that some are exceedingly bad." And when the same gentleman passes to schools of the second grade, he remarks on the tokens of great improvement having lately taken place,(4) "a better spirit among the principals, a more liberal view of duty in treatment of scholars, and a greater desire of good results, independently of the money to be made by their profession," yet, making allowance for all these improvements, he finds "the conditions of many of these schools far from satisfactory." (5)Mr. Fitch remarks, that among the private schoolmasters of Yorkshire are "some who evince an enthusiasm in the work of teaching, a knowledge of the best methods, and a wealth of educational expedients which are quite remarkable."

Yet on the whole it must be confessed, that the account given is unfavourable. Mr. Fitch closes his eulogy on the excellent schoolmasters, whom he describes in the part of his report from which the above passage is quoted, with the words, "the state of the private academies, though not wholly without hopeful features, is lamentably unsatisfactory." This too is the general verdict.

In particular it seems to be clear that, excellent as are many of the private schools of the more expensive sort, we find a rapid

(1) p. 63.

(2) p. 564.

(3) p. 358.

(4) pp. 358, 360.

(5) p. 256.


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deterioration as we descend in the scale of price, and most of those, which we should reckon as belonging to the third grade, are quite unequal to the task that they have undertaken. (1)Mr. Fearon speaks of the "brief duration" of existence, "defective premises", "gross ignorance and want of qualification in many of the teachers." Mr. Bryce describes a school held in a closely packed room, where the air was insupportably foul; the scholars talking and scuffling about; the master hearing a class, heedless of the deafening din around him; the children able neither to answer anything nor do anything; and then(2) adds, "This school may be thought an extreme case. It is not by any means a singular one; there are many such, not only in the smaller towns, but even in the suburbs of Manchester and Liverpool, giving a teaching incomparably worse than that of an average National or British school, yet charging twice as much for it." " In the poorer schools", he says in another place, "badness was the rule, and goodness the exception." (3)Mr. Stanton(4) states that "it is the schools just above the National and British schools that most need reform. I saw some, but not many; they were difficult of access and would give no returns. As to some of them, horresco referens" [I shudder to relate]. Several experienced witnesses gave evidence to the same effect. Mr. Hankin, of Southampton, described the education given in the cheap private schools, as(5) excessively bad. Mr. Mason, of Denmark Hill, gave it as his opinion, that(6) fully one half of them might be suppressed with great advantage to the community. The Rev. H. G. Robinson(7) informed us, that he found boys, that had been brought up at private schools, more backward, than boys, that had been at National or elementary schools under Government inspection, and he went on to say(8) that "it would never do to leave middle class education to private adventure". The Rev. F. V. Thornton(9) states, that "the character of private schools is improved, and the highest class is very fair, but the lower class is very bad." In short, the account given of the worst of the endowed schools must be repeated in even more emphatic language to describe the worst of the private schools. The endowed schools fail to supply one of the great needs of the country - a good education for the lower section of the middle classes. The failure of the private schools that have taken their place, if not so blameable, is perhaps still more conspicuous.

(1) p. 373.

(2) p. 563.

(3) p. 531.

(4) p. 66.

(5) 4669.

(6) 3486.

(7) 6388.

(8) 6395.

(9) 15,683.


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If we pass on from the general character of the private schools to examine their peculiar features in detail, we shall obtain some light both on the causes of their failure, where they fail, and on the reasons, for which, in spite of their faults, the parents so often prefer them to the grammar schools. We shall therefore proceed to describe the peculiar characteristics which distinguish the private schools in regard to, 1, subjects of instruction; 2, methods, management, and discipline; 3, buildings and accommodation; 4, qualifications of masters and of assistant masters; 5, scholars. We shall then briefly review, 6, their faults and merits, as seen when they are compared with endowed schools; and finally consider, 7, what can be done to improve them, and 8, how far they can be relied on to satisfy the demand for secondary education in places, where the endowed schools fail to supply it.

I. Subjects of Instruction

The instruction in the private schools, when compared with that given in the grammar schools, has a distinctly more modern cast. The most ably conducted of the private schools of the first grade in Mr. Fearon's district was planned with a view to the senior competitive examinations, such as those for Woolwich and for the Indian Civil Service. Another, of which he does not speak quite so highly, professed to prepare boys for the professions of law, architecture, surveying, and the like, and for matriculation at the University of London. In schools of the second grade he found almost no Greek and no great progress in Latin; the Euclid and algebra not good; but the arithmetic and French better. Mr. Giffard found few private schools of the highest rank in which the classics were fair; and in schools of the next rank there was no Greek at all, and only 38 per cent of the boys learnt Latin. The knowledge of Latin moreover, even in those who learnt it, was poor, but the French was better, and so, as a general rule, was the arithmetic. Mr. Fitch found that not more than 1 per cent of the boys in private schools in Yorkshire learnt Greek; and not more than 3 per cent learnt enough Latin to read an author, though very many learnt the elements. The great stress was laid on the arithmetic, and one-third of the time was given to it. In all private schools arithmetic appears to be, if not really, yet professedly, the leading study. Along with it writing, especially such writing as is needed for business. In schools of somewhat higher pretensions English, then French. Beyond that the schools are often kept from going by the interference of the parents, who have contracted


[page 287]

an aversion not only for Latin, but for what would really be often of the greatest direct value to their children in after life, mathematics.(1) In schools of a more expensive kind Latin is added, but still in subordination; and natural science is often added by the masters who have a taste for it.

But it is to be feared, that their preference for what are called modern subjects is often accompanied with a substitution of superficial for sound instruction.

Mr. Bryce remarks, "that the private schools pursue with very little energy any but the directly practical branches of knowledge. Arithmetic, penmanship, possibly also French, are assiduously cultivated; Latin is languid; even mathematics is pushed on one side. Not in more than three or four private schools in the whole country did I find, that the main object of the teaching was to invigorate the mind by these robust studies. It would be prejudging an important and difficult question to assume, that they have a power of strengthening and quickening the intelligence superior to that of all other kinds of learning. But, as things stand, they are the only subjects taught expressly with this view, and taught with sufficient exactness and in a manner sufficiently logical to attain this end. It is natural, therefore, that the schools which, neglecting these so-called unpractical studies, seek rather to satisfy the demands of a commercial community by teaching boys, just what, it is supposed, will do for business, and nothing more, should lack nerve and fibre, and should teach even the practical subjects in a loose, confused, and often irrational way. As will be remarked hereafter, the arithmetic of private schools, chiefly or wholly commercial, is not superior to that of the grammar schools. The same holds true of English composition. This defect, - this want of solid mental discipline, - is not to be charged equally on all private schools, for in some the ability of the head master counteracts it; but it represents a tendency always present and generally dominant. Nothing is easier than to make out a strong case against the tyranny of Greek and Latin, and the private schoolmasters do so to their own satisfaction. I do not find, however, that they have any other subject to which they can point, as (so to speak) the backbone of their teaching; anything which can give tenacity and clearness to the scholar's mind. French is made prominent in the more expensive schools, but one seldom find the pupils in these establishments prepared to write a French letter with

(1) Bryce, 556.


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any approach to ease and correctness. Mathematics are not carried any further than, seldom indeed so far as, in the Grammar schools. Much is made of geography, history, and miscellaneous information of divers kinds, but, so far as I could discover, not to any great purpose. The pupils had been taught a good many facts, but these were just the facts, which a smartish boy picks up for himself, when he leaves school. Meantime the discipline and guidance, which school ought to give him, had been neglected."

Mr. Green pronounces, after a careful comparison, that the private schools, though they put their arithmetic into a more commercial shape, yet really do not teach it better, nor give a better commercial education than the Grammar schools. So, again, he found, that while much profession was made of teaching(1) French, the result seemed scarcely to correspond to the profession. " In perhaps three private schools French was better known than in the average Grammar school, though certainly not better than in the best." (2)Mr. Fitch also pronounces arithmetic to be ill taught in many private schools, because, though much time was assigned to it, the boys were left to themselves, and got no proper explanations.

The grammar school system seems to give the better intellectual discipline, although it is probable, that in many cases the boys from the private schools are better fitted to enter at once and with hardly any further training on the duties required in a shop or a counting house. Even in their fondness for well written copybooks, which take so much time away from real study, the parents show the same kind of practical instinct. Such training gives a neatness and precision which are, perhaps, often overvalued, but yet are not by any means to be slighted as a preparation for commercial pursuits. The following description, which(3) Mr. Hammond gives of a school at Gateshead, will illustrate both the good side and the bad side of what is called commercial education: "The instruction is confined simply to the 'essentials' with English grammar; no geography, history, mathematics, or languages are attempted. The school is a mixed school, and the girls are fully as well trained as the boys. Even the Newcastle Grammar School cannot compete with this school in the extraordinary rapidity and accuracy, with which almost every scholar answered the questions, and worked the sums proposed to him. There was no exercise of thought or reflection in the process; all was effected by mere strength of

(1) p. 204.

(2) p. 269.

(3) p. 289.


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memory and smartness of attention. The application of rules a and processes was instantaneous; they were learnt blindly and punctiliously by heart; and I feel sure that not a single principle was understood. The writing of the pupils in this school is excellent, and though the instruction in arithmetic is oral, the ciphering book system is partly in use. The master, whose scholars are very successful in obtaining situations on the Quay side, explained to me that he did not approve of the system, but that the merchants required it. One of them had remarked to him, that he considered it equivalent to the gain of a clerk's salary for one year to have a boy introduced to his office from a school where 'ciphering books' are in vogue."

It is probable that in the end a well-taught grammar-school boy may show much more mental power, more command of his faculties, more versatility, more capacity for improvement, than the pupil of a private school, who has spent so much time in practising the ingenious devices for shortening calculation, which are commonly culled commercial arithmetic. But it seems from this account, that at first entrance into business the private school boy would have a great and visible advantage. And before they give that advantage away, the parents have a right to ask for some assurance of the value of the more liberal kind of education.

2. Management and Discipline

The chief characteristic, which distinguishes the management of the private schools from that of the Grammar schools, is the attempt at more individual care and teaching. The answer which Mr. Bryce got, when he asked the masters of private schools in Liverpool the reason of their success, was always the same: (1)"We give more care and attention to the individual boy, and the parents, especially if the boy is not quick, know that he will get on better with us. I have only 40 pupils in my school, and in each class perhaps only five or six; I know what each one of them can do, and am able to bring him on in the way that suits him best. If he were sent to the College or the Institute he would be thrown into a class of 40 or 50, where the teacher would not notice, whether he did his work or not; and when the parent complained, there would be nobody to get satisfaction from, for the head-master would know nothing about it. This boy here (pointing to one) was taken away from the

(1) p. 575.


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Institute because he did not get on there. He has been just a year with me, and only last week his father came to me and said, that he had shown his writing to Mr. So-and-so's head clerk, and that he had promised to remember him, when there was a vacancy in their house."

"Very similar were the statements of the teachers in the small schools scattered through the manufacturing district. All declared, that they brought on boys by individual teaching, who would never have come to anything in a big school. Obviously they are so far right, that it is easier to have a personal knowledge of each one of 40 boys than of 400; easier to do work with him alone, and pull him up if he turns lazy. Very possibly some boys are made more of in these small schools than they could be in any other way; just as there are boys for whom solitary tuition at home might be the best means of education."

But Mr. Bryce was of opinion, that, though sometimes successful, this "individual" teaching was more often a failure. He goes on to say that, "tried by its general results, its effects on classes examined in the ordinary subjects of instruction, the plan, so far as I could judge, breaks down. Among both the private and the endowed schools which I examined, the larger were almost invariably the better; and this not merely because good teachers succeed in collecting a greater number of pupils. There seems to be something depressing in the very atmosphere of a small school. It may be that they have a larger proportion of naturally dull boys than the big schools, and, if this be so, it is unfair to draw a comparison. Certainly I could never discover, in examining these small private schools, that their boys were any the better for the minute attention they were alleged to have received. They almost always answered worse and did their arithmetic worse than boys in the endowed or larger private schools. There was not perhaps so great a contrast among them as one finds between the head and the tail of a class of 50 in a great school. But that is not because they were all as good as the head, but rather because they were all tail. The average level of one of these small cheap schools is little above that of the worst boys in such schools as the College or the Institute at Liverpool, or in the largest Grammar schools of the county."

"The reason of this seems plain when one watches these small schools at work. 'Individual teaching', as they call it, does not mean the bestowal of good private tuition upon each boy. It does not even mean the supplementing of collective teaching


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by half an hour or so spent each day with the boy alone. It means the neglect of class teaching, and the attempt to replace it by giving the fortieth share of a teacher's attention to each of the forty boys at once - the most wasteful and purposeless of all possible methods of teaching. It means a frittering and scattering of power and thought, an absence of order and discipline in the schoolroom, the discouragement of the habit of voluntary attention, the loss of symmetry, and energy and precision - of that sympathy and momentum which enables a regiment of 800 soldiers and a class of 40 boys to perform marches and overcome difficulties together which none of them could have faced by himself."

"Parents, however, not having observed the working, do not generally know the truth of the matter, and it is quite true that one chief reason why they are found so ready to support the small private school is the notion that their children will receive more attention (and therefore make better progress) where the pupils are few, where they can call upon the master and give themselves towards him the airs of an employer."

In accordance with this notion the parents have no scruple in expecting their children to be allowed to learn or to omit whatever pleases their fancy. (1)"One parent wishes this, and another that thing to be omitted or taught", says Mr. Stanton. "One", says (2)Mr. Fitch, "sends word that his son must not learn Latin because it will be of no use to him; another thinks it probable that his son may be brought into relations with Mediterranean merchants, and therefore desires that he may learn Greek. A third attaches great importance to mechanical or architectural drawing."

Nor is it only in the teaching, that profession is made of individual attention. The same characteristic is observable in the discipline, especially in boarding schools. The discipline in Grammar schools depends to a large degree on strict rules carefully enforced; and, subject to these rules, the boys are allowed much liberty, and are governed through monitors drawn from their own body. Some of the private schools adopt the same plan; (3)but in very many reliance is rather placed on the perpetual presence of the master or his assistants. So again, the diet and arrangement for sleeping are varied to suit individual taste. Mr. Fitch,(4) speaking of private boarding schools in Yorkshire, reports that "in some large schools it seemed to him that each parent had made a separate contract as to the amount of comfort and attention his child should receive."

(1) p. 66.

(2) p. 267.

(3) Giffard, p. 158.

(4) p. 264.


[page 292]

Here, of course it is necessary to distinguish between the better private schools and the worse. The more expensive schools attempt to meet this demand for individual attention to the boys by a larger staff of assistants; and although even then the force, that peculiarly belongs to organized and well concerted work, is apt to be lost, yet there are probably many cases, in which the attention given to individual character and aptitudes more than makes up for the loss. The poorer schools cannot afford this costly method of securing individual care; an d in the majority of cases the attempt to get it is probably a mere mistake.

3. Buildings and Accommodation

There is no point in which the difference between the dearer and the cheaper private schools is more observable than in the buildings and accommodation. The dearer private schools are often in this respect everything that can be desired. The parents are excellent judges in this matter, and can secure, that they get their money's worth for their money. (1)The proprietors of private boarding schools, says Mr. Giffard "are for the most part very proud of the extent and comfort of their houses." "There are establishments in Yorkshire",(2) says Mr. Fitch, "on a large and costly scale, with the newest educational appliances, the most perfect drill grounds and gymnasia, large cricket fields and baths; and arrangements for health, comfort, and instruction which evince great administrative power, and require large capital and incessant supervision to keep them efficient." "The Norfolk farmer's son when at school lives", says (3)Mr. Hammond, "in a house as convenient as his father's; and his food, dress, comforts, are attended to as carefully as by his own mother." (4)Mr. Bryce found the school rooms and dormitories of the Lancashire boarding schools clean and well ordered, "though often", he adds, "falling short of modern requirements as regards space and ventilation." Much the same description may be given of the best private day schools. "They are frequently", says Mr. Bryce,(5) "spacious, neat, comfortable, better supplied with school furniture and the apparatus of teaching, than the more old-fashioned Grammar school."

But while the dearer private schools are certainly not behind, and on the whole are probably before, most of the Grammar

(1) p. 160.

(2) p. 256.

(3) p. 350.

(4) p. 567.

(5) p. 573.


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schools in this point, the cheaper are, if possible, worse than the worst Grammar schools. "Their rooms", says (1)Mr. Bryce, "are not so old and not more dirty, but they are even more foul and stifling." "No words are too strong", says (2)Mr. Green, to express the badness of the school-room at most of the cheap academies. Generally it is a barn, or a pigeon cote, or a scullery in a back yard, or (at best) a large attic, close and yet cold, full of draughts, noisy, and too small for its purpose." "More than half of the schools that I visited",(3) says Mr. Giffard, "were held in dwelling houses, the rooms of which were never intended for, and were grossly inadequate to give proper breathing room to the number of persons crowded in them. The humbler schools, and especially the schools for girls, are badly housed. If inspection of schools were needed for no other reason, sanitary conditions alone would dictate it."

It is not difficult to discover the reason, why the inferior private schools should be so deficient in proper buildings and accommodation. The position of a private Schoolmaster of this rank is always precarious. The parents of his scholars are not sufficiently good judges of education, to know the mischief that they do to their children by frequent removal from school to school; nor is he sure of conciliating their steady support by the soundness and goodness of his teaching. He depends to a large degree on his own skill in adapting himself and his school to their wishes. Hence a very small matter, an offence unwittingly given, the competition of a rival with a more plausible manner, may at any moment rob him of his popularity and of his scholars. It is vain to expect that he will invest any money, if he has any to invest, in providing proper buildings for so hazardous a venture. "A really large and flourishing school is of course a marketable commodity, and sometimes sells well. But it is always a dangerous purchase for a stranger. Parents are capricious, trade is uncertain, everything depends on the teacher's health, and, if it be a boarding-school, on his wife's management. Thus few people care to sink any great capital in buildings and fittings, and when the school declines the house is let for a shop or a private residence, and the master betakes himself elsewhere.

Considered commercially, few descriptions of business seem to require less capital and fewer preliminary operations, than the keeping of a private day school of the second order. A

(1) p. 573.

(2) p. 199.

(3) p. 161.


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house is taken, a cane and a map of England bought, an advertisement inserted, and the master has nothing more to do but teach, engage assistants as he requires them, and endeavour, as he best may, to make his school known among parents in the neighbourhood."(1)

It is not likely that schools established at so slight a cost and with so little assurance of probable success, should have buildings well adapted to purposes of education.

4. Qualifications of Masters and of their Assistants

Among the head masters of the private schools are to be found not a few men of first rate ability and attainments. They are not so generally classical scholars as the head masters of the Grammar schools; but they are often more alive to the needs of the time, are better acquainted with the most approved methods of teaching, show more skill and versatility in dealing with special cases. The masterships of the grammar schools are generally confined to graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. The graduates of the University of London and of the Scotch Universities, the men with natural aptitude for teaching who have not been able to go to a University at all, will, if they adopt the profession of a schoolmaster in this country, be found in the private schools; and, as might be expected, some of them are really able men. The disadvantage under which the private schools labour in this regard is, not the want of men of ability, but the presence of mere pretenders. The trustees of a Grammar schools will, as a general rule, make some inquiry into the character and attainments of a master before they appoint him. Whether he has taken a degree at Oxford or Cambridge is a fact that can be easily ascertained. He has to produce testimonials, and it is possible to find out whether they are given by responsible people, and by people whose judgment is of real value. The trustees may be mistaken in their choice, but at any rate downright pretenders will generally be excluded, and there will be some sort of warrant, however imperfect, for believing that, before a master takes charge of his school, his capacity to conduct it has been ascertained. The master of a private school, on the contrary, needs no testimonials. There is no one whose business it is to ascertain whether he is, as he professes, a Master of Arts from a Scotch, or a Doctor of Philosophy from a German, University.(2) He may be all that he says, but he may not; and it is not likely that anyone will think it his duty to examine whether he is or is not.

(1) Bryce, p. 538.

(2) See Fearon, pp. 364-366.


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The difficulty of excluding mere pretenders has been keenly felt by the masters themselves, as well as by many of the parents. On this point Mr. Bryce states that he found(1) "a singular concurrence of testimony from opposite quarters. Parents deplored the want of any certain means of learning where they might safely place their children. School-masters, at least many among the better ones, complained that, they had no opportunity of approving their own fitness; that those of them, who had with pains and at great expense prepared themselves for the work of teaching, were jostled by a herd of impudent pretenders, to whose arts they could not condescend, but who, for a time at least, outstripped them in the race. It was the same difficulty, seen from opposite points. Thoughtful parents were earnestly seeking for skilful and upright teachers; skilful and upright teachers had not the means wherewith to commend themselves to thoughtful parents. What was wanted was a medium of communication, and none such appeared. None such, at least, adequate to the need." It is in order to meet this want that many of the masters are desirous of obtaining an Act similar to the Medical Act, which shall empower a council to register all masters of proved competency, and thus to give them a public guarantee, and distinguish them from impostors. "The question",(2) says Mr. Fitch, "is not free from difficulties. Every teacher to whom I speak wants a system of registration which shall admit himself and exclude somebody else. The general impression is that vested rights must be regarded, and that everyone now holding the office of schoolmaster should be entitled on proof of the fact to a place on the register. But it is to be feared that any plan which recognized all existing teachers would only perpetuate the evil." In fact such a plan would propose to exclude all future pretenders, but would give a stamp of approval to all pretenders who were in the profession already. This would make the register almost valueless from the beginning, and it would probably be long before such a register held a high place in public confidence. It would seem better not to let the registration be retrospective at all, but to make it apply only to the future. It might then be made to depend on strict examination; and to be on the register would be a proof of tried attainments.

The head-master of a private school is often a man of ability, the assistant masters rarely. This above all others is the weak point in the private schools, and especially in the private schools of

(1) p. 540.

(2) p. 330.


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the lower grades. "The majority" says Mr. Bryce,(1) "are deficient in every way, half educated, without any knowledge of teaching, without the force of character to rule and guide boys. Some few are worthy, painstaking people, doing obscure duties to the best of their powers, but never, as far, as I could observe, doing them with spirit or energy. This is not merely because such pitiful salaries are offered them; it is because the position is socially low, and holds out little prospect of anything better. Men of ability are willing to take subordinate places in endowed schools, even not of the first rank, because they have a status and an opportunity by good service there of getting after a while a grammar school mastership for themselves. They are, it is true, under the direction of the head master, but they serve, not him, but the foundation; they have a public and recognized position. In private schools they exist as part of the owner's money-making machinery, and whatever they do redounds, not to their credit, but to the benefit of his pocket. This feeling is of course strongest in the case of private boarding schools, where the assistant master has not only to teach but to look after the boys, and it is quite strong enough to outweigh the temptations of a far larger salary than is usually attached to such a place." To the same effect(2) Mr. Green says, "Sometimes they are little more than lads; otherwise they are of ignorant or of questionable character. In my examinations I not unfrequently found them fragrant of alcohol." Mr. Giffard notices the vast interval between the competency of the (3)head masters and that of the assistants, and states, that the picture given of the latter by the former is startling. Assistants discovered to be drunkards, and yet retained because there was no certainty of getting better; assistants obliged to decamp suddenly for some disgrace, usually for debt; men whose only principle was to do as little work as they could. Mr.(4) Fearon again was painfully struck with the gap between the principals and their ushers. Almost all that he heard teach were miserable instructors.

That these assistant masters should be very inferior men is hardly to be wondered at. Hard work, very irksome, and in some respects unsuitable, duties, very little sympathy, very low salaries, and hardly any prospect of rising, are not likely to secure very competent men. One private school Mr. Fearon found, where the principal had excellent assistants; but then the school was managed on the monitorial system, and the assistants had no espionage to perform, and he paid high salaries, and examined his assistants

(1) p. 577; see also App. C. to Mr. Bryce's report.

(2) p. 199.

(3) p. 165.

(4) p. 365.


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carefully before appointing them. "This case however", Mr. Fearon adds, "is, I believe, unique, even among first grade schools." Severe things are often said of the maitres d'étude in France; still severer things might perhaps be said with no less truth of the assistants in private schools in England. On this point. Mr. Fearon makes the same remark as Mr. Bryce, that the private schools and the grammar schools are not here on equal terms. The public position, the higher social estimation, the pleasanter duties, the chance of promotion, and on the average even the higher pay, give the assistant in a grammar school the advantage in the comparison. Assistants in private schools are sometimes taken into partnership by their principals, and this, when offered, is a fair promotion. But the majority have no such hope. It is but natural under these circumstances, that there should be such very general evidence, that masters of private schools often find it exceedingly difficult to procure assistants at all.

5. The Scholars

The great majority of the scholars, that are sent to the private schools, do not differ from those that are sent to the grammar schools; but two circumstances regarding them ought to be noted, because, although they do not affect many of the boys, they very largely affect the character of the schools and their relation to the general public.

One is, that almost all private schools rest in some degree on social distinctions. The Grammar schools know nothing of such distinctions at all. Every boy who can pass the entrance examination, if there is one, and can pay the fees, if there are any to pay, can demand admission. This is indeed the main title that these schools have to the appellation of public schools. But social distinctions in the matter of education are exceedingly strong, and the private schools are powerless to ignore them. In fact the inferior private schools owe their very existence to the unwillingness of many of the tradesmen and others just above the manual labourers to send their sons to the National or the British School. Rather than let their children mix with the class beneath them in a large well-fitted room where they would he taught by a thoroughly competent master,(1) they will send them to an inferior teacher in a miserable room, and pay twice or four times as much. "In Norfolk", (2) says Mr. Ham-

(1) Green, p. 199.

(2) 340.


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mond, "social considerations outweigh educational considerations in the eyes of parents of all grades. Thus all local (private) schools are class schools."

On this point proprietary schools often make the same rules as private. The North London Collegiate School, a very successful proprietary school, established expressly for the middle classes, and admitting freely the children of shopkeepers, would not be open, as we were informed by the head master, to the child of an omnibus driver, even on the payment of the fees. The school is understood to be restricted to the children of those who(1) live in a good neighbourhood and hold a certain social rank. Cheltenham College has an analogous rule.

If schools of this character insist on such exclusiveness it is vain to expect the private schools to open their doors to all classes. Yet it is evident that this characteristic of the private schools must be carefully borne in mind in considering how far such schools can supply the educational needs of the country.

The other peculiarity worth special notice is, that the small private schools profess to educate and often succeed in educating, at any rate in some reasonable measure, boys who from weakness of health, excessive slowness of intellect, early neglect, or other reasons, have failed at large schools, and have been removed on that account. It may often happen, that the boy, who failed in the larger school, fails also in the smaller; but there is reason to think that this is not always so. Mr. Fitch speaks of four such schools on his list, in which eight or ten boarders of this kind are treated rather as members of a private family than as school boys, and in which there is individual instruction of a kind and parental character. Mr. Fearon also points out this education of backward boys as a valuable service which the small private schools render to education, and in the rendering of which they deserve all the more encouragement and support, because from the nature of the case no distinction is to be won by doing what little can be done for such boys. And not only is it the case, that boys who have failed at grammar schools are as a last resource sent to the private schools, but, as a general rule, according to Mr. Fearon, boys come worse prepared into the private schools than into the endowed, and this must be borne in mind when the two kinds of schools are judged by the results which they produce.

(1) Rev. W. C. Williams, 5096. The school appears now to be really a private school, but the master docs not consider it so, and conducts it on the original plan.


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6. Review of the Faults and Merits of the Private Schools

It is not difficult after this description of the characteristic features of private schools to trace with tolerable accuracy what are their leading faults and merits, in what respects they stand below the endowed schools and in what above them.

1. In the first place the Grammar schools have the advantage which always belongs to an assured, and, in a certain sense, public, position. Their masters rank in social estimation as public officers, and have the independence and the dignity of a public responsibility. The schools seem to be in the service of the country, which is always in itself an honour. To this must be added the still further dignity of permanence, of old associations, of old traditions, in many cases of the memory of great men that have been scholars within their walls. Almost every grammar school has some history or other attached to it, which acts powerfully on the imagination of boys, and has an elevating and refining effect on their characters. The private school can have nothing of this. It is essentially perishable. A great man may make his scholars proud to say that they have been his pupils. But they are proud not of the school but of the master. And even if he be a distinguished man, that will not maintain his school after his death. A Grammar school may sink and then may rise again, and in its revival it revives all its old memories. A private school, if it sinks, passes out of sight altogether. There is nothing in the private school to link generation to generation. And in dealing with boys this is no slight advantage on the side of the Grammar school.

On the other hand, the private school is open to all that is new. It can be adapted with ease to every demand of the day. If new modes of teaching are proved to be efficient, if new subjects of instruction are found to he necessary, the private school readily can, and under the steady and incessant pressure of the demand inevitably will, introduce them into its system. Mr. Fitch(1) reports that in Yorkshire "almost all the educational enterprise of the last few years has originated with private teachers." And this is likely to be often the case. The old traditions and the public position of the Grammar schools, valuable as they certainly are, yet have this drawback, that they indispose the masters to make changes. The grammar schools are likely to be in the rear of improvements, unless some means can be devised for keeping them much more alert than they have hitherto been.

2. The grammar schoolmaster again has the advantage of greater independence. The private schools almost universally

(1) p. 256.


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complain of the interference of injudicious parents. It is no doubt true,(1) as Mr. Bryce says, that an energetic and sound judging master may almost always lead the parents; but he adds that there are things that he must do, and others that be will be tempted to do, unwelcome to a man of spirit. When, indeed, he has thoroughly established himself, he can take his own line with even more impunity, than the master of the small Grammar school. But on the whole the public position of the Grammar school master enables him to assume a tone, which would he considered improper, if he were a private person. The master of the Grammar school is the servant of the public, not of the particular parent. An independence will be tolerated in him which would not be tolerated in the private schoolmaster.

This complaint of injudicious meddling on the part of the parents deserves a little consideration. Especially is it well worth while to note the contrast between the mischief done in England by unintelligent, and the good done in Scotland by intelligent, parental interference. It may be traced in England to two causes, first, the loss of confidence in the Grammar schools, and, secondly, the deficient education of the parents, especially of the mothers.

If some means had been taken to adapt the Grammar schools to modern needs fifty years ago, in all probability the parents would now be well content to let the school authorities manage the education of their children, and would support them, as the Scotch do, in the task. But the Grammar schools held so rigidly to their own routine, that at last the middle classes came to the conviction, that such an education, as they desired, was absolutely incompatible with any classical instruction whatever. That this was a delusion is proved by the fact, that the Grammar schools in many cases are teaching arithmetic, on which the parents insist, quite as well, and in a scientific sense better, than the private schools which profess to make it of so much importance. But the delusion was justified at the time, and it still continues to exist, and it will take some time to disabuse the public of their belief. To this must be added a reason of quite a different kind, but equally operative on the minds of many of the middle classes. The Grammar schools were seen to be, some more, some less, bound up with the teaching of the doctrines of the Church of England; and the Dissenters were often unable to get their children admitted except on condition of allowing them to be taught those doctrines. For these reasons a very large proportion of the parents have lost all confi-

(1) p. 539.


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dence in the grammar schools as guides in the matter of education, and have been compelled to rely on their own judgment.

But, secondly, in the use of that judgment they have not, as the Scotch have, the advantage of three centuries of experience. They have often very little education of any sort themselves, and at any rate have had no training in the management of the education of their children. The Scotch father knows what his son is learning, at least to a sufficient extent to judge of his proficiency, to praise him for his success, to feel a keen interest in what he is doing. Neither the English father nor the English mother as a rule retains enough of school learning to be able to enter very heartily into what their children are studying. "The same imperfect education", says (1)Mr. Fearon, "which makes the fathers often incapable of appreciating the value of any but the barest elements of an 'English schooling', and which makes them sneer at linguistic, physical, artistic, and mathematical studies, even when carried to a reasonable pitch, prevents their meddling with the details of their children's work." They cannot meddle in the way in which their meddling would indeed be useful, by showing a keen interest in all that the children are learning. But this does not prevent them, and especially the mothers, from meddling in other ways and giving directions in a matter which they do not understand. Nor is this all. The Scotch father has a very large latitude in guiding the education of his son, a larger latitude than is allowed in public schools in any other country in the world. But still this latitude has its limits. He can say what lessons his boy shall attend, but he cannot prescribe what lessons shall be given. He can only choose out of the list which the school authorities draw up. He cannot require the master to take charge of his boy when a lesson is being given which the boy is not to attend; he must keep him at home. He cannot interfere with the discipline. He cannot alter the rules. The organization of the school is in no sense at his mercy. The English parent knows nothing of these limits; interferes at random; dislikes all rules; presses peculiar wishes; would have the whole school bend itself to the demands of a single scholar.

But on the other hand, if English parents, having thus lost confidence in the guidance of the grammar schools, and being compelled to rely on their own judgment, often interfere unwisely, yet it is not from an unwillingness to be guided, if only they could get guidance which they could trust. The instan-

(1) p. 359.


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taneous rush with which public or semi-public schools for the middle classes have been filled, wherever they have been established of late years, is enough to prove the existence of a very large section, that would willingly surrender their right to interfere in detail, if only they could get public schools properly planned to meet their needs. The (1)Handsworth Bridge Trust School got 150 boys within a year of its foundation, and could get many more if it had room. Framlingham College was intended for 300 boarders, and in the term in which it was first opened, it had 270, and in a few months was more than full.(2) The school established by the exertions of Mr. Rogers in London is full to overflowing. There are probably many who would under all circumstances prefer to retain the right of interference, and would therefore send their children to private schools, even if the best public schools were put within their reach. But it is abundantly clear that a very large number would prefer public schools, if they could get them, and would not refuse their confidence to any public endeavour to meet their wants. And Mr. Fitch reports that when he asked (3)"whether schools managed by public or proprietary bodies possessed any advantages over private adventure schools? the answer from persons outside of the profession was almost uniformly in the affirmative."

Finally, it should be added, under this head, that the perpetual sense of responsibility to the parents, which is necessarily felt by the masters of the private schools, is not without its advantages. The master has the strongest pressure of pecuniary interest to keep him to his duty; the result is, that he is more(4) often exact and careful in minute details. The particular things on which the parent insists are tolerably certain to be well done, if nothing else be well done. If the interference be irksome, yet it is also stimulating; and in all probability it very rarely happens that a master of a private school sinks into carelessness or mere neglect of duty; if he does, the mischief cannot last long, for his school quits him. The scandalous cases, of which there are too many, of masters retaining endowed schools with few or even without any scholars show how far utter neglect of duty may go, when a man's interest in no way depends on the discharge of his duty. Before a Grammar school master thus emptied his school, he must, as a general rule, have been regardless of all the obligations of his office for years. Many scholars must have suffered by his neglect before it was found out. Had he been a private schoolmaster, the first withdrawal on account of neglect would have been

(1) Green, p. 152.

(2) Sir E. C. Kerrison, Q. 6673, Hammond, p. 372.

(3) p. 255.

(4) Fitch, p. 268.


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a sharp warning, and he would have been spurred to double effort to prevent a second. The master of an endowed school has often been able to fall asleep; the master of a private school cannot.

3. One point of contrast remains between the endowed and the private schools, in which the advantage seems to be entirely on the side of the endowed. In the endowed schools the fitness of the master can be, and in some measure usually is, ascertained, before he commences his work; and the work itself can be, though hitherto it rarely has been, brought to a test and appreciated. On this point we have already spoken above; it is the point in which private schools must always stand below public, except in as far as the private shall voluntarily submit to the application of the same tests. The public schools can be made to give guarantees of their work both before and after. The private cannot. Much may be done to enable the private to put themselves in this respect on a level with the public. But unless they give up their character as private altogether, this cannot amount to more than opening to private schoolmasters and to private schools, whatever examinations and inspection are provided for public schoolmasters and public schools. This at any rate should in our opinion be done, and we shall speak of it more at length presently.

7. What can be done to improve the Private Schools

The question, what can be done to improve the private schools, has been considered briefly by Mr. Fearon, and his suggestions point in the same direction as those which are made by other Assistant Commissioners.

It is tolerably certain, not only that under any circumstances private schools will still be required in this country, but that they have very useful functions to discharge, which cannot well be discharged by any others. "Private schools", says Mr. Bryce,(1) "have in many parts of Lancashire done something which endowed schools have neglected, and have by their competition greatly raised the tone of the latter." This competition, if it can be freed from some prominent faults, will always be of great value. Even the best system runs a little risk of lapsing into loss of energy, if it is quite undisturbed by any chance of rivalry. It is to be hoped that the endowed schools will not again be allowed to slip into the condition, which has in so many places transferred the majority of the scholars to the private schools in their neighbourhood. But it is very

(1) p. 577.


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unlikely, that there will ever come a time, when all competition whatever will be both useless and hopeless.

Private schools, again, will always be the natural field for the energies of enthusiastic teachers who hold peculiar views, and cannot work in the trammels of the recognized system of the day. Such men are often mistaken, one-sided, narrow; but their enthusiasm in many cases does more good for their pupils than their mistakes do harm. One man holds that natural science ought to be the one subject of instruction; another will teach nothing but algebra and the Bible. Such theories in ordinary hands are grievous blunders. But the enthusiastic believer often succeeds in spite of his theories, and turns out pupils if not already knowing all that is necessary yet capable of rapidly acquiring it, and possessed meanwhile of a passion for learning which is almost worth all knowledge that could have been learnt. Moreover these are the men who most often make improvements, and discover new methods. The private schools offer a field for their experiments, which the public schools can hardly do.

Yet again, although the desire of parents to have each of their children educated with a special attention to his own peculiar character and abilities appears to be unreasonably exaggerated, yet there are undoubtedly some boys who are are the better for this sort of treatment. They lose the education which is given by the firm grasp of wise rules, by the stimulus of numbers, by the organization of the instruction. They have to be taught many things by one teacher; and must therefore suffer in regard to those subjects, with which their teacher is not well acquainted. But they gain by being brought into direct contact with the teachers, mind to mind. And this gain in some cases overbalances the loss. Private schools will be needed to deal with boys or this sort.

It is therefore of public importance to put private schools on the best possible footing, and aid them to do their work well. It appears to be generally agreed, that it would be inexpedient to compel them to submit to inspection and examination. It is usual on the continent to allow no man to teach, who has not proved to the satisfaction of a public authority, that he possesses the requisite attainments, and to allow no school to receive scholars, except on the condition that it shall be open to inspection and examination by public officers. Without expressing any opinion on the abstract question of the justice or expediency of such legislation in general, we do not think that such a law would be desirable in


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the present circumstances of England. But there is no such objection to offering for voluntary acceptance what it would be inexpedient to impose by force. The weak points in the private schools appear to be briefly these -

1. That there are no means of distinguishing good masters from bad, and that consequently many of the head masters and the great majority of the assistants are incompetent.

2. That there are no means of distinguishing good schools from bad, and that consequently success is often obtained, not by the goodness of the teaching, but by the skill with which the parents are managed.

3. That a private school has no recognized position, and that consequently superior men will not accept situations on its staff.

It is evident that in all these respects it would greatly aid the private schools if they could be put on the footing of the public. That they should rank somewhat below the public in social estimation may possibly be found inevitable; it is the price which they must pay for their independence. But both in regard to the first and the second of the above deficiencies they might be offered admission to the same examinations, and the same inspection as any that might be provided for endowed schools and their masters; and the authoritative test which they ask for would be at once applied. This would go far towards giving, not only a test to distinguish good masters and good schools from bad masters and bad schools, but also that public recognition which is required to induce good men to work in those schools. A master who passed the examination prescribed for masters of endowed schools would be able to adduce the fact as a sufficient proof of his possessing the attainments requisite for his profession. A. school that put itself under inspection and examination might be entered on a register kept by public authority, and be treated in many respects as a public school. One thing more seems to be wanted, namely, that, as far as concerns schoolmasters and schools thus publicly recognized, the profession should be opened as widely as possible. Masters of recognized private schools should be, as far as can rightly be done, considered to be eligible for masterships of endowed schools. Assistants in private schools should look to promotion, not only in the private schools, but in the endowed schools also. The profession should be set free from any restriction which does not conduce to its efficiency. There can be little doubt that this of itself would entirely change the position of the masters, and still more of the assistant-masters, in private


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schools, and induce men of higher character and attainments to engage in such work.

8. How far can the Private Schools be relied on to satisfy the Demand for Secondary Education in places where the Endowed Schools fail to supply it

Mr. Green has discussed the important question, whether private schools appear likely to supply secondary education of a satisfactory kind, where the endowed schools fail to supply it.

He has examined with particular care the case of the (1)Potteries, where there are no Grammar schools within reach, and where consequently private enterprise has an open field before it, and can show what results it is able to produce. In the Potteries he found, out of a population of 101,207, only three private schools for the middle classes, containing altogether 160 boys. A few of the wealthier are sent elsewhere, and the proportion of workmen to the population is unusually large. But no reductions on this account can explain the fact, that no more than 160 are found in schools, which profess to give a secondary education. The true explanation is, that many whose parents could well afford to pay for a higher education are sent to National or British schools, and that the time given to schooling is reduced to a minimum. Meanwhile, among the more educated inhabitants of the Potteries, Mr. Green found a general sense of the want of a good middle or Grammar school. The large body of professional men, for instance, which such a population brings together, find that they cannot obtain on the spot such an education, as they desire for their sons; and yet in many cases they can ill afford to send them to good boarding schools. The ministers of religion appear to suffer most in this respect,(2) and "many of them", says Mr. Green, "spoke feelingly in this matter"; "meanwhile an oppressive atmosphere of well-to-do ignorance hangs over the district."

This striking example does but illustrate a general result which it will be well worth while here to examine. The private schools, as we remarked above, owe their origin to the operation of the commercial principle of supply and demand applied to education. It is not difficult to see that this principle must necessarily fail in two cases; it fails when the purchasers demand the wrong thing, and it fails also when they are incompetent judges of the right thing. The utmost, that it could do in the matter of education, would be to supply, not what is best, but what the parents

(1) p. 192.

(2) p. 194.


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believe to be best. If the standard of the parents be low, if it be expedient for the interests of the country that the parents should be educated to put a higher value than they do on the cultivation of the understanding, on the refinement of the thoughts and manners, on what is solid and permanent, rather than on what is showy and transitory, the commercial principle is not likely to supply schools which will have such an effect. "The operation of commercial supply and demand, pure and simple,"(1) says Mr. Green, "means, on the whole, that, as the father is, such will the son be. An uneducated father generally has a low conception of education. If he grows very rich he may perhaps send his son to a fashionable school or to the University, that he may learn to be like the sons of the landed gentry, and the boy commonly becomes like them 'with a vengeance'; otherwise be sends him to a private school of the kind described, where he meets other boys of the same class. Here there is nothing to raise him above the traditions of his home. Neither those about him nor those above him are likely to do anything to enlarge his intellectual horizon, and there is no path of reward to tempt him on to the higher learning. He is naturally in a hurry to leave and make money as his father made it. Those parents, on the other hand, who have a higher idea of education but no large share in this world's goods, if their lot is cast in a region of private schools, must conform to the general level. They must send their sons to schools of which the standard is set by the capacity and aspiration of the majority. Thus in almost all the decent private schools I found one or two boys, 13 or 14 years old, who seemed to have more faculty and desire of learning than was ever likely to be brought out. Now, a well-organized system of Grammar schools by which the poorer schools should pass on their best boys with small exhibitions to the richer, and these again should transfer their élite with larger exhibitions to the University, would at once meet the aspiration of the few and raise that of the many. It would spread its net to catch boys who want a commercial education, and having caught them, while it gave them what they wanted would, by a process of natural selection, keep for the higher learning all who were fit for it. It would bring every boy of capacity by the age of 14 or so in contact with the mind of a scholar and familiarize him with the prospect of an intellectual career. Such a system would find

(1) p. 207.


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no small class of parents eager to avail themselves of it, and once inaugurated it would, by its own operation, perpetually augment this class. Not only would it by degrees create a taste for the pursuit of science and literature in our large towns, (where there might be plenty of leisure for it if only there were the will); it would constantly be increasing the demand for schoolmasters of high University degree, and thus be giving to the scholastic career more of the material encouragement which it at present lacks. If it is desired fairly to get rid of the notion ingrained in the mind of the commercial class, and of which an historical account can easily be given, that high education is the perquisite of the clergy and gentry, this is the way to do it."

Many of the private schoolmasters are indeed very earnestly desirous to raise the general tone in regard to education, and only submit to keep within the low standard prescribed by the parents, because their livelihood depends upon it. It is for this reason that many would welcome authoritative examinations of their schools. "The parents", one master told Mr.(1) Bryce "would "believe an inspector proclaiming the value of mathematics, French, and Latin, though they would not believe a schoolmaster." But the efforts of a few earnest men cannot affect very deeply the character of the mass. There are among the private schoolmasters men of the most devoted character; but, take these schools as a whole, and it must be confessed, that they illustrate the fact, that the commercial principle has nothing in it of the missionary spirit and cannot elevate those who depend on it alone.

But further, the commercial principle rests on the rule caveat emptor [let the buyer beware], and presupposes, that the purchaser is a judge of what he buys. Now it is quite certain, that it cannot be said, that the majority of parents in the middle classes are really good judges of education. They are good judges of certain things, and they press these particular things, until the whole teaching is dislocated; but of the best means of training the mind, and of strengthening the faculties, they are no judges at all. It is the universal complaint both among parents and schoolmasters, that it is not possible to distinguish between the true teacher and the impostor. In all commercial transactions adulteration is always possible, and if it cannot be detected, it is not only possible but almost irresistible. This is precisely what has happened in regard to education.

(1) p. 558.


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As might be expected the two difficulties which thus beset the application of the commercial principle to education become more serious as we descend in the social scale. The private schools of the first grade are in some instances well worthy to stand side by side with endowed schools of the same grade; inferior in some respects, superior in others. But the majority of private schools of the third grade are, according to general consent, as bad as they well can be. Nor can this class of society be sure of having such schools at all. They appear and disappear as accident may decide, and no place, unless of considerable size, can(1) be quite sure at a given time of having any such school at all.

Lastly, it is impossible not to notice the grave defect in private schools, that they mostly rest on class distinctions. A boy of ability above the average, for whom his friends are willing to make a more than usual sacrifice, in order to procure for him an education suitable to his powers, cannot find such an education in a private school. We cannot but consider, that it is a matter of national interest, that boys of real ability, in whatever rank of life they may be found, should receive every aid and encouragement, that can be rightly given, to enable them to rise to a position suitable to their talents. We cannot but look on it as one of the glories of this country, that so many men should have risen to eminence from humble stations, and should have found so much in our institutions to aid them so to rise. And we think, that it would be a serious defect in our means of education, if any obstacles were thrown in the way of what is so excellent in itself, and so useful to the country.

If to all this we add, that wherever public schools for the middle classes have been lately established, they have been instantly filled, and that there must therefore be a very considerable population, that would prefer to have them, we think we are warranted in drawing the conclusion, that while private schools will probably long have a very important part to play in our system of education, and should be encouraged by all proper public recognition, yet it would not be right to leave to them unaided to supply the deficiency, which our endowments have left unfilled, but that at least permissive powers should be given for the general establishment of public secondary schools, where they appear to be required.

(1) Bryce, p. 537.


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§ 3. Proprietary Schools

The last of our three great classes of schools is composed of those which are not endowed, nor the property of the master or mistress who teach in them. We have called them Proprietary, though that term is usually applied only to a certain division of them, viz. those which are the property of a body of shareholders. But all are alike private property, either of one or more individuals or of a corporate body; the buildings and funds are not permanently dedicated to educational uses. Yet they do not depend on the will of the schoolmaster; he did not create or purchase the school, or succeed to it by any private disposition; the school has a life beyond his, and he is only a chief officer for the time being.

These schools may be said in some measure to combine the character of endowed schools with that of private schools. They resemble private schools in owing their origin to private enterprise, in their consequent attempt to adapt themselves to the needs of the day, in their tendency to rest on social distinctions. They resemble endowed schools in providing some security that the master shall be fit for his duties, and in the general character of their management. To this may be added that in the end they generally pass into one of the other two classes. Those which do not succeed under proprietary management are generally sold and become private schools; those which are successful enough to become permanent, end with being devoted irrevocably by deed to the purposes of education, and are thus transferred to the rank of endowed schools.

With very few exceptions, the schools which we have thus classed together under the head of "Proprietary" schools, are of recent origin, not 40 years old. They owe their origin principally either to the want of schools of a more public character than any private school even of long standing can possibly assume, or to the desire of it particular religious denomination to have a school in which the religious instruction might be given in unrestricted accordance with their views.

The classification which will correspond best to the origin and purpose of these schools, appears to be the following, though the principles of division in some degree cross one another. Our general remarks will chiefly apply to the first three classes.

1. The first class consists of those schools which were intended to give a classical education of the first grade, but to give more attention to, or allow greater facilities for, the study of mathematics and modern languages than had been usual in endowed schools. The movement appears to have commenced with the


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establishment of University College and King's College, two schools, both still very flourishing, having been established as parts of these institutions,(1) and several others having been founded shortly after in the neighbourhood of London and affiliated to King's College, as Kensington, Islington, Stockwell, Walthamstow Forest, and others. Blackheath rose at the same time and under similar influences.(2) More schools of this class, including some of great importance, were founded ten years later, as Cheltenham College,(3) and others at Brighton,(4) Bath, Sheffield,(5) Huddersfield,(6) and still later at Clifton and Malvern. The College of the International Education Society at Spring Grove has only lately been opened. At Liverpool the upper of the three schools of the College(7) and the Royal Institution school, give a somewhat similar education.(8) Others were intended for boarders only, and were designed to furnish, especially to the sons of clergymen, an education of the first grade, but at lower terms than were charged at Eton and Harrow. Marlborough College(9) and Rossall(10) were the first established on this plan; Radley and Haileybury have been formed partly on their model.

2. The second class is composed of those schools which have been established within the last ten or twelve years, especially for farmers' sons. They are formed on the type of Marlborough College in adopting the hostel system, that is, in having all the scholars in one common boarding house, but they do not include Greek, and do not all include Latin in the regular course. A school established at Probus in Cornwall, by Rev. D. Trinder in 1853, appears to have been the first of the kind.(11) The Devon county school, founded by Lord Fortescue and Mr. Brereton at West Buckland,(12) has been followed by others at Sampford Peverell, at Dorchester, at Hereford, at Wells,(13) and at Saham Toney.(14) One school of this nature, founded by Lord Portsmouth at North Tawton, and two very recent and flourishing schools, Framlingham College(15) and the Surrey County School at Cranley,(16) are

(1) On University College school, see Prof. Key, Q. 2904-3140.

(2) On these, see Fearon, pp. 342-347.

(3) Rev. Dr. Barry, Q. 5418-5517. Rev. T. Southwood, Q. 5518-5622.

(4) Giffard, pp. 148-150.

(5) Fitch, p. 232.

(6) Fitch, p. 233.

(7) Bryce, p. 589-593. Rev. Dr. Howson, Q. 2546-2828.

(8) Bryce, p. 597.

(9) Rev. G. Bradley, 4022-4070.

(10) Bryce, p. 585-589.

(11) See at end of Mr. Stanton's Report on Endowed school of Probus.

(12) See their Evidence in vol v, and Stanton, p. 62.

(13) Stanton, p. 63.

(14) Hammond, pp. 365-368. A "County school" is being built now at Trent, on the borders of Nottingham and Derby, and a Bedford County school is being organized, the Duke of Bedford having given £10,000 for the purpose.

(15) Sir E. C. Kerrison, Q. 6673-6830. Rev. A. C. Daymond, 14,485-14,691. Hammond, pp. 370-381.

(16) Rev. Dr. Benson, 4823-4940.


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included in our list of endowed schools, the buildings having been permanently dedicated to education. Another founded at York, under the name of the Yeoman's School, has practically been merged in a reconstruction of Holgate's endowed school.(1) Another, the property of Mr. Tollemache, at Helmingham, has been several times referred to in the course of our Report.(2)

3. A third class consists of those intended mainly for a less wealthy section of the community, clerks, small shopkeepers, and upper artizans. They have usually either arisen out of a mechanics' institute,(3) or been founded by the clergyman of a large parish,(4) or are in connexion with a nonconformist body, being sometimes held in buildings adjoining the chapel, but attended by scholars of other denominations as well.(5) They vary in the class of scholars and in the fees charged, from such as are just above a primary school to the lower schools of the Liverpool Institute(6) and of the College. The school maintained by the Duke of Northumberland at Alnwick,(7) and the Birkbeck schools established by Mr. Ellis,(8) belong also to this class. Almost all of the schools corning under this head are day schools.

4. The fourth class consists of schools which have been established by a denominational body for the benefit, principally at least, of their own members. Such are the Jesuits' college at Stonyhurst,(9) and at Mount St. Mary's,(10) Oscott College, and other Roman Catholic schools; the Wesleyan colleges at Taunton(11) and Sheffield, and (for sons of ministers only) at Woodhouse Grove near Bradford(12); the Congregational schools at Silcoates near Wakefield,(13) and at Taunton,(14) the Nonconformists school at Mill Hill; the Moravian school at Fulneck,(15) which dates from 1753; the Friends schools at Ackworth, at Bootham (in York), at Tottenham, and elsewhere;(16) the newly instituted school of the Primitive Methodists

(1) Mr. H. S. Thompson, 11,668-11,711. Fitch, pp. 192, 232, and special report.

(2) Richmond, vol viii pp. 645-648. See also Green, p. 168.

(3) Fitch, pp. 245-248.

(4) Rev. R. Gregory, 14,796-15,039, and see above, p. 198.

(5) Bryce, p. 599. Fearon, p. 349.

(6) Rev. J. Jones, 6164-0364. Bryce, pp. 595-596.

(7) Hammond, pp. 293-295.

(8) Mr. Ellis, 13,854-13,894. Fearon, pp. 533-535.

(9) Rev. G. R. Kingdon, 12,108-12,337. Bryce, pp. 583-585.

(10) Rev. T. Williams, 11,107-11,201.

(11) Attended by members of the Church of England to the extent of one-third of the whole number of scholars. Mr. Sibly, Evid., 12,420. Stanton, pp. 27, 61. "There were 40 sons of churchmen at the Independent College at Taunton." Stanton, p.65.

(12) Fitch, p. 240.

(13) Fitch, p. 240.

(14) Stanton, pp. 22, 65.

(15) Fitch, p. 239.

(16) Mr. Ford, 11,795-11,926. Fitch, p. 238.

[Note The reference for footnote 8 is missing in the text. I have inserted it where I presume it should have been.]


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at Elmfield near York,(1) and Nonconformist school at Tettenhall in South Staffordshire(2); the Jews College in Finsbury, and Jews school in Palestine Place, and others. Most of these are boarding schools.

5. There are other schools which have been established for the special benefit of small sections of the community. Such are the Epsom College, founded for the sons of registered medical practitioners,(3) some schools for the children of missionaries, or orphan children of clergymen, the Commercial Travellers school at Pinner;(4) and with these may be put the Corporation Academy at Berwick,(5) maintained for the sons of freemen of the town. On these we have no need to speak, as they are instances rather of special philanthropy than of any general educational effort.

The list of proprietary schools which now exist is much smaller than the list of those which have been set up during the last 30 or 40 years. Two at Bath, one at Plymouth, one at Bristol, one at Weston-super-Mare,(6) two at York, two at Hull, one at Wakefield,(7) one (recently) at Leamington,(8) and several in the neighbourhood of London have ceased to exist entirely, or have become the property of private individuals. Both at Hull and at Huddersfield two proprietary schools were established when there appears to have been room for only one. In both, one was established purposely as non-sectarian, the other as distinctively belonging to the Church of England. Both have failed at Hull, and one at Huddersfield is kept up with difficulty, having only 28 scholars. In three cases, two at York and one at Wakefield, the buildings were finally sold to the trustees of the endowed grammar schools. Others have become really private schools, though the connexion with the former proprietary body, or the sense of such a connexion,(9) is not entirely severed. This appears to be the case with the Sheffield and North London Collegiate(10) schools. On the other hand, some - as, for instance, Marlborough College, Mr. Woodard's three schools,(11) and Bradfield - have become endowed schools; and Rossall and Liverpool College,(12) and perhaps others, might probably with justice be referred to the same class.

But apart from the present great usefulness of most of these schools, they have as a class given considerable assistance in solving

(1) Fitch, p. 241.

(2) Green, p. 208.

(3) Giffard, pp. 150-152.

4 Mr. Richards, 5938-6163.

(5) Hammond, pp. 290-292.

(6) Stanton, p. 61.

(7) Fitch, pp. 231-236.

(8) Green, p. 208.

(9) See Rev. W. C. Williams, 5011-5013.

(10) Rev. W. C. Williams, 5011-5184.

(11) On these schools see Giffard, pp. 134-148. Rev. Dr. Lowe, 9304-9595. Rev. R. E. Sanderson, 9596-9694.

(12) Rev. Dr. Howson, 2549-2552.


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several educational problems. The history of these schools is in a great degree the history of recent struggles for the improvement of secondary schools. The system of the grammar schools 40 years ago was very different from what it is now. The exclusive cultivation of classics, and often of the least essential parts of classics, the neglect of mathematics and modern languages and English, the severe system of punishment, the tyranny exercised by bigger boys over the smaller boys, and the bad accommodation, together produced a ferment which eventually issued in the series of experiments which took the shape of proprietary schools. These schools were in many cases simply so many combinations of parents seeking to have their children educated in the way they themselves preferred; and though some have failed from injudicious management, others have survived, profiting by the experience of the former and often tried by severe crises themselves. Commercially the majority have not succeeded; educationally they have very largely succeeded, and with the exception of the perpetual interference in the head master's management, which many of them sanctioned at first, but afterwards modified or abolished, the reforms which they were intended to introduce have to a great degree become recognized as in the main right. Some have, no doubt, themselves been much altered from their original plan. Thus, with respect to the large and important schools of the Liverpool Institute, Mr. Bryce says: "Some one in Liverpool remarked to me, 'The Institute was meant to be a place of modern education, and it now teaches classics to the whole of its upper school; its discipline was to be maintained without corporal punishment, and the cane is now in regular use; it was to be purely secular, and its late and present head-masters are clergymen of the Church of England.' These deviations from the original plan, if they have not caused (some think they have) the success of the school, have at any rate not obstructed it."(1)

It has probably not been, at any time, the chief object of the promoters of these schools to make them a profitable investment. Some have been distinctly the effect of religious or philanthropic zeal; some have been set up to furnish a suitable education for the children of the promoters as well as of others of a similar social position; and in those which have been managed so far on a commercial principle as to furnish to the shareholders a dividend by way of interest on their capital invested, there has usually been a limit fixed by custom

(1) p. 595.


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or byelaw, to the amount of such dividend. Moreover, the shareholders have from time to time individually or collectively made considerable contributions out of the divisible proceeds, or out of their share of the original capital, to the furtherance of the school's interests, or of its pupils' educational advancement. Mr. Brereton advocated(1) the commercial principle itself, and speaking of the Devon County School, said, "I own at first my own impression was strongly against the commercial principle; but having been put in the position of the chairman of directors, I have been bound to think strongly of the interests of the shareholders, and my opinion is now that regard to the interests of the shareholders has been one of the most beneficial things to the school, that the present state of the finances would never otherwise have been attained. I never should have been able to correct the tendency to abuses in the board and service, if I had not been very anxious to show those who had put money in the school, wishing to see a return for it, that honestly the prices charged to parents would give them that return. One or two farmers in the neighbourhood have said to me, 'Mr. Brereton, we should be quite ready to take shares; not at all wishing for a high interest, but for a low interest, if we found that the money was reasonably safe, that the money was not sunk, but that was there for our children.'" On the other hand, Dr. Barry,(2) in speaking on the subject, mentioned that at Cheltenham College there is a check upon the transfer of nominations, intended to prevent shares being largely held as a mere investment, without the investor having any directly educational interest in the school. On this ground no person is allowed at Cheltenham College to hold more than five shares, and the letting of shares is strongly discouraged. Control exercised by mere shareholders, and control exercised by shareholders who have also children or friends' children in the school, are obviously likely to be very different in their effects. Economy satisfies the former, excellence of instruction and of discipline is sought by the latter, though they may not always be wise enough to exercise their control aright. Mr. Giffard(3) says of proprietary schools for the sons of tradesmen: "The ruling principle of schools of this type is economy. In one case the proprietors could not withstand the temptation of declaring a dividend out of the surplus income. The permanent staff is often insufficiently paid, and a great jealousy is evinced towards the

(1) Evid. Q. 10,175.

(2) Evid. Q. 5442.

(3) p. 154.


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introduction of new books or any apparatus which is expensive. Periodical struggles take place, too, between some of the shareholders and the master for a change in the studies, the abolition of Latin, for example, and the substitution of something 'more useful'; but to do the shareholders justice, the committees are usually well chosen, and have shown a praiseworthy firmness in keeping the standard of instruction at as high a level as is compatible with the pressure of the more parsimonious of the proprietors." Mr. Bryce considers the masters at the Liverpool Institute (and in some degree at the College) as underpaid. A considerable part of the profits of the school are applied to the general support of the whole Institute.(1)

The difficulty is in truth not one inherent in or peculiar to the proprietary system. It is but the common fact that many classes of persons, to whom good education is not hereditary and habitual, grudge to pay the full cost of it. "Not", says Mr. Stanton, speaking particularly of farmers, "that they do not think the education given and the comforts received are fully equivalent to the price charged; but because they can get all they think sufficient for their sons at a cheaper rate. Many of them do not yet appreciate airy and well arranged schoolrooms and dormitories, single beds, abundant washing apparatus, any more than they do the study of French or Euclid."(2) Nor do the well-to-do farmers of Norfolk, though they look carefully after the comfort of the board, care for the quality of the education.(3) The result is, that where the cost of good buildings, as well as of good instruction, has to be paid out of the fees of the pupils, either the fee is fixed so high as to be a weight against the school in the competition both with schools which have an endowment, and with private schools, which are content to give inferior accommodation or inferior instruction, or an injurious economy has to be exercised in keeping down the salaries of teachers. The load of debt contracted at first starting in new buildings, with inadequate numbers, has been directly or indirectly the cause of failure in many schools of this class. Private schools sometimes suffer from the same cause, and the fact is only less noticeable in their case, because it is less public, and because it is much rarer in proportion to the whole number of such schools. Better school accommodation than ordinary is usually a prominent feature in any scheme for a proprietary school. And a large number of the proprietary schools have excellent buildings and equipment.

(1) pp. 593, 595.

(2) p. 62.

(3) Hammond, p. 349.


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Such a school has one great advantage: it starts with a good connexion. The proprietors combine some of the interest in its success which a private schoolmaster has, and much of the interest of parents in the education of their children. Both elements are very valuable in a managing body, and they appear likely to correct each the other's deficiencies. But while the traditional methods of good instruction and discipline were undergoing a severe and almost revolutionary criticism, the interest both of parents and shareholders could not but lead to distrustful supervision of the master and a meddling and injurious activity. There is not now so much reason to apprehend any very serious effect of this kind in the future management of schools. The crust of tradition has been broken; the evils of over interference have been frequently and clearly shown; and the course and methods of education, though not fixed, are based upon more generally recognized principles, and are, at the same time, more pliant to reasonable innovation. The change in the constitution of Cheltenham College a few years ago(1) was an index of the revival of the disposition to put confidence in head masters, and a pledge, at least in schools of that class, against too minute supervision by a committee for the future.

There is another main point in proprietary schools which requires mention. They are, as remarked above, to a great extent what Mr. Hammond calls "class schools". They set up strongly distinctions of social rank, and are not open to every boy whose parents may be willing to pay the fees and conform to the rules of the school. This exclusiveness is secured by giving the directors a veto either on the transfer of a share or nomination, or on the admission of the boy nominated. At Cheltenham College and some other schools of this class it is understood that the sons of shopkeepers would not be admitted.(2) "At Clifton College and at Sydney College, Bath," says Mr. Stanton, "the governing body retain in their hands the power of rejecting any boy whom they do not consider qualified socially for the school; and as a fact would not admit the son of any resident tradesman.(3) At Liverpool College, though the three schools correspond, as a matter of fact, to three divisions of society, and the scholars are kept quite apart from one another,(4) except at the daily prayers at opening the school,

(1) Rev. Dr. Barry, Evid. Q. 5475.

(2) There appears indeed to be an express rule to some such effect. See Rev. Dr. Barry, Evid. Q. 5466-5474. Rev. T. Southwood, Q. 5562.

(3) Stanton, p. 62.

(4) The combination of these schools in the same building, while yet a strict separation between the scholars is maintained, gives an unpleasing prominence to the social distinction. Bryce, p. 592. Rev. Dr. Howson, 2559-2565, 2585.


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the distinction rests entirely on the fees; and thus, besides the transference, without any increase of payment, of one boy of ability every half year from a lower school to the school above it, boys are frequently transferred by their parents on paying the higher fee. Any distinction, which rests merely on the fee payable, is not of a really formidable nature, for it corresponds probably to a difference in the length of the school life and the consequent character and expensiveness of the teaching. But when the distinction is made to rest on the position and employment of the parent, not in order to husband charitable funds, but to preserve a caste separation, it essentially disqualifies a school for taking rank as a public institution.

This tendency of proprietary schools is the more to be regretted, because they seem to afford one of the most likely means of spontaneously supplying the want of good schools. At Taunton a proprietary school has just been set on foot, in combination with the old poorly endowed "College School", the endowment being used to pay the capitation fees of a small number of boys at the new proprietary school. At Southampton a similar scheme has been advocated by the master (who gave us evidence on this matter) and others. Nor, in the absence of a considerable endowment, do there seem to be any other means so readily available for obtaining thoroughly satisfactory buildings and play ground for first and second grade schools, as raising funds on the proprietary principle. But if the taint of social exclusiveness is to attach to the institution, no amalgamation with a grammar school can or ought to take place, and no separate school could, under these circumstances, fill a place in an adequate organization of the higher education.

The educational character of proprietary schools stands very high. Some of them rank with the most famous of the Grammar schools, as places of preparation for the Universities; and the military and civil department of Cheltenham College is equally distinguished in the competition for admissions to Woolwich. To the value of the Liverpool proprietary schools, Mr. Bryce bears emphatic testimony; the County schools, proprietary as well as endowed, gain and deserve the favour of the public almost as rapidly as they are formed; and the schools established for the third grade of scholars are certainly no less useful, perhaps more useful, than any others of the same kind in the country. Mr. Giffard, in whose district the proprietary and private schools have almost a monopoly of education, praises several of these proprietary schools very highly, and especially comments on the superiority to private schools shown by those which are founded for the "sons of small tradesmen, artificers, and upper servants,


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where the ground and buildings have been given by private benefaction and subscriptions, the working expenses being defrayed by a fee of 1s per week or thereabouts." "In no case", he says, "of a private school did I find results anything like equal to those produced by the schools I have just noticed. The buildings of the private schools are invariably inferior, the discipline more lax, and the instruction more fragmentary and less comprehensive, whilst the absence of all supervision leaves the boys to the mercy of an indolent or ignorant master. I will add, moreover, that the boys of one of these schools giving only an English education, founded by the clergyman of the parish, are much better trained and better informed when they leave school than the boys of five-sixths of the private day schools, with terms varying from four to six guineas a year, which have come under my notice. The reason is not far to seek. The patron of the proprietary school takes none for masters but those who have proved themselves competent elsewhere; the masters of private schools of this class are very frequently men, who have proved themselves incompetent for all other occupations, and who take to teaching as a pisaller [last resort].(1)

Mr. Fearon compares proprietary schools with endowed schools, and after especially praising the Philological School as "one of the best specimens of the middle schools of the second grade in this district,"(2) says, "These proprietary schools of the first and second grade are on the whole, with few exceptions, useful institutions, and might, with a moderate amount of endowment, be rendered still more efficient. I am not, of course, in a position to say whether if there were any funds to be distributed any of these schools would accept an endowment; but I think that there are several which, if they would do so on the condition of public examination, would help greatly towards forming a complete supply of secondary day schools. Within the 12-mile radius of the London postal district the condition of these schools is, I think, on the whole, at least as good as that of the endowed schools of the same grades. The reforms they require are such as should make them more available to the general public, and should give the public more guarantees for their efficiency."(3)

Of the third grade schools, he says: "I have been at some pains to visit as many of these proprietary schools of the third grade as I could discover, and to obtain returns from them, and I proceed to state the general conclusions to which I have

(1) Giffard, p. 155.

(2) Fearon, p. 347.

(3) lb., p. 349.


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come concerning them. Compared, as to their general condition, with the endowed schools of the third grade, these proprietary schools of the third. grade which I have visited have a decided advantage. Being mostly newly-established schools, their buildings and premises are much better on the whole than those of the endowed schools. Some of them, as the Birkbeck schools, have excellent premises, and are admirably furnished with apparatus. Most of them are day schools; but at one Roman Catholic school of this grade, which is a boarding school, I noticed a simple and inexpensive contrivance for securing privacy to the boys in their bedrooms, with the strictest general surveillance. The teachers in these schools are also, on the whole, better than those in the endowed schools of the same grade. Some of them have been trained as teachers of elementary schools, and consequently have some knowledge of method, though deficient perhaps in other important qualifications. The books, too, and methods used in these schools are better than in the endowed schools of the third grade, and so is the teaching. No doubt improvement might be made in the condition of these proprietary schools of the third grade, as well as in that of the endowed schools, if some suitable stimulus could be applied to them, and if certain other advantages could be offered to them. But their condition is, on the whole, decidedly better than that of endowed and of private schools of the third grade, and some are really excellent and highly useful establishments."(1)

Mr. Fitch sums up the most important experience furnished by his district in relation to this class of institutions, in two sentences: "All the schools which have been established by joint-stock companies for the promotion of general education have proved to be commercial failures. The only proprietary schools which have succeeded are those founded by religious bodies for the education of their own children, and managed on a more or less exclusive principle."(2) After illustrating the former sentence, he gives an interesting account of several of the boarding schools belonging to particular religious denominations, and points out particularly that "the curriculum of instruction in all these schools differs in one important respect from that of the ordinary grammar school. English grammar and composition, geography, history, and physical science receive much attention; 'fancy classics', as they are sometimes called, are discarded ... Classics and mathematics furnish the ground-

(1) Fearon, p. 351.

(2) Fitch, 231.


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work of the mental training, but are turned earlier to account as instruments of general culture. Since the upper boys are frequently destined for the University of London, the matriculation examination of that University furnishes the scheme of instruction." There is a peculiarity in most of these schools in the position of the head master. "He is usually a graduate, and takes the entire responsibility of the teaching," but is subordinate in the school as well as in the household to a resident "governor or superintendent, who is generally a minister of mature years, chosen rather for the weight of his moral influence than for his scholarship." Mr. Fitch found that this arrangement worked "better than might have been expected", but does not himself approve of it, even for schools of this kind. The buildings and other appliances are very good indeed, and are in fact given to the institutions. "The staff of teachers, though ample and highly efficient, cannot be said to be well remunerated. But this arises from the fact that they are denominational schools." Religious zeal, and the prospect of community of feeling, make men accept these posts for lower than the average terms.(1)

The teaching at Stonyhurst is, Mr. Bryce says, "avowedly directed to bring every boy up to a certain level rather than to raise a few to a very high pitch of excellence."(2) Dr. Smith, one of the classical examiners of the University of London, spoke in very high terms of the result, and attributed it in a great degree to the influence exercised by preparing for a definite examination, that of the University of London.(3) The results in arithmetic were not so good, according to the evidence of Mr. Besant, one of the mathematical examiners.(4) "The most peculiar feature in the disciplinary system", says Mr. Bryce, "is the superintendence so unremittingly maintained at all hours. In the playground two prefects walk up and down in the midst while games go on. During the preparation of lessons a prefect sits in a pulpit, looking over the room full of boys, and enforcing the strictest silence; and at night, when the boys have gone to bed, prefects pass at intervals through the dormitories to see that all is quiet, and that no boy leaves his own compartment; only once in the year, at Midsummer, do boys return to their homes. Of the working of this system I had no means of judging, except from the demeanour of the

(1) Fearon, pp. 241-244.

(2) Bryce, p. 583.

(3) Evid. Q. 971.

(4) Evid. Q. 1343.


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boys at play, and they appeared to be enjoying themselves, without any sense of restraint."(1)

The importance of the proprietary schools is also clearly seen from an examination of the Tables at the end of this volume, showing the number of students which different classes of schools send to the Universities. Some of the proprietary schools send to Oxford and Cambridge as many as almost any endowed school, while only seven or eight private schools send as many as one a year on an average. In the list of matriculated students of the University of London the proprietary denominational schools are very fairly represented, and are far the largest contributors. On the other hand, though both endowed and proprietary schools send a considerable number of students to the local examinations, yet the private schools as a body send many more, and many of the individual private schools match the others in the numbers they have sent. In the College of Preceptors' examinations only three endowed schools and one proprietary school appear at all.

The total number of scholars (boys) in the proprietary schools named in our List(2) appears to be about 12,000; of these about 4,600 are boarders, and 7,400 day scholars.

§ 4. The Examinations which now directly or indirectly test the work of the Schools

There is a great deal of school work which cannot be tested by any but skilled examiners; there is also a great deal which cannot be tested by any examination at all. None but skilled examiners can be trusted to distinguish between the knowledge which is merely got up for the examination, and rapidly fades out of the memory, when the examination is over, and that which has become a permanent part of the learner's mind; or again, between a mere mass of readily producible information, and a power of handling and using that information. No examination whatever can take account of the moral training, which a good school ought to give, of the lessons in self-reliance, in habits of order, in command of temper, in obedience to rules, in strict truth, which are undeniably more valuable than all other lessons. It may well be admitted, that the authorities in charge of the schools will always find it necessary, to be on their guard against allowing the examinations, to override everything else, whether

(1) Bryce, p. 584. See also Rev. G. R. Kingdon, Q. 12,198, and the detailed account of a day's employment given by Rev. T. Williams, Q. 11,167.

(2) See Appendix vi.


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in their own minds or in those of their scholars. Examinations, like most other things, are liable to abuse; and if boys at school are induced to view them as the be-all and the end-all of school life, it is probable, that the good which they do in stimulating study, will be very dearly purchased.

The rector of Lincoln College did not hesitate to speak even of the University examinations, to which both Oxford and Cambridge owe so much, as "a necessary evil",(1) "an evil which is yearly increasing in proportion as we perfect the examination system." The precise point at which examinations become injurious to a school, he defined as being that, at which "the school follows the examination, and not the examination the school."(2) To the same effect Mr. Bradley spoke of such examinations, as that which is required for the Indian Civil Service or for entrance into Woolwich, as "sitting like a blight on education,"(3) compelling a master to teach boys not "what is good for them", but what "will pay" in the examination. And Dr. Benson thought that the effect of such examinations was to "strain the boys and make their knowledge not permanent."(4)

It must be remembered, however, that both Mr. Bradley and Dr. Benson were not speaking here of such examinations of the scholars, as in all good schools are conducted by the masters, but of examinations which are arranged by some authority, that has no concern with the school at all, and which, consequently, look, not to what the school is teaching, but to what is required for some profession or occupation that is to come afterwards. In other words, Dr. Benson and Mr. Bradley were speaking of those examinations, which, to use the Rector of Lincoln's phrase, do not follow the school, but compel the school to follow them. This distinction is of high importance. Over and above the risk which attends all examinations, the risk, namely, that both teachers and scholars will be induced to think of the examinations and of nothing else, there is a further mischief attending those examinations, which act powerfully on the teaching, and yet are quite external to the school. Such examinations have a tendency to dislocate the school work by rewarding highly what the school values low, and disregarding what the school makes of great importance. If, indeed, a school has to look to any one each examination, the evil is much diminished, for the school may adapt its course to the examination once for all; yet even then there is great danger, that an unsuitable aim will have been

(1) 17,871.

(2) 17,870.

(3) 4089.

(4) 4770.


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put before the school, an aim which those, who know the school and its capacities, would not have chosen. But when a school has to prepare boys for several different examinations, an adaptation of the school course to suit them all becomes impossible. One boy, who is reading for the army, has to be taught one set of subjects; another, who is to be a medical student, has to be taught another. It is easy, if the examinations are very stringent, to push this divergence between the different studies required, so far, as to make effective organization of the school, as a place of general education, impossible.

The objections, however, that may be made with more or less reason, whether to examinations altogether, or to examinations of particular kinds, cannot overweigh the arguments which prove the need of some regular, responsible, trustworthy test, by which the work of every school may be periodically tried, the teachers may be assisted in finding out the weak points in their system, the scholars may be aided to give that definiteness to their knowledge which a good examination is known to be the best means of giving, and parents may be guided in their estimate of the school as a fit place for the instruction of their children. There is much that an examination cannot test; but that is no reason why it should not be employed to test what it can. An ill-contrived or unsuitable examination may do more harm than good, but that is no reason against examinations carefully adapted to the purpose aimed at. In fact, it may be said that all good schools have examinations of some sort already, and schoolmasters have long learnt to consider it to be one of their duties, to prepare their boys for a proper examination conducted by themselves or by others, and yet at the same time to guard against the abuses, to which all examinations are liable. The want of regular independent examinations is considered by Mr. Fearon(1) to be one of the causes of the badness of the third-grade schools that he visited. The Dean of Chester, for several years the master of the Liverpool College,(2) held that all schools would gain by examination. The Bishop of Bath and Wells(3) considered that a system of examination for all schools would be very advantageous, and suggested, that it should be managed by the Universities. The same suggestion was made by the (4)Dean of Ely. Nor indeed did those whom we examined question the expediency, or even the necessity, of providing the schools with regular and thorough examinations, although several insisted with great emphasis on the mischief,

(1) p. 314.

(2) 2807.

(3) 7197.

(4) 17,203.


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that was done by examinations not carefully adapted to the school work.

The examinations, which at present affect the schools, may be conveniently grouped under the following heads:

1. Those which are wholly external to the schools, and have no reference whatever to what the schools may be teaching.

2. Those which, though external to the schools, yet may be considered as practically well suited to the course of study, which the schools are actually pursuing.

3. Those which aim at directly testing the school work as it stands, and more or less succeed in doing so.

1. The examinations which fall under the first head are those which are now required for entering on the study of medicine and of law, for commissions in the army, for admission into Sandhurst and Woolwich, and for the Civil Service at home and in India. Of these the examinations for Woolwich and for the Indian Civil Service are competitive, the rest are qualifying.

All these examinations are intended, not to test whether the schools are doing their work, but either to ascertain, whether the candidates examined are properly prepared for professions and occupations which they wish to enter, or to select the best for a particular purpose. Very different accounts of their effect are given by the examiners who examine the boys, and by the schoolmasters who prepare them. The examiners speak strongly of the good effect already produced. Mr. Dasent(1) finds a great improvement during the last twelve years, both in the teachers. and in the pupils as regards the knowledge of English. Canon Moseley(2) bears witness to the improvement in mathematics. Both of (3)these gentlemen appear to ascribe this effect to the action of the competitive examinations for the Indian Civil Service and for Woolwich. On the other hand, the already-quoted opinions of Dr. Benson and Mr. Bradley may be considered as representing the view taken by the schoolmasters.

There is here no real contradiction. It is probably quite true that the candidates who present themselves for the Woolwich and Indian examinations are better prepared now than their predecessors were 10 years ago; and yet that better preparation may have been purchased at the cost of injuring rather than benefiting the work of some of the schools in which they were prepared.

The non-competitive examinations are neither praised on the one side nor blamed on the other in the same degree.(4) Dr.

(1) 13,948.

(2) 1827.

(3) 1828.

(4) 2418.


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Gull stated to us, that the previous education of medical students was better now, than it had been before the preliminary examinations for the profession of medicine were instituted. Mr. Moseley stated that there was an improvement in the candidates who were examined for Sandhurst, but added that the examiners(1) "reported the improvement by no means in the positive terms, in which they reported with respect to the Woolwich examinations." The fact is that qualifying examinations not being so severe as competitive, cannot have the same effect whether for good or for evil.

On the whole it may be safely assumed, that such indirect tests as are supplied by these examinations of individual scholars, whether competitive or qualifying, cannot be considered as taking the place of a thorough examination of the schools. If they are easy, their effect is slight; if they are severe, they do mischief as well as good. They have probably done much more good to the bad schools by forcing them to produce substantial results, than harm to the good schools by slightly dislocating their work. But still they cannot be considered to supply the need of a real test of the efficiency of a school. They cannot test more than a small proportion out of the total number of the scholars. Their bearing on the school work is remote. Their variety tends to distract the scholars and still more(2) the teachers. Their chief value will always be, not in acting on the schools which prepare for them, but in protecting the professions, at whose entrance they stand, against the intrusion of incompetent persons. To this it may be added, that these examinations in no case touch schools of the third grade, which appear, quite as much as any, to need the aid of such tests of their work.

2. The examinations which fall under the second head are the examinations for matriculation and for scholarships and exhibitions at the Universities. Of these the examinations for matriculation are qualifying; the examinations for scholarships and exhibitions are competitive.

These examinations are external to the schools, and contemplate rather the teaching that is to follow, than that which has preceded. But a University is expressly intended to take up school work, and as a general rule, if a school prepares boys for a University, the examination, which guards the entrance into the one, is well suited to give a final test to the work of the other.

(1) 1866.

(2) Mr. Isbister, 9277-9303.


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Success at the Universities has, therefore, always been considered as a fair proof of the goodness of a school.

The defect of this test is the small number both of schools and of scholars in those schools, that are reached by it. Omitting the nine schools reported on by the Commission of 1861, and Marlborough College, out of all the remaining grammar schools only 23, and out of those private and proprietary schools(1) from which we obtained information only 13 had as many as nine undergraduates at Oxford and Cambridge together in May 1867, which implies that only 23 of the one and only 13 of the other had sent up an average of as many as three a year. A test which only reaches three boys a year cannot be considered as really sufficient to meet the wants of a school. And it appears that at most 36 schools come under the test even to this degree.(2) Moreover, but very few colleges at Cambridge have any matriculation examination at all.

Nor is this the only defect. The work of the two older Universities, though on a higher level than that of the schools, embraces a narrower range. The examination for matriculation in no case touches the knowledge of modern languages, nor the knowledge of natural science; in many cases does not touch the knowledge of mathematics even of the humblest kind. A certain number of scholarships and exhibitions are given for mathematics, and a smaller number for natural science; but as a general rule the examinations for scholarships and exhibitions, like most of those for matriculation, require a knowledge of classics and of classics only.

The examination for. matriculation in the University of London is in this respect much better adapted to be a test of the whole range of school work. It includes, besides the classics, one modern language, English, a certain amount of Euclid and algebra, and a knowledge of the elements of natural science. A considerable number of private and proprietary schools have accordingly adapted their course of study to the requirements of this examination; and their scholars, even without intending to proceed to a degree, endeavour to matriculate, and are encouraged by the school authorities to do so, as a final seal of their studies at school.

But an examination of the number of schools, that send candidates to be matriculated at the University of London, brings us to the same conclusion as before. It appears from our returns that

(1) Not counting King's College, but counting King's College School.

(2) See Appendix vii, Tables iv, v.


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no endowed and only seven proprietary and one private school had as many as nine who matriculated at this University in 1864, 1865, and 1866 together. So that, as far as our information extends, only eight schools can be considered to have passed three candidates a year.(1)

Under any circumstances these University examinations cannot affect any but schools of the first grade and a very few of the second, and a very small proportion of the scholars in these; while schools of the third grade are altogether untouched.

3. The examinations at the Universities do not sufficiently test the work of the schools, but neither were they intended to do so. The examinations of which we have next to speak are expressly intended to supply this want of a test, but they also must be pronounced to have attained only a partial success. These are the Local Examinations of Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham, the examinations of the College of Preceptors, and the examinations of each separate school, either by its own masters, or by special examiners called in for the purpose.

The examination of a school by its own masters is in one sense the best of all. No other examiners can know so well what has been the precise aim of the teaching; no others can judge so well how far that aim has been attained. But such examinations as these must nevertheless be looked on rather as a very valuable part of the instruction, than as a test of its efficiency. The aim itself may be wrong, and, if so, there is nothing to show it to be wrong. There is no standard by which the examiners can judge, how far failure to reach the aim is due to faulty teaching, how far to want of ability in the learners. No guidance is given to parents, by which they can decide, whether or not the school has done its duty.

Examinations by special examiners, if thoroughly trustworthy, are of much higher value. But it is difficult to find examiners of such independence and skill, as to make their reports on a school which they have examined, thoroughly trustworthy. Mr. Fearon quotes at some length a very plainspoken and able report by Mr. Lake on a school in the London district; but he quotes it as presenting a marked contrast to what such reports usually are, and as showing by that contrast, how entirely the reports commonly made in such cases fall short of what is required.

(1) It must be noticed that our information extends, as regards the University of London, to only three-fourths of the matriculated students of these three years. See Appendix vii, Table vii.


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The syndicate of the local examinations at Cambridge has endeavoured to meet this want by appointing a number of examiners, who are prepared, if requested by the authorities of a school, to examine it thoroughly, and report impartially whatever they may find. This is an admirable scheme, but only (1)13 schools had availed themselves of the offer when we were examining our witnesses, and the heavy fees required to pay the examiners seem to make it very unlikely that the offer would be largely accepted. The charge is £10 for two days, and £3 a day for every day after, besides all travelling expenses of the examiner; this is far beyond the means of all but a very few schools.

Moreover from the nature of the case since the schools are not compelled to call in these examiners, the good schools, which need the examinations least, are most likely to request it; the bad schools, which need it most, are most likely to avoid it. This difficulty necessarily attends all voluntary examinations, - in proportion to their trustworthiness, they are least likely to be invited by the schools whose faults they would expose.

The examinations of the College of Preceptors appear to be well planned, to be comparatively inexpensive, and to have attained a fair success. They deal indeed with individual scholars, but it is(2) said to be becoming a practice for the masters to send in whole classes; and thus the examination supplies materials for a judgment on the whole school work. Certificates are given of three classes. Candidates for a first class certificate are examined in English subjects, arithmetic, a certain amount of algebra and Euclid, Latin, some modern language, and at least some one other subject at their own choice. Candidates for the second class are allowed to omit either the algebra or the Euclid, and either the Latin or the modern language. Candidates for the third class are allowed to omit both the algebra and the Euclid. The age of the candidates who present themselves for the three classes of certificates is said to be about 15 for the first, 13 for the second, 11 for the third. There are also examinations for commercial certificates, which do not include any language but English. The fee for each candidate is 7s 6d for the pupil of a member; 12s 6d for the pupil of a non-member. The examination is conducted by written papers sent down from London, and worked in the presence of a sub-examiner, who is generally some resident near the school where the examination is held.

(1) Prof. Liveing, 251.

(2) Mr. Robson, 73.


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These examinations were commenced in 1853, and up to this year more than 9,000 candidates have received certificates of having passed successfully. At the present time more than 120 schools are in union with the College; that is, have presented pupils for examination within the last two years.

But(1) according to the report of our Assistant Commissioners the College has not the position in social estimation, which is necessary to give it the requisite authority for the purpose of which we are now speaking. Composed as it is almost entirely of teachers, its examinations are liable in some degree to the objections, which we have pointed out above, as attending the examination of a school by its own masters. The parents have no assurance that the faults of a bad school would be censured; nor that the standard, by which the school work is measured, is as high as can fairly be demanded. (2)Mr. Fitch reports that he found much distrust of the college in Yorkshire because schoolmasters appeared to get its titles without examination, and because, at any rate at first, pupils had got their certificates too easily. (3)Mr. Fearon reports a similar impression to be prevalent in London, though he considers the college to he now doing a valuable work. Mr. Bompas makes a similar report from Wales. The college may possibly win a higher position hereafter, and gain the confidence of the public. All that can be said at present is that according to our reports that confidence has not been acquired as yet. And, however good the examinations may be, they cannot he pronounced to satisfy the need.

The Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations are not deficient in authority; they are purposely planned to meet the wants of the schools. Their programme is very wide, and leaves the teachers a very large latitude in the choice of subjects. They are never suspected of any deficiency in strict impartiality. On the whole they seem to have done all, that could be done by a purely voluntary agency, to supply the schools with a fair test of the efficiency of the teaching. While pointing out several serious faults, our Assistant Commissioners generally report very highly of the good results, which these examinations have already produced. Mr. Stanton(4) speaks of the quickening effect exercised on both teachers and scholars, Mr. Fitch(5) entertains " the strongest sense of their value", and remarks, that all the best and most vigorous schools in his district made use of them, and that the good influence was perceptible, not only in the candidates sent in, but even in the lower classes. (6)Mr. Bompas and

(1) Fearon, p. 316; Bompas, p. 26.

(2) p. 329.

(3) p. 279.

(4) p. 26.

(5) p. 309.

(6) p. 26.


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(1)Mr. Hammond report their good effects in Wales and in Norfolk. The steadily increasing number, not only of candidates presented for examination, but also of candidates that received certificates, is a strong proof at once of the growing confidence of the public in the value of their attestations to school work; and at the same time of the good effect of thus constantly presenting a definite aim to the minds of teachers and of scholars.

These examinations were instituted in 1858 in hopes that they might do for the schools, what the examinations for the Bachelor of Arts degree do for the Colleges in the two Universities. The general plan of the examinations is the same at Oxford and at Cambridge. Each University annually examines two sets of candidates, juniors and seniors. Oxford requires the juniors, boys under 15½, to pass a preliminary examination in reading, writing, analysis, English composition, arithmetic, geography, and history, and then to choose two of the eight following: Religious knowledge, Latin, Greek, French, German, mathematics, mechanics, chemistry. They may also be examined in drawing and music. The seniors, boys under 18, have to pass a severer preliminary examination in the same subjects as the juniors, and then to choose two of the five following groups: (1) Religious knowledge; (2) English literature, law, history, and geography; (3) Latin, Greek, French, and German; (4) mathematics, mechanics, hydrostatics; (5) experimental physics, chemistry, physiology, geology. In each group a knowledge of one subject is sufficient to enable a candidate to pass. Junior candidates on passing receive a certificate; senior candidates receive a certificate and also the title of Associate in Arts. The age fixed by Cambridge for juniors is 16, and not 15½. The preliminary examination is a little easier, and after the preliminary examination the candidates may choose out of ten subjects, that is, besides the eight allowed by Oxford, (1) more advanced English and (2) natural history. The examination for senior candidates is nearly the same as that prescribed by Oxford, except that it is so arranged as to give a somewhat greater variety of choice, and special books are named a year beforehand for the examination in the languages. Books are named in the Oxford programme for the juniors but not for the seniors. Lastly, Cambridge gives no title either to the seniors or to the juniors, but a certificate only.

The examinations are conducted at various places all over the country by printed papers, worked by the candidates in the presence of examiners sent down for that purpose. The appli-

(1) p. 470.


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cants, who have requested the examination to be held, are required to provide a room. The Oxford examinations usually last nine days; the Cambridge six. During the examination the candidates, unless they happen to live in the town where the examination is held, have to live in lodgings or with friends.

The number of boys examined and passed by Oxford since the beginning have been:

ExaminedPassed
18581,151430
1859896483
1860864498
1861928599
18621,021585
18631,029644
18641,027700
18651,221770
18661,204772
18671,315915

The numbers of boys examined and passed by Cambridge since the beginning have been:

ExaminedPassed
1858370240
1859474268
1860363256
1861470372
1862551426
1863612475
1864821665
18651,189878
18661,304994
1867numbers not yet published.

These numbers are of themselves enough to show that the schoolmasters put a high value on the certificates, and find the examinations an aid to them in their work.

But several very grave defects are at the same time pointed out, sufficient to prove, that to supply such a need as that of which we are here speaking, important modifications are required in the scheme. The objections against the examinations are reducible to these three heads; they are too expensive; they are too severe; and they deal with the boys as individuals, and not with the schools.

The fees charged by the University of Oxford are, for juniors, 20s; for seniors, 30s. The fee charged by the University of Cambridge is £1 for every candidate whether senior or junior. To this must be added, that the examinations being held


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not at the schools, but at centres where the candidates are collected, all but a few have to take a journey, and perhaps to take lodgings for a week or ten days, and this increases the expense considerably. Even in schools of the second grade the cost of the examination is a very heavy drawback, while this consideration alone is probably enough, to exclude schools of the third grade altogether. Mr. Giffard and Mr. Bompas lay stress on this point; and indeed the mere statement of the facts is sufficient to prove, that a cheaper examination is necessary to reach the great mass of the schools.

The severity(1) of the examination is often a subject of complaint, and in a certain sense with justice. The requirements are probably, not much, if at all, too severe for the boys, who are on the point of leaving school; but being adapted to them and to them only, the examinations are unsuited to boys, who have not yet reached the same point. Now in order to judge the work of a school well, a considerable proportion of the scholars, not less perhaps than a third, ought to be submitted to the test. The examination ought to be so arranged, that even those who cannot obtain the final certificate, yet shall have some acknowledgment that their work fairly corresponds to their place in the school. They might be required to do only a part of the programme instead of the whole; the papers might contain easy, as well as difficult, questions, to give such boys an opportunity of showing as much knowledge as they had got; in other ways special provision might be made to meet the wants of the second class from the top or even of the third, and not only, as at present, of a part of the first. The programmes of these examinations contain no such provision, nor indeed has any been demanded. But something of the kind seems needed if these examinations are to supply what is wanted.

But the most serious objection to the efficiency of the local examinations is the third; viz., that they deal not with schools but with individual boys. The returns of the last three years show that senior candidates from 46 endowed schools and 165 other schools, and that junior candidates from 71 endowed schools and 289 other schools obtained certificates from the Oxford examiners in that time. Out of these only three schools appear as obtaining more than 60 certificates of both kinds, that is, more than an average of 20 a year; these are the Manchester Grammar School, which obtained 116 certificates; the Liverpool Institute, which obtained 72; and the Devon County School,

(1) Giffard, p. 170.


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which obtained 64. Again, only eight obtained less than 60 but at least 30, that is, between 20 and 10 a year; only eleven obtained less than 30 but at least 18, that is, between ten and six a year.

The Cambridge examination lists give a similar result. During the last three years senior candidates from 45 endowed schools and 97 other schools, and junior candidates from 74 endowed schools and 259 other schools obtained certificates. Out of these only one, the Devon County School, obtained more than 60 certificates: only 11 obtained less than 60, but at least 30 certificates, that is between 20 and 10 a year: only 22 obtained less than 30, but at least 18, that is between ten and six a year.

The great majority of schools did not obtain as many as three in the three years. It follows, that in the vast majority of cases these examinations are not examinations of the schools at all.

The consequence is a very general complaint, that though their general effect is excellent, they still fall short of being an effective test to distinguish good schools from bad. They tend to direct the attention of the master, not to his school, but to the cleverest of his scholars, and are therefore a temptation to neglect all those, whom he believes it to be impossible to prepare for passing the examinations. It is said that special cramming of selected boys is sometimes practised with success. Mr. Bryce(1) and Mr. Giffard(2) report, that for this reason success in these examinations is not a safe guide to enable the parents to distinguish good schools from bad. Mr. Green,(3) although he does not allow that forcing the clever boys need of necessity be mischievous to the rest, yet reports, that he constantly found the classes under the head master of a grammar school reading a book, which was plainly too hard for the majority, because it was prescribed for the next local examination, for which only one or two were going in. Mr. Bompas(4) and Mr. Fitch(5) call attention to the same ill consequences. The evidence on this point is too general to leave any doubt that the complaint is founded in fact.

The whole of this last evil would probably disappear, and perhaps the other objections would admit of easy removal, if schools sent in a large proportion of their scholars, instead of only a few selected boys. The temptation to sacrifice the many to the few would then be removed. Schools would stand or fall, not by the success of picked scholars, but by the state of a fair proportion of the whole. The master, who could pass a

(1) p. 775.

(2) p. 170.

(3) p. 176.

(4) p. 26.

(5) p. 308.


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considerable number, would prove his efficiency by an undeniable test. This was the original purpose of the whole scheme, and to this purpose it has been actually put by such schools as the Manchester Grammar School, the Mansion House School,(1) Exeter, and others.

Moreover the large number sent in would make it possible to increase the number of centres, or even to hold an examination in each separate school, and thus very greatly to diminish the expense, which now falls on the candidates. The expense might be still further diminished by treating the examination, as a recognized part in the school work, to be covered, like all other parts, by the school fees. If, for instance, the examination of the school covered a third of it, there would be no objection to adding the charge to the regular fees of the whole, just as the whole body of scholars pays the head master, though, as a rule, he only teaches in person the more advanced classes.

Further, if whole classes were of necessity sent in, it would become much easier to endeavour to ascertain beforehand what each school was teaching, and in some degree to make the examination, as the rector of Lincoln says, follow the schools, instead of making the schools follow the examination. The delegacy at Oxford and the syndicate at Cambridge have done all, that could be done on the present plan, to give the schools the utmost freedom in the choice of subjects of instruction, but there are still some complaints, that the schools are fettered, and that the programme, wide as it is,(2) is not wide enough to suit everybody. Nor, as long as each school sends in only a small number of scholars, can this be obviated.

To the other complaints that have been made against these nominations should be added one that is not much pressed, and yet is not without weight, and that is, that two examinations in one year are more than is good for the schools. Repeated attempts have been made to bring about a co-operation of the Universities, either so as to divide the country between them, or to hold their examinations in alternate years. But the examinations are still quite independent of each other. This probably adds to the expense, and it is not so satisfactory to the schools.

On the whole it is clear, that the local examinations, as now used, fail to reach a large majority of the schools; fail to test

(1) Mr. Stanton states that this school for the first seven years passed a larger number of candidates than any other school in England, p. 66.

(2) Bryce, p. 772.


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the whole school work of all, except a very small number, of the schools which they do reach; fail to distinguish with certainty between good schools and bad. Yet they have done much good; with some important modifications and with a power to examine, not scholars, but whole classes, they might supply what the schools appear to need.





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CHAPTER III

ON THE REVENUES AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ENDOWMENTS FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION

We have endeavoured to obtain accurate information concerning the income which the grammar schools in England and Wales derive from their endowments.

We have also made detailed inquiries into the application of endowments exceeding £500 a year hitherto devoted to primary education.

We have also made inquiries, in a less detailed form, into the application of endowments of smaller amount for primary schools.

We have caused the answers to our inquiries to be carefully examined, registered, and systematically digested. The information so arranged will be published in 11 separate volumes, one for each Registrar-General's division, in order that the inhabitants of each locality may have easy access to a detailed statement of the facts in which they are respectively interested.

Some of the results of our inquiries have been collected in a tabular form in the appendices at the end of this volume.

We propose in this chapter shortly to describe the revenues and general condition of the endowments for secondary education in the following order:

A. 1. The metropolis.
2. The 14 next largest towns, whose population rises to nearly, or upwards of, 100,000 inhabitants each.

B. 1-5. The agricultural counties of England, arranged according to the Registrar-General's divisions.

C. 1-3. The manufacturing counties, similarly arranged.

D. 1-2. The mountainous and mining divisions, viz., the Northern Division and Wales with Monmouthshire.

We shall add (E.) a brief review of the condition, as regards these endowments, of the towns in England whose population lies between 20,000 and 100,000 each, and we shall finally (F.) contrast the resources which the endowments thus appear to supply with the amount required to meet the needs of the country.

We have appended to each division tables exhibiting the most important facts.(1)

(1) These tables are compiled from three sources: (1) Census of 1861; (2) Appendix V; (3) Appendix VII, tables IV, V. The schools printed in italics in the columns headed "Non-classical" and "Third Grade" are those which are described in Appendix V as "Elementary".


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In giving this account of the endowments we do not intend, (except as regards the eight wealthy foundations to be treated of in our fifth chapter), to lay down any rules, by which particular foundations should be treated.

We are about to recommend that, with a view to obtain the best suggestions as to particular schools, the Legislature should call in the aid of local authority and local knowledge. We therefore think it undesirable, by a premature expression of opinion on details, in any degree to interfere with the discretion of any future body which may approach the subject with advantages, after the public discussion of our proposals, which we cannot possess.

At the same time we have reason to believe, that even among persons generally well acquainted with public education, there is great want of information as regards the capability of schools in different places for being rendered useful parts of a general system. We think therefore that it may serve to strengthen our recommendation of general principles of improvement, if we indicate in each district some of the schools which at present have the largest means at command, and some of the present results in contrast with what might be attained under a better system of management.

A.1. The Metropolis

The London division comprises the cities of London and Westminster, and parts of the counties of Middlesex, Kent, and Surrey within the metropolitan district as defined by the Registrar General.

The population was computed in the census of 1861 at 2,803,989.

The total number of endowed grammar schools, included in the metropolitan division, (exclusive of the four schools reported on by the Nine Schools' Commissioners of 1861,) is 24. To these may be added the foundation of St. Lawrence Jewry, which consists only of exhibitions.

Among these 24 schools are three double foundations (upper and lower schools), viz., Christ's Hospital, Dulwich, and St. Olave's, on which separate reports will be found in our fifth Chapter. Christ's Hospital consists of a large boarding school in London, and another at Hertford. Our recommendations will contemplate the retention of the London boarding school for reasons which we shall give at length in the above-mentioned separate report. The revenues of this part of Christ's Hospital will therefore be omitted here.


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The net annual income applied to the purposes of education in the remaining 23, or, reckoning Dulwich and St. Olave's each as two, 25, schools is returned as amounting to £13,189. To this must be added the income of the Hertford branch of Christ's Hospital, which, as will be seen in our fifth chapter, we recommend to be assigned to London, and employed in the erection and maintenance of day schools for the education of girls. This income amounts to £11,000 a year. Further, three foundations possess exhibitions, not included in the above, amounting to £1,085 a year.

In the case of one foundation at least (Dulwich), the prospective increase in the revenue is so great that no safe estimate can now be formed of its future income.

Of these 25 schools, seven are classical, with 1,417 scholars; nine are semi-classical, with 1,159 scholars; four are non-classical, with 577 scholars; two are elementary, with 88 scholars; one is in abeyance, and the other two are united with other primary schools.

The schools are all included in the district on which Mr. Fearon reported.

Of those which are in the first grade he says that they are "on the whole decidedly useful institutions". Of those which are in the second grade he says that he does not find "among them any gross case of neglect or abuse", but that their "usefulness might be largely developed and increased."(1) And of the schools of the first and second grade collectively (after a high tribute of praise to the City of London School) he says, "there is very great room for improvement in almost all of them", and this especially with reference to the "training of the teachers" and the "choice of subjects for instruction."(2)

Of the endowed schools of the third grade his report is more unfavourable. Almost all "are badly placed, inadequate in buildings and accommodation, and, worst of all, unsatisfactorily taught and conducted." They "need stringent reform". The causes of these evils are stated to be "inefficient teachers, managers who take little concern about the schools", and the "absence of regular and independent examination."

What, however, we have chiefly to call attention to in this district is the numerical deficiency of public schools, especially for scholars of the third grade. Mr. Fearon has pointed out the fact that "a large portion of the middle class is as strongly prejudiced in favour of boarding schools as another

(1) Fearon, p. 289.

(2) Ibid.


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portion appears to be in favour of day schools",(1) and that there "are good reasons for such preference", depending on the occupation, early education, and tastes of the parents. He quotes opinions to show that such parents,(2) however good public day schools might become, would often still prefer private boarding schools. Moreover, for those in easy circumstances who are willing to use day schools, the precise locality of a day school is a secondary consideration. Owing to the facility offered by the railway system, which is largely used for the purpose of attending day schools, Mr. Fearon lays down the principle that "for the middle-class Londoner of the first two grades every school in London is a day school."(3)

But for some in the second grade and most in the third grade the case is quite different.(4) "The education of the lower middle class is the great deficiency, the main educational want of London." For them the locality of the day school is not a matter of more or less convenience, "it is a vital question". It is essential for them that they should have schools "within walking distance". From our Tables it will be seen that there is a total population of 1,726,989 without any endowment for secondary education at all; in fact, more than half the population of the division.

The requirements of the upper sections of the middle class are to a certain extent met by the numerous proprietary and private schools situate in and around the metropolis.

But, as we have already explained, the wants of those who desire education of the third grade are rarely well supplied by the unsystematic action of private adventure schools, which in proportion to their goodness tend to rise above the means of this class, There will always be some who, for various reasons, will prefer private schools; but it is impossible to believe that 26 schools with fewer than 3,000 scholars should satisfy the wants of those who would prefer public schools in a population of nearly 3,000,000. Several of these public schools are doing good work. By careful organization the remainder may be made to do much more than they do now. But there will still remain a large deficiency in the supply.

(1) Fearon, p. 359.

(2) Ibid., p. 360.

(3) Ibid., p. 247.

(4) Ibid., p. 304.


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Table: London Division


[page 342]

Table: London Division (cont.)


[page 343]

Table: London Division (cont.)


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A.2. Towns of about 100,000 Population or upwards

Under this head we include eight manufacturing towns, and six maritime towns.

Three large manufacturing towns are distinguished by the great wealth of their grammar schools: Birmingham (income, including exhibitions, £9,656), Manchester (income, &c., £3,075), Leeds (income, &c., £1,471.)

On the two first we have made special reports, which will be found in our fifth chapter. The principles of those reports will apply with but slight modification to the case of Leeds, and also to some other well-endowed grammar schools in towns of considerable size.

The income of Leeds Grammar School is £1,421, besides £50 exhibitions. In the classical department are 187 boys, in the commercial only 50. The average contribution from the endowment (exclusive of the value of buildings) towards the expense or the education of these boys is over £6 per head; the number directly benefited in this manner is but a fraction over one per thousand of the population, instead of ten per thousand, according to our lowest estimate of the number of scholars needing secondary education.

Of the other five large manufacturing towns in the Northern and Midland Districts, two have considerable endowments: Wolverhampton (income £880), Bradford (income £500), Sheffield has a small income, £120, Oldham has £30, Stoke-upon-Trent has none. At Wolverhampton there is a classical school, with 157 scholars, but only of the second grade by age. At Bradford, with premises "good", and "capable of accommodating at least 120 scholars", there are but 58 scholars, of whom 14 profess to learn Latin, 7 Greek, 5 mathematics, none modern subjects.(1) At Sheffield the grammar school under active management has become a "high class commercial school", with over 100 scholars; the classical element is all but absent.

Of the six commercial or maritime towns, one has considerable grammar school endowments, Bristol, £922; Newcastle-on-Tyne has only £105; but a new scheme just coming into operation will raise the endowment to £545, £440 being added out of the charity called the Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin. At Bristol there are 225 scholars, at Newcastle 230 scholars. In both schools Greek and Latin are taught, but at Newcastle the Greek is very elementary; mathematics and modern languages are taught to the majority, but 110 physical science.(2) The Bristol school is under Municipal Charity Trustees, the Newcastle school

(1) See Fitch, p. 110.

(2) Science is taught in the Bristol Trade School, but that is a proprietary school.


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under the Corporation directly. Portsmouth has an endowment of £277, rendered all but utterly useless by a bad site and by the gratuitous admission of a few free scholars who do not value the education. Plymouth, including Devonport and Stonehouse, has no grammar school buildings, the only endowment being an annuity of £20 paid by the Corporation to a private schoolmaster. Kingston-on-Hull has school buildings but only a small endowment, educating 55 boys of whom three only learn Latin.

Liverpool is remarkable alike for its entire absence of ancient endowments for secondary education and for the efforts of its inhabitants to provide such education, at least in the higher and middle grades.(1)

If we take these towns as a whole, (omitting Birmingham and Liverpool, which are exceptional.)(2) the net result may be thus stated: in (3)four large towns, with considerable endowments (two of them very rich), having a united population approaching a million, there are fewer than 900 boys obtaining any secondary education in public schools. In four(4) other towns with about half a million population there are fewer than 500 boys in such schools. In (5)four other towns, with not far from half a million population, there are, with the exception of 20 boys at Portsmouth and 39 at Oldham, no scholars in endowed grammar schools. In these 12 towns at least there is no endowed school specially provided for boys in the third grade, so that scholars in the lower middle class can generally obtain no education in endowed schools, except accidentally, and as a part of a system not suited to their wants.(6) In no one of the towns can it be said that the endowments are more than can wisely be used for the purposes of the place to which they belong.

At eight classical schools besides Birmingham there are 1,129 boys, of whom 705 are described as learning Greek; only 111 as learning any natural science, of whom 74 are at Sheffield, 36 at Leeds. At Sheffield the natural science is described by our Assistant Commissioner in these words: "Many of the boys are reading from a book of elementary science with evident interest and in a systematic manner." At Leeds there is a laboratory, and the instruction is of a much more thorough character. Greek is taught to half the scholars; science to only 10 per cent.

(1) See chapter ii., page 163; and Bryce, pp. 732-749.

(2) Birmingham, because its revenues are unusually large, and are chargeable under Act of Parliament with elementary education; Liverpool, because its schools of a public or semi-public character are very large, and the college is now practically an endowed school.

(3) Manchester, Leeds, Wolverhampton, Bristol.

(4) Sheffield, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Kingston-on-Hull.

(5) Stoke-on-Trent, Portsmouth, Plymouth, Oldham.

(6) The wealthy charity schools of Bristol belong to another branch of the subject, See chap. ii, p. 214.


[page 346]

Table: Towns of over 100,000 population


[page 347]

THE TEN REGISTRAR-GENERAL'S DIVISIONS OUTSIDE OF THE METROPOLIS

For the purpose of the following description it will be convenient to divide England into three parts, according to the prevailing occupations of the inhabitants, which greatly affect their educational demands and habits.

It has been(1) observed that "a line drawn from the mouth of the Tees to the mouth of the Exe in Devon, passing through York, Nottingham, Leicester, Northampton, and Wilton, divides the agricultural part of England from the mining and manufacturing. The only considerable manufacturing places to the east of that line being London and Norwich - the only exclusively agricultural county to the west of it, Herefordshire."

It will be convenient to treat first of the South Eastern, South Midland, Eastern, South Western, and North Midland divisions, which include the chief agricultural counties; secondly, of the West Midland, North Western, and Yorkshire divisions, which include the chief manufacturing counties; thirdly, of the Northern and Welsh divisions, which include the principal mountainous and mining districts.

B. The Agricultural Counties

B.1. South-eastern Division

Population of the Division. This, the second of the Registrar-General's divisions, has one character in common with the third and fourth. It is much affected in its educational state by its proximity to the metropolis. This tells in two ways - residents in London are desirous to use the schools within 40 or 50 miles as boarding schools; on the other hand, residents in the counties nearest London are not averse to sending their sons to metropolitan or suburban schools.

Frequent intercourse with London markets has also a sensible effect on the social standard of the farmers in the divisions adjacent to the metropolis, which, except in so far as two of them are maritime, are exclusively agricultural.

The South-eastern division contains the extra-Metropolitan portions of the two counties of Kent and Surrey, and the three counties Sussex, Hampshire, and Berkshire. The division includes 1,813,611 inhabitants, of whom 781,674 live in 72 towns.

Of the 72 towns, 35, containing a population of more than 343,000, have no grammar school endowments.

(1) Atlas published by the National Society for the Education of the Poor.


[page 348]

There are in the division 36 towns and 22 places not reckoned as towns, making 58 places in all, with school endowments for secondary education. This does not include Winchester College, which was reported on by the Nine Schools' Commissioners.

Value and distribution of the Endowments. The total net value of these endowments(1) is returned as £13,247, besides £2,554 in the form of exhibitions. On one school, that of Tonbridge, a special report will be found in our fifth chapter. Another, that for the Clergy Orphans at Canterbury, is of a special nature.

In the sum of £2,554 assigned to exhibitions we have included £774, the amount of exhibitions attached to Wellington College, and chiefly tenable there.

There are in this division five other recently founded schools intended for boarders, who are received in a common hostel. The endowment in each case consists of little beyond the site and buildings, but these are very good, large, and handsome. Three of them were founded by Mr. Woodard as branches of St. Nicolas' College, viz., Lancing, Hurstpierpoint, and Shoreham. The school now at Shoreham is shortly to be moved to Ardingly, and has been already referred to as a solitary instance of a boarding school founded expressly for the lower middle class. The Surrey County School at Cranley, which has got 150 boarders within two years of its first opening, is another instance of well-directed recent efforts in improvement of second-grade education; Bradfield in Berkshire, founded by the munificence of the Rev. Thomas Stevens, is the fifth, and like Lancing, is a classical first-grade school.

Besides these 6 modern foundations, there are 19 classical schools, with 1,128 scholars, 9 semi-classical with 418 scholars, 14 non-classical with 799 scholars, and three elementary. The total number of scholars in all the schools, excluding the elementary, is 3,643. The income of five is paid over to National schools, and eight are closed or in abeyance. Of the 20 classical schools, only 8 are able to carry on the classical education of the scholars so far as to place them in the first grade.

Among the towns which have endowments there are seven(2) with a population exceeding 20,000 each. Of these seven, Portsmouth has been already spoken of. Canterbury and Maidstone deserve remark as among the few places where the teaching of natural science is at all recognized in the school course. At no one of these six towns does it appear that the endowment is excessive for the size of the place.

(1) Excluding Portsmouth.

(2) Canterbury, Maidstone, Croydon, Hastings, Portsmouth, Southampton, Reading.


[page 349]

There are several schools in the division which might do much for secondary education; but the numerical results are not proportionate to the means. In the eight classical schools of the first grade, omitting the four modern schools,(1) the total number of boys learning Greek is about 340. But of these boys more than 250 are in two schools, Tonbridge and Guildford, leaving, therefore, fewer than 100 to be divided among the rest of the schools professedly classical. Nor does mathematical study stand better.

Among the non-classical schools three seem to call for special notice. Petersfield, with an income of nearly £800 a year, has but 14 foundationers and nine private pupils of the master. At Chichester there is a school (Whitby's school) with a net income of £1,450 a year, and with only 46 scholars. It is evident that, however well managed these schools may be on their present basis, their beneficial effect on the education of the middle classes in the two counties might be great, and is small. The greater part of this money is spent in boarding and clothing a few scholars.

Williamson's school at Rochester, with a net income of £548 a year, was, like several others at the commencement of the eighteenth century, founded to give instruction in mathematics and other subjects "relating to sea service". It no longer performs this function, and indiscriminate gratuitous education prevents it from rendering any other really valuable service.

It has been already stated that there are in this division, besides the 6 modern foundations already referred to, 20 schools professedly classical, and 9 semi-classical. It is worth while to inquire how many of these schools actually do teach Greek or Latin to a moderate number of pupils. It can hardly be unreasonable to expect that a school kept up on an expensive scale for the teaching of classics should attract at least 10 pupils to Greek. Where that subject is not taught to this number, at least it may fairly be expected that the teaching of mathematics should take its place. The question is, whether it is worth while to keep up a number of small classical schools, when a smaller number of schools, if well filled, would ensure the better teaching of Greek, and the reduction would set free considerable funds for the better education of the commercial and agricultural classes, now repelled from the grammar schools.

Latin is more generally learned than Greek, so that we may fairly take 25 scholars learning Latin as a minimum test of a demand for a school laying great stress on that language.

(1) Wellington, Lancing, Hurstpierpoint, Bradfield.


[page 350]

It might have been expected that in schools where Greek is not generally learned, there would be as many students in mathematics as in Latin. A very slight inspection of the returns shows, on the contrary, that the number of schools in which 25 scholars learn any mathematics beyond arithmetic is very small.(1)

In the South-eastern Division the facts stand thus, the modern foundations being included, except Wellington College:

(1) On the causes of the neglect of mathematics and the remedy we have spoken in chap. i. p. 30.

(2) Besides eight in abeyance, Winchester and Wellington Colleges, and Portsmouth.



[page 351]

Table: Kent


[page 352]

Table: Surrey


[page 353]

Table: Sussex


[page 354]

Table: Southampton


[page 355]

Table: Berks


[page 356]

B.2. South Midland Division

The South Midland Division contains the extra-metropolitan part of Middlesex, and seven other counties, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, and Cambridgeshire. It has three towns above 20,000 population, 15 towns from 20,000 to 5,000, and 37 towns below 5,000, in all 55 towns. The urban population is 331,250, the remaining rural population is 959,895, making a total for town and country of 1,291,145.

The division is marked by special features. It contains a part of the county of Middlesex, which is closely allied with the metropolis, containing the suburban villages, if such they can be called, of Highgate, Tottenham, Enfield, Edmonton, and Hampton. The first, Highgate, has a well endowed and well filled classical boarding school of the first grade; the other four places have non-classical day schools, two of which have considerable endowments; and in none of them is, so far as our returns inform us, any subject peculiar to secondary education taught, and all four were, when our Assistant Commissioners visited them, conspicuous for their unsatisfactory state.

There are 24 towns, having a total population of 103,572, with no endowments for secondary education. The number of places in the division having grammar school endowments is 65, not including Eton and Harrow, namely, 30 towns, and 35 places not counted as towns.

Value and Distribution of the Endowments. The total net annual value of these endowments appears to be £17,647, besides £1,104 in the form of exhibitions. With the exception of Oxford, Cambridge, and Northampton there are no towns in the division with a population of 20,000 or upwards. At Northampton the school is in abeyance. The endowment is £304 a year.

Bedford school has three departments, and three other schools Aylesbury, Henley, and Wellingborough, have two departments each, which we shall count as separate schools.

There are 18 classical schools, with 1,263 scholars ; 19 semi-classical, with 831 scholars; 19 non-classical, with 1,282 scholars; and 12 elementary; the income of one is paid over to a national school, and three are in abeyance.

The sum of £11,013 belongs to the 18 schools which profess to be classical. But of these only 13 are in the first grade, and they have 1,043 scholars. The total number of scholars of all grades in all the schools, excluding the elementary, is 3,376.

The immense revenues of Sir W. Harpur's Charity at Bedford will form the subject of a special Report in our fifth chapter.


[page 357]

We look to the revenues of that foundation as properly applicable to purposes far beyond the local interests to which they are now exclusively devoted.

There are two other schools in this division where large endowments are at present producing quite inadequate results. Berkhampstead has a good income of £1,246. The perpetual litigation to which it has been subject will be noticed in the next chapter. In the same small town is another school (Bourne's(1)), which has over £10,000 consols, to which reference has been made in the preceding chapter. It should be noticed that there is in the said place a national school with an endowment of £3,500 consols, and a British school. Aldenham had, until two or three years ago, a gross income of £2,800 derived principally from estates in London. On the use to which this fine endowment has been hitherto put we have spoken in the preceding chapter.(2) In consequence of recent sales of land and reversions upon leases to railway companies, the school has become possessed of about £86,000 consols, and the rental is diminished by not more than £800 a year. The gross income for the future will therefore be £4,600 a year, and the best application of an endowment so largely increased is a question of great importance.

Two classical schools, attached to the cathedrals of Peterboro' and Ely, with an income of £400 each, have between them 98 scholars, only 25 being boarders.

Oundle, with an income of £420 and exhibitions £154, has 121 scholars; it is a remarkable case, because the school includes all three social grades, and yet is able to carry on education into the first grade of age. The proportion of boys learning mathematics in this school is much above the average.

The case of Thame, with a net income of £300 per annum, two masters, and one pupil, has been already referred to.(3)

Huntingdon, though a small town, is one of local importance. Its grammar school, with a small income, but a comfortable boarding-house, an ample detached school-room, a good cricket field, and three masters, two of whom are graduates of Cambridge and clergymen, has only 10 boarders and six day boys, whose knowledge of any but elementary subjects appeared to our Assistant-Commissioner to be worthless.

(1) This school being intended for primary education is not included in our list.

(2) Above, pp. 258, 259.

(3) Above, pp. 225, 262.


[page 358]





[page 359]

Tables: Middlesex and Hertford


[page 360]

Tables: Buckingham and Oxford


[page 361]

Tables: Northampton and Huntingdon


[page 362]

Tables: Bedford and Cambridge


[page 363]

B.3. The Eastern Division

The Eastern Division contains three counties, Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. It has four towns above 20,000 population, 10 towns from 20,000 to 5,000, and 25 under 5,000, in all 39; with an urban population of 340,156. The remaining rural population of the three counties is 836,563, making in all for town and country 1,176,719.

There are 15 towns, having a total population of 61,044, with no endowments for secondary education. The total number of places in the division having grammar school endowments is 54, viz., 24 towns and 30 other places.

Value and Distribution of the Endowments. The total net annual value of these endowments is £10,183, besides £336 in the form of exhibitions. There are 14 classical schools, with 813 scholars; 17 semi-classical, with 1,317 scholars; 18 non-classical, with 744 scholars, and five are elementary. The income of six is paid to parish schools, and two are in abeyance. The total number of scholars, not counting those in elementary schools, is returned as 2,874.

Of the four large towns whose population exceeds 20,000, Norwich and Ipswich have considerable endowments, Yarmouth moderate, Colchester poor. At Norwich there are three schools, one of each grade, containing altogether 334 scholars. The Grammar School gives the highest education in the county of Norfolk; "the Commercial School, for the extent of its usefulness and the soundness of its practical teaching, is second to none" in Mr. Hammond's district. The third, "Norman's School, is an exceptional institution. Under the terms of its founder's will its advantages are enjoyed by a limited number of families. 64 boys receive gratuitously a good National school education, and the 30 foundationers and their parents are entitled to certain money payments." This school, though almost a private trust, and endowed with a net income of £621, until lately received a Government grant.(1) At Ipswich there is a very flourishing school of the first grade, with but a small endowment. There is also a wealthy foundation (Christ's Hospital) for non-classical education, but the income is expended chiefly on the maintenance of 20 boys.

Of the endowments in the rest of the division the four largest are at Felsted, a rural place, income £1,111, at Bury, and at Brentwood, £574, and at Chelmsford, £417. At Felsted, under a recent scheme of the Court of Chancery, a "hostel" has been erected, in which 150 boys are to be received as boarders. The

(1) Hammond, p. 446, and Special Report.


[page 364]

system appears to be very successful. Bury has a grammar school of some importance, with a net income of £644, including exhibitions; and a very useful commercial school, whose income is £320, derived from a large trust for general town purposes, called the Guildhall Feoffment. Brentwood, though a classical boarding-school, does not retain its scholars long enough to put it in the first grade. Chelmsford has increased in numbers since the date of our return. (It has now 60 day scholars and 15 boarders.)

The rich foundation of Sir R. Hitcham (£2,000 a year gross) supports three schools at Coggeshall, Debenham, and Framlingham, of which the upper department at Framlingham alone gives any secondary education. Less than £500 a year is spent on the schools, but the amount will gradually be increased. Framlingham is also the site of the County School, erected for 300 scholars as a memorial of Prince Albert, which was at once filled. Mr. Hammond says, "Everything has been devised and executed in such a way as to satisfy the most exacting advocate of modern theories on the subject of school improvement. The education is sound, and at the same time suited to the wishes of intelligent parents and the future occupations of their sons."(1) The fee is fixed at a price intended to make the school self-supporting, the buildings having been given.

The rest of the endowments in the division are of moderate amount. In a few cases the schools may be considered as fairly conducive, in a limited sense, to the secondary education of their respective neighbourhoods; in some other cases they are small boarding schools, useful chiefly to the inhabitants of the metropolis and of other places.

Two semi-classical and two non-classical schools(2) with incomes exceeding £200 each, averaging over £250, have only 82 scholars among them, of whom a considerable proportion appear to belong to the class of free scholars who do not value the education.

(1) Hammond, p. 376.

(2) Thetford, North Walsham, Chigwell, Earl's Colne.


[page 365]

Table: Essex


[page 366]

Table: Suffolk


[page 367]

Table: Norfolk


[page 368]

B.4. The South-western Division

The south-western division contains five counties - Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall. Besides Plymouth and Devonport, of which we have already spoken (p. 345), it has two towns above 20,000 population, 32 towns from 20,000 to 5,000, and 38 towns under 5,000; in all 74. The urban population of these towns is 617,843. The remaining rural population is 1,218,893, making in all, for town and country, 1,836,736.

Of these 74 towns, 35, with a population of 308,100, including Plymouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport, have (with the exception of an annuity of £20) no public building or endowments for secondary education.

The total number of towns having grammar-school endowments is (without Plymouth) 38; of other places not counted as towns, 21: making in all 60 places having grammar-school endowments.

Value and Distribution of the Endowments. The net annual value of the endowments of the division is returned as £7,760, besides £2,870 in the form of exhibitions, making a total of £10,630. There are 24 classical schools (not including Marlborough College) with 1,184 scholars; 10 semi-classical, with 446 scholars; 14 non-classical, with 600 scholars; the income of six is paid over to parish schools; seven are in abeyance; two are paid to private schools; and one is united to the Proprietary school at Taunton. Of the 24 schools six only are in the first grade; the whole number of scholars in the six schools is 518. The total number of scholars in all the schools, excluding the elementary, and also excluding Marlborough College, is returned as 2,252.(1) Besides the grammar schools there are not a few endowed schools with incomes which might contribute to the improvement of secondary education.

There are well-endowed schools in all the counties except Cornwall, which county is remarkable as having less money devoted to secondary education than any other county in England.

The two largest places, Bath and Exeter, have good endowments. At Bath an income of £461 appears to hinder rather than promote the education of the citizens, and does nothing for the neighbourhood. Exeter has large resources applicable even under existing circumstances to three grades of education above the elementary. The direct endowment of the grammar school is only £90; but it has exhibitions, hampered by obsolete restrictions, to the value of £498. Under the same foundation and general management, that of the Municipal Charity Trustees, is an

(1) Of these 22 are taught at Taunton, and the two private schools.


[page 369]

income of £700, applied to a charity school, called (1)St. John's Hospital. A third school (Hele's) with an income of £204, is a recent foundation out of ancient charitable funds. These institutions need organization with a view to the improvement of secondary education in the city as a whole.

Blundell's school at Tiverton has an income (exhibitions included) of £1,299 a year; it has now 100 scholars. It is important to observe that this school was once the chief boarding school of the west;(2) but boarders being disallowed, it fell immediately to a scanty day school. Its partial revival is due to the action of the University Commission, which abolished certain close fellowships, converting them into annual scholarships open to competition in the whole school, and to the consequent rise of boarding-houses outside the walls. There are two other endowed schools in Tiverton, one of which, Chilcott's, has an income of above £300 a year.

Sherborne has an endowment of £502, besides a small amount for exhibitions; it has recently gained the advantage of excellent modern buildings; it is far the largest school in the west (except Marlborough College), having 187 scholars, of whom 168 learn Greek, 81 mathematics. The suggestions of the master for its improvement deserve careful attention.(3)

The choristers school of the cathedral at Salisbury is richly endowed with £7l2; it has but 27 scholars, and there is no other endowed grammar school in the city. In five small places, Wimborne, Crewkerne, Bruton, Ilminster, and Crediton, whose united population is but 14,311, there are classical schools, whose united endowments, including exhibitions, reach the amount of £2,634 per annum. The scholars in these classical schools altogether are but 259, of whom 81 are boarders; at one of the places, Ilminster, a commercial school, with 116 scholars, is provided. Crediton has, however, been only lately reorganized. It has six scholarships, tenable at the school. The place has also two endowed primary schools, one of which has an endowment of £700 a year. In two villages, one near Plymouth, are two classical schools with a united income, including exhibitions, of £352; the number of the scholars in the two schools is 33 and 7, respectively. Bad management in the case of Plympton, and a bad scheme in the case of Kingsbridge, have produced this result.

Tavistock, though included in our list of endowed schools, has for endowment only an annual sum of £4 4s, and that has not

(1) See vol. ii, p. 200-203.

(2) See chap. ii. p. 202.

(3) Mr. Stanton's special report in vol. xiv.


[page 370]

been paid regularly. The Duke of Bedford pays at present £110 a year, and allows the free use of some good buildings which he has erected for the purpose.

At Taunton a new proprietary college has just been established, and instead of the old grammar school existing independently nine scholars are received there free of expense. The endowment, estimated at £85, including the value of the old buildings, is paid to the college.





[page 371]

Table: Wilts


[page 372]

Table: Dorset


[page 373]

Table: Somerset


[page 374]

Table: Devon


[page 375]

Table: Cornwall


[page 376]

B.5. North Midland Division

This division includes five counties, Leicestershire, Rutland, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire. It has four towns with a population over 20,000; 14 towns from 20,000 to 5,000; 27 below 5,000; in all 45 towns with an urban population of 435,885. The remaining rural population is 868,828, making in all for town and country 1,304,713.

Of these 45 towns 12, with a population of 46,877, have no endowed grammar schools.

The total number of towns having endowments for grammar schools is 33, of other places not counted as towns 42, making in all 75 places having grammar school endowments.

Value and Distribution of the Endowments. A glance at the following table will show that this division is exceptional, both in the amount and in the general diffusion of the means of secondary education. The total income of the endowments is £18,268, besides £331 in the form of exhibitions. Six schools have two departments each. If we count these as separate schools, there are 23 classical schools, with 1,759 scholars; 18 semi-classical, with 731 scholars; 17 non-classical, with 1,094 scholars; 15 are elementary; the income of three is paid over to parochial schools; of one to a private school; and four are in abeyance. The total number of scholars in all the schools, excluding the elementary, is returned as 3,594.(2) There is no town of 10,000 population, and only two towns of 5,000 and upwards, without some provision of the kind.

As regards the four towns above 20,000 population, the resources of Leicester and Derby are insignificant; that of Nottingham is very considerable. Lincoln besides the grammar school, which has an income of £364, has also a Blue school (Christ's hospital), which has an endowment of over £2,000 a year.

There are in the towns below 20,000 population, 10 cases of annual income, exclusive of exhibitions, exceeding £400 a year, and five such cases in rural places; seven other rural schools have over £200 a year.

In four cases, Ashby, Repton, Uppingham, and Oakham, the total net income reaches or passes £1,000 per annum, and the resources of several towns are, if not superfluous, at least abundant. Repton and Uppingham are important classical boarding schools. The former has 201 scholars, of whom 31 are local free scholars and 8 free boarders.(1) The latter has 268

(1) A new scheme for the government of this school was sanctioned by Act of Parliament in 1867.

(2) Includes 10 boys paid for at a private school.


[page 377]

scholars. The fine foundation at Market Bosworth, £792 a year, is reported to be at present useless.

The school at Mansfield, now in abeyance, will very shortly receive seven-ninths of a gross income of £1,217 a year.

The Bishop of Lincoln has given us the benefit of his opinion as to the course which ought to be pursued with the schools of Lincoln and Nottinghamshire.(1) His remarks deserve attentive consideration and the principle of them applies to other counties as well.

There are many schools in the division richly endowed, in which the classical teaching is at present merely nominal, and which yet apparently have not taken the form required for schools of the second grade.

Notwithstanding some indications that the well endowed schools of this division are generally used by the middle class, it appears from the following table that there is a waste of resources, and that the number of well filled schools (25 at least being rich) giving a suitable education is far below what it might be.

(1) See vol. ii. pp. 34-39.

(2) Besides four schools in abeyance, and one private school receiving endowment.


[page 378]

Tables: Leicester and Rutland


[page 379]

Table: Lincoln


[page 380]

Table: Nottingham


[page 381]

Table: Derby


[page 382]

SUMMARY REVIEW OF FIVE AGRICULTURAL DIVISIONS

FROM the foregoing review of five divisions some estimate may be formed as an answer to the question, how far the grammar schools can be relied on to supply the need of secondary education on the agricultural side of England.

The district which we have shortly reviewed contains 26 counties, 285 towns, an urban population of more than two and a half millions, making with the surrounding rural population a total of somewhat over seven and a half millions. According to our estimate at the rate of 10 scholars per 1,000 of population, there should be provision at once for secondary education in day schools in the towns to the extent of at least 25,000 boys; it would probably be below the mark to say that at least half as many more scholars from rural parishes require to be provided with secondary education in day schools or boarding schools. There ought, therefore, to be provision in the aggregate for at least 70,000 boys, which is less than 10 per 1,000 of the whole population.

We find that there are in the counties we have described 121 towns in which there is no public endowed school for secondary education.

There are in the five divisions 330 endowments(1) for secondary schools, besides a far greater number of endowments for schools neither founded nor reputed as grammar schools. Some of these last-named schools have very large incomes, of which, in many instances, the greater proportion is applied to the clothing and maintenance of a few children, selected by private patronage vested in irresponsible persons, who as a general rule elect their successors.

Of the 345 schools (including Portsmouth), supported by 330 endowments, 162 are in towns, 150 in places not counted as towns; 104 are classical, 75 semi-classical, 83 non-classical, these distinctions resting not on the deed of foundation or legal scheme, but on what the school now teaches.

But if the schools are classified by their actual practice, as tested by the age to which the scholars remain, there are but 50 in the first grade, 101 in the second, the remainder either have dropped into the third grade by failure to retain boys beyond 14 years old, or the funds have been applied to merely elementary teaching, or the school is in abeyance.

(1) Besides Eton, Winchester, and Harrow.


[page 383]

The total number of scholars of all grades excluding the elementary schools, but including Eton, Winchester, Harrow, Marlborough, and Wellington, is 17,834, instead of 70,000.

In the five divisions we have described we find among the ancient grammar foundations that, excluding Eton, Winchester, and Harrow, the number of classical boarding schools with over or nearly 100 scholars is as follows:

200 scholars and upwardsTwo(1)
From 200 to 150Three(2)
From 150 to 100Six(3)
Approaching 100Five(4)

Besides these there are five modern foundations, one over 500 (Marlborough College), two over 250 (Wellington and Hurstpierpoint), and two over 100 scholars (Bradfield and Lancing).

Of boarding schools adapted to the middle section of the middle class, whether called semi-classical, mathematical, commercial, or scientific, conducted on an adequate scale, we cannot say that in connexion with the ancient foundations we have found a single thoroughly satisfactory instance. Woodbridge and Shepton Mallet are not on a sufficiently large scale to make them exceptions. Of boarding schools for the lower section of the middle class, the chief instances are the so-called charity schools, to which we have already referred; we are of opinion that several of these schools, if their constitution were thoroughly investigated by a competent authority, empowered by Parliament to inquire into them with a view to introduce salutary alterations, might be made to render great service to the secondary education of the upper artisans and poorer tradesmen.

If we turn to the question of day schools, we have found in some of the principal country towns, that efforts have been made to adapt ancient foundations to the wants of modern society, and to the reasonable claims of each locality; but all such attempts have been made under great disadvantage, in the present state of the law, which gives much obstructive power to narrow-minded and self-interested persons.

There are in the five divisions 126 towns besides Plymouth and Portsmouth, with upwards of 5,000 population. The number of those towns in which endowed classical day schools with from 100 to 25 day scholars may be found is 41. The number of those

(1) Uppingham, Repton.

(2) Tonbridge, Bedford, Sherborne.

(3) Guildford, Ipswich, Oundle, Highgate, Tiverton, Derby, Lincoln.

(4) Canterbury, Marlborough (Grammar School), Felsted, Brentwood, Loughborough.


[page 384]

towns having endowed commercial schools, in which Greek is not taught as part of the regular course, but in which arithmetic and the elements of mathematics, with French or Latin, are the staple subjects, and which are attended by any number of day boys beyond 25, is 12. Of third grade schools, expressly adapted to the wants and pecuniary means of the lower middle class, we can refer to few cases: Hele's School, Exeter, the commercial schools at Bury St. Edmund's and Faversham, and the Corporation School of Great Grimsby. Bedford has schools of all grades.

There are a few endowed grammar schools in country districts in which a plain secondary education is given to farmers and village tradesmen for sums not exceeding £4. As instances may be cited, an old foundation recently remodelled at Stradbroke in Suffolk, and a modern foundation at North Tawton in Devonshire. The instances lead us to the opinion that such schools could be easily established, and would be well supported in rural districts, especially wherever there is a small endowment or an attractive school building already provided.

With reference to the question, how many schools may be advantageously retained for classical education, we may thus sum up the facts already stated for each division, viz.:

In 72 schools, 10 or more boys learn Greek.
In 103 schools 25 or more boys learn Latin.
In 103 schools 10 or more boys learn mathematics.
In 46 schools, 25 or more boys learn Greek.
In 57 schools 50 or more boys learn Latin.
In 55 schools 25 or more boys learn mathematics.
The general results of the endowed grammar schools of the five divisions may be estimated by the number of scholars learning the main subjects which distinguish secondary from elementary instruction.

(1) Excluding Eton, Winchester, Harrow, Marlborough, Wellington, and Portsmouth.


[page 385]

NUMBER of SCHOLARS in Endowed Schools of each Grade, distinguishing Boarders and Day Scholars

C THE MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS

C.1. West Midland Division

The west midland division includes six counties, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire, and Warwickshire, having an urban population of 1,291,930 inhabitants, making with the surrounding population of 1,174,706, a total for the division of 2,466,636. It contains four towns, having each 100,000 inhabitants or upwards, and six others above 20,000; 28 towns, each with from 20,000 to 5,000 inhabitants, and 29 towns with fewer than 5,000; 67 towns in all.

Of these 67 towns, 22, with a united population of 245,712, have no grammar school endowments. There remain 45 towns, making, together with 48 places not reckoned as towns, 93 places having such endowments.

Among these are Shrewsbury and Rugby, which were included in the Nine schools referred to a former Commission, and Bristol, Wolverhampton, and Birmingham, of which we have already spoken above, and on the last of which a special report will be found in our fifth chapter.

Value and Distribution of the Endowments. If the foundations named in the preceding paragraph be excluded, there remain in the division 92 endowed schools for secondary education, three of which have more than one department. The annual incomes amount to £18,053 and exhibitions to £2,488. Six schools in Shropshire (of which Shrewsbury is one) are entitled to certain exhibitions from a trust of the value of about £800 a year.


[page 386]

There are 32 classical schools with 1,744 scholars; 21 semi-classical with 927 scholars; 22 non-classical with 893 scholars: there are nine elementary;(1) the income of six is paid over to the parish schools; and five are in abeyance. The total number of scholars in these schools, excluding the elementary, is returned as 3,564. Of the 32 classical schools, only 13 retain their scholars long enough to rank in the first grade, and four(2) of these have fewer than 50 scholars each.

Two of the counties in this division require special notice for the generally unsatisfactory condition of their endowed schools. Gloucestershire has (besides Bristol) 17 foundations for secondary education, and none of these, except the cathedral school at Gloucester, and Cheltenham and Chipping Campden grammar schools, are reported to be at all efficient as places of secondary instruction. The Crypt school at Gloucester has, like Chipping Campden, excellent buildings, but is reported to be steadily declining in numbers. In Herefordshire the endowments, with two exceptions, are generally inferior in amount. The Hereford Cathedral School, so far as we know, is the only efficient secondary school. Lucton has a noble endowment (£1,346 net), but our Assistant Commissioner was not allowed to examine the scholars. 50 of the boys from neighbouring parishes are clothed as well as taught, and are apprenticed on leaving the school, £30 being paid with each boy for the purpose. There is no doubt the results of this endowment are quite inadequate.

Mr. Green has made several important suggestions for dealing with the schools in his district, viz., the counties of Stafford and Warwick. Some of these do not appear to us to be confirmed by the evidence supplied from other parts of England. Some we have adopted, wholly or partially, in our general recommendations. His account of the instruction given in his district has been already quoted.(3)

We will now call attention to some of the endowments in this very populous division.

There are in this division - exclusive of the great foundations of Rugby, and Shrewsbury, and of the three towns with a population over 100,000, Bristol, Wolverhampton, and Birmingham - (4)seven places whose grammar school revenues, including exhibitions, exceed £800 per annum, Two are large manufacturing towns, Coventry and Walsall; the funds are spent on day schools in the second and third grade. Three are cathedral

(1) Besides four at Wolverley.

(2) Chipping Campden, Ludlow, Atherstone, and Warwick.

(3) pp. 135, 136.

(4) Walsall, Coventry, Hereford, Gloucester, Worcester, Cheltenham, Lucton.


[page 387]

cities, in each of which there is a classical school of the first grade attached to the cathedral, with nearly 100 scholars. In two of them there is a second classical school of a lower grade. The sixth place, Cheltenham, has about 40,000 people. The endowment is applied to a first-grade classical school, side by side with the Proprietary College. Of the seventh, Lucton, we have already spoken.

(1)Six foundations exceed £500 per annum (exhibitions included); four in towns, and two in country places. It may be doubted whether in any one of these places there is a commensurate public benefit. Of Wolverley we have spoken in the preceding chapter.(2)

Two boarding schools, Bromsgrove and Brewood, require especial notice. Bromsgrove has little endowment, besides exhibitions, but has become a successful first-grade classical boarding school: the latter has succeeded in combining success in the local examinations with preparation for Cambridge. It has 65 boarders and 26 day boys. It is the first case to which we have as yet been able to point as making up for a small number of scholars learning Greek by a fair number learning science.

Besides these foundations there are numerous cases of schools in country places with funds above £100. Some have been by usage or process of law diverted from the purpose of secondary education, others are producing the most feeble effect on education of any kind.

The number of schools in which Greek and Mathematics are taught to 10 or more scholars, and Latin to 25 or more, stand thus:

(1) Northleach, Ludlow, Newport, Stourbridge, Wolverley, Warwick.

(2) p. 211.

(3) Besides five in abeyance; and Rugby, Shrewsbury, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Bristol.


[page 388]

Table: Gloucestershire


[page 389]

Table: Hereford


[page 390]

Table: Shropshire (Salop)


[page 391]

Table: Stafford


[page 392]

Table: Worcester


[page 393]

Table: Warwick


[page 394]

C.2. North-western Division

The North-western Division consists of Cheshire and Lancashire, having an urban population of 1,962,759 inhabitants; making, with the rural population 972,109, a total for town and country 2,934,868.

The division contains three towns having each a population of nearly 100,000 or upwards, 14 other towns above 20,000, 29 towns each with from 20,000 to 5,000 inhabitants, and 17 towns with fewer than 5,000; 63 towns in all.

Of these 63 towns(1), 32, with a united population of 768,945, have no grammar school endowments.

The number of towns having endowments for grammar schools is 31, of other places not reckoned as towns 64, making in all 95 places having endowments for secondary education. Two of these, Oldham and Manchester, are included in our list of large towns above. On the case of Manchester we shall make a special report in our fifth chapter.

Value and Distribution of Endowments. Omitting these, the net annual value of the endowments, exclusive of the value of the buildings, is £9,955, besides £310 in the form of exhibitions. There are, besides Manchester, 16 classical schools, with 1,185 scholars; 31 semi-classical schools, with 1,615 scholars; 16 non-classical schools, besides Oldham, with 1,074 scholars; there are 34 elementary schools; the income of one is paid over to parish schools; and 2 are in abeyance. The total number of scholars in these schools, excluding the elementary, is 3,874.

Of these schools only one in Cheshire and four in Lancashire are in the first grade. Of the 31 semi-classical schools only 22 are in the second grade; making with some of the classical schools 33 in the second grade. The remainder, being nearly 60 per cent of the whole, are in the third grade, or are elementary.

Mr. Bryce points out the marked contrast in the rural part of North Lancashire as compared with the manufacturing district of South Lancashire. A contrast, though not exactly similar, might be pointed out between the dairy and manufacturing district of Cheshire. In both counties, however, there is evidence of a demand for a better use of endowments for rural grammar schools.

Mr. Bryce draws an important distinction between schools for the town and schools for the district.(2) He states(3) that out

(1) Counting Manchester and Salford as only one.

(2) p. 504.

(3) p. 503.


[page 395]

of 29 or 30 classical and semi-classical schools in Lancashire there are but five in which boarders bear a large proportion to day boys, Of these only one is in a large town, Preston; at which, according to our returns, the boarders are 12; day boys, 98.

The only cases of large towns, besides Manchester, possessing endowments over £500 per annum, are those of Macclesfield, which has a classical school wIth £800 a year and a modern school with £400 a year; and Bury, which has a classical school with an income of £539 a year. In the case of Macclesfield, the classical school has 47 pupils, on whom, therefore, the expenditure from the endowment is £17 a head. The modern school has 101 pupils at an expenditure from the endowment of £4 per head. Of these 25 boys are learning mathematics and 51 natural science. In the cases of the two classical schools of Macclesfield and Bury there are not 25 scholars learning mathematics in each school, and none learning natural science.

Among the towns with not more than 20,000 population there are none with very large endowments.

In smaller towns and villages the largest endowments are at Kirkham £452, Penwortham £370, Great Crosby £379 and Witton (Northwich), £337 per annum. Witton has only 45 day scholars and no boarders. There are also five other endowments of between £200 and £300 a year.(1) In two only of these nine schools, with a small proportion of boarders, does the number of scholars exceed 100.

Penwortham has a large endowment, amounting to nearly £1,000 per annum, scattered among four branch schools besides the grammar school. "Its effect", says Mr. Bryce,(2) "is simply to save the poor people from paying the penny or twopence a week whIch they would pay to a national school, and to relieve the farmers and landowners from the subscriptions which would otherwise be expected from them." Mr. Bryce compares this to the Wolverley case, to which we have already referred.(3)

As regards the remaining endowments, which are of moderate amount, they fall under three heads:

1. Slenderly endowed schools in country towns;
2. Village schools in the northern part of Lancashire;
3. Village schools in the south of Cheshire;
Mr. Bryce having clearly pointed out how the action of the grammar schools in the small towns upon the neighbouring country has been affected by the creation of railways and by the

(1) Clitheroe, Blackrod, Rivington, Hawkshead, Sandbach.

(2) Bryce, p. 700.

(3) Above, p. 211.


[page 396]

rise of the proprietary schools, states that, while in some parts of England "these changes have been fatal to grammar schools," "the small grammar schools in Lancashire have accepted their changed position, and though they cling to Latin, give a solid commercial education." He adds, that they may yet do "humble but substantial service to the immediate neighbourhood."(1) He also points out serious faults in the rural schools as now managed, but shows that they have two countervailing merits, the independence, and sometimes genuine culture of the schoolmaster, and a less distinctively plebeian character in the school.(2) He shows also the risk of losing the advantage offered by these endowments for the encouragement of education above the elementary.

As regards the village schools in Cheshire, Mr. Wright in his individual reports, mentions numerous cases(3) indicating an increasing demand for a higher kind of education than the elementary, corresponding to what we have designated as secondary of the third grade, and rising occasionally into the second grade. Several cases are recorded in which such a demand is supported by a readiness to pay fees of various amounts, generally about £3 or £4 on an average.

The number of schools in which Greek or mathematics are taught to 10 or more scholars, and Latin to 25 or more, stands thus:

(1) p. 701.

(2) p. 691.

(3) See reports on Audlem, Runcorn, Knutsford, Acton, Mottram, Tarvin.

(4) Besides two in abeyance, and Manchester and Oldham.


[page 397]

Table: Stockport


[page 398]

Table: Lancaster


[page 399]

Table: Lancaster (cont.)


[page 400]

Table: Lancaster (cont.)

~ See reports on Audlem, Runcorn, Knutsford, Acton, Mottram, Tarvin. 4 Besides two in abeyance, and Manchester and Oldham.


[page 401]

C.3. Yorkshire Division

The Yorkshire Division has four towns with nearly 100,000 inhabitants or upwards, four towns with above 20,000 inhabitants, but under 100,000, 21 towns from 20,000 to 5,000, and 19 below 5,000; in all 48 towns with an urban population of 1,006,390. The remaining population is 1,027,220, making in all 2,033,610. Of these 48 towns, 19, having a population of 149,441, have no endowed grammar schools.

The number of towns having endowments for grammar schools is 29, of other places not counted as towns 74; making in all 103 places having grammar school endowments, some having more than one school.

Value and Distribution of the Endowments. Omitting the four largest towns, Leeds, Sheffield, Bradford, and Hull, included in our former list, the total annual value of the endowments exclusive of buildings, is £14,195, besides £998 in the form of exhibitions. Moreover, six schools in the county, besides Leeds and Bradford, compete for the ten Hastings exhibitions at Queen's College, Oxford, of the value of £75 a year each.

There are, besides Leeds and Bradford, 17 classical schools, with 1,024 scholars; besides Leeds and Sheffield, 27 semi-classical, with 1,017 scholars; besides Hull, 28 non-classical, with 1,299 scholars; there are 22 elementary; the income of 5 is paid over to parish schools and 2 to private schools; 5 are in abeyance. Of the 17 classical schools only 8 are in the first grade. The total number of scholars in all the schools,(1) excluding the elementary, is returned as 3,344, including 4 at a private school.

More than half of the 111 grammar schools of Yorkshire have ceased to teach Latin. There are more than 50 schools in which no subject peculiar to secondary instruction is taught. It is needless to follow the condition of the non-classical grammar schools of Yorkshire into detail. Mr. Fitch, speaking of those of the West Riding, says, in his General Report,(2) "leaving Latin out of the question, the attainments of the boys in the great majority of these schools are far inferior to those of children of the same age in the average national and British schools, and their whole aspect as places of healthy work and of cheerful moral discipline far less satisfactory." Mr. Fitch subsequently visited all the grammar schools in the other two ridings. In his detailed reports will be found over and over again in substance the same remark. "It is difficult to understand that this school serves any useful purpose;"(3) "this

(1) Excluding Leeds, Bradford, Sheffield, and Hull.

(2) p. 176.

(3) Masham, N.R., Dedale.


[page 402]

endowment serves no other purpose than to prevent the maintenance of a good elementary school in the village";(1) "this school in its present state hinders rather than promotes the civilization of the place";(2) or "a school of this kind does great harm to the community".(3) On the other hand Mr. Fitch's testimony is not less strong to the fact that good secondary schools "would, if established, be very popular, and attended by the children of the farmers and tradesmen."(4)

If we turn to the classical or semi-classical schools, we are again aided by a comprehensive statement in Mr. Fitch's General Report. He estimated that, in his district (the West Riding and Ainsty of York), "20,533 male scholars might be presumed to be at places of education above the rank of a primary school."(5) He found that out of the 65 grammar schools, 29 professed to teach Latin: in these 29 schools he found but 1,836 scholars, of whom 1,027 were learning Latin, and 369 learning Greek, but only 475 were able to read a simple Latin author.

Mr. Fitch further selected from the 29 Latin schools three which take the highest place in his district, viz., Leeds, York, and Doncaster. Of the 1,027 boys learning Latin, two-fifths, and of those reading a simple Latin author or learning Greek, more than half, were to be found in those three schools.

Doncaster school is especially interesting, as its endowment is almost nothing, but it receives considerable support from the municipal corporation. New buildings are in course of erection by public subscription. Mr. Fitch adds his own opinion that "much of the vitality of the school is owing to the fact that it possesses none of the wealth which in so many instances proves to be an encouragement to indolence." "At present every scholar pays, either directly or indirectly, the full cost of education; and the fees and the profits on boarders are on such a scale that they yield a handsome revenue."(6)

We have referred to these particular cases because they involve principles which, whether they be accepted in all their unqualified breadth; as stated by our Assistant Commissioner, or not, cannot fail to awaken attention and serious discussion in a district with which he has long been well acquainted, and because the instances referred to have a typical character, tending to illustrate any general statement of the facts as

(1) Catterick.

(2) Bridlington, E. R.

(3) Easingwold, N. R.

(4) Bedale. See also North Allerton.

(5) Fitch, General Report, p. 108.

(6) Mr. Fitch has commented at some length on the case of this school, a passage which we have quoted in chap, ii. p. 159.


[page 403]

regards the grammar schools of the northern manufactory districts. We proceed now to make briefly such a statement.

Of the eight towns in Yorkshire with a population over 20,000, Huddersfield is the only one without some nucleus of endowment for a grammar school.

The city of York has very large endowments divided among three schools. The number of scholars in these schools is not absolutely small, nor is the teaching in two of the schools otherwise than efficient. Mr. Fitch points out, however, in his reports on these schools the need for better organization on two vital points, viz.: 1st, that "without doing less for the boys who are to be prepared for the Universities," "more than at present" might be done for the boy who has no such career before him - for the average scholar whose academical life must come to an abrupt termination at the age of 15 or 16." 2ndly, "that competition might be opened among the élite of the scholars from the various primary and private schools on a principle similar to that adopted at Doncaster, so that then the great boon of a higher education and of access to the University would not, as at present, be withheld from all but the sons of rich men."

Among the grammar schools in towns below 20,000 population, and in other places in the three ridings of Yorkshire, it may be noticed, first, that in the East and North Ridings respectively there are two important foundations. Richmond, in the North Riding, has a school moderately endowed in point of income, and with a merely nominal exhibition; but it has honourable traditions and local sympathy; it is a classical school in the first grade, and is rapidly increasing in numbers. Pocklington, in the East Riding, has a large income, £838, with exhibitions, £160, the master and the usher being a corporation, and having the management of scattered estates. "In six or seven years it will be in possession of an unincumbered annual income of £1,500 a year." The school is not inefficient, but is on the scale "of an expensive private school". Mr. Fitch points out in his report what in his opinion is really wanted, viz., "a school on a sufficiently large basis to admit the boy who is going to the University side by side with one who will leave earlier, and which knows how to do full justice to the reasonable requirements of both."(1)

There are three schools in small country places in the North Riding with an endowment of about £250 a year each. Kirkby

(1) Fitch, General Report, p. 171.


[page 404]

Ravensworth, Bolton-on-Swale, and Kirk Leatham. Of these the first named has only 37 scholars, the other two are in abeyance. No school in the North Riding, except Richmond, is in the first grade; in eight schools of the second grade there are less on an average than 30 scholars; in eight schools (second and third grade) the number on an average learning Latin is below four.(1)

Similar statements might be made as to many schools in the West Riding, but it is perhaps more important to direct attention to certain cases of great capability for good.

At Rishworth (Halifax), not counted as a town, is the richest foundation in Yorkshire. Mr. Fitch estimates the gross revenue at £3,000 and the net revenue applicable to education at £2,000 per annum. Out of this income about £1,500 is spent on the maintenance and education of 55 boys and 15 girls, but Mr. Fitch says of these, "Only a small proportion obtain a higher education than they would probably enjoy elsewhere", and "the salaries of the master and the teaching staff are below those usually paid to highly qualified teachers." The school is remarkable "as being the only one in Yorkshire of the Christ's Hospital type, in which the nominations possessed by the trustees are valuable pieces of patronage." Here, as elsewhere, the girls fail to receive their due share. The school might do much, "in entire harmony with the founder's will", for the class in whom the trustees have shown considerable interest, the "daughters of poorer clergy and decayed professional men", but it does little, and that little not what is suited to their case(2)

At Drax, "an agricultural parish remote from any town of importance, in one of the least populous and progressive districts of the West Riding, is a foundation, the property of which yields a gross revenue of £1,059 of which about £700 are available for education." This charity is enjoyed exclusively by the inhabitants. Twelve boys whose parents live in the village are boarders; on leaving school they are apprenticed; but "if a boy wishes to select the one employment which is most accessible and most important here," namely agriculture, he forfeits all the benefit of an outfit and apprentice fee.

At Hemsworth, a village of 975 inhabitants, is an endowment of £264. A new scheme has lately come into effect, and the school is being re-organized. The future revenue is stated by the master

(1) Thornton, 6; Bowes, 4; Bedale, 5; Easingwold, 2; Masham, 1; Yarm, 4; Gilling, 4; Askrigg, 7.

(2) See Report on Rishworth; also General Report, p. 196.


[page 405]

to be "£360, and in addition it is entitled, as soon as the funds will permit, to £300 a year out of Hemsworth Hospital."(1)

It remains to notice most emphatically a group of well endowed classical schools, Skipton, Giggleswick,(2) and Sedbergh. Their collective net incomes amount to £2,239, with exhibitions £373. Skipton, a town with a population below 5,000, is at the junction of the Railways from South Lancashire and the West Riding; Giggleswick and Sedbergh are small places lying further to the north, along the healthy hills of West Yorkshire. It is difficult to imagine a more fortunate collection of educational advantages accessible to the families of the middle classes in the crowded towns of the West Riding and South Lancashire. But the schools are virtually useless; they give no satisfaction to the localities in which they are placed, and they do next to nothing for the public at large; in Skipton and Giggleswick together six boys learn Greek, 58 Latin, 21 mathematics; from Sedbergh we have no returns of subjects, the number of scholars returned is 23.

We do not, for the reasons already given, recommend any particular application of these foundations; it is enough to call attention to the need of some authority to deal with them as parts of a whole with reference to the wants of the district.

Of the remaining schools in the West Riding, it may suffice for the present purpose to notice the fact that there are several cases with endowments varying from about £250 to £100, and that the number of the scholars rarely exceeds 50, unless the number be swelled by "free scholars" of the labouring classes.

The whole number of grammar schools in Yorkshire in which Greek or mathematics are taught to 10 or more scholars, and Latin to 25 or more, stands thus:

(1) Mr. Fitch suggests that a good boarding school for second grade scholars would be the best form for the second school to take (p.216. See also special report).

(2) See Mr. Roundell's Evidence. 12,009.

(3) Besides five in abeyance, two paid to Private Schools, and Leeds, Bradford, Sheffield, and Hull.


[page 406]

Table: York - West Riding


[page 407]

Table: York - West Riding (cont.)


[page 408]

Table: York - West Riding (cont.)


[page 409]

Table: East Riding


[page 410]

Table: North Riding


[page 411]

SUMMARY REVIEW OF MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS

AN estimate of the means available for secondary education in the three divisions whose interests are chiefly manufacturing, may be sufficiently given in a broad and general statement.

The population of the three divisions in 1861 exceeded seven millions and a quarter, and is now probably much larger.

The urban element is upwards of four millions. According to our estimate there ought to be provision in secondary day schools for upwards of 40,000 scholars out of this urban population; probably a not much smaller proportion, namely, 30,000, may be safely estimated for the rest of the population, if we consider how the agricultural districts generally are affected by the proximity of a large urban population, and if we take into account the educational standard, and habits of some parts of the rural districts of the north. We find, however, instead of 70,000 scholars in the endowed grammar schools, excluding those described as elementary, less than 13,000, among whom are included many who are receiving elementary education often far inferior to that given in the schools inspected by the Committee of Council. If we confine the estimate to the two upper sections, so far as they are represented by schools of the first and second grade, of the middle classes, the number of scholars in the grammar schools may be taken at about 8,122.

Of the 178 towns in the three divisions there are 73, containing a united population of not less than 1,164,098, which have no grammar school endowments.

It would, however, leave a very erroneous impression of the state of the facts, if these figures, given without explanation, were accepted as a test of the educational state of the middle classes in these divisions. For, on the one hand, some of the towns which possess the most valuable endowments are by no means in the most favourable circumstances as regards secondary education, and, on the other hand, it will be found in some places in which the endowments are extremely small, or altogether wanting, that institutions for secondary education, whether public or private in their origin, flourish to a remarkable degree.

It will therefore be more conducive to the purpose of the present inquiry to offer some reply to the questions whether the resources of the existing foundations are in any case redundant, and whether they are applied, where they exist, to the best advantage of the communities interested in their administration.

The entire annual net income of the endowed grammar schools referred to this Commission in the three divisions


[page 412]

is not more than £63,000; if this fund were rateably distributed over the whole district it would contribute less than £1 per head towards the secondary education of those who need it, and so far from providing what is needed, it would not pay for half the expense of giving even elementary education to those who should be seeking something higher.

Moreover, although these divisions as a whole, and especially the West Midland, may be considered rich in comparison with other divisions, except a portion of the North Midland, it cannot be maintained that there are any towns of considerable size in these divisions which are possessed of wealth too great to be employed with advantage in promoting education within a moderate distance round the institutions to which the funds are now attached.

The three towns which have incomes over £2,000 a year are places with over 200,000 inhabitants. A large portion of the income of Birmingham is applied to lower secondary, and elementary education. The endowments at Manchester and Leeds would not yield more than a few shillings per head towards the expense of the secondary education of those who want it in each place. With the exception of certain large incomes attached to foundations in rural places to which we have directed attention, most of the larger incomes are connected with populous places,(1) or already contribute to the higher education of the nation at large by aiding, not however always in the best manner, considerable boarding schools.(2)

The question therefore to be considered is not one of re-distribution but one of wise and judicious adaptation to the wants of those who have a justifiable interest in the endowments where they are. In considering this question it must be borne in mind that, as in the agricultural counties efficient boarding schools are much needed, so in the manufacturing districts suitable day schools are the primary want of the towns, while it is comparatively of less importance to those who desire to send their sons to boarding schools where the schools are placed, provided the situation be salubrious and accessible by railway.

In this short review of the endowments in the manufacturing divisions two points cannot have escaped observation: (1) That while those who are dependent, for the completion of their education by the age of 16, on day schools, need especially schools of the second and third grade, a very large proportion of the

(1) Wolverhampton, Walsall, Macclesfield, Bury.

(2) Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford, York.


[page 413]

most important endowments are connected with classical schools: and (2) that, while mathematical and natural science are in ordinary cases indispensable to those who are to live by manufacturing industry, mathematics, as will be seen from the table given below, are taught to a very limited number of scholars, and natural science to still fewer.

It will also have been noticed, that some very wealthy foundations(1) are planted, on the confines of the densely populous district, in situations adapted especially to receive the sons of persons, busily engaged in the towns, who wish to send their sons to boarding schools at no great distance; and that in many cases these foundations are in their present condition all but useless.

It is unnecessary to follow these points into further detail. The general result may be stated thus:

There are in these divisions (omitting the towns of 100,000 population) 65 schools professedly classical, and 79 semi-classical. But there are only 26 of these in the first grade, of which 13 are in the West Midland Division, which includes also Rugby, Shrewsbury, Birmingham, and other large schools.

On the other hand there are 99 schools in the second grade, in the three divisions, of which 22 are in the West Riding, and 23 in Lancashire. It seems clear that although the number of professedly classical schools is large, the majority of the middle class wish to complete their school life at about 16.

Moreover there is good ground for believing that a large number of the schools which are entered as third grade schools, especially in small towns and villages, would be much more frequented than they are if they were made thoroughly efficient, and if they were not depressed by the presence of free scholars, who attend them, not because the education is what suits them, but because it costs nothing, or because a suitable elementary school cannot co-exist in the same place with a free grammar school.

There is one point which ought not to be passed over. In the large number of populous towns having classical or semi-classical schools supported by endowments, frequently of considerable value, there are scarcely any instances to he cited in which a distinct provision is made for the wants of the smaller tradesmen or upper artizans. Moreover, even in some of the five excepted cases, if not in all, it may be said that the provision falls very far short, not only of what is wanted, but of what even with the existing resources is practicable.

(1) For example, Lucton, Rishworth, Skipton, Giggleswick, and Sedbergh.


[page 414]

How far the maintenance of so large a number of classical schools is required by the population, or conduces to the study of the classics, or in the absence of classical study to that of mathematics, may be inferred from the proportion of the 144 classical and semi-classical schools, in which any considerable number of scholars are learning Greek, Latin, mathematics, as shown in the following list:

In 44 schools, 10 or more boys learn Greek
In 66 schools, 25 or more boys learn Latin.
In 69 schools, 10 or more boys learn mathematics.

In 17 schools, 25 or more boys learn Greek.
In 33 schools, 50 or more boys learn Latin.
In 23 schools, 25 or more boys learn mathematics.

The two next tables will show the number learning the principal subjects of secondary instruction, and the number of scholars seeking education in the three grades in the endowed schools as they are.


[page 415]

D. MOUNTAINOUS AND MINING DIVISIONS

The two divisions of which it remains to treat are the Northern and Welsh.

They have this in common, that they include the principal mountainous and mining districts; and that the appreciation of secondary education is stronger in some parts of these divisions than in other parts of England.

But as these divisions differ in other respects, both one from the other, and both from the rest of England, they may be treated separately.

D.1. Northern Division

The northern division includes four counties, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, having an urban population of 506,342, making with the surrounding population of 611,442, a total for town and country of 1,117,784.

It contains one town(1) having more than 100,000 inhabitants, and five(2) others above 20,000; 15 towns each with from 20,000 to 5,000 inhabitants, and 9 with fewer than 5,000; 30 towns in all.

Of these 30 towns, 13, with a united population of 200,923, have no grammar school endowments. There remain 17 towns, making with 66 other places not reckoned as towns, 83 places having such endowments.

Value and Distribution of Endowments. Omitting Newcastle-on-Tyne, the total estimated annual value of these endowments exclusive of buildings is £7,360, besides £818 in the form of exhibitions. Two schools in Cumberland and two in Westmorland compete with eight in Yorkshire for the Hastings Exhibitions.(3)

There are 9 classical schools, with 534 scholars; 14 semi-classical, with 743 scholars; 11 non-classical, with 658 scholars; there are 50 elementary; the income of one is divided between two parish schools; and three are in abeyance. The total number of scholars in all the schools, excluding the elementary, is 1,935. Of the 23 classical and semi-classical schools, 4 are in the first grade, 15 in the second grade.

The number of endowed grammar schools in Westmorland

(1) Newcastle-on-Tyne.

(2) Sunderland, South Shields, Gateshead, Tynemouth, Carlisle.

(3) See above, pp. 175-401.


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and Cumberland is much larger in proportion to the population than in any other counties. The difference in this respect between the western and eastern sides of the division is very noticeable. The large number in the west is an index of the "love and respect for the ancient classics which is still constantly observable in the country", and which Mr. Richmond states is in marked contrast to Suffolk and other counties which he visited. "There is a spirit of honourable ambition among the youth of the lower middle classes, and a willingness on the part of the parents to allow their children to remain at school long after their labour has become valuable, and even to pay considerable fees for very inferior education."(1) The schools are frequently attended by some youths much older than the great mass of the scholars, but the schools being in effect the common school for all, the percentage of older scholars is not sufficient to place more than four schools in the first grade; Cumberland has none, Westmorland only two, Du