Warwick (1994)

Notes on the text

The complete report is shown in this single web page. You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters.

(page numbers in brackets)

Preliminary pages (i-vi)
Contents, project team, acknowledgements

The Report

1 Introduction (1-2)
2 Manageability of the English curriculum (3-16)
3 Reading (17-44)
4 Writing (45-88)
5 Speaking and listening (89-100)
6 Knowledge about language (101-115)
7 Summary, conclusions and recommendations (117-127)
References (129-130)

Appendices

1 List of people consulted (131)
2 Teaching initial reading (133-139)
3 Teaching of phonics at KS1 (141-147)
4 Reading competencies (149-150)
5 Survey of literature at KS2 and 3 (151-195)
6 Knowledge about language SoAs (197-203)


The Warwick Evaluation (1994)
Evaluation of the Implementation of English in the National Curriculum at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 (1991-1993)

Research for the National Curriculum Council by the University of Warwick

London: School Curriculum and Assessment Authority 1994
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.


[title page]

Evaluation of the Implementation of
English in the National Curriculum at
Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 (1991-1993)




Research for the National Curriculum Council
by the University of Warwick

Professor Bridie Raban
Urszula Clark
Joanna McIntyre




School Curriculum and Assessment Authority


[page ii (unnumbered)]

1994 School Curriculum and Assessment Authority
First Published 1994
Printed in Great Britain
SCAA is an exempt charity under the Charities Act 1960
Chairman: Sir Ron Dearing CB

ISBN 1 85838 029 4







[page iii (unnumbered)]

Evaluation of the Implementation of English in the National Curriculum at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

CONTENTS

Page
Lists of Appendices, Tables and Graphs
Acknowledgements

1.0 Introduction
1
1.1 Methodology1
1.2 Sources of Information2
1.3 Research Team2

2.0 Manageability of the English Curriculum
3
2.1 Manageability of English at Key Stages 1 and 24
2.2 Characteristics of Manageability10
2.3 Manageability of English at Key Stage 312
2.4 Conclusion13

3.0 Reading
17
3.1 Introduction17
3.2 Key Stage 1: Initial Reading17
3.3 Key Stage 2: More Advanced Reading Skills28
3.4 Classroom Management for Reading34
3.5 The Range of Literature taught at Key Stages 2 and 3 and the Contexts within which it is taught36

4.0 Writing
45
4.1 Introduction45
4.2 Writing: The Teaching of Writing at Key Stage 145
4.3 Handwriting: The Teaching of Handwriting and its Developmental Sequence at Key Stages 1 and 255
4.4 Spelling: The Teaching of Spelling at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3, and its Developmental Sequence at Key Stages 1 and 271

5.0 Speaking and Listening
89
5.1 Towards a Framework for Speaking and Listening89
5.2 The Role of Speaking and Listening in English and other Subjects90
5.3 Matters Relating to the English Order and other Subject Orders96
5.4 Recommendations for Further Support98
5.5 Spoken Standard English98


[page iv (unnumbered)]

6.0 Knowledge about Language101
6.1 Content and Manageability of Knowledge about Language101
6.2 Policy and Practice in Schools111

7.0 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
117
7.1 Summary117
7.2 Conclusions124
7.3 Recommendations126


References
129

Appendix 1 List of People Consulted
131
Appendix 2 Framework for Teaching Initial Reading133
Appendix 3 Framework for and Observed Teaching of Phonics in Key Stage 1 Classrooms141
Appendix 4 List of Developing Reading Competencies149
Appendix 5 Survey of Literature Recommended by Teachers at Key Stages 2 and 3151
Appendix 6 Knowledge about Language SoAs197


Table 1 Observed Time (in minutes) spent on English as a separate subject and English within other subjects

Table 2 The most frequently mentioned number of hours spent teaching core subjects each week at Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 3 % of Responses Indicating Areas of Change in Teaching English

Table 4 Observed Time in minutes spent on English at Key Stage 3

Table 5 % of Reading Activities Commonly Identified in the National Survey

Table 6 Summary of % of Observed Reading Activities experienced by Pupils (Key Stage 1)


[page v (unnumbered)]

Table 7 % of Pupil time spent on methods of Teaching Reading (Key Stage 1)

Table 8 Summary of % of Observed methods of Teaching Reading (Key Stage 1)

Table 9 % of Teacher time spent on methods of Teaching Reading (Key Stage 1)

Table 10 % of More Advanced Reading Skills Activities at Key Stage 2

Table 11 % of Observed Instances of Different Categories of Classroom Management at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

Table 12 Range and Variety of Texts Recommended by Teachers

Table 13 % of Planning Activities for the Teaching of Writing in Key Stage 1 English Policies

Table 14 % of the Teaching of Writing Activities observed in Key Stage 1 classrooms

Table 15 % of Summary of Activities in Writing Diaries Key Stage 1

Table 16 % of Most Frequently Identified Strategies for Teaching Writing at Key Stage 1

Table 17 % of Teaching Methods for Handwriting Described in Policy Documents

Table 18 % of Summary of Handwriting Activities Observed in Classrooms at Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 19 Handwriting Diaries - Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 20 Illustrating the Sequence and Stranding of Handwriting Development

Table 21 % of Activities in Sequential Development of Handwriting Found in the English Policies at Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 22 % of Teaching Methods for Spelling Described in Policy Documents

Table 23 % of Spelling Activities Observed in Classrooms at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3


[page vi (unnumbered)]

Table 24 % of Frequency of Activities Mentioned in Spelling Diaries at Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 25 % of Activities in the Spelling Developmental Sequence found in English Policies at Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 26 A Framework for Knowledge about Language

Table 27 % of Teachers' Perceptions of their Teaching of Grammar at Key Stage 1

Table 28 % of Frequency of observed Teaching about Punctuation at Key Stage 1

Table 29 % of Frequency of observed Teaching about Grammar at Key Stage 1

Table 30 % of Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Grammar at Key Stages 2 and 3

Table 31 % of Frequency of Observed Teaching about Punctuation at Key Stages 2 and 3

Table 32 % of Frequency of Observed Teaching about Grammar at Key Stages 2 and 3

Graph 1 Distribution of time spent across Attainment Targets at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

Graph 2 Proportion of time given to English activities within which Speaking and Listening occurred at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

Graph 3 Proportion of time spent on categories of teacher and pupil talk at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

Graph 4 Distribution of time spent on different types of talk within AT 1 Speaking and Listening at Key Stages 1,2 and 3

Graph 5 Proportion of time spent on some of the classroom contexts for Speaking and Listening at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3


[page vii (unnumbered)]


Acknowledgements

We are indebted to numerous people for the successful completion of this monitoring and evaluation exercise. Those LEAs, schools and teachers taking part welcomed us with sincerity and professionalism. We are most grateful for their cooperation and the great deal of time they gave us to discuss their work. People consulted also gave generously of their time and contributed valued, considered advice. Internal consultants from CEDAR, Departments of Education, Arts Education, the Centre for English Language Teacher Education and the Computer Services Centre at the University of Warwick made themselves accessible throughout the investigation. In particular, we would like to record our gratitude to Professor John Eggleston, Professor Bob Burgess, Liz Coates, Dr. Elizabeth Bevan-Roberts, Dr. Rachel Parkins, and especially the project secretary, June Dodridge, for their ceaseless support and constructive contributions throughout the two years 1991 - 1993.

Project Team

Professor Bridie Raban
Urszula Clark
Doug Dennis (1991)
Joanna McIntyre
Kasia Zalasiewicz (1992-3)



University of Warwick
August 1993




[page 1]

Evaluation of the Implementation of English in the National Curriculum at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the summer of 1991, the National Curriculum Council (NCC) commissioned the University of Warwick to undertake, on its behalf, an evaluation of National Curriculum English. The evaluation was designed to investigate aspects of the subject's implementation in schools. It concentrated on the first three Key stages (pupils aged from 5 to 14). The project team was asked to gauge whether any problems in implementing the English Order were the result of the Order itself, whether it was a question of teacher knowledge and understanding, or whether Statements of Attainment were pitched inappropriately for pupils in particular Key stages. Work began in September 1991.

A year into the project, however, NCC advised the Secretary of State that the English Order needed revising. The Secretary of State duly requested NCC to conduct a review of the Order. This was completed in March of 1993. Necessarily, therefore, the context in which the Warwick Evaluation took place was much altered: it would have been inappropriate merely to continue the original specification. Consequently, in addition the project team was asked to redirect aspects of the evaluation exercise. This report is an account of the principal findings during the project's lifetime. The project ended in August 1993.

1.1 Methodology

Different approaches to gathering information were adopted. The investigation was designed to compare the principle of the National Curriculum for English with the reality in practice. In other words, the project aimed to investigate how the Order was being translated into planning and how far this planning was reflected in pupils' experience of English teaching and in teachers' perceptions of their planning and teaching.

An initial analysis of the Order offered a framework for the investigation in schools. Close scrutiny of the Order also enabled some issues to be addressed directly, for instance the question of balance in Speaking and Listening, the encouragement of the necessary mix of teaching methods for the initial stages of Reading, and whether or not a practical framework was provided for the teaching of Knowledge about Language.

During the second phase of the investigation, LEAs were identified and a wide range of schools visited. During these visits, teachers' views were sought through interviews and their teaching was observed and recorded. Their planning, in the form of policy documents and Schemes of Work, was also reviewed in the light of the English Order.


[page 2]

As a means of both verifying and extending these sources of information, a postal survey of teachers at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 was organised nationally through the Field Services Section of the National Foundation for Educational Research.

1.2 Sources of information

For the purposes of detailed investigation, 60 schools were visited in seven Local Education Authorities. The sample comprised small, medium and large schools in towns, suburbs and villages. Some schools had large numbers of ethnic minority children, others had traveller children and all had those with special needs. The schools visited ranged from a two-teacher infant school in a rural location with 49 children on roll to an inner-city all-age primary school accommodating 436 children with an additional 78 children in the nursery unit. Types of schools ranged across infant, junior, primary, first, middle, and secondary stages with the latter taking mixed and single-sex children 11-16 or 11-18 years of age.

The schools were located in a Midlands market town, and other urban, inner-city settings, an industrial centre in the North, rural areas in the South and suburban settings in the Midlands.

During these visits to schools, 49 Headteachers (Key Stages 1 and 2) and 54 Heads of English Departments (Key Stage 3) and English Coordinators (Key Stages 1 and 2) were interviewed to gain an overview of the teaching of English. 78 school documents for the English curriculum were inspected, 181 teachers were interviewed and discussions were held with 54 whole staff groups (Key Stages 1 and 2) and English departments (Key Stage 3). Detailed observations were made in classrooms through 269 sessions across the three Key Stages. Teachers returned 54 diaries which they kept of their classroom work.

Over 2000 questionnaires were sent out to Key Stage 1, 2 and 3 schools in England, in those LEAs which had not been visited. Approximately one third of these were returned. The most frequent reason given for not responding was the lack of time due to pressure of work, especially at Key Stage 3. In most cases, however, no reason was given at all.

1.3 Research Team

Staff on the project included a Director based at the University of Warwick, with three full-time project officers and other part-time staff and consultants as required during the phasing of the investigation. The work was monitored and managed by the National Curriculum Council (NCC) Professional Officers for English. Project staff spent fifteen months visiting schools, talking to teachers and observing their work in classrooms. The remainder of the time was spent analysing the English Order, collating and analysing the various kinds of information and preparing 23 reports as required.


[page 3]

2.0 MANAGEABILITY OF THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM

At Key Stage 3, English is taught in clear time-tabled blocks. However, prior to the introduction of the National Curriculum, Key Stage 1 and 2 teachers tended to organise their curriculum into cross-curricular topics rather than specific subjects. One consequence of implementing the National Curriculum, therefore, has been to make primary teachers more aware that their curriculum coverage should reflect the required content of all nine subject Orders: teachers' planning is beginning to incorporate systematically those requirements wherever possible. Elements of subjects, including English, not covered by planned topics are taught separately. Reading at Key Stage 1 and teaching mathematics at Key Stages 1 and 2 were usually taught separate from topic work.

Teachers were beginning to distinguish between pupils learning English through explicit teaching of skills and processes, and learning English through using it in the course of other work. An increasing number of teachers were becoming more sensitive to this distinction. Where a topic included English, it provided a focus for the teaching and practice of a particular aspect of English, such as planning a story or teaching more advanced reading skills.

Manageability of the English curriculum, therefore, increasingly became a focus for schools as new subject Orders carne on-stream during 1992. Because of this increase in the subject demands of the National Curriculum a number of questions were addressed which would highlight schools' responses to this issue of manageability.

Manageability at Key Stages 1 and 2

(a) Time

(i) How much time is being spent on English?
(ii) What is the balance of time between Attainment Targets?
(iii) What is the balance of time between core subjects?
(iv) Is there enough time to cover the 'basics', or is there a squeeze on time for these?
(v) If so, what is the nature of this squeeze?
(b) English linked with other subjects
(i) Teachers' views of these links.
(ii) Teachers' perceptions of activities which are relevant to English but taught in other subjects.

(c) What have teachers changed to make the curriculum manageable?

(d) How might the curriculum in English be made more manageable?


[page 4]

Manageability at Key Stage 3

(a) Time

(i) Amount of time spent on different Attainment Targets
(ii) Balance of time across ATs
(b) English linked with Drama and Media Studies
(i) Teachers' views of these links.
(c) How might the curriculum be made more manageable?

Data relating to these issues were collected in a variety of forms in Key Stage 1, 2 and 3 schools and through the National Survey. In addition, six primary schools were chosen as case studies to give a context for the changes taking place.

2.1 Manageability of English at Key Stages 1 and 2

2.1.1 School Documents

Schemes of Work

Inspection of school documents revealed that planning for topics in primary schools was usually incorporated into Schemes of Work. The presentation of Schemes of Work varied, although certain common elements were apparent. Typically, they provided an overview of the planned curriculum coverage on a particular topic for an extended period of time, usually half a term or a term. However, teachers in some schools had begun to plan for longer periods of time to ensure coverage of National Curriculum requirements over a Key Stage. Within the Scheme of Work, planning for a given topic took account of the requirements of nine subject Orders. In addition, elements of a subject Order that were not covered by the topic were separately specified.

For instance, at Key Stage 1, Reading was taught as it related to a topic and through the use of other reading material such as reading schemes, class books and library books. Similarly, Writing was taught as it related to a topic and through activities which might have an English focus, such as handwriting. Speaking and Listening activities were generally related to a topic. At Key Stage 2, the links between the English curriculum and topic work increased, with the topic generally providing a focus for English activities. In addition, class time was given to individual as well as whole class reading activities.

The degree to which coverage of the National Curriculum was specified within Schemes of Work varied considerably from simply listing Attainment Targets to listing, in addition, Statements of Attainment and Programmes of Study. The English Non-Statutory Guidance (NSG) (1990: Section 4.1) provides schools with information on what Schemes of Work might include. This incorporates coverage of the curriculum as well as a variety of other provisions, e.g. teaching methods, groupings and differentiation. However, in


[page 5]

practice it was found that teachers at both Key Stages were planning Schemes of Work predominantly to ensure coverage of the content of English as well as other subjects over and above any other criteria to do with differentiation, progression and monitoring individual achievement.

It is therefore clear that teachers need considerable additional support for the development of Schemes of Work.

English Policy Documents

English policy documents specified schools' approaches to teaching English but they did not indicate how a policy was to be translated or incorporated into the planning of Schemes of Work. The degree to which policies reflected practice common to a school was variable. In some schools the policies had been written by the English Coordinator in collaboration with all staff to ensure that practice in the school was reflected in the document. By contrast, in other schools they had been written solely by the English Coordinator and the relationship of the document to classroom practice in the school was less clear.

Planning

Schools were beginning to use long, medium and short-term plans to ensure curriculum coverage. This was particularly evident in the schools visited in one LEA, where the teachers followed guidelines suggested in an LEA planning booklet. These teachers planned in units of time which ranged across a term, a year or a Key Stage. Teachers' own individual plans were often set within this context of collaborative planning. Such planning incorporated Key Stage, whole year, term and half-term plans, and then gave details of weekly and daily activities. Because of the long-term nature of this planning, changes in any subject Order have a considerable impact.

As yet there is little evidence that all the requirements of the English Order were being consistently translated into practice through school documentation, either at Key Stage 1 or 2 in the majority of schools visited.

2.1.2 Interviews

Key Stage 1 teachers in all schools thought there was insufficient time to teach the full curriculum including English satisfactorily. In particular they mentioned lack of time to hear individual pupils read. Teachers thought that time was being taken away from the 'basics' because of pressures and demands of other subject areas. They interpreted the term 'basics' as either referring to the traditional notion of basic numeracy and literacy, or the three National Curriculum core subjects of English, mathematics and science.

Despite their perception of pressure on time, Key Stages 1 and 2 teachers felt confident about implementing the English Order. They considered it


[page 6]

manageable, though it was recognised that it was coming under increasing pressure from the amount of content in the other subject Orders. Teachers said that it was the other subject Orders which needed to be reduced as a way of making the English curriculum more manageable. Nevertheless, they thought that the English Order had positively influenced their planning and record-keeping procedures, although these were found to be time-consuming. Teachers acknowledged an increased awareness of the breadth of English, particularly in relation to Speaking and Listening. Teachers remarked on greater structure being introduced into English teaching by making it more formal and more focused. Teachers at both Key Stages 1 and 2 argued for Key Stage related documentation to supplement separate subject Orders. In particular, they stressed the need for coherence and wholeness in the curriculum at Key Stages 1 and 2. Headteachers' perceptions were the same.

2.1.3 Classroom Observations

The time spent on English as a separate subject and English within other subjects is shown in Table 1 below. English which occurred in another subject typically involved the pupils applying skills they had previously learnt in English. It was rare that the explicit teaching of an English skill was observed within the context of another subject. Time spent on English as a separate subject involved the pupils learning and applying English skills, although the teaching and learning of these skills may have taken place in English time within the context of a cross-curricular topic.

Table 1 Observed Time (in minutes) spent on English as a separate subject and English within other subjects

This summary of observed times shows that teachers at Key Stage 2 provided more opportunities for pupils to use English skills in the context of another subject than their Key Stage 1 counterparts. Table 1 also shows that for Speaking and Listening, teachers provided pupils at both Key Stages with


[page 7]

opportunities to participate in a variety of activities within other subjects as well as within English.

  • At Key Stage 1, the focus of Writing was on teaching the initial stages of writing. At Key Stage 2, writing activities in English focused on narrative or creative writing. At both Key Stages 1 and 2 what pupils wrote about often related to a chosen topic. For example, at Key Stage 2 a teacher used the topic 'Ancient Egypt' to provide the context for a story, but taught the class a specific English activity (in this case how to plan a story).
  • At Key Stage 1, pupils spent the greatest proportion of their observed time on Reading. The majority of this reading occurred in a separate English context.
  • At Key Stage 2, pupils spent the greatest proportion of their observed time on Writing. The majority of this writing occurred in a separate English context.
  • At both Key Stages 1 and 2, the majority of observed English teaching occurred when English was taught as a separate subject, with the exception of Speaking and Listening at Key Stage 1. This finding is confirmed by data in the section reporting school documents (section 2.1.1) and case studies (section 2.2 below).
2.1.4 National Survey Data

Hours spent on core subjects

Teachers were asked to give an indication of how many hours in total during the course of one week, each year group spent on each core subject. Table 2 illustrates the modal responses.

Table 2 The most frequently mentioned number of hours spent teaching core subjects each week at Key Stages 1 and 2


[page 8]

Methods of teaching English

Teachers were asked about the main way they taught English. 72% of Key Stage 1 and 86% of Key Stage 2 teachers said that their main way of teaching English was as parts of units of work drawing on more than one subject. This means that teachers' perception of teaching English was as part of other subjects or cross-curricular topic work. However, this perception was in contrast to what was found in English policy documents and other data observed in the classroom, where there was much evidence of teaching English as a separate subject (see sections 2.1.1 and 2.1.3).

Teaching English in other subjects

Teachers were asked to give details of any area of the English curriculum which they or their colleagues planned to teach as part of other subjects. Speaking and Listening was the most frequently mentioned aspect of English they planned to deliver through other subject areas. This finding supports data collected through classroom observation (see section 2.l.3). History and science were the subject areas that were thought to be the most appropriate as a vehicle for teaching aspects of English. Geography and Religious Education were also frequently mentioned. However, the majority of respondents did not specify a subject area. They gave a general response about teaching English in a cross-curricular manner.

Changes in the teaching of English

Teachers were asked specifically whether or not they thought they had changed the way they taught English since the introduction of the National Curriculum. 53% of Key Stage 1 and 63% of Key Stage 2 respondents believed that they had changed the way they taught English, leaving 37% of Key Stage 1 and 47% of Key Stage 2 teachers who did not believe this to be the case. On balance, the teachers at Key Stage 2 were more aware of such a change than their Key Stage 1 counterparts. This was also reflected in the interviews reported in section 2.1.2.

If teachers answered 'Yes' to the above question, they were invited to give further information concerning the kinds of changes they thought had taken place. These responses were identified under four headings: content, teaching methods, time allocation and administration.


[page 9]

Table 3 % of Responses Indicating Areas of Change in Teaching English

For teachers at both Key Stages, administration was seen to be the major area of change since the introduction of the National Curriculum. This was followed by changes to the content of their teaching. At Key Stages 1 and 2 aspects of administration most frequently mentioned were more record-keeping in general (42% - 49% range of responses) and record-keeping related specifically to assessment (response range 23% - 35%).

At Key Stage 1, the most significant impact on content had been an increased emphasis on teaching Spelling, Handwriting and grammar, whilst at Key Stage 2, it was an increased awareness of Speaking and Listening. Teachers at both Key Stages also commented on an increased awareness of the breadth of English. In the section identifying teaching methods, teachers in both Key Stages perceived there to be an increase in their use of formal teaching methods. Under time allocation, teachers in both Key Stages perceived there was not enough time to teach the English curriculum. All of these findings confirm the perceptions of teachers in the interviews (section 2.1.2) and case studies.

Areas of English not satisfactorily covered

The final question in this part of the National Survey asked teachers whether they felt any areas of English were being covered unsatisfactorily and why they thought this was so. At Key Stage 1 the area of English which respondents felt was most unsatisfactorily covered was Reading. Two reasons were given less time for reading generally and less time for hearing individual pupils read in particular. In addition, Key Stage 1 teachers perceived there to be inadequate resources for all areas of English. In particular they mentioned a lack of tape-recorders and quiet areas for recording Speaking and Listening.

At Key Stage 2, teachers' responses were more diverse. However, like their Key Stage 1 colleagues, they also mentioned a lack of resources for all areas of English and for Speaking and Listening in particular. They also noted a reduction in the time available for teaching reading. A general comment was made by many teachers that they felt there was not enough time to teach the National Curriculum as a whole at Key Stage 2. All of these findings were


[page 10]

confirmed by the perceptions of teachers interviewed in schools (section 2.1.2) and by the case studies.

2.2 Characteristics of Manageability

The six primary school case studies have raised many issues concerning manageability of the English curriculum and the curriculum generally at Key Stages 1 and 2. These are summarised below.

2.2.1 Planning

  • All six schools had made major changes to the way they planned and documented their coverage of the English curriculum. Teachers in these schools saw systematic planning to be part of the solution to managing the requirements of all National Curriculum subjects.
  • A degree of collaborative planning was evident in all but one Key Stage 1 case study school. This style of planning was seen by the majority of teachers as the best way to meet National Curriculum requirements. Through collaboration, teachers were able to reduce their anxiety concerning curriculum coverage.
  • How teachers documented their planning for the manageability and teaching of English varied from school to school. Schools also differed in whether the class teacher or English Coordinator took responsibility for teaching English.
  • Planning in all the case study schools reflected the curriculum model of the whole school, whether it be topic-based, separate subject teaching or a combination of both.
2.2.2 Responsibility for English
  • In five of the case study schools, the designated English Coordinator attended available English INSET provision offered by the LEA. This information was then disseminated to colleagues via school INSET days and in after-school meetings. The English Coordinator was chiefly responsible for writing policy documents.
  • In one case study school (Key Stage 1) responsibility for English was divided between two teachers. The responsibility for curriculum areas revolved each term so each of the four members of staff had held a position of responsibility for English over a relatively short time. The whole staff wrote the English policy and each staff member claimed joint responsibility for its content.

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2.2.3 The Teaching of English

  • Where schools operated a topic-based approach, they also planned for some aspects of English to be taught separately. For example, at Key Stage 1, the initial stages of reading, and, at Key Stage 2, individual reading were planned independently of topic work.
  • The introduction of the Key Stage 1 SATs was also seen by these teachers to have had an effect on the manageability of the English curriculum. In three of the case study schools cursive writing had been introduced in the Reception years as a direct result of the introduction of SATs rather than the National Curriculum itself. In the past, these schools had left the formation of cursive writing until Y2 or later. The decision to introduce it earlier was seen as a way of reducing some of the teaching load of the Y2 teachers and also to allow some of the pupils to achieve Level 3 of the Writing SAT.
  • Teachers in the case study schools were aware of some changes in the way they taught some aspects of English. For example, at Key Stage 1 the teachers pointed to a reduction in the time available for teaching initial reading since the introduction of the National Curriculum. Because of this, they had enlisted the support of parental and ancillary staff. These support staff and volunteers had to be trained into the ways in which the individual schools taught reading, thus creating further pressures on teachers' time outside the classroom. At Key Stage 2 the schools did not rely on support staff and volunteers to the same extent. However, the teachers also pointed to a reduction in the time available for teaching reading, particularly in the case of beginning readers.
  • Teachers in the Key Stage 2 schools expressed concern over the demands that SAT requirements would make on their teaching of the English curriculum.
  • At both Key Stages 1 and 2, teachers in all the case study schools claimed that there was less time for teaching English generally and teaching reading in particular since the introduction of the National Curriculum. This was seen to be due to the demands of teaching the content of the other subject Orders. However, the content of the English Order itself was regarded as manageable by the case study schools.
These points are supported by evidence collected from School documents, interviews with teachers' and from observations in classrooms in other schools, as well as evidence from the National Survey.


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2.3 Manageability of English at Key Stage 3

School Documents

As at Key Stages 1 and 2, school policy documents at Key Stage 3 set out the philosophy and major aims of the English curriculum. Where change had occurred, the pre-National Curriculum documents focused mainly on the teaching of literature. English department policy documents now addressed all five Attainment Targets.

Schemes of Work at Key Stage 3 were found to be more specific than at Key Stages 1 and 2. They included strategies and activities for the teacher rather than learning objectives for the pupils. Schemes of Work revealed two main contexts for English teaching: one was centred on the class reader which provided the focus for all English activities, including the study of that text as a piece of literature; the second strategy was to combine a range of English activities linked to a common theme. Some Schemes of Work used one of these two approaches exclusively, whilst others used a combination of the two.

Interviews with Teachers

Teachers in Key Stage 3 schools, like their counterparts in Key Stage 1 and 2 Schools were divided over the usefulness of the English Order. However, 47% found it helpful. These teachers gave two main reasons: they saw it as a way of reassuring themselves that they had been 'doing the right thing', and as a means of planning. Some felt that the Order led to a more structured way of teaching, which was viewed as a positive influence. Nevertheless, some teachers who found the NSG useful, felt that it was weak on detail. For instance, it lacked examples of how to deliver aspects of the curriculum, especially cross-curricular issues and non-fiction.

Key Stage 3 teachers reported that they relied on a wide range of books, media materials and other resources to respond to pupils' individual needs. They mentioned use of the library, Information Technology, whole class readers and selected titles for individual class reading. In contrast to their primary school colleagues, Key Stage 3 teachers placed less emphasis on non-teaching support in their classrooms. Key Stage 3 schools relied largely on their own in-school support services when providing extra help in class for pupils with special educational needs, whereas Key Stages 1 and 2 schools made use of parental and other voluntary help.

National Survey

Key Stage 3 teachers who responded to the National Survey were asked for their own general reaction to the English Order. Over half of them welcomed and valued it. However, 50% pointed out that they were experiencing difficulty in implementing the curriculum because of lack of both resources and time. In particular, this influenced their ability to implement Speaking and Listening, teaching literature and the requirements for Information Technology.


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Key Stage 3 teachers expressed a desire for further training in the new areas of IT and Knowledge about Language. Teachers also commented on the influence of the proposed 1993 tests on their teaching plans. Some Heads of Department commented that Schemes of Work, which had been planned in advance for Y9 pupils, had been abandoned to accommodate the test requirements.

The Balance of Attainment Targets

At Key Stage 3, 39% of teachers taught Speaking and Listening in separate English lessons whereas 58% taught it in separate English lessons and in Drama. Although 48% of schools had a separate Drama department, 39% of these shared a common Speaking and Listening policy between the Drama and English departments.

Table 4 illustrates the time given to each separate Attainment Target observed both in English lessons and in those middle schools where English was taught in cross-curricular contexts.

Table 4 Observed Time (in minutes) spent on English at Key Stage 3

At Key Stage 3, time spent on Speaking and Listening, Reading and Writing was found to be evenly distributed.

2.4 Conclusion

2.4.1 Time

(i) How much time is being spent on English?

Teachers who responded to the National Survey reported that the average amount of time devoted to English was equivalent to one hour each day at both Key Stages 1 and 2 (section 2.1.4 Table 2).


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Teachers who responded to the National Survey reported that the average amount of time devoted to English was equivalent to one hour each day at both Key Stages 1 and 2 (section 2.1.4 Table 2).

(ii) What is the balance of time between different Attainment Targets for English?

Classroom observation showed that at Key Stage 1 more time was given to Reading, while at Key Stage 2 the most time was spent on Writing. (section 2.1.3 Table 1). At Key Stage 3, the time was evenly distributed between Attainment Targets (Table 4).

(iii) What is the balance of time between core subjects?

Teachers who responded to the National Survey and interviews reported that they spent an average of five hours on English, five hours on mathematics and two to three hours on science each week at both Key Stages 1 and 2 (section 2.1.4 Table 2).

(iv) Is there enough time to cover the 'basics' or is there a squeeze on time for these?

(v) If so, what is the nature of this squeeze?

Data from the National Survey and interviews in schools indicated that teachers at both Key Stages 1 and 2 perceived there to be an inadequate amount of time available for teaching the National Curriculum, especially English, and Reading in particular (sections 2.l.2, 2.l.4 and 2.2, Table 1). As the process of change was taking place, teachers in all Key Stages added new requirements to their existing programmes of work and were finding this increasingly onerous.

2.4.2 English linked with other subjects

(i) Teachers' views of these links.

(ii) Teachers' perceptions of activities which are relevant to English.

Data from the National Survey, interviews in schools, analysis of school documents, classroom observations and case studies indicated that the main way English was taught at Key Stages 1 and 2 was through a topic-based approach (sections 2. 1.2 and 2. 1.4). However, classroom observations (section 2.1.4) and case study data (section 2.2) showed that a large proportion of English was taught as a separate subject although sometimes content may be linked to a topic. Both the classroom observation and the National Survey data (section 2. 1.4) indicated that Speaking and Listening was the area of English most commonly linked to another subject. Teachers perceived history and science to be the most frequent subjects within which they taught English.


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2.4.3 What have teachers changed to make the curriculum more manageable?

Three main strategies were employed by schools to help them manage the curriculum in general and English in particular. These were: a system of collaborative, structured planning; changes in staffing responsibilities; and changes in teaching methods to include whole class and group teaching, setting and streaming as well as mixed ability groupings. National Survey data, along with information from interviews and the case studies in particular, showed that all of these strategies could be applied to a cross-curricular topics or subject-specific approaches to curriculum planning and delivery.

2.4.4 How might the curriculum in English be made more manageable?

Where teachers have adopted the strategies in 2.4.3 above, they have had little difficulty in managing the English curriculum. Nevertheless, teachers in fieldwork schools, in common with teachers who responded to the National Survey, stated that a reduction in content of the other National Curriculum subject Orders would be helpful. Most primary teachers were happy with the content of the English Order. Any difficulties in implementing it were due to lack of time. However, teachers would welcome the opportunity to be included in discussions and development of the statutory framework of the National Curriculum. Teachers across the Key Stages wished that the pace of change could be slowed down to allow schools to adjust at a more appropriate rate.

  • Primary schools benefit from planning for long, medium and short-term objectives.
  • Teachers in primary schools benefit from planning the English curriculum together and liaising with colleagues in other schools.
Evidence form this part of the evaluation gives rise to the following recommendations:
  • Teachers will benefit from clear guidance and support in identifying and preparing Schemes of Work.
  • Primary teachers would benefit from further guidance on the distinction between teaching English in the context of other subjects and using English as a medium of teaching and learning for all subjects.
  • Teachers require more time to be made available for teaching the early stages of learning to read at both Key Stages 1 and 2.


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  • The influence of SATs on the teaching of English needs to be carefully monitored.







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3.0 READING

3.1 Introduction

The team was asked to investigate these issues:

  • What is the range of methods teachers use to teach initial reading at Key Stage 1?
  • Does the Non-Statutory Guidance encourage the necessary mix of teaching methods and, in particular, place appropriate emphasis on the teaching of phonics?
  • Is the gap between Levels 1 and 2 too wide to offer teachers practical assistance as they monitor early reading progress?
  • Does the Non-Statutory Guidance offer teachers sufficiently clear advice on the classroom management skills which are essential if the needs of individual children are to be identified and met?
  • Does the Order give sufficient emphasis to the development of More Advanced Reading Skills in Key Stage 2?
  • What is the range of literature taught at Key Stages 2 and 3 and the context within which it is taught?
Section 3.2 addresses the teaching of initial reading. Section 3.3 addresses the issues of More Advanced Reading Skills at Key Stage 2. Section 3.4 and Appendix 5 address the teaching of literature at Key Stages 2 and 3.

3.2 Key Stage 1: Initial Reading

3.2.1 Teaching Initial Reading: Matters Related to the Order and Non-Statutory Guidance

(i) Initial Reading in the Order

This section explains how the project team developed a framework for the teaching of initial reading skills from the National Curriculum English documents. English for ages 5-16 (DES 1989) and the NSG (NCC 1989) define reading in the following ways:

Reading is much more than the decoding of black marks upon the page: it is a quest for meaning and one which requires the reader to be an active participant. (DES 1989: 16.2)


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When we read something we make sense of it for ourselves, not just by 'decoding' but by bringing our own experience and understanding to it. (NCC 1989: 6.1)
These definitions were kept in mind during the analysis of the NSG (NCC 1989, 1990) for Key Stage 1 which showed that information about the teaching of reading falls under four main headings: 'Contexts for learning to read', 'Range of resources', 'Variety of activities' and Ways of making reading explicit'. These headings also provided a framework and means of analysis to locate and identify proposed methods of teaching reading. Specific details of these headings as they were derived from the NSG are located in Appendix 2.

The teaching of phonics appears within the fourth category, 'Ways of making reading explicit'. Aspects of this element of the teaching of reading are to be found also in the Programmes of Study for (AT 3 - 5) Writing, and the Statements of Attainment for (AT 4) Spelling, as well as for (AT 2) Reading. This emphasis on writing in the teaching of reading has been pointed out by Clay (1991) who states that the most pragmatic place to teach sound awareness is in writing, where segmentation is an essential element of the task.

(ii) The Framework

A further analysis showed that methods of teaching initial reading can be categorised into two sets of activities. First, there are those activities specifically designed to develop pupils' ability to read books. These include pupils individually reading from books with a teacher (or another adult); talking about the content of books; reading books on their own or to each other; listening as a whole class to stories being read and discussing these with the teacher.

Second, there are those activities specifically designed to develop pupils' range of strategies to decode print. These include whole-word recognition and repetition and practice activities, such as matching words to pictures and writing words underneath pictures; and the teaching of phonics. Activities which were observed in the category of teaching phonics have been listed in Appendix 3.

The specific teaching approaches contained-within these two sets of activities formed a framework for methods of teaching initial reading at Key Stage 1. However, the two sets of activities complement each other. Phonics, whole-word recognition and repetition or practice activities can take place whilst a book is being read to a class, group or individual pupil, as well as being self-contained activities unrelated to the content of a book. For example, a teacher may ask a class or an individual pupil to identify a word in a story by identifying its initial letter, or to identify a whole word informed by the context of a story, as well as having pupils engaging in phonic exercises and other exercises using flashcards. Repetition and practice activities may be related to


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the characters used in a published reading scheme as well as to self-contained activities unrelated to the content of books.

For the purpose of observation in classrooms, therefore, phonics in the teaching of reading was identified by the following range of activities:

play with language; rhyme, rhythm, etc.
identify words by initial letter
make links between sounds and letters
use letter names and sounds
teach and use alphabet order
look at patterns of letters and spellings of words (blends, digraphs, etc.)
use term 'letter'
use phonic cues to read words.
Other methods for teaching reading included:
choose books and discuss choice
hear stories read and told
read with and to teacher (or other)
teacher acts as model for reading
talk to teacher and others about books
build up a sight vocabulary
use cues - picture, word shape, meaning
predict content of text
make inferences and deductions
use computer
use letter shapes.
This framework was used as a basis for analysing the various sources of data at Key Stage 1.



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3.2.2 Teaching Initial Reading: Policy and Practice in Schools

3.2.2(i) Policy and Teachers' Perceptions

The Order does not specify in any detail the sequence involved in acquiring the initial skills of reading. One factor which would militate against this possibility is that development is not linear, and so the apparent assumption in the Order that learning to read will happen at Key Stage 1, and reading for learning will be the substance of Key Stage 2 is not necessarily the case. Some aspects of reading, such as phonics and vocabulary acquisition will span Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. The degree to which this happens will depend partly, among other factors, on pupils' acquaintance with literacy activities on entry to school (Ferreiro and Teberasky 1983; Raban 1984).

Teachers monitored pupils' progress between Levels 1 and 2 by keeping records, and recording book titles rather than by tracking pupils' progress with the help of a conceptual map of reading development (an example of such a developmental progression can be found in Appendix 4). However, teachers' responses in the National Survey showed that they had an understanding (albeit implicit) of how pupils progress and develop as readers during Key Stage 1. This is illustrated by their responses to a question in the National Survey which asked teachers which reading activities they used most frequently in addition to reading books. Their responses are shown in Table 5:

Table 5 % of Reading Activities Commonly Identified in the National Survey

*Most frequently mentioned.

These responses indicate a pattern and developmental progression across the three year groups of Key Stage 1. Teachers develop pupils' recognition of individual words by sight and give them practice in sounding individual letters most frequently in Reception, with these activities decreasing in Y1 and Y2. Developing knowledge and use of the alphabet remains constant across the three years. Using phonic cues for new words, reading new words informed by the use of context, and practice in sounding groups of letters, increase across the three year groups from Reception to Y2 as the pupils grow in their ability to draw on a range of cues.


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3.2.2(ii) School Documents

The main source of documentation for the teaching of reading in schools visited was each school's reading policy. Schemes of Work did not generally incorporate how teachers taught reading. All Key Stage 1 schools had revised, or were in the process of revising, their reading policies following the introduction of National Curriculum English. This was generally undertaken as a co-operative activity amongst staff in schools led by the English Coordinator. These schools had ensured that their documentation reflected their current practice.

Collaboration of this kind between staff on writing policy documents such as the one for reading had increased since the introduction of the National Curriculum (see section 2 Manageability). It was clear from an analysis of school reading policy documents that teachers planned to use a variety and range of activities to teach initial reading that fell into the two sets of activities identified in the framework. Documents mentioned:

  • pupils reading individually to the teacher (100%)
  • pupils listening to reading (95%)
  • using phonics (91%)
  • teachers and pupils talking about books (91%)
  • pupils reading by themselves (87%)
  • teachers making a variety of reading material available (87%)
  • using repetition and practice activities (78%).
  • using whole word recognition (73%)
  • using reading schemes (65%)
With respect to schools' planning for the teaching of phonics, policy documents commonly identified published schemes which schools used to support their phonic work. For example, Letterland (Wendon 1986) was used most frequently, while some schools mentioned Phonic Skills (Jackson 1971). The detail of this planning ranged from simply referring to word attack skills using phonic knowledge to a more detailed explication of the range of skills involved in a phonic approach to teaching reading. This greater level of detail typically included what was appropriate for each year group. For Reception, the emphasis was on rhyming word-games, and initial and final sounds of words. In Y1 this work was continued with the addition of initial and final consonant blends, word endings and alphabet order. During Y2 this work was built on further to include magic 'e', vowel digraphs, more complex phonic blends, and the relationship between phonics and spelling. A quarter of the policy documents mentioned this relationship between phonics and spelling explicitly.


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Irrespective of the level of detail achieved by these policy documents, the majority included a 'phonics checklist' which teachers could use while monitoring individual pupils' progress.

The majority of the documents stressed the importance of establishing and maintaining a partnership between school and home as another means of developing pupils' reading. The most common way of doing this was through the use of a reading record or diary in which teachers and parents commented on individual pupils' reading on a regular basis. Some schools also held regular meetings with parents to explain school policy on reading, as well as producing booklets specifically designed for parents.

3.2.2(iii) Interviews

During interviews Key Stage 1 teachers reported that implementing the requirements of Statements of Attainment for Reading ld), 2d), e), 3c), d) as well as of the Programmes of Study for Reading at Key Stage 1, which require pupils to talk about texts such as stories and poems as well as to read them, had led to teachers increasing the opportunities for such activities to take place in the classroom and, consequently, the amount of time given to them.

Hearing individual pupils read their books was used by teachers as the main method of monitoring and assessing their progress in reading as well as a means of teaching. Teachers used ancillary help or volunteers in the classroom to assist them hear individual pupils read. Occasionally they paired a Key Stage 1 beginning reader with an older Key Stage 2 pupil. Both these strategies were used to increase pupils' opportunities to practise reading aloud. The class teacher, however, was responsible for monitoring the development of each pupil, assessing and recording progress, as well as planning the content of lessons themselves and managing the use of ancillary help. Hearing each individual pupil read regularly was seen by teachers as an important aspect of monitoring reading progress effectively.

Teachers, before the National Curriculum, had heard pupils read daily, both for practice and to monitor their progress. After the implementation of the Order, however, such reading happened less often but for a longer period of time (for example, once a week), targeted more clearly on monitoring and assessment. They were using time outside class (for example, lunch hours), to hear individual pupils read because they did not feel they had enough for this activity during the school day. The demands made by other subject Orders had led teachers to feel they had less time to spend on teaching reading. Some schools had extended their school day in order to make more teaching time available. However, in other schools, groups of staff and Headteachers stated that lengthening the school day was not in itself an appropriate measure because of the excessive demands it would make on the attention and concentration spans of younger pupils.


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Teachers interviewed in schools and in the National Survey reported that they placed equal emphasis on hearing individual pupils read from books, on pupils' individual silent reading and on reading stories to pupils as they had done prior to the introduction of the National Curriculum. They reported an increase in pupils reading to each other and sharing books. Of the teachers who reported placing less emphasis on any of these activities, hearing individual pupils read aloud from books was cited most frequently.

54% of teachers in Key Stage 1 schools and 62% of those who took part in the National Survey each used several reading schemes to teach reading; 16% used a single reading scheme and 22% used a range of books not tied to any one published scheme. Classroom observation made clear that where reading schemes were used, teachers also used class and school libraries to supplement them. Those schools that used a range of books not tied to any published reading scheme had adopted or devised a grading system such as colour-coding that allowed them to monitor and assess pupils' progress, as well as to guide pupils in their choice of books.

77% of the teachers in the National Survey and 69% of the teachers in case study schools reported the way they taught reading had not changed since the introduction of the National Curriculum. Those teachers who did report a change mentioned most frequently an increase in the breadth and diversity of their approach, and a decrease in time to hear individual pupils read.

3.2.2(iv) Observations and Diaries

Classroom observation of initial reading was based on the framework described in Section 3.21 above, namely, activities specifically designed to develop pupils' range of strategies to decode print and activities related to reading books. Tables 6 - 9 show the range of these two sets of activities as experienced by pupils and taught by teachers. They include a certain amount of double-coding to account for contexts in which one type of activity occurred as part of the other, for example, a teacher asking pupils to identify the first letter of a word in a book being read to the class.

Tables 6 and 7 show the distribution of these activities from pupils' perspective while Tables 8 and 9 shows this distribution from teacher's point of view. Pupils may be reading to each other or working from a phonic or comprehension worksheet while the teacher is working with an individual pupil or groups of pupils. Because of this, these two sets of data have been separated.


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Table 6 Summary of % of Observed Reading Activities experienced by Pupils (Key Stage 1)

Table 6 indicates that pupils experienced activities related to aspects of phonics most often as a strategy for learning to read. 49% of the activities were concerned directly with pupils engaged in decoding strategies for reading, of which half were phonics, either as self-contained exercises or as an exercise undertaken in the context of pupils' reading books. 50% of the activities were concerned with reading books in a variety of contexts. This distribution of activities is further reinforced by an analysis of the time which pupils spent on these different activities (Table 7).

Table 7 % of Pupil time spent on methods of Teaching Reading (Key Stage 1)

Of the time pupils spent on learning to read, exactly half of their time was spent directly involved in learning decoding strategies taught by the teacher (phonics, repetition and practice activities and word recognition). The other half of their time was spent on activities related to reading books, either by reading from a


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time was spent on activities related to reading books, either by reading from a book with a teacher or adult, by reading a book by themselves or with another pupil, or by listening to a story being read. The books used for these activities were mainly stories. Picture books, 'big books', reading scheme books and story books from the class library were all used by teachers as resources for teaching pupils to read. Teachers also used materials such as published or self-made worksheets and flashcards to teach phonics, repetition and practice activities and word recognition.

Table 8 shows the distribution of reading activities from teachers' perspectives.

Table 8 Summary of % of Observed methods of Teaching Reading (Key Stage 1)

Table 8 indicates that teachers use a range of methods for teaching reading, with pupils reading to the teacher or another adult and talking about their reading being the method used most often. 31% of the teaching activities were concerned with strategies for teaching reading, 69% on reading books in a variety of contexts. This distribution is further reinforced by the analysis of the time spent on these different activities shown in Table 9.



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Table 9 % of Teacher time spent on methods of Teaching Reading (Key Stage 1)

Of the total time teachers spent on teaching reading, 35% was spent on activities that involved teaching pupils strategies designed to decipher print, and 65% on reading as an activity itself, either by reading to the whole class or listening to pupils read.

Diaries kept by teachers supported this distribution of activities designed to teach reading obtained from observations in classrooms. 41% of these activities were concerned with strategies to decode print and 59% on reading books.

As has been pointed out above, strategies designed to help pupils decode print can occur in the context of reading a book or as a self-contained exercise. Further analysis of the classroom observations showed that 68% of the phonics activities and 89% of the repetition and practice activities set by the teacher occurred as self-contained exercises, such as completing a phonics worksheet or sequencing pictures to tell a story. Where these activities occurred in the context of reading a book, they were used by teachers to aid pupils in reading words used in the text. For example, a teacher pointed to an initial letter of a word in a story, asked pupils to tell her what the letter was, and then read the word aloud, or the teacher read a book aloud that included words previously encountered in pupils' reading. A full list of observed activities relating to the teaching of phonics appears in Appendix 3. Whole word recognition occurred equally as a self-contained exercise (50%) and in the context of reading a book (50%).

Where individual pupils read a book to their teacher, read books to each other or listened to a teacher reading a book, 98% of these activities involved the teacher talking with pupils or pupils talking to one another about the content of the book. This included learning about narrative sequencing and general features of story structure; learning about distinguishing features of books, such as the significance of the title page, reading from left to right and top to bottom; and learning about the use of punctuation.


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Teaching reading, then, occurred on two distinct yet interrelated levels at this early stage: teaching pupils about narrative structure and sequencing including identifying features of books; and teaching pupils how to read words themselves using a variety of strategies related to books and exercises designed to decode print. (See section 6.0: Knowledge about Language).

3.2.3 Teaching Initial Reading in English and Across the Curriculum

Learning to read was taught as a discrete area of English at Key Stage 1. This was borne out by the advice in reading policies and observations in classrooms which showed that the majority of Reading at Key Stage 1 occurred as a specific English activity. This also involved introducing pupils to a range of reading material such as fiction, poetry, and information texts. When reading activities were observed in the context of other subjects they generally involved reading the teacher's or pupils' writing or the teacher reading non-fiction books to the pupils.

3.2.4 Assessing Reading at Key Stage 1

Out of 47 Key Stage 1 teachers interviewed specifically on the issue of the gap between Levels 1 and 2 Reading, 74% expressed dissatisfaction with the progression of reading development implicit in Levels 1 and 2 of the Order. The general feeling appeared to be that Level 1 was too easily achieved and at a stage of 'pre-reading' while Level 2 was too broad and difficult to achieve for many Key Stage 1 children. The cause for teachers' concern was not the Statements of Attainment themselves, but the perceived breadth of achievement within Level 2. They found it difficult to explain to parents why some pupils remained working at Level 2 for such a long time.

1991 and 1992 SAT data (N = 326 Y2 pupils) showed a tendency for fewer children to achieve Statement of Attainment 2f) read a range of material with some independence, fluency, accuracy and understanding, than Statements 2a) - 2e), indicating that this particular Statement was taking pupils the longest time to achieve. In addition, teachers were finding it difficult to interpret what was meant by 'some' for all four categories of independence, fluency, accuracy and understanding, within this Statement.

A common point of frustration mentioned by Key Stage 1 teachers was that National Curriculum assessment procedures, particularly for SATs, appear to assume a standard starting point for all pupils. Even though the Programmes of Study for Key Stage 1 Reading stress that 'reading activities should build on the oral language and experiences which pupils bring from home' (PoS 2), teachers felt that assessment procedures did not take sufficient account of the diversity of pupils' pre-school experience.


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3.3 Key Stage 2: More Advanced Reading Skills

3.3.1 Matters Relating to the Order

Throughout Key Stage 2, pupils continue to widen their experience of books as they become more proficient in reading. From Level 2 onwards there are a series of Statements of Attainment which relate to matters beyond the accurate and fluent reading of narrative. These Statements of Attainment pay attention to developing response and engagement with books on the part of young readers (Reading: 2d, 2e, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b, 5e). In addition, other Statements of Attainment require pupils to develop skills related to finding, retrieving and using information from a range of texts and sources (Reading: 3f, 4c, 4d, 5b, 5c, 5d). These skills can be referred to as 'More Advanced Reading Skills'.

More Advanced Reading Skills, as presented in the Programmes of Study and Statements of Attainment for Key Stage 2, require pupils to become familiar with a range of information sources such as libraries and databases as well as with the different range of text types such as reference books, periodicals and encyclopaedias. These Statements also require that pupils learn to use a variety of reading strategies beyond close reading to retrieve and collate information. Analysis of the Order revealed a need for a clearer identification of reading beyond the early stages and a more consistent match between the Statements of Attainment and Programmes of Study in terms of the development and progression of these skills.

The analysis revealed five categories of More Advanced Reading Skills drawn from the English Order. These are:

  • Setting Purposes: where pupils or teachers devise questions that require research in a variety of sources in order to be answered.
  • Searching for Information: where pupils or teachers locate the sources and the texts appropriate to the inquiry, in order to retrieve information for a particular purpose.
  • Variety of Reading Strategies: where pupils employ a range of reading strategies to select the required information from within texts in order to gather information for a particular purpose. These include skimming, scanning, and close reading.
  • Collating Information: where pupils make notes of main ideas and supporting points from the text or texts and may use these notes to form their own text for a particular purpose.
  • Collating and Evaluating Information: where pupils compare and contrast texts or present an informed point of view based on the information they have found.

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These categories have been systematised to form the framework for the evaluation of teaching of More Advanced Reading Skills, although in the Order itself these are presented haphazardly.

3.3.2 More Advanced Reading Skills: practice in schools

It was clear from visits to schools that Key Stage 2 teachers continue to teach initial reading, in particular monitoring the progress and development of slower learners and pupils with special needs. Time was allocated each week in all the schools visited for individual or shared reading of books and time for the teacher to read stories to the class.

3.3.2(i) Policy and Teachers' Perceptions

All the schools visited had revised their reading policies, or were in the process of revising them, since the introduction of National Curriculum English. The degree to which reference was made to More Advanced Reading Skills varied. Three policies devoted complete sections to More Advanced Reading Skills outlining the school's recommended approach to teaching these skills. For example, one policy distinguished two ways in which pupils used reading: (i) pleasurable reading, and (ii) reading as an information skill. For reading as an information skill, the following activities were listed:

  • Gaining information from a variety of written sources such as timetables.
  • Reading in different ways, including skimming and scanning.
  • Distinguishing between fact and opinion.
  • Using reference books.
  • Making a choice of reference books.
  • Using a library.
The majority of reading policies incorporated their stated approach to teaching More Advanced Reading skills in general terms to do with firstly, resourcing, such as extending the range of reading material to include fiction and non-fiction, use of class and school library; and secondly, the development of specific skills such as reference skills in order to find information in books.

However, Schemes of Work from three schools referred specifically to the teaching of More Advanced Reading Skills. This teaching was seen generally to integrate More Advanced Reading Skills into the context of an activity rather than making them the focus of an activity. For example, as part of a Y6 Scheme of Work for the topic 'Aztecs', the teacher planned to develop pupils' reference skills, to use a variety of sources to gain information and to develop pupils' strategies to find information by using resources directly related to the topic.

In one school, the Headteacher, who was also the English Coordinator, had taken responsibility for this area of the curriculum and taught all the Key Stage 2 pupils in the school in groups throughout the week, using activities designed to develop pupils' More Advanced Reading Skills. It was not clear, however,


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whether the class teachers subsequently ensured that pupils applied the skills they had learnt in lessons with other teachers.

During interviews, teachers at Key Stage 2 stated that the requirements of the English Order had raised their awareness of the need to teach these More Advanced Reading Skills in a systematic way, with many schools planning to review, or being in the process of reviewing, the ways in which these skills were taught.

Initially, teachers at Key Stage 2 had interpreted teaching More Advanced Reading Skills to mean increasing the breadth and scope of pupils' general reading, rather than teaching specific skills. As the Order began to be implemented in Y5 as well as Y3 and Y4 during the academic year 1992/3, teachers' growing familiarity with the Order had begun to alter significantly their perceptions of what was required for successful implementation in this aspect of their work.

This increased awareness was particularly evident in teachers' growing realisation that pupils could benefit from More Advanced Reading Skills being taught explicitly, rather than as something which pupils would develop naturally through wider reading. For example, as part of her work for a diploma, one teacher had undertaken her own research into pupils' abilities in More Advanced Reading Skills at Key Stage 2. She had been surprised to discover that the pupils with the highest reading ages were not necessarily the pupils with the highest scores for More Advanced Reading Skills. This result had challenged her assumption that able readers would automatically know how to use a range of reading strategies.

Teachers felt that meeting the requirements for More Advanced Reading Skills was best achieved through a whole school policy that had been agreed by all staff, and one which took account of the requirements of other subject Orders, particularly since More Advanced Reading Skills tended to be taught within the contexts of subjects other than English (see section 3.3.2(iii) More Advanced Reading Skills across the Curriculum).

Teachers stated that they were unfamiliar with the term 'More Advanced Reading Skills'. However, they were familiar with the skills themselves as they were referred to in the Order.

Although teachers recognised the requirement to teach More Advanced Reading Skills, they were uncertain about translating these requirements into practice. This uncertainty was shown in a variety of ways. Changes in practice were most consistent throughout those schools which had adopted a common approach. For example, staff in two schools had reviewed their practice of teaching More Advanced Reading Skills led by the English Coordinator. The English Coordinator in one of these schools had, as a result of in-service training undertaken as part of the Language in the National Curriculum (LINC) programme, established a teaching programme throughout the school where teachers approached topic-based work through the explicit


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teaching of More Advanced Reading Skills, particularly in the categories of Searching for Information, Reading Strategies and Collating Information. The context for these activities was usually the pupils writing an extended piece on a topic of their choice located within a subject area. The teacher chose the subject area and the pupils decided the specific questions they wanted to answer.

The teacher of each class explained to pupils how to search for information in books using contents and index pages and the range of reading strategies available to them in order to find the required information. These activities were supported by exercises from published material or devised by the teacher. Once the pupils were engaged in these tasks, the teacher explained the ways in which information could be collated. The teachers in this school used this approach every time pupils engaged in this type of activity. The teacher concerned stating that greater emphasis was placed on teaching More Advanced Reading Skills during the Autumn term, and these were subsequently reinforced throughout the academic year.

The English Coordinator in the second school had also, as the result of LINC training, incorporated more targeted teaching of More Advanced Reading Skills and had suggested strategies to her colleagues for doing the same. The main strategy used in this school was the constant drawing of pupils' attention, individually as well as a class, to the various sources of information, locating information in books, and retrieving and collating it. The teacher made sure that More Advanced Reading Skills were explicitly detailed in her planning.

Teachers interviewed in schools and as part of the National Survey stated that the main way they taught More Advanced Reading Skills was as part of Schemes of Work in other subjects as well as English. (64% of case study interviews and 63% of National Survey.) Teaching these skills in response to the needs of individual pupils was the next most frequently cited main way that teachers taught these skills (19%).

The majority of teachers interviewed (71%) reported that their teaching of More Advanced Reading Skills had not changed since the introduction of the National Curriculum. Of the teachers who did report a change, putting more emphasis on explicitly teaching the skills was the main reason given, followed by moving to a more structured approach and using a wider variety of written materials.

The National Survey asked teachers to identify what they did to develop pupils' reading skills. The following activities were cited in order of frequency for each year group of Key Stage 2:

  • Developing specific strategies for information retrieval (e.g. referencing, skimming, scanning);
  • Developing independent reading;

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  • Using published or self-made materials, including cloze and comprehension exercises, to teach More Advanced Reading Skills.
This pattern did not vary across the year groups. These data accord with information gained from school visits where searching for information, independent wider reading and dictionary exercises related to comprehension were the three main ways in which teachers interpreted More Advanced Reading Skills.

National Survey responses showed the following pattern for teaching More Advanced Reading Skills across the year groups of Key Stage 2 illustrated in Table 10.

Table 10 % of More Advanced Reading Skills Activities at Key Stage 2

These responses indicate a clear pattern and developmental progression across the four year groups of Key Stage 2. In Y3, teachers first developed pupils' abilities to select and retrieve appropriate information from books selected by the teacher, alongside developing their referencing skills. In Y4, teachers built


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on these referencing skills and concurrently developed pupils' ability to use library skills to make their own selection of material. By Y5, these library and referencing skills were developed further and, in addition, pupils were taught to skim and scan. The latter skills were extended during Y6 and pupils were seen increasingly to be able to distinguish fact from opinion.

3.3.2(ii) Observations and Diaries

Observations in classrooms at Key Stage 2 showed that where More Advanced Reading Skills were used or taught, the most frequently observed category was Searching for Information, which accounted for 42% of pupils' activities and 40% of the tasks set by the teacher. The tasks observed were wide-ranging, including: pupils locating books in a library; the teacher explaining to pupils how to use content and index pages in information texts with the pupils fulfilling this task; underlining key words in a passage, looking up words in a dictionary and dictionary-related exercises. The largest category used by teachers was Setting Purposes (43% of the total) for pupils either to search for information, or to search and collate information. Pupils setting purposes for themselves accounted for 17% of observed activities.

3.3.2(iii) More Advanced Reading Skills across the Curriculum

It was clear from the schools visited and from the responses to the National Survey that, unlike Initial Reading at Key Stage 1, the teaching and practice of More Advanced Reading Skills was not confined to English but was taught in other subjects. The exception to this was one school with a high percentage of special needs pupils (40%) which taught More Advanced Reading Skills regularly as a structured English activity using a published scheme.

Outlined below are examples of subjects within which teachers incorporated the teaching of More Advanced Reading Skills during classroom observations.

Examples (with % of total observed instances of More Advanced Reading Skills):

English: 22%

(a) Close analysis of character descriptions by three different authors: Chaucer, Naughton, Barrett.
(b) Writing a newspaper article using reference books to find and retrieve information.
(c) Using reference books as a stimulus for drama.
Geography: 39%
(a) Using reference books.
(b) How to use content and index pages in a geography book.
(c) Drawing a map of a journey, using atlases for reference.

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History: 28%

(a) Investigating an area of pupil's own interest on World War Two using reference books.
(b) Reading information and writing instructions.
(c) Comprehension exercises.
(d) Sequencing sentences in the right order.
(e) Underlining key words.
Science: 11%
(a) Locating reference books in the school library for descriptions and locating the information.
(b) Looking at various books to generate discussion.
3.4 Classroom Management for Reading

From our analysis of the Order and the NSG in particular, it is clear that while there are information, advice and ideas prepared for teachers which address the issue of classroom management for English, these are targeted mainly at Speaking and Listening. Where there is advice for the classroom management of Reading, it is concerned mainly with the classroom environment and does not address how the needs of individual children are to be met.

The term 'classroom management skills' was taken to refer to specific ways of teaching reading (for example, individual or group reading) and resourcing reading (physical, human, spatial). With this in mind a framework for classroom observation was derived from the current Order comprising three categories:

1) classroom organisation -

ways in which reading is organised in the class - individual, paired, group; whether it involves a particular use of space, e.g. the reading corner or carpet area; or use of the print environment available in a particular classroom.

2) resource management -

what book resources are used, e.g. fiction, non-fiction, reference, dictionaries; using space outside the classroom, e.g. the school library, local library, or local environment.

3) people management -

whether adults - teachers, parents, other helpers - are acting as readers, listeners or sharers of pupils' reading.


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3.4.1 Observations in Classrooms

The framework of categories led to some double coding. Table 11 summarises the categories coded at each Key Stage.

Table 11 % of Observed Instances of Different Categories of Classroom Management at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

Table 11 shows that resources both physical and spatial were clearly the most important priority at all Key Stages.

3.4.2 Teachers' Perceptions

Key Stage 1 teachers were divided over whether or not the NSG offered helpful advice concerning the classroom management of reading. 28% of teachers found it useful; a further 30% thought that it did not offer anything new, while 32% felt that they needed more time to digest the document. There was a tendency to see NSG as a confirmation of existing practice.

Key Stage 2 teachers were similarly divided, although 49% of them found the NSG useful. They felt that it was helpful as a guide, a means of clarification, a help in planning, or simply as a reminder of points to cover. Some teachers felt that it was a source of good ideas, though the NSG was felt to be generally stronger on methods of teaching reading per se rather than on the classroom management of reading. Teachers who did not find the NSG useful thought that it confirmed what they were already practising.

All Key Stage 2 teachers interviewed mentioned the variety of approaches they used to manage the development of reading and to meet individual needs. Setting individual activities for different pupils (for example, silent reading, listening to individuals read) was mentioned most frequently (36%) followed by grouping pupils in different ways (18%), and resources (5%) which included reading schemes. Adult support for individual learners, not only from the class teachers but from parents and in some cases from special needs and welfare services was also mentioned (18%). This included links with home, either through direct teacher-parent contact or as a 'dialogue' with parents via booklets.


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Key Stage 3 teachers were also divided over the value of the NSG. 47% of teachers found it helpful. These teachers gave several reasons: they saw it as a means of reassuring themselves that they had been doing the right thing and as an aid to planning. It was felt by some teachers that the NSG led to a more structured way of teaching, which was viewed as a positive influence. However, teachers who found it useful felt that the guidance was weak on detail and examples of how to deliver various aspects of the curriculum, especially in the areas of cross-curricular input and discussion of non-fiction.

Key Stage 3 teachers also reported that they relied on a wide range of books, media materials and other resources to respond to individual needs. They mentioned use of the library, Information Technology, whole class readers and selected titles for individual class reading. There was less emphasis on adult support at Key Stage 3 (8% compared with 18% at Key Stage 2). Key Stage 3 schools relied largely on their own in-school support services for providing pupils with special educational needs extra help in class (where available) whereas Key Stages 1 and 2 schools made use of parental and other voluntary help.

3.5 The Range of Literature Taught at Key Stages 2 and 3 and the Contexts within which it is Taught

3.5.1 Introduction

The evaluation of Reading also included examining the contexts for teaching literature and the range of literature taught at Key Stages 2 and 3. Literature in this section is taken to mean fiction, poetry and plays. Section 3.5.2 below reports on Key Stage 2 and 3.5.3 on Key Stage 3 in more detail. The range of literature recommended for pupils to read is listed in Appendix 5 and commented on in section 3.5.4.

3.5.2 Key Stage 2: Policy and Practice in Schools

3.5.2(i) Policy and Teachers' Perceptions

Key Stage 2 English Policies for Reading which were obtained from visits to schools all stressed the importance of providing pupils with access to a wide range of reading material, encouraging pupils to read for pleasure as well as for information. The policies referred to making time for reading, either by silent reading, group or paired or class reading sessions, and to promoting the habit of reading by making books accessible to pupils.

Schemes of Work integrated teaching literature into a topic designed to cover all subjects over the period of a term. For example, a Scheme of Work for Y6 incorporated teaching poetry into its topic 'Roads and Bridges'. The poem 'Highwayman' by Alfred Noyes was read to a class, and its use of language, including simile and metaphor, was discussed. Pupils subsequently chose a


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poem from a selection made by the teacher and wrote a critical appreciation. Another Scheme of Work from a different school incorporated reading 'Goodnight Mr. Tom' by Michelle Magorian as a class reader as part of the topic 'Britain since 1930'. Cloze procedure, sequencing and a variety of written activities were planned around the text in order to develop pupils' understanding and appreciation. Both these schools were located in the same local education authority and followed LEA advice provided in a planning booklet on incorporating subjects into topic work. The English Coordinators had benefited from LINC training that had provided them with strategies to incorporate teaching literature into a topic approach. Schemes of Work from two schools detailed activities intended to broaden pupils' experience of literature, such as visits to the library, reading stories and poems aloud, as well as written activities such as book-making.

Discussions with teachers in Key Stage 2 revealed that they saw the teaching of literature predominantly concerned with developing the habit of reading, rather than teaching particular texts.

Every school visited at Key Stage 2 allocated a period of time every day or every week to individual reading, where the pupils read books by themselves, to each other or to the teacher, choosing books from the class library, school library or those which they had brought from home. The degree to which this reading was monitored varied: some teachers kept a record of the books individual pupils read, while in other cases, no record was kept at all.

Two schools were beginning to use sets of books with pupils as whole class texts or smaller sets for use by groups of pupils within a class. However, when teachers read a poem or a novel to whole classes, generally pupils listened without having a copy of the text to follow.

Teachers extended pupils' reading by recommendation, either by providing reading lists, recommending specific books to individual pupils or encouraging pupils to recommend books to one another. They also developed the habit of reading by encouraging individual silent reading. Teachers in two schools stated that they incorporated teaching literature into topic-based activities wherever this was appropriate.

The majority of teachers (88% in schools, 85% National Survey) stated that the way they taught literature had not changed since the introduction of the National Curriculum. Increasing the range of pupils' choice of books and literature-based activities were the areas of change mentioned most frequently.

3.5.2(ii) Observations and Diaries

Observations in classrooms and diaries kept by teachers verified the contexts for teaching literature found in school documentation and given by teachers in interview, with the balance more in favour of individual reading than any other context. Half the observed classroom activities that included literature were of pupils reading books individually or in pairs. The books read were chosen


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from a variety of sources, including the school or class libraries or the home. The range of books chosen by pupils included non-fiction as well as fiction. Pupils' choice of books was monitored and recorded by the teacher in most cases.

Other observed activities showed literature being included within the context of another subject. For example, a teacher read a story from 'Tales of Ancient Egypt' by Roger Lancelyn in order to stimulate pupils writing their own stories on Egyptian Gods as part of the topic 'Ancient Egypt'. Similarly, pupils read short stories individually or in pairs from published collections, followed it with comprehension and other activities suggested by the follow-up work in the material. A teacher read part of a novel to a whole class as a class reader and the class listened.

Some teachers recorded in their diaries that they had read the following novels to the class: 'Oliver Twist' by Charles Dickens, 'Goodnight Mr. Tom' by Michelle Magorian, 'The Sheep-Pig' by Dick King Smith and 'Fantastic Mr. Fox' by Roald Dahl. Follow-up activities included: pupils re-telling their own stories; a sustained sequence of related writing over a week; further discussion of the writer and other books written by him or her.

It was clear that teachers placed greater emphasis on developing the habit of reading by providing time for individual reading and hearing stories read rather than teaching particular texts. Teachers incorporated literary texts into topic work wherever they felt this was appropriate. Reading literary texts or extracts from literary texts was usually used as a stimulus for discussion and creative writing, rather than to study the texts themselves.

3.5.3 Key Stage 3: Policy and Practice in Schools

3.5.3(i) Policy and Teachers' Perceptions

A common feature in policy documents and Schemes of Work at this Key Stage was the organisation of the requirements of the Order into units or modules. Schemes of Work integrated the requirements of all five English Attainment Targets, with the Knowledge about Language requirements either integrated into these Schemes or forming separate, free-standing Schemes (see section 6: Knowledge about Language).

Teaching literature, according to policy documentation, was viewed in one of two ways. The most common approach used was work based on a class reader that provided a context for all Speaking and Listening, Reading and Writing activities. The choice of text was usually left to the professional judgement of each individual teacher, chosen from the department's stock of books. Schemes of Work listed suggested activities for each Attainment Target, taking into account the requirements of the Programmes of Study and Statements of Attainment for Key Stage 3. The Head of English at one of these schools stated that the department had found it difficult to meet all the requirements for English using such an approach, particularly those for


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Knowledge about Language. To overcome this, the department had produced its own booklets on grammar, for example, to ensure that any requirements not met through the use of a class reader were covered. Overall, policies and Schemes of Work aimed to balance the requirements for all the Attainment Targets through their use of class readers. Schemes of Work based on a class reader did not necessarily include studying it as literature on every occasion. It could be used to provide a context for oral and written activities, rather than a study of the text itself.

The second approach was to define themes which incorporated a range of literature as well as providing the focus for oral and written activities designed to meet the complete requirements of the English Order. Examples of themes used in one school were: 'Myths', 'Adventure' and 'Monsters'.

In middle schools with a Y7 class, teachers integrated the requirements of the Order at Key Stage 3 into cross-curricular topic-based Schemes of Work. For example, as part of the topic 'Medieval Realms', activities included reading Chaucer and Shakespeare and learning about language change. A combination of the two approaches was not uncommon. Schemes of Work based on self-contained areas or themes were planned in addition to units based on class readers.

70% of teachers interviewed in schools and 71% of teachers who took part in the National Survey stated that the main way they taught literature at Key Stage 3 was as part of a series of lessons that integrated the Attainment Targets. The remaining 30% of teachers interviewed in schools stated that they mainly taught literature as a unit or sequence of lessons with a literary focus, as did 22% of teachers in the National Survey.

In addition to using one of these two approaches, every school visited made regular time available for pupils to read individually self-selected books monitored by the teacher. Book provision for these reading times consisted of book boxes selected by the teacher, published packages, the school library, books from home, or the local library.

43% of teachers in schools visited and 41% of teachers in the National Survey stated that their teaching of literature had changed since the introduction of the National Curriculum. The main reasons given were: increasing the amount of literature-based activities; teaching plays by Shakespeare; increasing the range and variety of literary genres; ensuring that SAT requirements were met and generally increasing the range of pre-twentieth century literature.

3.5.3(ii) Observations and Diaries

Observations in classrooms and activities recorded by teachers in their diaries showed the use of a novel or play as the class reader as well as poetry and the Key Stage 3 SEAC Anthology. Reading the text usually occurred as a whole class activity, where each pupil had a copy of the text and the pupils, as well as the teacher, took turns in reading aloud. Readings were usually preceded and


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followed by discussion about the text, both its content and vocabulary. For example: a Y9 whole class discussion on the major themes of the play 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' followed by groups of pupils finding and noting appropriate quotations which exemplified the themes; a Y8 whole class discussion on 'Dulce et Decorum Est' followed by pupils individually completing a comprehension exercise; a Y7 class wrote an onomatopoeic poem following a reading and discussion of another example of an onomatopoeic poem; Y7 pupils transformed the content of a narrative poem into a different form.

Heads of Department visited in schools during January and February 1993 stated that the requirements for SATs, especially for Reading, had forced them to abandon planned Schemes of Work for Y9. They stated that reading and studying a Shakespeare play and the Key Stage 3 Anthology (with no prior knowledge of the assessment arrangements) had taken up most of Y9 English time during the academic year at the expense of fulfilling some of the other requirements of the English Order. Under these circumstances, they felt that some parts of the Order could not be adequately taught.

3.5.4 Survey of Literature Recommended by Teachers at Key Stages 2 and 3

Teachers at Key Stages 2 and 3 were asked to list the novels, plays, poems and/or anthologies which they and their colleagues made certain their pupils read in each year group. The responses reported here include those from 560 Key Stage 2 teachers and 494 Key Stage 3 teachers who were interviewed in schools or responded to the National Survey. Some teachers felt unable to respond to this question because books were chosen according to the context of work, choice of books was left to pupils, choices were governed by individual needs, or lists of books were felt to be inappropriate.

Library catalogues and databases were used to identify more fully the responses which these teachers made to this request. The lists in Appendix 5 still contain inaccuracies as some references remained impervious to our searches. Where little or no further information was available, a category 'miscellaneous' has been used. These lists appear in year groups, under alphabet order of author with A or F indicating an Abridged or Full version of the text. The number for each title indicates the frequency of mention.

What is immediately noticeable from these lists is the extensive range and variety of prose, poetry and plays which teachers make certain their pupils read throughout these stages of schooling. This range and variety extends as the pupils grow older and this progression is shown in Table 12.


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Table 12 Range and Variety of Texts Recommended by Teachers

The table also shows that some picture books were still used with Key Stage 2 pupils while pupils were more likely to encounter plays as they moved up the year groups.

Some titles are read with different age groups of pupils. This illustrates the development in depth of work which some exceptional texts can support. For example, 'The Jolly Postman' can be read on one level as a story whilst with older children it can be used as a stimulus for discussing the conventions of letter-writing and Knowledge about Language activities. An indication of the most frequently cited titles (above 10 references) are listed below. The asterisked titles are those which appear listed in the SAT Booklist for Key Stage 1 (DES 1992) or the Key Stage 3 SEAC Anthology (DFE/WO 1993)

Year 3

Dahl, R.1974Fantastic Mr. Fox
Dahl, R.1968Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Hughes, T.1971The Iron Man
Tomlinson, I1968The Owl who was Afraid of the Dark
*White, E.B.1952Charlotte's Web

Poetry

Ahlberg, A1983Please Mrs. Butler

Year 4

Dahl, R.1968Danny the Champion of the World
Hughes, T.1971The Iron Man
*King, C.1963Stig of the Dump
*White, E.B.1952Charlotte's Web

Poetry

Ahlberg, A1983Please Mrs. Butler


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Year 5

Dahl, R.1968Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Dahl, R.1975Danny the Champion of the World
Dahl, R.1967James and the Giant Peach
Hughes, T.1971The Iron Man
*King, C.1963Stig of the Dump
Lewis, C.S.1940/50The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe
Serraillier, I.1956The Silver Sword
*White, E.B.1952Charlotte's Web

Poetry

Ahlberg, A.1983Please Mrs. Butler

Year 6

Kemp, G.1977The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler
Serraillier, I.1956The Silver Sword

Year 7

Bawden, N.1987Carrie's War
Byars, B.1973The 18th Emergency
Byars, B.1970Midnight Fox
*Chaucer14th C.Canterbury Tales
Dahl, R.1984Boy
Dahl, R.1975Danny the Champion of the World
Dickens, C.1850A Christmas Carol
Fisk, N.1975Grinny
Holm, A.1965I am David
Kemp, G.1977The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler
Lively, P.1973Ghost of Thomas Kempe
Naidoo, B.1985Journey to Jo'burg
Naughton, B.1961Goalkeeper's Revenge
O'Brien, R.C.1971Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH
Serraillier, I.1956The Silver Sword
Sutcliffe, R.1971Beowulf Dragon Slayer

Poetry

Kitchen, D.1980sOut of Earshot

Plays

Kemp, G.1977The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler
Shakespeare, W.1595A Midsummer Night's Dream

Year 8

Bawden, N.1987Carrie's War
Dahl, R.1984Boy


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Hinton, N.1982Buddy
Howker, J.1984Badger on the Barge
Kemp, G.1977The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler
Lively, P.1973Ghost of Thomas Kempe
Magorian, M.1981Goodnight Mr. Tom
O'Brien, R.1971Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH
Westall, R.1975The Machine Gunners

Plays

Shakespeare, W.1595A Midsummer Night's Dream
Shakespeare, W.1594Romeo and Juliet

Year 9

Barstow, S.1964Joby
Christopher, J.1970The Guardians
Hinton, N.1982Buddy
Lingard, J.1980sAcross the Barricades
Orwell, G.1945Animal Farm
Richter, H.P.1971Friedrich
Westall, R.1975The Machine Gunners

Poetry

Benton, P. & M.1980sTouchstones

Plays

Russell, W.1984Our Day Out
Shakespeare, W.1600Julius Caesar
Shakespeare, W.1605Macbeth
Shakespeare, W.1596Merchant of Venice
Shakespeare, W.1594Romeo and Juliet

The complete list of teachers' responses to the request for this information is shown in Appendix 5, where it will be seen that titles are mentioned which were first published pre-20th Century, in the early modern 20th Century (1900-1940) and during the modern period (1941-to date).

It was clear from all our evidence that teachers at Key Stage 3 provided a greater range of contexts within which literature was taught than at Key Stage 2. Teachers in middle schools ensured that they planned to meet the requirements for Reading for Y7 in their topic-based approach.

Teachers in both middle and secondary schools planned their Schemes of Work on the principle that the five Attainment Targets should be integrated, not taught separately. Two main contexts for teaching literature were used at Key Stage 3: using a literary text (usually a novel) to provide the focus for activities; including the study of that text as a piece of literature; the second combined a range of literary texts linked to a common theme such as 'Myths


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and Legends'. Some schools used one approach exclusively, whilst others used a combination of the two.

Pupils at Key Stages 2 and 3 were recommended books by their teachers and these titles included both pre-20th century and modern periods, with a bias towards the later. A wide range of texts were selected by teachers from prose, poetry and plays. Some picture books were still used with pupils at Key Stage 2 while there was an increasing use of plays in Key Stage 3.





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4.0 WRITING (INCLUDING SPELLING & HANDWRITING)

4.1 Introduction

This section of the report examines the issues related to the Writing in the specification. The sub-sections below deal separately with the early stages of Writing (section 4.2); with (AT 4) Handwriting in Key Stages 1 - 2 (section 4.3) and finally with (AT 5) Spelling in Key Stages 1 - 3 (section 4.4).

4.2 Writing: The Teaching of Writing at Key Stage 1

4.2.1 Introduction

The English Order (DES/WO 1990) and English for Ages 5-16 (DES 1989 paras. 17.1, 17.2) distinguish between the compositional aspects of Writing, and the secretarial requirements of handwriting, spelling and presentation. This sub-section addresses issues associated with the compositional aspects of writing, while the secretarial requirements are discussed in sections 4.3 and 4.4 below. Issues surrounding the explicit teaching of grammar and punctuation are dealt with in the Knowledge about Language section (6).

4.2.2 Matters relating to the Order

The project team was asked to investigate whether the Statement of Attainment for Level 1 is pitched at the wrong level and if the gap between Level 1 and Level 2 is too wide.

The majority (73%) of teachers interviewed were dissatisfied with the progression between Levels 1 and 2. They said that Level 1 was achievable with some ease, while it was more difficult to meet the range of criteria required for Level 2. The problem seems to lie in Statement of Attainment 2a) which requires pupils to:

'produce independently, pieces of writing using complete sentences, some of them demarcated with capital letters and full stops or question marks.'
Teachers were unsure what constituted 'some' in this statement and LEA guidance to teachers varied from one authority to another.

In 1991 and 1992, SAT data have been collected. Analysis of these data indicated that Statement of Attainment 2a) was achieved by fewer pupils than Statements of Attainment 2b), c) and d). However, a greater proportion of pupils achieved Statement 2a) in 1992, suggesting that there is a growing common understanding among teachers as to how to interpret this Statement more appropriately. This higher achievement could have been as a result of teaching which was explicitly directed towards the SAT. This will be discussed in more detail below.


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4.2.3 The Teaching of Initial Writing Skills

Inspection of paragraphs 17.1 and 17.2 of English for Ages 5-16 (DES 1989) and associated paragraphs of the Order gave rise to a framework which has been used to examine a range of teaching methods used by Key Stage 1 teachers.

(i) The Framework

This framework is shown below. It allows teachers to foster writing which is composed by pupils with a varying amount of teacher intervention. It also accounts for teachers' writing acting as a model for the pupils to copy.

Composing

(a) Teacher scribing for pupil exactly what s/he says.
(b) Teacher scribing for pupil re-phrasing what s/he says.
(c) Collaborative Writing in a group of pupils (with or without the teacher).
(d) Pupil draws pictures and 'scribble-write' underneath.
(e) Teaching using Breakthrough to Literacy materials.
(f) Computer used by pupil to compose writing.
(g) Teacher provides opportunities for pupil to write independently.
(h) Teacher writes down pupil dictation to provide a model for the pupil to then copy.

Secretarial

(i) Teacher writes in pupil's book for pupil to copy.
(j) Teacher writes on the board for pupil to copy.
(k) Teacher uses a sound/symbol (phonic) approach to spelling.
(l) Computer used for editing pupil's writing.
(m) Computer used to make a fair copy.
(n) Wordbooks/dictionaries/print environment used to aid writing.


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(ii) School Documents

School documents illustrated how teachers plan to teach initial writing skills. Policy documents and Schemes of Work form the evidence of this planning.

(a) English/Language Policies

The Writing framework (4.2.3(i) above) was applied to the language policies viewed in the schools visited in order to see what kinds of advice on the teaching of Writing were contained in such documents. Table 13 below summarises the analysis of these policies.

Table 13 % of Planning Activities for the Teaching of Writing in Key Stage 1 English Policies

Activities%
Teacher scribing for pupil exactly what s/he says10
Teacher scribing for pupil re-phrasing what s/he says5
Collaborative Writing in a group of pupils (with or without the teacher)9
Pupil draws pictures and 'scribble-write' underneath7
Teaching using Breakthrough to Literacy materials3
Computer used by pupil to compose writing4
Teacher provides opportunities for pupil to write independently12
Teacher writes down pupil dictation to provide a model for the pupil to then copy4
TOTAL79

Secretarial
Teacher writes in pupil's book for pupil to copy1
Teacher writes on the board for pupil to copy2
Teacher uses a sound/symbol (phonic) approach to spelling2
Computer used for editing pupil's writing2
Computer used to make a fair copy3
Wordbooks/dictionaries/print environment used to aid writing5
TOTAL21

The majority of school policies were in the form of separate Writing policies although some policies integrated Writing with Spelling and Handwriting.

The policies varied in form and content although there were general points common to the majority of the documents. Most documents referred to the National Curriculum requirements, although this ranged from simply listing appropriate Statements of Attainment to extensive quotation from the Order and other non-statutory documents. In addition, the majority of policies discussed the importance of writing tasks having real function or purpose and emphasised the


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importance of drafting and re-drafting written work, Generally the policies stressed that opportunities for writing across the curriculum allowed the pupils to experiment with writing in different forms for a variety of purposes. These policies made no explicit distinction between the teaching of initial writing skills in English and teaching them in other subject-related areas across the curriculum.

Approximately half of the Writing policies advocated a 'writer's workshop' approach to teaching the initial or 'emergent' stages of writing (Czwerniewska 1992). This approach was introduced to some teachers through the National Writing Project and acknowledges that pupils have the ability to compose texts at a very early stage although they may not be able to articulate this ability through their own use of the written word. All early writing attempts are acknowledged even though these attempts may be at the pre-writing stage of development. This notion of valuing pupils' independent writing attempts is also covered by some strands of the Writing framework, which is derived from the Order, without using the term 'writer's workshop'.

With respect to the Writing framework, school policies placed the greatest emphasis on the teacher creating opportunities for pupils to write independently from a very early age. Other methods frequently mentioned included: methods involving teacher acting as a scribe and various types of collaborative writing. Policies sometimes simply listed teaching activities; others described in detail various teaching strategies to teach different aspects of writing development.

The schools visited had policies which envisaged teaching initial writing skills through an approach which concentrated on encouraging independent writing of different kinds. The documents stressed that opportunities for writing in different forms would arise from writing activities in cross-curricular as well as English contexts. The policies placed less emphasis on teaching methods which relied on pupils copying teacher-generated text.

(b) Schemes of Work

Ten Key Stage 1 schools had Schemes of Work which explicitly mentioned Writing. The layout of these Schemes varied from school to school. One school broke down its Schemes of Work into the English Attainment Targets; each Attainment Target was further divided into level-related sheets. Each level-related sheet was made up of four columns headed Statements of Attainment; Children's Assessment; Teaching Practice; Resources. The Teaching Practice column outlined various strategies to facilitate the pupil achieving the relevant Statement( s) of Attainment.

Two Schemes of Work were much lengthier documents. Their nature was more like that of an English Policy with general rather than specific aims and objectives. Two other schools outlined learning objectives associated with English in their Schemes of Work. In both cases, one of the objectives was linked to developing a specific writing skill, One of these schools operated with these Schemes on a weekly basis while the other Schemes covered a term.


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The remainder and majority of the Schemes of Work were similar in format. Work was planned around a cross-curricular topic. This was then sub-divided into distinct subject areas. The Schemes then outlined specific writing activities under the general English heading or sub-divided the section further into the English Attainment Targets. These Schemes of Work varied from simply listing to describing in detail a given writing activity. Some covered distinct year groups while others referred to a whole Key Stage. The length of time covered in the Schemes varied from one week, to a half-term, to a whole term.

(iii) Classroom Observation

Observations of work in classrooms showed what teachers taught as opposed to what they planned for initial writing skills. A summary of the observations from classrooms is presented in Table 14 below.

Table 14 % of Teaching Writing Activities observed in Key Stage 1 classrooms

Activities%
Teacher scribing for pupil exactly what s/he says11
Teacher scribing for pupil re-phrasing what s/he says3
Collaborative Writing in a group of pupils (with or without the teacher)6
Pupils draw pictures and 'scribble-write' underneath4
Teaching using Breakthrough to Literacy materials3
Computer used by pupil to compose writing3
Teacher provides opportunities for pupil to write independently39
Teacher writes down pupil dictation to provide a model for the pupil to then copy4
TOTAL73

Secretarial
Teacher writes in pupil's book for pupil to copy4
Teacher writes on the board for pupil to copy7
Teacher uses phonics in a sound/symbol approach to spelling4
Wordbooks/dictionaries/print environment used to aid and support writing12
TOTAL27

Key Stage 1 teachers provided many opportunities for pupils to write independently without direct teacher intervention, As preparation for the SAT, schools visited had timetabled regular weekly sessions for pupils to write independently of their teacher. Activities ranged from pupils writing their own stories individually or collaboratively, to writing up experiments or reports. Teachers usually provided the stimulus and context for these independent writing activities: thus s/he would direct pupils to fill in a news diary or write a story about a given theme, However, this was the extent of


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teacher intervention. The remainder of the teacher's role in such activities was usually to monitor the work and assist with spellings if required. (This limited teacher intervention is why the writing task was categorised as independent writing.)

Independent writing of this kind was an important element of teaching initial writing skills. Although not an explicit teaching strategy as such (because of the minimum amount of direct teacher intervention), the activity was important for two reasons. Firstly, it gave pupils opportunities to practise composing lengthy texts in forms they had seen modelled in books. Secondly, it provided the teacher with a means of assessing how competent pupils were in writing without relying on their teacher for support with composing content. Teachers in the interviews said they now put more emphasis on creating opportunities for independent writing in order to prepare their pupils for this aspect of the Writing SAT. In other words, they provided pupils with opportunities to practise for the test.

In general, if this kind of writing took place in an English context it consisted of writing a narrative, e.g. about a character or story in a book that the class had read together. In contrast, pupils' independent writing activities across the curriculum usually involved their reporting an experience arising from cross-curricular work,

e.g. Pupils wrote about a sound-journey they had been on. Each piece of work contributed to make a 'Big-Book' on sounds. SCIENCE YrR/1
This contrasted with the school documents which showed that teachers planned to use writing in cross-curricular contexts as a means of developing writing across a range and variety of text-types.

Key Stage 1 pupils were also taught how wordbooks/ dictionaries and the general print environment (e.g. wall labels, list of words on the board) could help them in their writing. At the very early stages of writing the teacher acted as a scribe, allowing individual pupils to compose texts of a greater length or complexity than they would physically be able to produce.

There were a few instances of the teacher acting as a model by writing on the board or in pupils' books for them to copy. There were a very few instances of pupils using supports such as the computer or the Breakthrough to Literacy materials, to compose or copy writing.

Thus at Key Stage 1, observation in classrooms showed that teachers fostered writing which was composed by the pupils with a varying amount of teacher intervention, rather than relying on pupils learning how to write by copying teacher-generated text. These observations can be compared with teachers' diary entries at Key Stage 1 which are discussed in (iv) below.


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(iv) Writing Diaries

Teachers in the Key Stage 1 schools visited were invited to fill in diaries which recorded instances of teaching writing. These diaries were filled in after the project team's visit.

The framework for teaching writing was compared with these diaries. Results are shown in Table 16 below. The table shows that the distribution of the compositional and secretarial aspects of writing in the diaries exactly matches that of the school documents.

Table 15 % Summary of Activities in Writing Diaries - Key Stage 1

Activities%
Teacher scribing for pupil exactly what s/he says17
Teacher scribing for pupil re-phrasing what s/he says0
Collaborative Writing in a group of pupils (with or without the teacher)11
Pupils draw pictures and 'scribble-write' underneath0
Teaching using Breakthrough to Literacy materials3
Computer used by pupil to compose their writing3
Teacher provides opportunities for pupil to write independently35
Teacher writes to pupil dictation to provide a model for copying11
TOTAL79

Secretarial
Teacher writes in pupil's book for pupil to copy3
Teacher writes on the board for pupil to copy0
Teacher uses phonics in a sound/symbol approach to spelling3
Computer used for editing pupil's writing3
Computer used to make a fair copy0
Wordbooks/dictionaries/print environment used to aid and support writing11
TOTAL21

As with the observations in classrooms, the largest category noted in the diaries involved teachers providing opportunities for pupils to write independently. This was clearly seen as an important teaching strategy despite the lack of direct teaching involved. Such independent writing encompassed a variety of forms: e.g. composing stories, making their own adverts, writing science reports. Each instance of this kind of writing in the diaries is presented below in order to illustrate the range of forms of writing at Key Stage 1. This range is representative of both the observations in classrooms and the diary entries.


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English contexts

Pupils were writing a pirate story. Teacher acted as a scribe for less able pupils though others tried and wrote the story on their own using wordbooks. YrR/1

Individual pupils filled in a book review sheet in which they had to express their own opinions. YrR/1

Pupils wrote independently in their own news record/diary. Teacher worked with groups of six pupils analysing their writing progression within the diary. The discussion mainly focused on putting capital letters and full stops in the correct place. Yr2

Teacher read part of a story and then pupils had to make up their own ending. Yr2

Pupils wrote and made their own newspaper adverts. Yr2

Pupils were making a book about the Christmas story. They wrote the beginning of the story without any help from the teacher. The work was then re-drafted if necessary with the teacher. Yr2

Pupils wrote their own sentences linked to the story of Jack and the Beanstalk. YrR/1

Pupils wrote their own sentences linked to the story The Rainbow Machine in the Story Chest series. YrR/1

Pupils wrote sentences linked to a Puddlelane story. YrR/1

Cross-curricular contexts
Pupils wrote a report of a science experiment, using wordbooks or dictionaries to help them. Yr2
In the very early stages of writing, teachers recorded their acting as scribes for pupils in a similar way to that observed in classrooms. This was done in order to enable the pupils to construct lengthier texts than they were otherwise able to produce. All instances of pupils copying the teacher's writing recorded in the diaries involved pupils copying text that they themselves had originally dictated. There were more instances of collaborative writing recorded in the diaries than in the observations and these included groups of children writing with the teacher as scribe as well as whole class collaboration with teacher scribing ideas on the board. In both the diaries and the observations, pupils were encouraged to use wordbooks/dictionaries and the print environment to support their writing.


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Summary

Teaching methods concentrated on encouraging the pupils to create their own texts rather than copying their teacher's model. This was evident in classroom observation and in teachers' diary entries.

Independent writing, the teacher acting as scribe and pupils collaborating on written work - all these were consistent with schools' policies. There was a mismatch, however, between the theory of writing across the curriculum encouraging writing in varied forms and the reality found in the classroom. Pupils write narratives in English contexts and write reports in other curriculum areas.

(iv) Teacher Perceptions

The sections above have examined what teachers planned to do and what they actually did in teaching initial writing skills. Generally there was a consistency in the analyses of these data. This next section examines how teachers perceived they taught early writing.

Both Headteachers and their staff said that there was now more emphasis on specifically preparing pupils for the SAT, with the increased emphasis on punctuation and spelling in unaided writing. One teacher summarised this as follows:

'(The) assessment is too narrow. A good piece of work may have to be rejected because it doesn't fulfil some (e.g. punctuation) criteria. Creativity doesn't get credit, we credit technicians.'
There was a general consensus that any change of teaching approach was as a result of SAT demands rather than the requirements of the Order. Teachers were worried that the requirement to write independently and punctuate correctly at such an early age had led to many pupils formulating shorter pieces of writing, comprised of single clause sentences, than they might have produced in pre-SAT days. Some teachers believed that Y2 was too early for the majority of pupils to understand fully how to use punctuation, and that over-emphasising its use in writing at Key Stage 1 could lead to problems later on.

The questions in the National Survey were designed to draw further responses on the teaching of initial writing skills. The same questionnaire was used in some of the interviews with individual teachers in the schools visited. The respondents were presented with the writing framework (section 4.2.3(i)) and asked to identify five activities that they used most frequently when teaching initial writing skills. Information gathered from fieldwork schools and from the National Survey is almost identical in this respect. The three categories that scored highest and accounted for approximately 50% of the data were:


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Table 16 % of Most Frequently Identified Strategies for Teaching Writing at Key Stage 1

This supports the observations in classrooms with the exception that slightly less emphasis was placed on independent writing in the National Survey, As was stated earlier, independent written work was an important resource for assessing pupils' competence and ability and has limited teacher intervention. This may explain its lower score in the National Survey.

Teachers were also asked to what extent they thought their teaching of writing to have changed. 37% of class teachers and 46% of English Coordinators acknowledged such a change. The fact that more English Coordinators acknowledged change may be due to their responsibility for ensuring implementation of the English Order throughout the school. They were chiefly responsible for writing English-related policy documents (see section 2.0: Manageability). As a result, they may well have had a clearer insight into how at least at document level, the Order had affected their schools' teaching of writing.

Since the introduction of the English Order, teachers commonly identified using a wider range of forms of writing and claimed to place more emphasis on 'emergent writing'. This corresponded with the other sources of information. There was one exception: although opportunities for writing in different forms was documented in the language policies it was rarely observed in the classroom. Teachers also perceived there to be a greater emphasis on drafting and editing, (as in the school documents, but this was not found in classrooms) and on grammar and punctuation.

Summary

Interviews with teachers suggested that there was still a sense that there was a lack of fit between teachers' perceptions of their own teaching of writing, their plans for this and what they actually did in class while teaching writing.


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4.3 Handwriting: The Teaching of Handwriting and its Developmental Sequence at Key Stages 1 and 2

4.3.1 Introduction

Handwriting is:

the physical skill of writing which is concerned with 'legibility' and economy of movement for correct letter, word and sentence formation. (Alston and Taylor 1987: 1)
Implicit in this definition are the two functions of handwriting: it needs to be quick for the benefit of the writer, and it needs to be legible for the benefit of the reader. Handwriting needs to be fluent and fast without sacrificing clarity. Legibility and clarity are presentational skills linked to the secretarial requirements discussed in section 4.2.1 above.

The project team was asked to investigate the teaching methods associated with handwriting (section 4.4.2 below). In addition, they were asked to see whether there is a developmental sequence in handwriting competence (section 4.4.3 below). In the Order, Statements of Attainment pertaining to handwriting skills occur between Levels 1 and 5. It is for this reason that the sections below concentrate on Key Stages 1 and 2.

4.3.2 The Teaching of Handwriting

The team devised a framework for observing methods of teaching Handwriting. This framework originated in part from the detailed provisions of the Programmes of Study for (AT 3) Writing, (AT 4) Spelling and (AT 5) Handwriting; and NSG (NCC 1990) (paras B3.4 - B3.10) which supports the Order. In addition, techniques for teaching handwriting have been extended after initial observations of handwriting teaching in classrooms, to form the framework outlined below. The paragraphs in the NSG imply that there is a distinction between explicit teaching techniques to one or more pupils and strategies employed when monitoring individual pupils. These two strands have been incorporated into the framework shown below.

4.3.2(i) The Framework

The framework was used to analyse teaching methods in the classroom observation, diary, school document and survey data. Each type of data is discussed in the sub-sections which follow.

Explicit Teaching Strategies

Teacher uses the blackboard to demonstrate
Teacher writes in pupil's book to demonstrate
Teaching using worksheet/published Scheme


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Teaching using kinaesthetic activities (e.g. drawing letter shapes in the air)
Teaching using tracing exercises
Teaching by pupil writing over teacher's writing
Teaching the difference between upper and lower case letter formation
Teaching using 'movement families' for teaching letter formation

Monitoring Individuals

Teaching individuals in context of their own writing
Pupils dictate then copy teacher's writing
Teacher watches pupil's handwriting for purpose of diagnosis.

The team in addition noted what types of script (print, print with serifs, cursive) were used in the print environment of different classrooms. The framework itself is equally applicable to print or cursive styles of handwriting.

4.3.2(ii) School Documents

School documents offer information about how English coordinators and class teachers plan to teach handwriting. Policy documents, Schemes of Work and school development plans are discussed below.

(a) Policy Documents

Inspection of the policy documents showed that they contained the same kinds of information on the teaching of handwriting at both Key Stages 1 and 2. This focused on distinct explicit teaching strategies covering the use of worksheets or published Schemes, teaching using kinaesthetic activities and the use of 'movement families' in teaching letter formation. In addition, the policies advocated that handwriting be taught in the context of pupil's own writing. At both Key Stages, the policy documents reflected the requirements of the Order.

A summary of the analysis of the policy documents is presented in Table 17 below.



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Table 17 % of Teaching Methods for Handwriting Described in Policy Documents

*Most frequently mentioned.

Kinaesthetic activities, worksheets or published Schemes, and the use of 'movement families' were most commonly recommended at both Key Stages 1 and 2. The published Schemes, Cripps (1991) and Nelson, (Smith and Inglis 1984) were frequently mentioned in both Key Stage 1 and 2 policies.

All of these strategies could involve the whole class or group or an individual pupil. At both Key Stages, the policy documents advised teachers to discuss handwriting in the context of the pupil's own writing.

(b) Schemes of Work

At both Key Stages, Schemes of Work were very diverse in terms of form and content. Generally though, they outlined learning objectives for the pupils rather than explicit methods of teaching handwriting. These learning objectives were commonly linked to Statements of Attainment.

Some Schemes listed activities and appropriate resources for helping pupils attain specific Statements of Attainment. Some outlined English activities linked to a topic. These activities were broken down into the different Attainment Targets and in this way handwriting was accounted for. In most cases, however, the handwriting activities were not explicitly linked to the overall theme of the topic.


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This indicated that handwriting was one area of English that was planned as a separate activity (see Section 2.0: Manageability).

Schemes of Work ranged from plans for one week to those incorporating a whole term's work. They also varied in terms of the range of pupils catered for. Some targeted specific ability groups, whilst others were aimed at all the pupils in an entire Key Stage.

(c) School Development Plans

One Key Stage 1 school identified handwriting as an area of focus for their school development plan. This involved researching an appropriate published Scheme for the school to follow and building up appropriate resources for developing handwriting, with the aim of helping pupils develop a fluent style to achieve Level 3.

4.3.2(iii) Classroom Observation

The framework for teaching handwriting was used to analyse what was observed in classrooms. Key Stage 1 practice roughly corresponded to what was planned in the policy documents discussed above. In contrast, observations in Key Stage 2 classrooms did not reflect closely the planning found in Key Stage 2 documentation. This analysis is summarised in the table below.

Table 18 % Summary of Handwriting Activities Observed in Classrooms at Key Stages 1 and 2

*Most frequently observed.


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At Key Stages 1 and 2, recorded instances of handwriting show that handwriting activities were rarely linked to the theme of an over-arching topic, if there was one. Handwriting teaching was usually in the context of the pupils' work. This practice corresponded with the planning in Schemes of Work.

At Key Stage 1, teaching of kinaesthetic activities was the most frequently observed activity. At Key Stage 2, this strategy was used less often. There was, however, an increased use of the blackboard.

At Key Stage 1, in addition to using kinaesthetic activities (13%), teachers wrote on the board (10%) and in pupils' books (10%) to demonstrate letter formation. However, the most common strategy was close monitoring of pupils' handwriting. It accounted for 26% of the observed instances of teaching handwriting. There was more emphasis on monitoring individuals in the observation data than in the documents. The other observed activities roughly corresponded to those identified in the policy documents.

Clearly at Key Stage 2, the most common explicit teaching strategy was for the teacher to demonstrate letter formation or joining strokes on the board (31%). The use of worksheets/published Schemes was also frequently observed (13%). This was more frequent than at Key Stage 1. There was also emphasis on these activities in the document data. However, the document data also recommended teaching using movement families and kinaesthetic activities which occurred very infrequently in the observation data. The use of the blackboard had three times more emphasis in the observed classroom practice than in the documents. Indeed, in terms of explicit teaching strategies, what was planned in the documents was not supported by observations of classroom practice. The handwriting framework used in this analysis was not wholly represented in the observation data at Key Stage 2, as some categories were not observed at all. This indicated that the teaching strategies recommended by the Order and supported by the Non-Statutory Guidance were not reflected in classroom practice at Key Stage 2.

In terms of 'monitoring individuals', Key Stage 2 teachers spent the greatest amount of time looking at pupils' handwriting for diagnostic purposes. This accounted for the majority (47%) of observed instances of teaching handwriting. However, there was very little direct teaching of individual pupils observed at Key Stage 2. Again this contrasted with the document data which placed most emphasis on teaching individuals in the context of their own writing. This further suggested that the Order and NSG were not being fully implemented in the classroom practice observed at Key Stage 2. This was in contrast to Key Stage 1 observation which largely corresponded to the planning in the school documents. Thus it can be said that the Order and NSG were being put into practice in Key Stage 1 classrooms.

Information about the print environment indicated that slightly more Key Stage 1 schools relied on print, or print with serifs, than cursive scripts. However,


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the majority of Key Stage 2 schools used cursive or a mixture of cursive and print scripts.

4.3.2(iv) Handwriting Diaries

The framework for teaching handwriting was applied to the handwriting diaries. Observation and diary data combined provide a picture of how handwriting was taught at Key Stages 1 and 2.

The table below summarises what teachers recorded in the diaries. There was a greater distribution of different activities in the Key Stage 1 than the Key Stage 2 diaries.

Table 19 Handwriting Diaries - Key Stages 1 and 2

*Most frequently recorded.

At Key Stage 1, few teachers recorded teaching individual pupils in the context of their own writing. This may be because the focus (or implied focus) of the diaries seemed to suggest separate, structured handwriting activities. The majority of recorded instances of teaching handwriting involved the use of worksheets or published Schemes (27%). This figure is far higher than that observed in Key Stage 1 classrooms (8%). Most worksheets consisted of activities set up to develop motor skills (e.g. dot-to-dot patterns) or specific letter formation (e.g. tracing over a letter). The use of other explicit teaching strategies such as use of blackboard and


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pupils' books to demonstrate as well as kinaesthetic activities, corresponded to the observation data. This in turn corresponded to the documentary evidence.

With regard to the print environment, apart from strategies using movement families, there was only one entry that explicitly referred to joined-up/cursive script in Key Stage 1 diaries.

The recorded instances of handwriting in Key Stage 2 diaries concentrate on only four strands of the framework. Of these the majority involved the teacher monitoring a pupil's handwriting for diagnosis (43%). The next highest scoring category involved the teacher demonstrating letter formation on the board (38%). The diary data show that such teaching was usually in response to the teacher observing errors in diagnosing individual pupils' handwriting. Other categories recorded were teaching by demonstrating letter formation in pupils' books (9.5%) and teaching individuals in the context of their own writing (9.5%). All Key Stage 2 diary entries explicitly referred to the process of writing in cursive script.

Very few categories of the framework were represented in the diary or observation data: further evidence that the Order was not being implemented fully at Key Stage 2.

4.3.2(v) Teacher Perceptions

(a) Headteacher and Whole Staff Meetings

At both Key Stages, the majority of Headteachers said that there had been a change in their schools' approach to the teaching of handwriting. In most cases this was claimed to be as a result of the implementation of the SAT. In order to allow more pupils to attain Level 3 of the current Writing SAT, many schools had introduced the teaching of cursive writing earlier than they had previously. In addition, headteachers made general comments about how handwriting was now being taught more explicitly with targeted lessons for handwriting in groups or the whole class. However, two Headteachers (one at each Key Stage) expressed reservations about implementing any more changes because of the proposed revision of the Order.

The teachers interviewed in the Key Stage 1 and 2 whole staff meeting agreed with the Headteachers' responses. Any change they had made to their teaching was seen to have been as a result of the SAT requirements and was in the form of a more formal teaching approach and the earlier introduction of cursive writing.

(b) Teacher Interviews

Individual teachers were asked if they thought the way they taught handwriting had changed since the introduction of the National Curriculum. More Key Stage 1 English Coordinators (44%) than Key Stage 1 class teachers (35%) perceived there to have been some change. The earlier introduction of cursive writing accounted for 47% of Key Stage 1 responses pertaining to change in teaching handwriting. At Key Stage 2 change was identified in the areas of an earlier introduction of cursive writing (39%), an increased use of published Schemes (23%) and a more formal,


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structured approach (20%) to their handwriting teaching. These stated views supported those of the Headteachers and whole staff meetings across both Key Stages.

In addition, when respondents identified which handwriting script they used, 65% of Key Stage 1 teachers and 55% of Key Stage 2 teachers mentioned teaching cursive writing. This was in contrast to the observations and diary entries where pupils at Key Stage 1 commonly used print script or print with serifs.

Most teachers interviewed (79%) said that they taught handwriting both as a separate decontextualised activity and within the context of the pupils' own writing. They were asked to identify teaching strategies that they most commonly used to teach handwriting. The following activities were most frequently mentioned at Key Stage 1.

Activities

% of total responses
Teaching using movement families for teaching letter formation15%
Teaching using worksheet/published Scheme15%
Teaching using kinaesthetic activities14%

All of these strategies were frequently mentioned in the school documents and all but the 'movement families' technique were commonly observed in the classrooms and recorded in the diaries. In addition, all strands of the framework for teaching handwriting were mentioned in the interview data.

Key Stage 2 teachers identified the following teaching strategies as the most commonly used.

Activities

% of total responses
Teaching using worksheet/published Scheme46%
Teaching using movement families for teaching letter formation24%
Teaching individuals in the context of their own writing11%

Although these activities matched the document data, they did not correspond with what was observed in classrooms and recorded in diaries. In other words, teachers' perceptions and planning reflected the Order, but this was not extended into the classroom. This was in contrast to Key Stage 1, where the analysis of the different data using the handwriting framework indicated that the Order was reflected in the planning and teaching of handwriting.

4.3.2(vi) Conclusion

The framework identified at the beginning of section 4.3.2 was originally derived from the English Order and the Non-Statutory Guidance. The analysis of all strands of the data using this framework has therefore assessed how far the handwriting elements of the National Curriculum for English were being implemented.


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At Key Stage 1, the Order was reflected in the planning and teaching of handwriting and in teachers' perceptions of this provision. However, by contrast at Key Stage 2, the requirements of the Order, while being seen to be reflected in teachers' planning and their perceptions of their teaching, were not observed to be in evidence in practice.

4.3.3 The Developmental Sequence of Handwriting

The project team was also asked to investigate progression in handwriting through Key Stages 1 and 2. A possible developmental sequence for handwriting is outlined below.

(i) The Sequence Outlined

The sequence below has emerged as a result of text-book research, primarily Jarman (1979), in so far as it matches the Statements of Attainment; of data obtained from school documents; and from a consideration of the sequence outlined in ATs 5 and 4/5.

Teachers were asked about sequence in relation to the pupils they teach:

Pupils can:

(a) copy printed or joined-up words and sentences with control over size, shape and orientation of letters or lines of writing,
(b) in their own writing, begin to form letters with some control over size, shape and orientation of writing in both print (with serifs) and joined up,
(c) begin to differentiate between the shapes of capital letters and small letters in both joined-up and print (with serifs),
(d) produce recognisably formed letters which have clear ascenders and descenders where necessary in both joined up and print (with serifs),
(e) begin to join letters and write a simple joined-up hand,
(f) begin to space words appropriately in both print and joined-up writing,
(g) produce clear and legible handwriting in printed style,
(h) produce more fluent joined-up writing in independent work,
(i) begin to develop a personal cursive hand,
(j) produce clear and legible handwriting in cursive style.


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Stranding the Sequence

This sequence (a - j) has been amalgamated into three strands. These strands are not necessarily distinct as some items (such as d) can occur both in copying and in independent writing.

The progression towards independence, eventually leading to a clear, legible style, was felt to be an important developmental sequence with clear implications for teaching strategies (and perhaps assessment). The following stranding has therefore been adopted:

(a) copying,
(b) independent work,
(c) personal style.

An indication of how the strands (a) - (j) correspond to the headings, copying; independent; and personal style, is illustrated in Table 20 which follows.




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Table 20 Illustrating the Sequence and Stranding of Handwriting Development


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4.3.3(ii) School Documents

Policy documents were found to be the most useful sources of information on sequential development of handwriting. These are discussed below, using the developmental framework to assess how far the Order was used in planning.

The policy documents gave a good deal of information relating to the early stages of the developmental framework as identified in section 4.3.3(i) above. Much of the information in the Key Stage 1 documents was repeated in the Key Stage 2 documents. Additional information about the development of cursive writing was also supplied in the Key Stage 2 documents. Where the documents referred to a style of handwriting, the emphasis was usually on developing cursive writing from the reception years. In addition, many of the documents made reference to the developmental links between handwriting and spelling. Table 21 below summarises this analysis.

Table 21 % of Activities in Sequential Development of Handwriting Found in the English Policies at Key Stages 1 and 2

*Most frequently mentioned.


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These data indicate that the stages (a) to (d) in Table 21 above were most frequently referred to in the Key Stage 1 policy documents. These stages have the highest scores and thus roughly correspond to the developmental sequence outlined in the early stages of the framework in section 4.3.3(i) above.

Stages which refer to the size and orientation of letter formation refer to either print or cursive script according to the agreed handwriting style of the whole school. The majority of documents stated that cursive writing should be taught from reception. Other policies, however, advocated the use of print script throughout Key Stage 1. Further policies mentioned that print with serifs should be taught in reception, moving towards cursive writing in Y2. In addition, 44% of schools considered the developmental links between spelling and handwriting.

The handwriting framework reflected the content of the policy documents at Key Stage 1. As the framework derived from the Order, this indicated that the developmental sequence for handwriting in the Order was being carried through to planning in the classroom.

The same applied in Key Stage 2, with the majority of documents mentioning the earlier stages of development. In addition to the four stages outlined in the Key Stage 1 (a) to (d) above, the further two stages (d) and (h) of the framework were also frequently mentioned at Key Stage 2.

Therefore, at Key Stage 2 there was a move towards more cursive writing Indeed, the majority of policies, if they did mention a script, discussed using cursive writing from the reception years. As at Key Stage 1, many schools (46%) discussed the developmental links between handwriting and spelling.

Since so much of the developmental framework was reflected in the documents, it was clear that the Order was generally being translated into the planning stages of school documentation at Key Stages 1 and 2.

4.3.3(iii) Classroom Observation

In order to see how far this framework was evident in classroom practice, data from schools and classrooms were analysed. The main bulk of information was to be found in the school document and national survey data as notions of development are difficult to capture in relatively short times in the classroom. However, data from classrooms added to the survey and document data and is thus discussed below.

At Key Stage 1, pupils were observed to rely heavily on copying as a means of practising handwriting. They also were conscious of their handwriting in their independent writing, especially in Years 1 and 2. Some Key Stage 1 pupils were beginning to develop their own personal style (though all these instances occurred in the same school, where there was a strong emphasis on the introduction of cursive handwriting from Reception classes onwards).


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At Key Stage 2, pupils were no longer copying 'printed words and sentences with control over size, shape and orientation of letters or lines of writing' (stage a). They had moved towards independent writing and were showing signs of developing a personal style.

This indicated, as expected, that the notion of one type of development being the move from copying towards independence culminating in a personal style, was a valid one. It also supports the interpretation of the developmental sequence in the school document data. Thus it can be said that this aspect of the Order was being implemented in Key Stage 1 and 2 classrooms.

4.3.3(iv) Teacher Perceptions

The teachers were shown the sequence and asked to identify stages which the majority of their pupils could achieve,

At Key Stage 1, the teachers who were interviewed identified the following stages of development most frequently as representative of the majority of their pupils.

In their own writing, pupils can:

(b) begin to form letters with some control over size, shape and orientation of writing (whether in print or cursive)17%
(d) produce recognisably formed letters which have clear ascenders and descenders where necessary (whether in print or in cursive)16%
(f) begin to space words appropriately (whether in print or cursive)16%

These stages are not consistent with the early stages of development identified in sections 4.3.3(i) and (iii) above. By identifying stages (d) and (f), Key Stage 1 teachers had a higher perception of what their pupils could achieve than was recorded in other sources of data. However, these stages were required as evidence of attainment in the 1992 SAT Assessment Record Booklet. This may have led to teachers' perceptions being influenced by the SAT.

Teachers in Key Stage 2 identified the following stages of development as most representative of the majority of their pupils.

Pupils can:

(h) produce more fluent joined-up writing in independent work20%
(j) produce clear and legible handwriting in cursive style17%
(i) begin to develop a personal cursive hand14%


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In Key Stage 1, teachers' planning and practice were broadly consistent. What was noticeable, however, was the lack of consistency in teachers' perceptions of how pupils' handwriting developed.

These stages support the document and observation evidence which showed pupils using cursive script in independent writing while progressing towards the development of a personal style. This indicates that these teachers clearly understood the requirements of the Order.

At Key Stage 2, there was a greater level of comparability across planning, teaching and teachers' perceptions of handwriting development.





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4.4 Spelling: The Teaching of Spelling at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 and its Developmental Sequence at Key Stages 1 and 2

4.4.1 Introduction

Spelling has two main functions. Firstly, it is an important tool for writers since automatic correct spelling frees them to concentrate on the compositional aspects of writing. Secondly, spelling is an essential aid to communication, since a text full of inaccurate spellings causes problems for the reader. Accurate spelling therefore aids comprehension.

A competent speller needs to have mastered a number of sub-skills:

(a) knows the visual appearance (the shape) of the word,
(b) knows the regularity and irregularity of the sound-symbol relations,
(c) knows which letters are likely to occur together, e.g. q is always followed by u, (orthographic probability),
(d) knows how words are constructed (based on both morphological and etymological information such as prefixes, suffices and root words).
Spelling is conventionally rule-governed and pupils need to understand this. Accurate spellers apply rules when attempting a new word. Competent spellers have a mental word bank of the visual shape of words with which they are familiar.

This section examines what teaching methods are being employed in schools with regard to spelling (section 4.4.2), and whether the data show a sequence in teachers' perceptions which is appropriate in their teaching and planning (section 4.4.3).

4.4.2 The Teaching of Spelling

Initial observations of teaching spelling gave rise to a framework against which a range of teaching methods used by teachers to develop pupils' spelling competence can be examined. This framework has been developed from the Programmes of Study and paragraph 3.2 page B8 of the NSG. Paragraph 3.2 in the NSG distinguishes between explicit teaching techniques and teacher provision for the learning of spelling. Therefore, these two strands have been incorporated into the framework which follows.

4.4.2(i) The Framework

A. Explicit Teaching Methods

(a) Teacher teaches 'irregular' spelling patterns. (The English spelling system is a mixture of different traditions, based on Anglo-Saxon, French, Latin


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and Greek spelling patterns, Teachers therefore teach about the apparent irregularities of words such as 'through' and 'bough'.)

(b) Teacher teaches regular spelling patterns. (The teacher discusses how words are made up of units which remain fixed, such as 'discuss' and 'discussion'. )

B. Creating Independence

These strands focus on teachers providing pupils with strategies for attempting unfamiliar words. These include:

(c) Teacher helps pupil use a dictionary,
(d) Teacher teaches the 'look, cover, write, check' method. This is summarised below:

(i) Teacher writes the word and says it to the pupil.
(ii) The pupil looks at the word and says it.
(iii) The pupil covers the word and tries to remember what it looks like.
(iv) The pupil writes the word in full from memory without checking each letter.
(v) The pupil checks what s/he has written with what the teacher had originally written.
(vi) If the pupil mis-spells the word, s/he repeats steps (ii) - (v).
C. Arising from Pupil's Writing

The following strands deal with approaches the teacher uses when a pupil asks for a word, or indicates that s/he requires help by using strategies such as the 'magic line' in the context of his or her writing.

(e) Teacher writes the spelling in the pupil's wordbook with or without comment.
(f) Teacher corrects spelling in context of pupil's writing with or without comment.
(g) Teacher helps the pupil sound out the letters of the word the pupil requires.

The strands (e) - (g) may be accompanied by any of the techniques discussed in strands (a) - (d) above.


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D. Assessment Techniques

One aspect of teaching is the monitoring by the teacher of the pupils' spelling competence:

(h) Teacher gives pupils a spelling list for learning. (This list of words could arise from the reading scheme, from the topic of work, or be an individual list of words a pupil has been frequently mis-spelling.)
(i) Teacher tests spelling. (This could be in the form of a dictation, comprehension or a set of lists of words.)

E. Provisions

The following concentrate on the contexts in which spelling is taught. Any of the teaching strategies discussed above could be used,

(j) Spelling is taught as part of ongoing activity.
(k) Spelling is taught as a separate lesson.
(l) Published/Teacher devised spelling Schemes are used.
(m) Teacher points out word in print environment (including computer program).

This framework is applicable to all three Key Stages. It accounted for the teaching of spelling either as a separate lesson or in response to an individual pupil's needs. By applying this framework to the range of data across Key Stages 1 - 3, a picture of how spelling was taught emerged.

4.4.2(ii) School Documents

The framework was used to analyse which teaching methods were advocated in school documentation. This documentation indicated what teachers planned to do when teaching spelling. English policies, Schemes of Work and other documentation were treated separately and are discussed below.

In general, explicit advice about the planning and the teaching of spelling was located in policies rather than the Schemes of Work at Key Stages 1 and 2. These policies stressed the importance of teaching about sound-symbol relationships and the use of visual imagery in learning to spell. At Key Stage 3, specific references to activities and strategies for teaching spelling were located in the Schemes of Work, rather than the policies. Thus at Key Stages 1 and 2 planning for teaching spelling tended to be a set of general aims, whereas at Key Stage 3 planning was targeted towards specific activities for developing pupils' spelling competence.


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(a) Policy Documents

Table 22 summarises the analysis of policy documents using the framework. The analysis shows that in general terms the distribution of strategies for teaching spelling was comparable across the policy documentation at all Key Stages. The exception to this is that as pupils progressed through the Key Stages, teachers were more likely to teach about spelling using explicit teaching methods.

Table 22 % of Teaching Methods for Spelling Described in Policy Documents

At both Key Stages 1 and 2, policy documents emphasised that teachers needed to teach explicitly 'irregular' and 'regular' spelling patterns. Further emphasis was placed on the importance of teaching pupils how to use a dictionary appropriately, and on using the print environment (including the computer) as a spelling aid. The importance of developing good visual memory was enforced by a large proportion of policies advocating the use of the 'Look, Cover, Write, Check' strategy. There was slightly more emphasis in the Key Stage 1 policies on the role of sound-symbol relationships in spelling new words. At both Key Stages there was little emphasis on giving pupils spelling lists or spelling tests.

At Key Stage 3, the policy documents gave more general rather than specific advice on teaching methods. When advice was given, this included teaching the pupils about 'regular' and 'irregular' spelling patterns and on the value of the 'Look, Cover, Write, Check' strategy.

The majority of Key Stage 3 policies required teachers to take opportunities to teach spelling when commenting on an individual pupil's work. In addition to this, Key Stage 1 and 2 documents also mentioned teaching spelling in separate lessons. No distinction was made in the policies across the Key Stages between teaching spelling in separate English contexts or across the curriculum.

(b) Schemes of Work

At Key Stages 1 and 2 any reference to spelling tended to be non-specific and generalised. Only one Scheme of Work at Key Stage 1 went into any specific detail about planning for spelling activities. Within this document, plans for


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each week were devoted to a particular topic. Within one week (where the topic was 'Food'), the Reception pupils' spelling activities were to make alphabet soup and then spell three letter words from alphabet letters on the floor. During the same week the Year 2 pupils worked on specific consonant blends at the beginning, middle or end of words. Other Schemes were more general or did not mention spelling at all.

At Key Stage 2, few schools explicitly mentioned spelling in their Schemes of Work and when they did these references were very general. For example, one school was looking at the topic 'Houses and Homes' and while other English activities were directly related to this topic, the specific spelling objective was not. Instead, pupils were to be encouraged and shown how to:

  • check spelling in a dictionary when revising and proof-reading. (AT 4 2c, 3d).
  • use a variety of activities for help with understanding the alphabet and alphabetical order.
  • play the dictionary game.
  • look up words for the week - list according to ability, word patterns. (Extract from a Scheme of Work)
By contrast, at Key Stage 3 references to spelling were more targeted and related to the overall theme of particular lessons.

Two Key Stage 3 schools made explicit reference to spelling activities in their Schemes of Work. The first set of documents was divided into themes per year group. For example, in Yr 7 the theme was Myths and planned spelling activities included looking at classical word roots and alphabet ordering the spelling activity was directly related to the overall theme. In the second document, the Schemes of Work covered a term and provided objectives which the teacher should have covered by the end of that term. For spelling, the objective was to familiarise pupils with dictionaries. This involved activities such as games to reinforce alphabetical use; looking at how a dictionary works and what explanations mean; and strategies for finding words quickly.

(c) School Development Plans

Two Key Stage 1 schools targeted spelling as an area for review in their school development plans. In one school, one aim for the forthcoming year was very general in that it was to consider various approaches to the teaching of spelling. However, the other school gave spelling a higher focus in its development plan. The aim was for the school to develop a new spelling policy and to raise teacher awareness of the developmental stages in learning to spell. This was to involve a large-scale review of how spelling was taught, and the resources in the school. Lead staff were to research theoretical and educational perspectives on the teaching of spelling.


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4.4.2(iii) Classroom Observation

The framework for spelling was also used to analyse the data obtained through classroom observation. This provided a source of comparison with the school documents and examined how far school plans were put into practice.

The table below shows the results of this analysis. It indicates that the concentration on the first three categories (Explicit Teaching Methods, Creating Independence, Arising from pupils' Writing) in the school documents was not carried through into practice. Within classrooms, the majority of teaching of spelling occurred within the context of individual pupils' writing. Across the Key Stages there was very little emphasis on the explicit teaching of 'regular' and 'irregular' spelling patterns. Strategies to foster independence and pupil autonomy in attempting to spell new words were infrequently observed. In both planning and practice, assessment techniques were rarely recorded in any of the Key Stages.

Table 23 % of Spelling Activities Observed in Classrooms at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3

Key Stage 1

The main context for teaching spelling was in response to the needs of individual pupils, In addition, the most common teaching strategy was for the teacher to help the pupil sound out (or spell phonetically) a word the pupil had asked for in the context of his/her own work. This strategy accounted for 36% of observed instances of teaching spelling. Teaching spelling as a separate activity accounted for 5% of observed instances. Other strategies regularly employed included teachers taking opportunities to comment on spelling patterns when writing in wordbooks (10%) and to point out irregular spelling patterns (14%). The 'Look, Cover, Write, Check' method was also a common strategy employed by teachers (13%).

Teachers took opportunities to work with individual pupils, developing their sound-symbol awareness as well as helping pupils to look for and memorise the visual patterns of words. Observations generally concur with the policy documents, with the exception that there was more emphasis placed on teaching dictionary skills in the policies than was observed in the classroom.


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Key Stage 2

The major teaching approach was to comment on the spelling of words when correcting a piece of work. As with Key Stage 1, helping pupils to spell words phonetically accounted for a large proportion of teaching (22%). Teachers were beginning to teach pupils explicitly how to use a dictionary. This accounted for 11% of instances of teaching spelling.

However, there were no instances of using the 'Look, Cover, Write, Check' strategy, nor of teaching about 'irregular' spellings. Teaching 'regular' spelling patterns only accounted for 4% of the observed data. Thus there was not the same emphasis on developing pupils' visual memory of words as at Key Stage 1. This lack of emphasis does not match the planned spelling programme in the school documentation which stressed such techniques.

Key Stage 3

All the teaching about spelling arose in the context of a piece of written work. There were no instances of teaching spelling as a separate lesson. As with Key Stage 2, most teaching about spelling occurred in the context of the teacher marking a pupil's piece of work. Teachers also tended to write out the correct spelling of a word without discussing this spelling with the pupil. This accounted for 22% of instances of recorded teaching of spelling.

Teachers no longer spelled words phonetically using lower-case letter sounds. Rather they spelled out the word for the pupil, using the letter names. This accounted for 13% of the data. As with Key Stage 2, there was an emphasis on teaching pupils about dictionary use (13%). Teachers were more likely to address the whole class or group about spelling strategies than their Key Stage 1 or 2 counterparts (9%). This figure is still quite low and the activity was always in the context of a piece of written work. This contrasts with the targeted planning for spelling activities in the Schemes of Work for Key Stage 3.

There were no examples of explicit teaching about regular or irregular spelling patterns or about the strategy 'Look, Cover, Write, Check'. However, such strategies were mentioned in the school documentation, particularly in the Schemes of Work. The main emphasis in the Key Stage 3 documentation was to correct mis-spelling in the context of a pupil's work. This emphasis was carried through from the planning to what was observed in the classroom.

4.4.2(iv) Spelling Diaries

Diary entries and observations combined provided a more coherent picture of how spelling was taught at Key Stages 1 and 2. At Key Stage 1, these combined sources of information supported the planning for spelling in the school policy documents. However, at Key Stage 2 there was more emphasis on the assessment aspects of spelling in the diaries than in the observations. At Key Stage 3, the diary entries were insufficient to provide a useful comparison. Any disparity between these two sources of data could be as a result of the


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circumstances in which they were collected. During observations a picture of a typical day or longer was recorded in the classrooms; this may or may not have coincided with the teacher's plans to teach a specific lesson, By contrast, the diaries explicitly asked the teacher to record instances of teaching spelling without the constraints of a specific short-term time limit set by the observations. Teaching the whole class or group about spelling would therefore most naturally be noted in the diaries.

Table 24 % of Frequency of Activities Mentioned in Spelling Diaries at Key Stages 1 and 2

At Key Stage 1, class teachers' diary entries indicated there were more instances of spelling being taught as a separate lesson in the diaries than in the classroom observations. They accounted for 25% of the instances of teaching spelling. Other categories scoring highly included teaching about sound-symbol relations (17%) and using a published or teacher-devised scheme (13%). There were more instances of teachers correcting or commenting on mis-spelling in the pupils' own work in the diaries than during observations. All of these instances involved the pupil's first draft of a piece of written work.

The only categories not recorded in the diaries were those involving wordbooks and the use of tests. Teachers may not have written down instances of writing in or using wordbooks as they occurred so frequently that they were not regarded as explicit teaching strategies. There were no instances of explicitly testing spelling in either the Key Stage 1 observations or in the diaries.

At Key Stage 1, the combination of observations and diary entries was consistent with the planning for teaching spelling in the Key Stage 1 school policy documents.

Key Stage 2 diary entries presented a very different picture from observations in classrooms. There were more instances of spelling tests: indeed they accounted for the majority of spelling teaching (18%), yet did not feature at all in the observations. The 'Look, Cover, Write, Check' approach accounted for 15% of the diary entries though this approach was not observed in classrooms.

In contrast, there were no references in the diaries to teaching pupils how to use a dictionary, or to helping them sound out words. These were evident, however, in the observations. Similarly, commenting on spelling in the


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context of pupils' work only accounted for 15% of the diary entries, yet it formed the majority (41%) of the observations.

As with Key Stage 1, these sources of information indicated that at Key Stage 2, teachers carried out more formal aspects of teaching spelling, such as testing, and that classroom observations did not capture this. However, this was not always in accordance with how spelling was planned in the school documents at Key Stage 2.

4.4.2(v) Teacher Perceptions

This section brings together a range of information about teachers' perceptions of how they teach spelling. It includes semi-structured interviews with Headteachers, whole staff meetings at Key Stages 1 and 2, and structured interviews with teachers and national survey responses at Key Stages I, 2 and 3. Generally, Key Stage 1 and 2 teachers perceived the SATs rather than the curriculum to have altered their teaching of spelling. They felt that this had resulted in a more structured approach to teaching spelling, with the main focus being on developing their pupils' independence as competent spellers. This matched what was observed in classrooms and what teachers recorded in their diaries.

Headteacher and Whole Staff Meetings

Key Stage 1 and 2 Headteachers generally claimed that a more formal emphasis than previously was being placed on spelling because of SAT requirements. These Headteachers perceived there to be more whole class or large group teaching and a general increase in developing independence in spelling. This was to enable pupils to perform better in a SAT which tests unaided writing. The majority of Head teachers said that they had initiated new spelling policies since the implementation of the National Curriculum. They also commented on an increase in the use of published Schemes. However, one Headteacher explicitly expressed a reluctance to undertake such an initiation because of the proposed revision of the Order which may lead to further changes in policy documentation.

Meetings with school staffs echoed the information gained from the Headteachers in that they saw shift in emphasis on spelling because of the SAT requirements. This had resulted in more structured approaches to teaching spelling (e.g. increased use of 'Look, Cover, Write, Check'; and the strategy of looking at words within words to develop pupils' visual memory and understanding of orthographic probability). Teachers frequently stressed that they now had to develop teaching strategies for developing their pupils' ability to attempt the spelling of new words independently from the teacher. One staff meeting asked for additional guidance on how to do this.

One Key Stage 2 Headteacher said that all the staff had anxieties about assessment and were having meetings to agree on what was meant by the individual Statements of Attainment in AT 4.


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Teacher Interviews

Teachers were shown the framework for teaching spelling (section 4.4.2(a)) and asked to identify which methods they used most frequently. Teachers in all Key Stages identified the teaching of 'regular' and 'irregular' spelling patterns as a commonly employed strategy. Key Stage 1 teachers frequently chose the strategy of helping pupils sound out the letters of a word. This was supported by the observations and diary entries. At Key Stage 2, teachers emphasised assessment techniques. This matched the diary entries. It could be that teachers believe there to be an increase in testing, whilst this has not been borne out by observations. At both Key Stages 2 and 3, teaching about dictionary use was commonly identified.

With the exception of the emphasis on testing at Key Stage 2, teachers across all three Key Stages identified teaching strategies which also featured in other sources of data. In general, planning, practice and perceptions of that planning were corroborated. In addition, teachers of all Key Stages generally perceived there to have been no change in the teaching of spelling since the introduction of the National Curriculum. However, when change was acknowledged to have occurred, it was usually in the area of more formal structured teaching and in encouraging spelling independence in order to prepare pupils for the SATs. This claim concerning areas of change matched the responses made by Headteachers and teachers in whole staff meetings.

4.4.2 (vi) Conclusion

Planning for the teaching of spelling was found to be sets of general objectives located in policy documents at Key Stages 1 and 2. At Key Stage 3, by contrast, this planning was targeted towards specific activities detailed in Schemes of Work.

Evidence about actual practice was to be found in a combination of diary entries and observations. At Key Stages 1 and 3, these sources of information supported the planning for spelling located in the documents. However, at Key Stage 2 there was more emphasis on the more formal aspects of spelling (such as testing) in the diaries than in the observations and policy documentation.

Generally at Key Stages 1 and 2, perceptions about teaching practice were affected by the SATs rather than the Order itself In this respect, these perceptions did not always concur with information in the documents and observed in classrooms. At Key Stage 3, teachers generally perceived there to have been no change in their approach to teaching spelling, although some acknowledged that this had become more formal and structured since the introduction of the National Curriculum.

Overall, with regard to teaching spelling, the planning recorded in the documents was usually observed in classroom practice. However, teacher


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perceptions of this practice and their diary entries were not always as corroborative.

4.4.3 Developmental Sequence of Spelling

The project team was also asked to investigate the developmental stages by which pupils learn to spell. This involved a theoretical search as well as analysis of fieldwork data. This is presented below.

4.4.3(i) The Sequence Outlined

This sequence has been based on the work of Gentry (1982) where it is consistent with the Order; on data obtained from the school document strand of the fieldwork; and from a consideration of the sequence outlined in ATs 4 and 4/5 of the Order. The sequence is:

Pupils ...

(a) can use individual and combination letter-sound correspondence,

(b) are beginning to operate a sound-symbol system with evidence of word separation,

( c) can use a dictionary/wordbook but will often not look beyond the first letter of words and confuse words of similar visual appearance,

(d) can use sight recognition and visual meaning for 'irregular' spelling patterns, (e.g. 'rough', 'hiccough', 'through'),

(e) can use dictionary/word book correctly for most words needed,

(f) are beginning to build up and use a sight vocabulary of 'irregular' words and 'regular' patterns, understanding how they are used and using a dictionary correctly.

Stranding the Sequence

The sequence (a) - (f) above has been categorised into three strands: sound symbol; dictionary skills and orthographic probability. The strands are made up as follows:-

(I) SOUND SYMBOL

This encompasses the stage of development that links the sounds of language to a graphological representation.

Pupils ...

(a) can use individual and combination letter-sound correspondence,


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(b) are beginning to operate a sound-symbol system with evidence of word separation.

(II) DICTIONARY SKILLS

This strand covers pupils' developing competence at dictionary use. It builds on their knowledge of orthographic probability, morphology and etymology.

Pupils ...

(c) can use a dictionary/wordbook but will often not look beyond the first letter of words and confuse words of similar visual appearance,

(e) can use a dictionary/wordbook correctly for most words needed,

(f) are beginning to build-up and use a sight vocabulary of 'irregular' words and 'regular' patterns, understanding how they are used and using a dictionary correctly.

(III) ORTHOGRAPHIC PROBABILITY

This strand covers the skills involved in learning the rules of the English spelling system in spelling regular and irregular words.

Pupils ...

(d) can use sight recognition and visual meaning for 'irregular' spelling patterns (e.g. 'rough', 'hiccough', 'through'),

(f) are beginning to build up and use a sight vocabulary of , irregular' words and 'regular' patterns, understanding how they are used and using a dictionary appropriately.

In stranding the sequence in the above way, an important element appeared to be missing: the pupils' ability to move from dependence on the teacher in attempts to spell a word, towards independence. This strand has been labelled Growing Independence. It moves from simply copying words from the board/books/wall displays/wordbooks towards pupils only using a dictionary to check their own spelling attempts.

(IV) GROWING INDEPENDENCE

Pupils ...

(g) copying from the board/labels/books (including wordbooks where the teacher simply writes in wordbook with no commentary),

(h) asking for help in spelling a word,


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(i) attempting to spell a word and then checks with teacher,

(j) attempting a word without checking with the teacher.

4.4.3(ii) School Documents

This framework of spelling development was used to analyse school policy documents and thereby to assess whether teachers accounted for this development in their planning.

With regard to plotting a sequential development, policy documents rather than Schemes of Work were found to be most useful. Schemes of Work outlined activities rather than stages of development. Interestingly, one school development plan at Key Stage 1 mentioned raising the staff's awareness of the steps in learning to spell as one of its objectives for the coming year.

English/Language Policies

Policy documents across Key Stages 1 and 2 were examined to see if they made any reference to a developmental sequence for the learning of spelling. Where policies made such a reference, the level of detail varied from quoting extensively from theoretical works such as Gentry (quoted earlier section 4.4.3(i) ) to stating isolated, age-related levels of achievement.

Table 25 % of Activities in the Spelling Developmental Sequence found in English Policies at Key Stages 1 and 2

Table 25 indicates that at Key Stage 1, many policy documents explicitly commented on developing pupils' knowledge of the sound-symbol relationship in the English spelling system. The documents also drew attention to the


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importance of developing pupils' ability to remember the visual appearance of words,

Therefore, the stages of the project's framework most frequently referred to in the Key Stage 1 documents are (a), (b) and (d) from the Table above.

Key Stage 2 policy documents placed a similar emphasis on the stages of development outlined in the Key Stage 1 documents above. In addition they referred to the pupil's developing ability to use a dictionary or word-book appropriately. Thus the stages most frequently mentioned at Key Stage 2 are: (a), (b), (d) and (e).

Summary

The policy documents for Key Stages 1 and 2 generally made reference to spelling progression and showed a picture of sequential development that matched that in section 4.4.3(i) above. Only one stage was not explicitly mentioned in the documents. This was:

Pupils ...

(c) can use a dictionary/wordbook but will often not look beyond the first letter of words and confuse words of similar visual appearance.

4.4.3(iii) Classroom Observation Data

Data from classroom observations show what pupils were capable of and hence provided information about sequence and progression. The framework for spelling development was used to analyse these data.

Observations supported the documentary evidence at both Key Stages 1 and 2. They showed that at Key Stage 1 pupils relied heavily on a sound-symbol approach to spelling. They were beginning to be able to retain a visual picture of how familiar words were spelt. They could find the appropriate page in their alphabet-ordered wordbook when asking for spellings and were beginning to use wordbooks and dictionaries. Pupils relied heavily on copying words from a variety of sources. They also asked their teacher for help with individual words.

At Key Stage 2, pupils were familiar with the conventions of the English spelling system and could apply this knowledge in their attempts to spell words in their writing (e.g. that 'q' is always followed by 'u'; that a double consonant is often followed by a single vowel). They could successfully complete alphabet ordering exercises using a dictionary and could use dictionaries to help them spell the words they needed. They also knew how to use dictionaries to look up the meanings of words. They didn't rely solely on the teacher in asking for accurate spelling; they often asked their peers as well.


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Data obtained from fieldwork were in a sense arbitrary in that the team was not explicitly coding instances of spelling in their own right. Therefore a large number of examples of a given spelling instance could indicate that by chance the team observed more writing activities in a particular year group then say, for example, reading activities. However, these data suggested what pupils in each year group are capable of in terms of their spelling ability.

(a) Developmental Sequence at Key Stage 1

Pupils were capable of:

Sound Symbol

  • saying which letter the word begins, when asking for a spelling,
  • sounding out the letters of a word they wish to spell,
  • writing down the letters of simple or familiar words (such as their name) as the teacher sounds the letters out,
Dictionary Skills
  • beginning to use a wordbook in writing their independent work,
  • finding the appropriate page in their wordbook, when asked how to spell a word,
  • finding their way around wordbooks with help (they can find the right page but do not always realise the word is already there),
  • using dictionaries to look up the meanings of words,
Orthographic Probability
  • retaining visual pictures of how familiar words were spelt,
Growing Independence
  • copying, without discussion or commentary, words from wall displays, the board, books, word-books,
  • asking for help with spelling words (they often ask before they've attempted the word themselves),
  • beginning to attempt to spell a new word before checking with the teacher.
The observations generally supported the view of planning in the school policy documents. There was slightly more emphasis on the early stages of dictionary use in the observations than in the documents. The observations showed that with regard to dictionary use, pupils were at stage (c) of the developmental framework:


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Pupils ...

(c) can use a dictionary/wordbook but will often not look beyond the first letter of words and confuse words of similar visual appearance.

This stage was the only aspect of the framework not referred to in the Key Stage 1 and 2 documentation.

(b) Developmental Sequence at Key Stage 2

Pupils were capable of:

Sound Symbol

  • relating most sounds to a graphological symbol where appropriate,
Dictionary Skills
  • doing alphabet ordering exercises using a dictionary,
  • using dictionaries appropriately to help them spell the words they need in their independent work,
  • using dictionaries to look up the meaning of words,
Orthographic Probability
  • discussing some of the conventions of the English spelling system such as the pattern that double consonants which were often followed by a single vowel,
  • applying this knowledge in their own attempts to spell words needed in their own writing,
  • working on exercises which focused on these conventions,
Growing Independence
  • copying words from wordbook,
  • not relying solely on their teacher in asking for help with spelling - they often asked their peers,
  • attempting to spell words and then check with the teacher or dictionary.
As with Key Stage 1, the observations generally supported the planning in the school documentation at Key Stage 2.

4.4.3(iv) Teacher Perceptions

In order to gauge whether the developmental sequence was appropriate, respondents were asked which two stages of the sequence represented the ability of the majority of their pupils in a given year group. Each Key Stage is


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treated separately. The stages of development were presented to them in random order.

(a) Key Stage 1

The respondents indicated that pupils were most capable of the following stages of the framework:

Pupils ...

(a) can use individual and combination letter-sound correspondence. (15%)

(b) are beginning to operate a sound-symbol system with evidence of word separation. (18%)

(e) can use dictionary/wordbook correctly for most words needed. (16%)

(f) are beginning to build up a sight vocabulary of 'irregular' words and regular patterns, understanding how they are used and using a dictionary appropriately. (15%).

It should be pointed out, however, that all stages of the framework scored to some extent. The above items represents the highest percentages. Stages (e) and (f) above were not found in the Key Stage 1 observations nor school documents. This could indicate that Key Stage 1 teachers had a slightly higher perception of what their pupils achieved than they plan or cater for in their classrooms.

(b) Key Stage 2

The respondents most frequently identified the following stages of development as representing the capabilities of their pupils:

Pupils ...

(b) are beginning to operate a sound-symbol system with evidence of word separation. (26%)

(d) can use sight recognition and visual meaning for 'irregular' spelling patterns. (14%)

(e) can use a dictionary or wordbook appropriately for most words needed. (25%).

These items indicate that teachers under-estimated the capabilities of their pupils: school policy documents showed they plan for, and observations indicated they cater for, a higher level of spelling competence.


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4.4.3(v) Conclusion

The variety of sources of information indicate that the proposed sequence of development for spelling is an appropriate one. Information relating to planning was located in the spelling policies rather than other documentation. At Key Stage 1, policy documents commented on developing pupils' knowledge of sound-symbol relationships and on memorising the visual appearance of words. Key Stage 2 documents placed a similar emphasis on these strands and in addition referred to planning to develop pupils' ability to use a dictionary appropriately.

The observations in classrooms illustrated what pupils were actually capable of. At Key Stage 1 this matched the documents, although there was slightly more emphasis on the early stages of dictionary use. Pupils at this Key Stage also relied heavily on copying words from a variety of sources. They also spent time asking the teacher for help with individual words. At Key Stage 2, the observations in classrooms generally supported the planning of the documentation data. There was also a development in their independence reflected by the pupils' willingness to attempt to spell words individually and rely on help from their peers rather than their teacher for checking.

Although the schools' documents and observations in classrooms generally concurred, teachers' responses to interviews were shown to be at odds with these other sources of evidence. At Key Stage 1, teacher perceptions overestimated what their pupils could achieve whilst Key Stage 2 teacher perceptions tended to under-estimate their pupils' competence.

Thus, with regard to developing spelling competence, the information in the planning documents was seen to be carried through into classroom practice at both Key Stages. Teacher perceptions, however, were seen to contradict the evidence. This suggests that teachers might benefit from further guidance and on how pupils develop their spelling ability.



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5.0 SPEAKING AND LISTENING

The specification outlines the areas for investigation with regard to Speaking and Listening. The specification states:

HMI evidence reveals that teachers are devoting more attention than previously to Speaking and Listening.

Despite this the balance may still be skewed away from En1. This will need to be investigated. If the balance between the time given to Attainment Targets is shown to be uneven, the reasons for this will require further study so that Council can publish appropriate guidance to schools. (Specification Issue 7)

The project has approached this issue of balance within the Order in a number of ways. In the first instance, an inspection of the Order itself has provided a framework for Speaking and Listening which categorises different types of talk.

The following sections describe this framework, before discussing the balance of Speaking and Listening in policy, practice and teacher perceptions.

5.1 Towards a Framework for Speaking and Listening

The framework derived from the Order was divided into two categories. The first incorporated the types of contexts in which Speaking and Listening might take place, whilst the second covered the specific types of talk which serve to communicate meaning.

It must be emphasised, however, that the following framework has arisen out of - and is applicable to - the English Order. It was not seen necessarily as a model for Speaking and Listening outside the context of this analysis.

The Speaking and Listening Framework

1. Types of Context

Speakingwhere no response is expected from the listener.
Listeningwhich does not require a spoken response.
Directed Discussionwhere the teacher decides what is discussed and who participates.
Open Discussionwhere commonly there are no right or wrong answers and turn-taking is influenced though not directed by the teacher who is usually present.

2. Types of Talk

Giving and responding to instructions.
Asking and answering questions.
Conveying or describing real and imaginary events.

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Conveying and describing information.
Conveying and describing points of view.
Listening and responding to real and imaginary events.
Listening and responding to information.
Listening and responding to points of view.

5.2 The Role of Speaking and Listening in English and in other Subjects

Speaking and Listening is commonly used as a medium for teaching English and other subjects. Therefore there is a distinction to be made when coding classroom observation data between:

(a) English used in teaching and learning activities; that is, using English as the medium of all teaching and learning, and

(b) Teaching and learning activities specific to learning English; that is English as a subject as defined by the content of the Order. (See section 2.0.)

5.2.1 School Documents

In the Key Stage 1 and 2 schools visited, the most informative document was the English Policy. The Schemes of Work and teachers' plans were found to be underdeveloped in terms of translating the Order into practice. In Key Stage 3 schools, Speaking and Listening was mentioned in the Policy documents, in the Schemes of Work and teachers' plans, though the depth and amount of detail varied within these documents.

The most coherent documents had clearly expressed aims for Speaking and Listening; outlining the role and process of talk, discussing the development of a pupil's Speaking and Listening and giving guidance on ways in which to implement Speaking and Listening in the classroom. The less systematic documents simply repeated the gist of AT 1 without elaboration or further guidance on implementation.

At Key Stages 1 and 2, all but one of the English Policy documents treated Speaking and Listening as both a requirement of the Order and as a cross-curricular issue. At Key Stage 3, departmental policies mentioned the role of talk in the English curriculum.

5.2.2 Policy into Practice

5.2.2(i) Contexts for Speaking and Listening

Teachers across the three Key Stages perceived there to be a change in the way they now taught Speaking and Listening. This change was in the form of an increased awareness of its importance resulting in teachers creating more opportunities for talk.


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When asked about the main way they taught Speaking and Listening, 99% of Key Stage 1 and 96% of Key Stage 2 teachers taught it as a cross-curricular, rather than English-specific skill.

At Key Stage 3, 39% of teachers taught Speaking and Listening in separate English lessons, whereas 58% taught it in separate English lessons and in drama and role play sessions. Although 48% of schools had a separate drama department, only 39% of these' shared a common Speaking and Listening policy with the English department.

5.2.2(ii) The Balance of Attainment Targets

An analysis of classroom observation data shows the amount of time given to a single AT when it was the sole focus of an activity. This analysis is shown in Graph 1 below.

Graph 1 Distribution of time spent across Attainment Targets at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

At Key Stages 1 and 2 marginally more time was spent on Reading and Writing as sole activities and at Key Stage 3 more time was spent on Speaking and Listening as a sole activity. It can be seen, therefore, that the balance was not significantly skewed away from AT 1 at any Key Stage.

Graph 2 below shows the time given to English activities within which Speaking and Listening occurred where it was integrates with either Reading or Writing.


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Graph 2 Proportion of time given to English activities within which Speaking and Listening occurred at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

The majority of Speaking and Listening occurred in Reading at Key Stage l, whereas at Key Stage 3 this shifts to Writing. This shift is noticeable as pupils gain in proficiency and can discuss the content of their written work. In all Key Stages, a large proportion of Speaking and Listening occurred when the focus of the activity was one or more of the other Attainment Targets.

In the teacher interviews, 84% of Key Stage 1 teachers, 81% of Key Stage 2 teachers and 74% of Key Stage 3 teachers, welcomed the existence of an Attainment Target for Speaking and Listening. They claimed to balance their teaching across the Attainment Targets. Teachers who supported Attainment Target 1 did so for a number of reasons: e.g. Speaking and Listening enhanced learning in other language areas and that it was an essential tool across the curriculum and in daily life. More guidance on the role and status of Speaking and Listening was requested by teachers.

In summary, observations in classrooms and teacher perceptions have shown that the balance of attention was not significantly skewed away from AT 1. In all Key Stages, a large proportion of Speaking and Listening occurred when the focus of the activity was one or more of the other Attainment Targets.

5.2.2(iii) Balance of Categories of Talk

Further analysis of observations in classrooms monitored the categories of teacher and pupil talk at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3. These general categories of talk are listed on page 99. The analysis of data into these categories is displayed in Graph 3. The figures for the amount of time spent on the Speaking and Listening categories were all within the 20-32% range with most time given to 'directed' discussion (32%).


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Graph 3 Proportion of time spent on categories of teacher and pupil talk at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

At Key Stage 2, the spread of time was less evenly distributed, with 'directed' and 'open' discussion a prominent feature of these classrooms. At Key Stage 3, the spread of time was less evenly distributed, with the most time being spent on pupils in a whole class context listening to their teacher (28%) and on 'directed' discussion (28%).

5.2.2(iv) The Balance of Different Types of Talk

The analysis of data collected through classroom observation is illustrated in Graph 4. These data categorise the different types of talk which have been identified from the Order and observed at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

Graph 4 Distribution of time spent on different types of talk within AT 1 Speaking and Listening at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

Asking and answering questions was the most commonly occurring type of talk observed. It accounted for 29% of talk in Key Stages 1 and 2 and 24% at Key Stage 3. Conveying and responding to information formed the second largest category of talk within classrooms. The majority of talk within classrooms at


[page 94]

all three Key Stages, therefore, was concerned with explanation and clarification (Key Stage 1, 69%; Key Stage 2, 68%; Key Stage 3, 53%).

The least occurring type of talk observed was conveying and responding to points of view, although this percentage was seen to increase as the pupils get older. It accounted for 4% of all talk at Key Stage 1, 9% at Key Stage 2 and 11% at Key Stage 3.

In the interviews with teachers, respondents were asked what types of talk they planned to cater for in their classrooms. In all Key Stages the majority of responses referred to one or more type of talk identified in the Speaking and Listening framework (47% Key Stage 1; 40% Key Stage 2; 42% Key Stage 3). At Key Stages 1 and 2, teachers most commonly mentioned the following talk categories: asking and answering questions; describing real and imaginary events; and conveying information. This corresponds approximately to the distribution of the categories observed in classrooms. At Key Stage 3, the distribution across types of talk is slightly different, in that the highest scoring categories were describing real and imaginary events, conveying information and describing points of view. These perceptions did not concur with observations in classrooms, where the emphases were on asking and answering questions and on responding to information and real and imaginary events.

In the interviews, teachers were asked if (and how) they planned for Speaking and Listening. In all Key Stages, over 84% of the respondents said that they did so. The main way of doing this was to combine structured planning in policy documents and Schemes of Work with plans for dealing with Speaking and Listening as it arose in classroom practice.

Across the Key Stages, when asked about planning for Speaking and Listening teachers' main concerns were to do with actually setting up Speaking and Listening activities; by altering the groupings for example, and providing the resources. Teachers less frequently mentioned the outcome of tasks and different types of talk as planning issues. This would suggest that further guidance would be most beneficial if it balanced advice on resourcing and managing activities with support to ensure teachers know the role and purpose of each activity.

During observations in Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 classrooms there was no distinction drawn between Speaking and Listening which occurred in other subjects and that which was taught in an English lesson. The exceptions to this were those categories of talk that were not observed in other subject contexts at Key Stage 3. These categories of talk were: giving and responding to instructions; listening and responding to real and imaginary events; listening and responding to points of view. This cross-curricular observation at Key Stage 3 occurred in middle schools. The project team visited relatively few middle schools and this could account for the more limited range of talk observed in other subject contexts at Key Stage 3.


[page 95]

5.2.2(v) Balance of Teacher and Pupil Talk

Observations in classrooms also focused on the various audiences pupils and teachers were addressing. The range included Speaking and Listening in or to a pair, a small group, a large group (5 or more), whole class, teacher (for pupil), and individual pupil (for teacher).

Graph 5 illustrates findings relating to the most common classroom contexts for Speaking and Listening. These were: teachers speaking to the whole class and pupils speaking and listening to their teachers. In both cases the percentage of time is shown as a proportion of all the time the teacher or pupil spent on Speaking or on Listening. For instance, at Key Stage 1, out of the total timings collected for 'Teacher Speaking', 82% of that time was spent by teachers in addressing the whole class. There was not an equivalent amount of time spent by Key Stage 1 pupils listening, because the percentage in that column relates to 43% of all the time pupils were listening to the range of audiences described above.

Graph 5 Proportion of time spent on some of the classroom contexts for Speaking and Listening at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

The most common category observed in all three Key Stages was that of the teacher speaking to the whole class. There was generally imbalance in the range of audiences employed by both teachers and pupils.

5.2.3 Overview of Speaking and Listening Across the Key Stages

From the analysis, it can be seen that teachers at all three Key Stages are devoting attention to Speaking and Listening. In particular, teachers value its inclusion in the Order. However, data analysed in sections 5.3.2(iv) above indicate that teachers are unclear about the different types of speaking and listening included in AT 1, suggesting that this is an area for further guidance to support them in developing this aspect of the curriculum.


[page 96]

(a) Key Stage 1

The project team most frequently encountered the teacher talking to the whole class, with the observed pupils listening. The second most frequent category was pupils engaged in activities individually or in groups, where talk could be part of the process of the activity. Pupils spent the majority of their time when they were speaking, speaking to their teacher (53%). When discussion took place, it was mainly with the teacher, and most commonly 'directed' discussion. When teachers planned for talk to be part of the process of an activity as opposed to the final outcome, pupils were given the opportunity to interact in a variety of group sizes. The most common type of talk employed by teachers and pupils was the asking and answering of questions. However, a variety of other types of talk were also found classrooms - these types of talk correspond to the Speaking and Listening framework.

(b) Key Stage 2

As with Key Stage 1, the most frequently occurring context for Speaking and Listening involved the teacher speaking and the pupils listening as a whole class. However, pupils spent the majority of the time when they were speaking, discussing their work with another pupil on a one-to-one basis. Time was also spent on a 'directed' or 'open' discussion with their teacher. The most common type of talk observed involved either the teacher or the pupil asking and answering questions.

(c) Key Stage 3

Again, as with Key Stages 1 and 2, the most common context for Speaking and Listening at Key Stage 3 involved the teacher speaking and the pupils listening in a whole class activity that was monitored and evaluated by the teacher. When discussion took place with a teacher, it was most likely to be a 'directed' discussion. The most commonly occurring type of talk observed was 'asking and answering questions', although there was a wider variety of other types of talk than was observed at either Key Stages 1 or 2.

5.3 Matters Relating to the English Order and other Subject Orders

An early stage of the project's investigation involved a detailed analysis of the English Order and NSG, and secondly of the other National Curriculum subject Orders and related documents. This part of the investigation is briefly summarised below and was aimed at exploring the notion of balance for Speaking and Listening in a wider context. While 'balance' can be interpreted in one sense referring to the distribution of time spent on the English Attainment Targets, the project team extended the notion of balance in a variety of ways. Each Statement of Attainment, Programme of Study and paragraph in the Non-Statutory Guidance was examined to assess the balance of distribution of Speaking and Listening in the Statutory and Non-Statutory curriculum documents.


[page 97]

The analysis gave rise to the following findings:

(i) Across subject Orders Statements of Attainment and Programmes of Study emphasise pupils being active participants in talk situations where they must both speak and listen. Very few Statements or Programmes of Study require the pupil simply to listen to the teacher without having a more active role in the discussion.

(ii) In the English Order, Speaking and Listening is required not only in AT 1, but also in ATs 2-5, particularly in AT 2 (Reading). This is mainly 'talking about books'.

(iii) Within the Statements of Attainment and Programmes of Study of the English Order, there is a balanced distribution of the categories of talk in the framework, with the exception of the lack of emphasis on pupils conveying points of view.

(iv) References to discussion figure highly in the English NSG (NCC 1989, 1990). However, the individual types of talk in the Speaking and Listening framework figure hardly at all - this is an element of imbalance in the NSGs.

(v) In the NSGs (NCC 1989, 1990), the emphasis is on organising resources for talk. There is little discussion of the role of talk in learning, although this discussion is found in other National Curriculum subject documents.

(vi) A distinction was made in the analysis between references to 'possible' and 'definite' Speaking and Listening. These references reveal an even distribution across the English Order. However, across other subject Orders the 'possible' analysis shows a high distribution of Speaking and Listening, while the 'definite' analysis reveals a very low distribution of Speaking and Listening.

(vii) In contrast to the English Order, there is a large distribution of content-related talk across the other subject Orders (i.e. the SoAs and PoS specify what should be discussed). The subject theme provides this content, whereas the English Order does not specify what types of content pupils should discuss in order to fulfil the requirements. Pupils conveying information forms the main focus of this type of talk across the curriculum.

(viii) The NSG of the other subject Orders emphasise the role of talk in learning, and the role of evaluating talk. The English NSG makes little or no reference to such talk.

(ix) The Speaking and Listening framework (outlined in section 5.1.0 above) includes all the types of talk found in the English Order. However, there are other types of talk in other subject documents


[page 98]

(finding (viii) above). This indicates that although there are a variety of Speaking and Listening activities covered by all the subject Orders, the range is unevenly distributed in the English Order and across other subject documents.

5.4 Recommendations for Further Support

In terms of support that is currently available to teachers, the Non-statutory Guidance has been the most widespread across the three Key Stages. The majority of those teachers who have used it have found it helpful at Key Stages 1 and 2. Key Stage 3 teachers found the Non-Statutory Guidance less useful, since they thought that the materials offered nothing new and were not sufficiently practical.

The other type of support mentioned as being useful by teachers across the three Key Stages was that of LEA and School based INSET. When teachers had time to attend these courses they found them stimulating and of practical value. There were, however, reservations about the 'cascade' system of disseminating information. Key Stage 1 and 2 teachers, in particular, felt that time restraints prevented the necessary feedback of information from subject co-ordinators.

When asked about future support, teachers requested more resources. The most common request at Key Stages 1 and 2 was for an extra adult in the room. The extra person would not only aid the classroom management of AT 1 but also provide another audience for the pupils, thus fulfilling part of AT 1's requirements.

Teachers would welcome the opportunity to explore ideas with colleagues in other schools. In terms of written guidance, teachers wanted practical ideas for translating the documents into workable classroom practice. Many teachers mentioned the need for a national collation of ideas that were being used successfully by other teachers.

5.5 Spoken Standard English

The project team was also asked to investigate issues connected with the concept of spoken Standard English. This resulted in an examination of current theoretical research, followed by teachers' perceptions of spoken Standard English.

Towards a Definition of Spoken Standard English

There is a debate in both linguistic and educational circles as to what is meant by the term 'Spoken Standard English'. Indeed, some linguists doubt the existence of such a form of English. One way to formulate a definition of the term is to begin by stating what is not meant by Spoken Standard English. Spoken Standard English is not an accent. Spoken Standard English is in


[page 99]

reality usually spoken in regional accents without any communication problems. Spoken Standard English is not inherently superior to other dialects of English.

Spoken Standard English is a dialect with particular grammatical forms. It is socially prestigious and is expected and appropriate in formal public contexts (e.g. presentation, formal job interview). Spoken Standard English excludes by definition certain non-standard grammatical forms (such as 'I'll wait here while ten o'clock') and vocabulary items (such as 'geezer', 'canny'). Although the dialect is usually associated with formal contexts, it can also be used informally.

Trudgill (1988: 17-18) emphasises that Standard English is the dialect that represents the language used in education, in the professions, and in other domains of power and influence.

Written Standard English is that form of English which is used in most formal written or scripted contexts (e.g. newspapers and news broadcasts). Spoken Standard English incorporates this but also includes features that are inherent in unscripted spoken language. These features include:

  • the ability to correct speech mid-utterance, (Analysis of unscripted speech is often characterised by changes of topic, grammatical corrections, change of vocabulary choices.)
  • miscues,
  • language that is much more context-specific, because of the shared environment for the interaction, than written language. It is often characterised by proximal deictics, that is, words which locate the speaker's view point in space (e.g. these, those); time (e.g. now, then) or interpersonal relations (e.g. we, you),
  • paralinguistic features (non-verbal communication such as gesturing),
  • appropriate intonation to indicate mood (e.g. raised for questions),
  • unfinished sentences,
  • use of pauses.
However, any definition of Standard English must also include the notion of appropriate usage in different contexts.

Teachers who responded to the National Survey and interviews were asked what they understood by the term 'Spoken Standard English'. The majority of respondents (Key Stage 1 - 53%; Key Stage 2 - 45%; Key Stage 3 - 59%) identified the following definition:


[page 100]

The vocabulary and grammar of English which is usually used in print and in formal spoken contexts.





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6.0 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LANGUAGE (KAL)

The project team was asked to investigate particular issues related to Knowledge about Language:

  • Which parts of Knowledge about Language and Programmes of Study would enhance the learning of language and grammar at Levels 1 - 4, and what additional Statements' of Attainment should be formulated for these Levels to provide a better structure for language teaching?
  • Do the Programmes of Study and relevant Statements of Attainment for Key Stages 2 and 3 provide a practical framework and sequence for effective teaching of the Knowledge about Language strand?
  • How do teachers manage the relationship between the Knowledge about Language strand of the five Attainment Targets and the Programmes of Study for Key Stages 2 and 3 for individuals and classes?
  • Which Statements on Knowledge about Language need reorganisation or re-formulation and what should these be?
Section 6.1 below outlines general issues related to the content and management of Knowledge about Language at all three Key Stages 1, 2 and 3. Section 6.2 describes relevant issues at each Key Stage, based on visits to schools. Appendix 6 illustrates reformulated and reorganised statements on Knowledge about Language.

6.1. Content and Manageability of Knowledge about Language

6.1.1 Matters Relating to the Order

In the Programmes of Study, the term 'Knowledge about Language' relates to a strand of Statements of Attainment from Levels 5 to 10 (Key Stages 2 to 4) based on the Kingman Model of English Language (DES 1988) and the recommendations made in English for Ages 5-16 (DES/WO 1989). However, a preliminary analysis of the Order revealed Knowledge about Language in Statements of Attainment and Programmes of Study below Level 5, as well as in the recognised strand. This analysis showed there was no definition or concise explanation of the term Knowledge about Language within the Order, Non-Statutory Guidance or other published material (Carter 1991). A working definition, therefore, for the term Knowledge about Language has been derived from the Order:

Knowledge about Language is explicit and systematic knowledge and understanding about the organisation and use of English.
The teaching of Knowledge about Language extends pupils' implicit knowledge about language and explicitly develops their competence and understanding of English.


[page 102]

Analysis of the Order distinguished between those Programmes of Study and Statements of Attainment which require pupils to learn about language, from those which require them to use language. Knowledge about Language in this section addresses those elements of the Order which are concerned with explicit teaching and learning about language. The framework for Knowledge about Language for each Attainment Target derived from this analysis is shown below.

AT 1 Speaking and Listening

  • Social and regional variations of English accents and dialects (including Standard English) and attitudes towards such variations.
  • Spoken language use according to audience, context and purpose.
  • Paralinguistic features of language.
AT 2 Reading
  • The process of reading.
  • Differences between texts according to audience, context and purpose.
  • Language change and attitudes towards change.
  • Reading in different ways for different purposes.
  • The structural organisation of written language, discerning and evaluating how it conveys meaning.
ATs 3 - 5 Writing
  • The process of writing.
  • Spelling and spelling patterns.
  • Organisational and grammatical differences between speech and writing.
  • Drafting and editing processes.
  • The range of forms and purposes that written language serves.
  • The history of writing.
In addition, other Statements of Attainment in Writing require that pupils learn about sentence structure and punctuation, for example, in Writing the Statement of Attainment 2a: 'produce, independently, pieces of writing using


[page 103]

complete sentences, some of them demarcated with capital letters and full stops or question marks'.

Moreover, elements of Key Stage 1 Programmes of Study also enhance the learning of language and grammar. For example, Programme of Study 17 for (AT 3) Writing states that:

As children become more fluent and confident as writers, there should be increased attention to the punctuation which demarcates sentences (capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks) and to the conventions of spelling. These should be taught in the context of the children's own writing and should always be related to their junction of making the writer's meaning clear to the reader.

Key Stage 1 teachers have contributed to reports illustrating classroom practice concerned with teaching Knowledge about Language both in LEA - produced material and books published as part of the LINC project. The project team surveyed these sources. This survey found that many teachers at Key Stage 1 have been teaching those areas of Knowledge about Language within the above framework. These reports were concerned with Speaking and Listening (14 reports); with Reading (15) and with Writing (19) integrated into language work which had authentic communicative purpose. The reports also showed that pupils' Knowledge about Language develops recursively through exposure to models provided by other writers, combined with the opportunity to experiment with the use of similar techniques for themselves. Reading and writing provided a context for pupils to learn about rules and patterns of language, in particular those of grammar and punctuation, and apply them for their own purposes. Visits to Key Stage 1 schools and classrooms confirmed that most teachers taught pupils Knowledge about Language, particularly written language, in a similar way (section 6.2 below).

6.1.2 Teacher Knowledge and Understanding

Teachers interviewed in schools and those responding to the National Survey were asked to give their interpretation of the term Knowledge about Language. Teachers' responses generated three broad though distinct categories:

(i) The organisation and use of language related to words and sentences, including spelling, punctuation and grammar. These aspects of Knowledge about Language were found to decrease from Key Stage 1 to 3.

(ii) The organisation and use of language within texts of more than one sentence (such as paragraphs). This aspect was seen to remain constant across Key Stages.


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(iii) Theoretical aspects of language such as differences between accents and dialects, including Standard English, language change and differences between speech and writing. Those more theoretical aspects of Knowledge about Language increased from Key Stage 1 to 3.

Teachers at Key Stage 3 were more likely to include the third category than their colleagues at Key Stages 1 and 2. This may be because areas outlined by this third category referenced Knowledge about Language Statements of Attainment for three of the Levels of Key Stage 3 (5 to 8) and one Level (5), of Key Stage 2.

These three categories generated by teachers' responses, can be linked to the framework for Knowledge about Language and these relationships are illustrated in Table 26.





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Table 26 A Framework for Knowledge about Language


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Teachers' understanding of Knowledge about Language (KAL) was found not to distinguish between different language modes. It related to written language more often than it did to spoken language. Although teachers' collective understanding of the term 'Knowledge about Language' corresponded to the framework, there was a degree of uncertainty amongst individual teachers about the exact terms of reference and the precise area of English teaching to which it referred, particularly in Key Stages 1 and 2. This uncertainty lay in whether the term 'Knowledge about Language' included teaching about the organisation and use of language structured within texts and theoretical aspects of language, as well as teaching about the organisation and use of language related to words and sentences. These teachers found the Order unhelpful in this respect. English teachers at Key Stage 3 stated that it was the term 'Knowledge about Language' itself which was unfamiliar to them, rather than the area of English to which it referred, although many expressed a lack of confidence about teaching theoretical aspects of language, saying they lacked the necessary expertise.

6.1.3 Teaching Grammar and Knowledge about Language

Teachers who took part in the National Survey were asked to give details of grammar they taught across Key Stages 1, 2 and 3. Tables 27 - 32 summarise these details.

Table 27 % of Teachers' Perceptions of their Teaching of Grammar at Key Stage 1

Table 27 illustrates what Key Stage 1 teachers claimed they taught as part of their curriculum coverage of grammar and punctuation. There was a consensus about the teaching of sentence grammar and punctuation. More detailed information concerning these aspects of their actual English teaching are shown in Tables 28 and 29 below.


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Table 28 % of Frequency of observed Teaching about Punctuation at Key Stage 1

Table 28 indicates that those aspects of punctuation which teachers at Key Stage 1 taught most frequently were the use of full stops and capital letters.

Table 30 % of Frequency of observed Teaching about Grammar at Key Stage 1

Table 29 indicates that teachers at Key Stage 1 taught general sentence construction, including the use of tense, more frequently than any particular word class within a sentence. Section 6.2 below describes in more detail approaches to teaching Knowledge about Language, including grammar and punctuation in schools visited at Key Stage 1. The responses of teachers at Key Stages 2 and 3 are shown in Tables 30 - 32.


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Table 30 % of Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching of Grammar at Key Stages 2 and 3

Table 30 shows what teachers stated they taught as part of teaching grammar between Y3 and Y9. At Key Stage 2, teachers focused mainly on punctuation and sentence structure, with increasing attention to paragraphing, while aspects of language associated with (AT 1) Speaking and Listening were more frequently dealt with by Key Stage 3 teachers.

Table 31 gives further details of the aspects of punctuation which teachers taught to different year groups.




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Table 31 % of Frequency of Observed Teaching about Punctuation at Key Stages 2 and 3

Teachers of both Key Stages 2 and 3 stated that they taught punctuation, but did not specifically name which aspects they taught. Teaching punctuation was observed to increase throughout Key Stage 2 and decreased thereafter.

Teachers at Key Stage 2 who described which aspects of punctuation they taught, most frequently mentioned punctuation used to demarcate the beginnings and ends of sentences (such as capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks), as well as the use of the comma within sentences. Observations in Key Stage 2 classrooms indicated that teaching about capital letters, full stops and question marks decreased, whereas teaching about exclamation marks, commas and speech marks increased during the Key Stage. Teachers at Key Stage 3 stated that they revised the use of punctuation as well as introducing the uses of colons, semi-colons, brackets and hyphens. Teaching the uses of the apostrophe was found to increase across the year groups.

Table 32 gives details of specific aspects of grammar taught at Key Stages 2 and 3.



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Table 32 % of Frequency of observed Teaching about Grammar at Key Stages 2 and 3

Key Stage 2 and 3 teachers who stated which aspects of grammar within sentences they taught, mentioned teaching about verbs and use of tense, nouns and adjectives most frequently. Teaching about these word classes was observed most frequently for Y3 and Y 4 and less frequently thereafter. Teaching about conjunctions and prepositions increased throughout the two Key Stages. Introducing pupils to clauses and positional functions of words such as subject and object was introduced at Key Stage 3, as were 'parts of speech' collectively and individual word classes.

Teachers stated that they were most likely to teach grammar by integrating it into the context of pupils' learning tasks (55% Key Stage 1, 55% Key Stage 2, 50% Key Stage 3). Teaching grammar as a separate lesson was most likely to occur at Key Stage 2 (29%) The comparable figures for other Key Stages were 6% (KS1) and 13% (KS3).

Teachers of all three Key Stages in the schools visited and those who responded to the National Survey stated that they managed the teaching of Knowledge about Language in one of three main ways:


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  • Structured planning of Knowledge about Language as the main focus for a lesson or series of lessons:

  • Teaching Knowledge about Language in response to meeting the needs of individual pupils within planned activities.

  • Structured planning of Knowledge about Language integrated into the main language focus of a teaching and learning activity:

    At Key Stages 1 and 2, Knowledge about Language activities primarily focused on AT 3. In particular, aspects of punctuation and grammar were taught through this Attainment Target. At Key Stage 3 activities were more wide-ranging, covering all the Attainment Targets.

    Section 6.2. below describes in more detail approaches to teaching Knowledge about Language (including grammar) in the schools visited.

    6.2. Policy and Practice in Schools

    6.2.1 Key Stage 1

    6.2.1(i) Policy and Teachers' Perception

    English Policies made reference to encouraging the use of full stops and capital letters in writing; an early awareness of the correct use of tense in writing, and simple sentence structure, including the main parts of speech. Schemes of Work integrated teaching Knowledge about Language into planned activities rather than referring to them separately.

    Teachers interviewed in schools stated that it would be appropriate to extend teaching Knowledge about Language below Level 5. Indeed they already did so. However, most teachers stated that they felt it was more appropriate to locate the content of Knowledge about Language below Level 5 in the Programmes of Study rather than as separate Statements of Attainment.


    [page 112]

    Several teachers pointed out that in order for pupils to achieve some of the current Statements of Attainment below Level 5 they were already having to teach elements of Knowledge about Language, particularly aspects of grammar and punctuation.

    6.2.1(ii) Observations and Diaries

    Activities for Knowledge about Language in Reading were categorised as 'The Process of Reading' within the KAL framework (Table 26). These activities related to explicit teaching of the features of printed books (for example, title pages) and class-made 'big books'; pointing out the use of speech marks sequencing a story; explaining differences between the content of 'story books' and 'information books'; the importance of characterisation in stories, especially when pupils were writing their own; discussing the meanings of unfamiliar words in reading books; and whole-word recognition activities.

    Activities related to Writing and Handwriting included teaching pupils about the convention of writing from left to right across the page; explaining that writing a play is predominantly dialogue; explaining how to finish a story read to the class; and explicit teaching of letter shapes such as drawing an 'S' in the air prior to writing it. Activities related to teaching Spelling were mainly observed and recorded in response to individual pupils' writing rather than as structured activities.

    Teaching about punctuation increased sharply during the period of this investigation because of the testing requirements. It occurred mainly in response to individual pupils' writing. However, teachers also taught punctuation as a structured activity using published material, as well as constantly reminding pupils about the need to punctuate their writing. Teachers were beginning to use the SAT criteria of three sentences punctuated with capital letters, full stops or question marks as their own criteria for assessing every piece of writing for Level 2.

    At Key Stage 1, grammar activities were linked to producing complete sentences, use of appropriate punctuation and of tense in writing.

    6.2.2 Key Stage 2

    6.2.2(i) Policy and Teachers' Perception

    As at Key Stage 1, Key Stage 2 English policies mainly integrated requirements for Knowledge about Language into the section on Writing. Policies stated that teaching about grammar should occur in class, group or individual contexts determined by the needs of the pupils. All policies, in compliance with the requirements of the Order, stressed the importance of pupils' writing for a range of purposes and audiences. All policy documents also included a separate section on Spelling (section 4.4 above).


    [page 113]

    Where policies mentioned correcting pupils' written work, they recommended that this took place on an individual basis, at the drafting and editing stages of pupils' written work.

    Schemes of Work showed that teaching about language was sometimes integrated into a range of activities and sometimes the main focus of a lesson. For example, as part of one topic-based Scheme of Work for Y5, the teacher had planned that pupils were to be taught how to use the content and index pages of textbooks connected with the topic, as well as about alphabet order and various reading and writing skills concerned with extracting, collating and presenting information. Opportunities were planned for pupils to write in different styles, including both narrative and non-narrative forms generated by the topic. In addition, the planning included teaching pupils about syllables, speech punctuation, the use of adjectives, nouns, verbs, and paragraphs, in addition to general sentence structure.

    Teachers interviewed in schools stated that implementing the National Curriculum had influenced their teaching of grammar. They now planned to teach in a structured and explicit way, teaching grammatical terms and aspects of grammar to a whole class as well as on an individual basis. English Coordinators stated that they would welcome further guidance on strategies for effective management of the KAL strand at this Key Stage, based on examples of successful classroom teaching.

    6.2.2(ii) Observations and Diaries

    Classroom observations indicated that teaching Knowledge about Language fell into one of the first two categories outlined in section 6.1.2 above, namely teaching about the organisation of language related to words and sentences and within texts. This teaching also occurred most frequently as part of Writing and as a whole class lesson. For example, a Y4 teacher explained how to set out a formal letter to a class prior to the pupils writing their own letter to thank parents for helping to look after them on a recent school trip. The teacher subsequently helped individuals and groups of pupils to write their own letters. A Y5 teacher explained the structure of a poem to a class to act as a model for pupils' own poetry writing. In addition, teachers of all year groups discussed individual pupils' use of grammar and punctuation within their own writing. Teachers also set cloze exercises to the whole class, encouraging the effective use of adjectives, nouns and verbs. The content of these exercises was either related to a topic or was taken from textbooks. Teachers also taught about word derivation, the differences between long and short vowels and about homonyms.

    Very few Knowledge about Language activities were observed as part of teaching Reading. They were usually in the form of explaining the meaning of unfamiliar words in texts being read to a whole class or with an individual. In Speaking and Listening, activities tended to be more varied, including teaching about differences between accent and dialect; the use of gestures to


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    communicate (e.g. as part of a dance lesson) and teaching about the delivery of a scripted presentation that a class were preparing for assembly.

    Activities recorded in diaries kept by teachers corresponded to the KAL framework (Table 26). The majority of the activities were recorded as part of teaching Writing and Spelling, particularly teaching about spelling, punctuation and word classes. Teachers also recorded teaching about narrative sequencing, the layout of letters and the structure of poems. This was often followed by pupils writing in these forms. One teacher recorded researching the 'History of Writing' with a Y5 class as part of the content for a topic on 'Printing and Writing'.

    6.2.3 Key Stage 3

    6.2.3(i) Policy and Teachers' Perceptions

    English policies followed a similar approach to teaching KAL found in earlier Key Stages, incorporating the requirements in the Order into its policy on each of the Attainment Targets.

    Schemes of Work indicated two main approaches to managing the KAL strand. These approaches were integrating teaching about language as a clearly identified aspect within Schemes of Work based on a topic (middle school), theme or novel (secondary school), or teaching about language separately.

    As at Key Stage 2, teachers interviewed at Key Stage 3 stated that implementing the Order had raised their awareness of the importance of teaching pupils terminology, sentence structure and punctuation, as required by the Programmes of Study. They increasingly structured their teaching and made their teaching of grammar more explicit.

    Heads of English departments, like English Coordinators in Key Stage 2 schools, stated that they would welcome further guidance on strategies for the effective management of Knowledge about Language based on examples of successful teaching.

    6.2.3(ii) Observations and Diaries

    Observations in Key Stage 3 classrooms showed that teaching KAL fell into at least one of the three categories outlined in section 6.1.2 above. A greater range of KAL activities was observed at Key Stage 3. These activities occurred most frequently as part of teaching Writing. For example, a teacher of a Y7 class explained the structure and use of paragraphs to the class, followed by a practice activity. Pupils in a Y8 class read out draft dialogues they had been writing and the teacher directed subsequent discussion on improvements that could be made. A teacher of a Y9 class explained to pupils how to write an accident report drawing on information from a variety of sources. Teachers of all year groups also discussed on an individual basis


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    pupils' use of grammar and punctuation, particularly the accurate use of speech punctuation and sentence structure.

    Further observations included a teacher of a Y8 class as part of Reading worked with pupils on the topic of language change using published material; a teacher of a Y9 class discussed the sequencing of events in a narrative poem to a class, followed by pupils undertaking a sequencing activity in groups; a teacher of a Y7 class set the pupils the task of evaluating the usefulness of reference books by judging whether the books met particular criteria; for instance, the use of contents and index pages, and illustration, as well as readability.

    In Speaking and Listening, KAL activities were related to either differences between accent and dialect or the use of register. For example, a teacher of a Y8 class taught a series of lessons on different regional accents and dialects using published material, while a teacher of a Y9 class discussed the appropriate use of register in both speech and writing.

    Teaching KAL was more consistent within schools at Key Stage 3 than at Key Stage 2. All of the activities observed were managed according to at least one of the three categories for managing KAL outlined in section 6.1.2 above; teachers either integrated teaching Knowledge about Language into the main focus of a lesson, such as structuring paragraphs, or taught it as the main activity of a lesson, or series of lessons to a whole class. The approach used was one agreed by the whole department. In addition, all teachers responded to pupils' queries about language on an individual basis or discussed individual pupils' use of language, especially written language. As with observations in classrooms, activities recorded by teachers in their diaries were divided amongst all the Attainment Targets.



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    7.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    7.1 Summary

    Key Stage 1

    The introduction of the National Curriculum English Order has resulted in more systematic, structured planning for the teaching of all aspects of the Order. Teachers commented on a greater sense of collaboration which was usually a feature of this planning. Details of explicit teaching strategies were located in the policy planning documents rather than the Schemes of Work. These were mainly in the form of learning objectives linked to specific Statements of Attainment.

    Time spent hearing individual pupils aloud was specifically for the purpose of monitoring progress. Since the introduction of the National Curriculum this time has also included pupils talking about the content of their reading. This additional activity was seen by teachers to have been the greatest influence on their teaching of reading and they claimed there was not enough time for both activities. These teachers also reported a lack of time for teaching reading generally and they attributed this to the demands made by other subject Orders (see section 2, Manageability). They thought the requirements of the Statements for Level 2 Reading were too broad compared with those of Levels 1 and 3. Consequently they found it difficult to explain to parents why some pupils remained working within Level 2 for a relatively long time. Their concern was with the breadth of development required by Level 2, rather than its content.

    Pupils spent their time on reading almost equally divided between activities that were designed to teach them to read and on reading as an activity itself. In learning to read, phonics activities were the ones which pupils experienced most often and for the longest time. Another common activity, used frequently by teachers to teach reading, was listening to pupils read. Also, they used this activity to monitor and assess reading as well as providing pupils with reading practice. However, hearing reading was perceived to be very time-consuming. To deal with this, teachers set their classes a variety of independent reading activities, such as phonic work, or repetition and practice activities, thereby releasing themselves to hear individual pupils read. Teachers also created other opportunities to hear reading, such as when other pupils were working in groups or as a class on a variety of activities not related to reading, or during the teacher's lunch break.

    In teaching reading, teachers used a wide range of activities in the early stages. Their planning for teaching phonics was structured and followed a sequence of progression through checklists and published schemes. Teaching reading occurred most frequently in English, rather than as a cross-curricular activity.

    The NSGs (NCC 1989, 1990) deal primarily with the classroom environment (e.g. the use of a particular area such as the reading comer), and use of time


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    generally, rather than being specifically targeted towards meeting and identifying pupils' needs in learning to read. However, observations in classrooms showed that, despite limited guidance in this area, teachers were achieving this largely through management of resources and matching books and related activities to individual pupils.

    Teachers most often used a combination of reading schemes, supplemented by books from class or school libraries. Those schools that used a range of books not tied to any published scheme had adopted or devised a graded scheme, such as 'colour-coding' that allowed them to monitor and assess pupils' progress, as well as to guide pupils in their choice of books. Teachers increasingly used published reading programmes to monitor progress between Levels 1 and 2.

    At the very early stages of writing the teachers acted as scribes, allowing pupils to write lengthier pieces of text than they would physically be able to produce themselves. Other initial writing activities helped pupils to understand how workbooks/dictionaries and the general print environment (e.g. wall labels) could help them in their writing. Teachers also provided many opportunities for pupils to write independently without direct teacher intervention. This provision had two functions: giving pupils opportunities to practise composing lengthier texts and also providing teachers with a means of assessing pupils' competence at writing such texts without help.

    Cross-curricular independent writing focused on writing reports of activities experienced by the pupils. Opportunities for writing independently in English contexts concentrated on narrative. This was in contrast to school documentation which advised teachers to provide opportunities for pupils to write in a wide variety of forms across the curriculum.

    Teachers claimed the increase in independent writing was a direct response to SAT requirements for unaided writing, rather than the demands of the curriculum. In a similar way, schools taught cursive writing at an earlier age than previously and many schools relied on published handwriting schemes. This was again claimed to be in direct response to the requirements to fulfil Level 3. Since the introduction of the National Curriculum., teachers said that they now targeted lessons in handwriting for groups or the whole class rather than individuals, which had previously been the case. However, classroom observation showed that teachers frequently monitored and taught handwriting to pupils on an individual basis. Which ever approach was used, teachers employed handwriting teaching strategies consistent with the guidance in their own school documentation. Overall teachers were seen to follow a structured handwriting programme based on the Order.

    The requirements of the Writing SAT were also seen to have influenced the teaching of spelling. It was claimed to have become more formal and geared to groups or the whole class. However, the most frequently observed context for such teaching was again in response to the needs of individual pupils both in English and across the curriculum. Teachers also said there was a general


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    increase in developing independence in spelling in order for a pupil to perform better in a SAT which tests unaided writing. Perceptions about what explicit teaching strategies were used corresponded to what was planned and observed in Key Stage 1 classrooms and this also matched the requirements for Spelling. These strategies stressed the role of the sound-symbol relationship as well as the use of the visual image in learning to spell.

    The punctuation requirements of the Writing SAT also governed which aspects of Knowledge about Language were taught. Teachers were beginning to use the SAT criteria which required three sentences with capital letters, full stops or question marks, before assessing the content. Some said they were using these criteria for assessing every piece of independent writing. The use of the full stop and the appropriate verb tense were the most frequently taught aspects of punctuation and grammar observed.

    Suggested additional Statements of Attainment for Knowledge about Language at Levels 1 to 4 can be found in Appendix 6. It is clear, however, that teachers at Key Stage 1 are fully aware of the requirements for teaching grammar and punctuation in the Order for Levels 1 to 4.

    Across a range of data, teachers perceived Knowledge about Language, particularly grammar and punctuation in writing, to form part of their teaching of English. Observations in classrooms and activities recorded by teachers showed that these teachers taught about the organisation and use of written language related to letters, words, sentences and about the organisation and use of written language related to whole texts. Teaching Knowledge about Language involved teaching about the conventions of written forms such as the title pages of books, writing and reading left to right and about narrative sequencing. This was interrelated with teaching pupils how to decode print and write letters, words, sentences and complete texts for themselves. Such teaching occurred as part of an ongoing activity, rather than separately, at this Key Stage.

    The teaching of Speaking and Listening had been directly influenced by the requirements of the Order rather than by assessment demands. At Key Stage 1, the project team most frequently encountered the teacher talking to the whole class with the pupils listening. The second most frequent category was pupils engaged in activities individually or in groups, where talk could be part of the process of the activity. When discussion took place it was mainly with the teacher, and most commonly directed by the teacher. When teachers planned for talk to be part of the process of an activity (not the final outcome) pupils were given the opportunity to interact in a variety of group sizes. The most common type of talk employed was the asking and answering of closed questions (i.e. questions to which there was an established answer in the teacher's mind). However, a variety of other types of talk was also found in Key Stage 1 classrooms.


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    Key Stage 2

    In terms of Reading, teachers continued to teach and develop initial reading skills, particularly in monitoring the progress of slower learners and pupils with special needs. In all schools visited time was allocated each week for individual or shared reading and for the teacher to read stories to the class. Some aspects of early reading development, e.g. building a sight vocabulary and phonics, spanned Key Stages 1 and 2. The degree to which this happened depended partly, among other factors, on pupils' experience of literacy on entry to school and, therefore, their individual needs.

    Analysis of the Order showed a need for clearer identification of Reading beyond the early stages and a more consistent match between the Statements of Attainment and Programmes of Study in this area. Teachers in schools were unclear as to the terminology, More Advanced Reading Skills, but were familiar with the specific skills included in this area.

    Teachers interviewed stated that implementing Reading had drawn their attention to the need to develop pupils' skills, as well as increasing the breadth and scope of pupils' general reading. The National Survey showed that teachers had often developed their own framework for teaching More Advanced Reading Skills. Observations in classrooms demonstrated that teaching these skills, unlike learning to read at Key Stage 1, was taught using a variety of reading material related to other subjects as well as English. Observations also illustrated that pupils were more likely to be provided with opportunities to use specific skills rather than to be explicitly taught about such skills.

    There was a marked difference in practice between teachers in schools that implemented a school policy on teaching More Advanced Reading Skills and those schools which did not. The former taught More Advanced Reading Skills more explicitly.

    It was clear from all our evidence that teachers placed greater emphasis on developing the habit of reading by providing time for pupils to read individually and hear stories read rather than on teaching particular texts. Teachers incorporated teaching about literary texts into topic work wherever they felt this was appropriate. Reading literary texts or extracts from literary texts was usually used as a stimulus for discussion and creative writing, rather than to study the texts themselves. Teachers recommended a wide range of titles, mainly prose and poetry, but with some picture books and (to a lesser extent) plays. These texts were mainly from the modern period (1941 - to date) with some additional titles from pre- and early 20th century literature. In terms of the classroom management of Reading, Teachers prioritised the allocation of resources for reading widely and the organisation of other adults to whom the pupils could read besides their class teacher.


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    With respect to the teaching of spelling and handwriting, observations in classrooms did not match the planned programmes in schools' policy documents. Since these documents matched the requirements of the Order, it was found that implementation was not yet complete. However, changes in their teaching of handwriting were identified in the areas of an earlier introduction of cursive writing, an increased used of published schemes and a more formal structured teaching approach. Changes in the teaching of spelling at Key Stage 2 were claimed to be related to a more formal approach coupled with teaching that developed pupils' autonomy in attempting to spell new words.

    As with Key Stage 1, the most frequently occurring context for Speaking and Listening involved the teacher speaking to the whole class with the pupils listening. Time was also spent on discussions, both those closely directed by the teacher and those which were more influenced by the pupils, usually with the teacher present. The most common type of talk observed involved the teacher asking closed questions in a teacher-directed discussion.

    Teachers interviewed in schools stated that they were beginning to structure their teaching about language in a more formal and explicit way since the introduction of the Order. Observations in schools supported this, although most schools had not yet established a common policy for teaching Knowledge about Language. Teachers taught about the organisation and use of language (especially grammar and punctuation) related to words and sentences as well as within longer texts. They either integrated teaching about language into the current topic of a lesson or taught it as the main focus of a lesson to a whole class. In addition, teachers taught about punctuation and sentence structure in pupils' writing by individual consultation, correcting errors and recommending improvements.

    The majority of observed activities concerning Knowledge about Language occurred in Writing, particularly teaching about punctuation and word classes.

    Any changes in the teaching of English were perceived to be as a result of the implementation of the Order: these teachers had not yet implemented testing arrangements. However, some mentioned an anxiety that they would have to alter their teaching to accommodate test requirements in the future. They said this in their response to the experience of their Key Stage 1 colleagues.

    Key Stages 1 and 2

    There was general agreement that primary teachers were happy with the content of the Order. Any difficulties in implementing it were claimed to be due to lack of time to deliver all the requirements of the other eight subject Orders. However, teachers expressed contradictory views. Many were opposed to any changes to the statutory framework of the National Curriculum. Nevertheless, in the interests of manageability, they would welcome the opportunity to take professional responsibility for any measures they felt would be appropriate in order to make teaching the curriculum more


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    effective. Primary schools benefited from approaches to planning which were collaborative and supported through a nested planning structure incorporating long, medium and short-term goals. In addition, teachers in small primary schools benefited from planning the English curriculum through liaison with colleagues in other schools.

    Discussions with teachers and analysis of primary school documents indicated that teachers were unclear about the role and purpose of Schemes of Work. Also, some primary teachers were unsure of the distinction between teaching English in the context of other subjects and using English as a medium of teaching and learning for all subjects. Many teachers expressed concern that there was a reduction in time made available for teaching the early stages of learning to read at both Key Stages 1 and 2. Finally, there was evidence of the influence of the tests on the teaching of English.

    Key Stage 3

    Teachers in both middle and secondary schools planned their Schemes of Work for English to incorporate the requirements of all five Attainment Targets rather than any single one. Two main contexts for teaching literature were used. These were: using a literary text (usually a novel) which provided the focus for all activities, including the study of that text as a piece of literature; the second combined a range of literary texts linked to a common theme. Some schools used one of the two approaches exclusively, whilst others used a combination of the two.

    Like their Key Stage 2 counterparts, Key Stage 3 teachers recommended an extensive range and variety of texts. This range included poetry and prose titles in addition to dramatic texts which were given more emphasis than they had received at Key Stage 2. Along with their Key Stage 2 colleagues, Key Stage 3 teachers most commonly recommended modern titles (1941 - to date) although they also guided their pupils towards pre- and early 20th century texts.

    As with Key Stages 1 and 2, allocation of resources was the most important aspect of classroom management of Reading at Key Stage 3. In addition the management of where and how the pupils read became important.

    The major impact on the teaching of English since the introduction of the Order has been the plans for the Key Stage 3 SAT (1993). Heads of Department said that this had forced them to abandon Schemes of Work for Y9. They stated that reading and studying a Shakespeare play and the Anthology without prior knowledge of the assessment arrangements had taken up most of Y9 English time at the expense of fulfilling any other requirements of the English Order. Like their Key Stage 1 counterparts, they felt they were teaching to the test rather than to the curriculum.

    In implementing the Order, the status of Speaking and Listening has been raised in Key Stage 3 schools. Again, as with Key Stages 1 and 2, the most


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    common context for Speaking and Listening at Key Stage 3 involved the teacher speaking and the pupils listening in a whole class activity that was monitored and evaluated by the teacher. When discussion took place with a teacher it was most likely to be a directed discussion. The most commonly occurring type of talk observed at Key Stage 3 was asking the class closed questions in a directed discussion. However, there was a wider variety of other types of talk than was observed at either Key Stages 1 or 2.

    Specific references to activities and techniques for teaching spelling were located in Schemes of Work rather than the policy documents. All the observed instances of teaching spelling arose in the context of a piece of written work rather than as a separate lesson. When change was acknowledged to have taken place since the National Curriculum, this was perceived to have been in the areas of formal structured teaching and encouraging more independence in spelling.

    Teachers interviewed stated that they were structuring their teaching about language in a more formal and explicit way since the introduction of the National Curriculum, particularly in meeting the requirements of the defined Knowledge about Language strand of Levels 5 to 8. Teachers either integrated teaching Knowledge about Language into the main focus of a lesson, or taught it as the main focus of a lesson or series of lessons. Both these management strategies used whole class lessons. Teachers also taught individual pupils how to improve their own use of sentence construction and punctuation through correcting errors and recommending improvements. Documentation and observation supported this.

    Activities concerning Knowledge about Language were more wide-ranging than at Key Stage 2. Teachers taught about the organisation and use of language, especially grammar and punctuation, within printed texts as well as within pupils' own written language. Teachers were also beginning to teach pupils about the theoretical aspects of language required by the relevant Statements of Attainment of Levels 5 to 8 across all the Attainment Targets.

    With respect to managing the English curriculum, school policy documents reflected the departments' philosophy concerning the teaching of Attainment Targets 1-5. Prior to the introduction of the National Curriculum, these documents primarily addressed literature-related activities. Schemes of Work were found to target and identify teaching strategies rather than learning objectives. This was in contrast to Schemes of Work at Key Stages 1 and 2. English at Key Stage 3 was taught in one of two ways, or a combination of both. Firstly, using a class reader to provide a focus for all English activities, and secondly, combining a range of activities around a common theme.

    While Key Stage 3 teachers viewed the Order and NSG as valuable planning aids, they were mindful of a lack of both time and resources to implement fully and successfully the new curriculum, especially with respect to Speaking and Listening. However, evidence from classrooms showed that they were


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    achieving an even balance between their teaching of the three main Attainment Targets for English.

    7.2 Conclusions

    The following list addresses issues arising from the specification, including those which were provided at the beginning of the investigation and others which emerged during the progress of the project:

    • Schools and teachers at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3 were successfully using the Order in their planning and delivery of the teaching of English.
    • Teachers' general response to the Order has been to structure their teaching of English more formally and explicitly.
    • The Order has developed teachers' awareness of the breadth of the English curriculum.
    • Primary schools benefited from approaches to planning which were short, medium and long-term, as well as being collaborative and systematic.
    • The teaching of reading at Key Stage 1 involved a range of approaches including the teaching of phonics.
    • NSG offers teachers comprehensive advice on classroom management skills for meeting the needs of individual pupils with respect to Speaking and Listening.
    • The Order does not provide an appropriate developmental framework for More Advanced Reading Skills, nor does it give sufficiently clear emphasis to the development of More Advanced Reading Skills at Key Stage 2.
    • There was an extensive range of literature introduced to pupils at Key Stages 2 and 3. This literature included a variety of types of texts (e.g. prose, poetry, plays) including those from pre- 20th century, early 20th century and modern times.
    • The gaps between Levels 1 and 2 in Reading and in Writing were found by teachers to be too wide. Analysis of the Order and SAT data indicated the difficulty lies in Level 2 being too broad.
    • At Key Stage 1, the teaching of Writing was seen to be in accordance with the recommendations of the Order and directed specifically towards the requirements of the Key Stage 1 tests.
    • The teaching strategies for Handwriting in the Order were present in Key Stages 1 and 2 policy documents. However, observations in classrooms showed that while this planning was put into practice at Key Stage 1, this was not the case at Key Stage 2.

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    • The development of pupils' handwriting skills was evident in planning and in classroom practice at Key Stages 1 and 2. However, Key Stage 2 teacher perceptions of this developmental sequence were more realistic than the perceptions of their Key Stage 1 colleagues.
    • The requirements for teaching Spelling in the Order was present in Key Stages 1 and 2 policies and in Key Stage 3 Schemes of Work. Evidence for practical implementation of this planning was observed in Key Stage 1 and 3 classrooms.
    • As pupils progressed through the Key Stages, teachers were more likely to teach spelling using explicit teaching methods.
    • The developmental sequence for Spelling which appears in the Order was seen to be carried through to planning and practice at Key Stages 1 and 2. However, the National Survey data show that Key Stage 1 teachers overestimated what their pupils could achieve, while Key Stage 2 teachers tended to under-estimate their pupils' spelling competence.
    • Time given to the different Attainment Targets was found to be evenly distributed across Key Stages 1 - 3.
    • The range of types of talk and audiences for Speaking and Listening in Key Stages 1 - 3 classrooms did not adequately reflect those identified in the Order.
    • The most common Speaking and Listening observed in all Key Stages was that of teacher speaking to the whole class.
    • While more than half of the Key Stage 1 and 3 teachers showed an informed understanding of the concept of Spoken Standard English, more than half of the Key Stage 2 teachers did not.
    • Teachers found the Order unhelpful when they tried to establish terms of reference for the phrase Knowledge about Language.
    • Teachers at Key Stages 1 - 3 explicitly taught the Knowledge about Language requirements of the Order.
    • The Order offers a practical framework for the teaching of Knowledge about Language.
    • There is a need for a reorganisation and reformulation of the Statements of Attainment and associated Programmes of Study both below and above Level 5 which would more adequately reflect pupils' development of Knowledge about Language.

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    • At Key Stages 1 and 2 teachers related Knowledge about Language to the development of Writing and, to a lesser extent, Reading in response to the needs of individual pupils. At Key Stage 3 Knowledge about Language teaching reflected all the Attainment Targets.
    • Teachers' planning and teaching of the English Order were influenced more by Statements of Attainments and, at Key Stages 1 and 3, by SATs from the previous year than Programmes of Study.
    • Key Stage 2 teachers need more guidance on implementation of the Order than their Key Stages 1 and 3 counterparts.
    An overriding finding is that above all else teachers felt the need for a period of stability. At Key Stages I and 2 in particular, the response to the proposed revision of English resulted in teachers halting any further effort in implementation.

    7.3 Recommendations

    Whilst teachers acknowledged, and our evaluation has indicated, some weaknesses within the English Order, teachers have welcomed National Curriculum English as a workable framework within which their work with pupils can develop. They believe it can be strengthened best through further support and sharply targeted guidance.

    Specific recommendations have emerged from the evaluation:

    • Practical guidance should be made available on the following elements of the Order:
    1. Ways of developing different types of talk in classrooms.
    2. Range of contexts and audiences for talk which can be successfully encouraged in classrooms.
    3. Monitoring and assessing the development of the early stages of Reading at Key Stages 1 and 2.
    4. More Advanced Reading Skills at Key Stage 2.
    5. Classroom management skills for Reading and Writing to ensure that the needs of individual pupils are met.
    6. The development of handwriting at Key Stages 1 and 2
    7. The development of spelling at Key Stages 1 - 3.
    Teachers would welcome examples of practice which was tried and tested in classrooms.


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    • Primary teachers will benefit from clearer guidance and support in identifying and preparing Schemes of Work which adequately cater for progression and differentiation as well as coverage of content.
    • While parts of the Order can be taught through other subjects, primary teachers would benefit from clearer guidance on the distinction between teaching English in the context of other subjects and using English as a medium of teaching and learning for all subjects.
    • More consideration needs to be given to the way time is made available and used for teaching the early stages of learning to read at both Key Stages 1 and 2.
    • The influence of SATs on the teaching of English should be carefully monitored.
    • Teachers need clear explanations of the terms: More Advanced Reading Skills, and Knowledge about Language.
    • The pace of change needs to be slowed down, allowing time for a period of stability during which teachers can make professional decisions about the best ways of planning and teaching English in the National Curriculum.





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    REFERENCES

    Alston, J. and Taylor, J. (1987) Handwriting, theory, research and practice London: Croom Helm.

    Carter, R. (1990) Knowledge about Language and the Curriculum: The LINC Reader Sevenoaks: Hodder & Stoughton.

    Clay, M.M. (1991) Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control Auckland: Heinemann.

    Cripps, C. (1991) Hand for Spelling Cambridge: Learning Development Aids

    Czerniewska, P. (1992) Learning About Writing: The Early Years Oxford: Blackwell.

    DES (1988) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Teaching of English Language London: HMSO.

    DES (1989) English for ages 5-16 London: HMSO.

    DES (1992) Standard Assessment Task: Booklist Key Stage 1 London: HMSO.

    DES/WO (1990) English in the National Curriculum No.2 London: HMSO.

    DFE/WO (1993) KS3 English Anthology London: Schools Examination and Assessment Council.

    Ferreiro, E. and Teberosky, A. (1983) Literacy Before Schooling London: Heinemann.

    Gentry, J.R. (1982) 'An analysis of developmental spelling in GNYS AT WRK' The Reading Teacher 36 2.

    Jarman, C. (1979) The Development of Handwriting Skills Oxford: Blackwell.

    Moon, C. and Raban, B. (1992) A Question of Reading 3rd edition London: David Fulton.


    [page 130]

    National Curriculum Council (1989) English Key Stage 1: Non-Statutory Guidance No. 1 York: NCC.

    National Curriculum Council (1990) English Non-Statutory Guidance No. 2 York: NCC.

    National Curriculum Council (1991) Report on Monitoring the Implementation of the National Curriculum Core Subjects 1989-90 York: NCC.

    Raban, B. (1984) Observing Children Learning to Read Unpublished PhD University of Reading.

    Smith, P. and Inglis, A. (1984) New Nelson Handwriting Walton on Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons.

    Trudgill, P. (1988) Sociolinguistics Harmondsworth: Penguin.





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    APPENDIX 1 - LIST OF PEOPLE CONSULTED

    Richard AndrewsUniversity of Hull
    Myra BarrsCentre for Language in Primary Education
    Richard BatesWarwick LEA
    Margaret BerryUniversity of Nottingham
    Prof. Christopher BrumfitUniversity of Southampton
    Prof. Ron CarterUniversity of Nottingham
    Prof. Courtney CazdanUniversity of Harvard
    Dr. Tom GormanNational Foundation for Educational Research
    Prof. Michael HallidayUniversity of Sydney, Australia
    Jane HooperUniversity of Southampton
    Alan HoweNational Oracy Project
    George KeithLINC Coordinator
    Dr. Sheila LawlorCentre for Policy Studies
    Ros MitchellUniversity of Southampton
    Kate NormanNational Writing Project
    Henry PearsonChester College of Higher Education
    Prof. Katherine PereraUniversity of Manchester
    Mike TorbeCoventry LEA




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    APPENDIX 2

    Framework for Teaching Initial Reading

    The contribution made by statements in Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1989, 1990) are listed below under each heading of the framework:

    CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING TO READ

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1989)

    6.1 Teaching has to take account of the breadth of children's print experience ...

    6.2 Experience of texts which make sense of life.

    6.4 Developing an active response to all texts needs to be explored throughout the curriculum. They should be encouraged to develop an enquiring approach to reading.

    6.5 Children's views and opinions ... must be valued and respected.

    8.10 Teachers will need to plan to involve parents as fully as possible.

    10.1 Classroom plans should take account of children's knowledge of varieties of written language.

    11.3 Classroom display should include: posters ... purposeful labels, etc.

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1990)

    B4 An environment in which print is valued ...

    B5 Selective use of captions, labels and explanations in the classroom should invite children to think, talk and respond and relate purposefully to current work.

    D1

    1.1 Reading texts which make sense of life and explore feelings help children to become active readers.

    1.2 Pupils should read for enjoyment.

    1.5 Readers respond to the same text in different ways at different times.

    1.5(a) Readers make analogies between their own lives, current issues and those represented in texts, using the text as a fictional commentary on their own experience.


    [page 134]

    RANGE OF RESOURCES FOR TEACHING READING

    6.3 Encourage children to respond to a wide variety of reading material.

    7.1 Classroom and school should be full of print which children need to read. Classrooms need an area where a variety of reading, viewing and listening material is freely available and attractively displayed.

    7.3 Relevant and range of reading resources will need to be available.

    8.1 Children should be encouraged to contribute to the reading resources of the class.

    8.7 Use big books.

    11.3 Children should see their own writing and other peoples' in different forms.

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1990)

    B4 A variety of rich and stimulating texts should be available.

    B5 Books should be properly displayed and accessible to small children. In selecting books teachers should note the quality of design and illustration, the interest of the narrative and the accessibility of the information.

    D1

    1.1 Teachers should encourage all children to read and respond to a variety of literature.

    1.3 Memorable language and interesting content are the distinguishing features of good quality texts.

    D2

    1.9 The widest possible choice of high quality worthwhile and interesting materials for reading should be available. Reading will be encouraged if notice boards and displays invite attention and interest. Children should be encouraged to make use of video and audio tape to record. The school and public library should be used to provide support.

    1.10 Texts include not only books, but media texts, etc.

    1.12 Children's writing should form part of the reading material.

    D3

    1.16 Pupils experience literary and media texts from different cultures and periods and from different genres.


    [page 135]

    1.19 Include literature from pre-20th century sources for enjoyment and to deepen pupils' experience.

    D21

    5.2 Using a computer will enhance a particular programme of work being followed.

    VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHING READING

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1989)

    7. 1 Pupils can browse, choose or reject a book, read silently or discuss reading with a friend.

    7.2 Children should pay attention to the various forms of the printed word and the function it serves. They should be encouraged to think about why print and images are often seen together.

    8.4 Teachers should read aloud at least daily.
    Use stories on tape or video.
    Use children's knowledge of stories, etc. to develop understanding of the different forms a story or account can take, the different ways language can be used, and its different purposes.
    Use story telling.
    Give opportunities for all children to discuss their reading.
    Time for the teacher and the children to become involved in the book.

    8.6 Opportunities for silent reading.

    8.7 Work with individuals and groups.

    8.9 Provide for a variety of forms of response which children might make to their reading.

    8.12 Include scope for computer-based work.

    11.2 Place for children to display own writing and provide regular discussion of its contents.

    11.3 Word banks and word retrieval systems based on class themes.

    11.5 Provide the facility to reorganise text on screen, to refine and try out new ideas and vocabulary - this will support an increasing awareness of the links between reading and writing.

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1990)

    B5 Help children make book choices.


    [page 136]

    B7 Introducing drafting and opportunities for collaboration (in writing) will encourage planning and critical reading.

    B8

    3.2(a) Read with teachers and refer to print such as captions and lists in the classroom.

    (h) Make collections of words related to children's interests and work in different subjects.

    B9

    3.8 Activity with rhymes, alliteration and I-Spy games will help children to discriminate and make the link between the sound and the written form referred to as 'phonics'.

    D1

    1.3 Classroom texts should be open to interpretation at different levels.

    1.4 Children must be given opportunities to express their opinions, make choices and question assumptions about what they read. Children's views and opinions should be used to extend understanding.

    D2

    1.7 Children need to reflect on what they read.

    1.9 Pupils' choice of what they read will need teacher guidance. Children should be encouraged to make use of audio and video tape to record favourite material.

    D3

    1.15 Teachers need to read to children of all ages (at KS1 daily).
    Teachers should read new and familiar material.
    Give children opportunities to hear different accents and dialects.
    Children should hear taped versions of stories.
    Other people should be invited to read to children.

    D12

    5.2(b) Put together a class magazine using a word processor.

    WAYS OF MAKING READING EXPLICIT

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1989)

    6.4 Develop an enquiring approach to reading.

    7.2 Children should be encouraged to think about why print and images are often seen together.

    8.2 Be encouraged to take on an authorship role. Discuss and analyse material heard and viewed.


    [page 137]

    8.4 Discuss different ways stories can go and language can be used. Discuss their reading with teacher or other adult:

    read to
    discuss author
    help to 'cue' check or predict
    look at cover
    discover author and illustrations
    predict content
    both read together
    work on text together
    reading to adult
    challenging discussion.
    8.5 Do not intervene too soon when hearing children read. Make useful comments rather than give the word straight away.

    8.7 Give detailed scrutiny of the books they know.
    Demonstrate and develop strategies for making sense of print strategies to predict text: illustration, storyline, rhyme, rhythm, memory.
    Within familiar texts use: picture, context cues.
    Identify unknown words (e.g. using phonic knowledge) and consider punctuation.
    Analyse and interpret more complex material

    8.8 Compare the opening and closing sections of different versions of the same story.
    Examine the differences between stories read and told.
    Use stories in SE and dialect.

    8.11 Encouraged to see media as 'reading'.

    8.12 Computer-based work can provide the need for close and analytical reading.

    12.4 Discuss their writing frequently:

    talk about varied types and purposes of writing
    talk about specialist terminology
    (Punctuation, letter, capital letter, full stop, question mark, sentence, verb, tense, noun, pronoun).

    12.10 Encourage a whole word approach.
    Encourage visual strategies.
    Read with teacher.
    Refer to print (captions and lists) in the classroom.
    Discuss words and their patterns.
    Group words looking for common letter clusters.
    Identify words by initial letter.
    Look for words in alphabetical word bank or dictionary.


    [page 138]

    12.11 Draw children's attention to letters in their own names.
    Distinguish different letter shapes, upper and lower case, typefaces.
    Learn names of letters.
    Talk freely about letters.
    Build on their interest in letters.
    Collect words in alphabet order.
    Learn the alphabet.
    Use alphabet in a variety of contexts.
    Make links between sound and written forms (phonics).
    Discriminate and inform through I-Spy, rhymes, alliteration.
    Generalise the relationship between letters and sounds.
    (Use this knowledge in their own writing).

    Non-Statutory Guidance (NCC 1990)

    B4 Make inferences and deductions and develop understanding of the structure of texts.

    B5 In reading with a child, teachers may decide to do most of the reading themselves, showing how it can be done.
    Read alongside the child in order to maintain the flow of meaning.
    Encourage the child to look back, or read on, in order to make sense of text.
    Ask the child to express an opinion or make predictions.

    B8

    3.2(b) Compose stories and poems, discussing the spellings of words and their patterns.

    (c) Group words and look for common letter clusters in books and magazines.

    (e) Encourage children to identify a word by its initial letter and look for it in an alphabetical word bank or dictionary, or in a book where they know it appears.

    3.5 Learn letters, beginning with those in their own name.
    Distinguish letter shapes, including upper and lower case.
    Use different typefaces.
    Names of letters.
    Talk freely about letters.
    Build on this interest.

    B9

    3.8 Discuss their thinking when writing stories, this will generalise the relationship between letters and sounds.

    D1

    1.5(b) Create meaning through using the context (cueing), predicting and bringing experiences to bear on the text.


    [page 139]

    (c) Reflect on, describe and analyse feelings inspired by the text.

    1.6 Need to reflect on their reading.
    Become familiar with texts and respond to them.

    D2

    1.8 Explore how writers create meaning.

    1.13 Demonstrate ways of reading.
    Read with the learner.
    Keep the flow of meaning going.
    Be an appreciative audience for their efforts.
    Children should read with other people; one reader might lead and the others follow and/or join in.
    A pair of children might share a storybook.
    A group of children might read a book silently and then discuss it.
    A parent can provide an audience for re-reading.
    A group of children can take parts reading a play.

    D3

    1.17 Ways of responding to literature;

    predict
    fill in gaps to narrative
    dramatise significant episodes
    design book jackets and other publicity material

    1.18 Compare the opening and closing sections of versions of familiar stories. Examine differences between stories read and told, stories in dialect and SE, stories adapted for radio or TV.

    D21

    5.2(a) Using a computer, have children work together as they piece together hidden text.

    (c) Use a computer text which offers alternative story endings.

    5.3(a) Use IT to help children reflect on their reading



    [page 141]

    APPENDIX 3

    Framework for and Observed Teaching of Phonics in Key Stage 1 Classrooms

    A framework for identifying phonics activities has been derived from the Order and Non-Statutory Guidance documents (see Appendix 2). This framework can be found on page 19 of the main report and is listed below.

    (A) play with language, rhyme, rhythm etc.,
    (B) identify words by initial letter,
    (C) make links between sounds and letters,
    (D) use letter names and sounds,
    (E) teach and use alphabetical order,
    (F) look at patterns of letters and spellings of words,
    (G) use term 'letter',
    (H) use phonic cues to read words.

    Appendix 3 categorises every instance of phonics teaching, observed in Key Stage 1 classrooms according to this framework. A distinction has been made between phonics taught in the context of reading and phonics taught in the context of writing; the latter are marked with a (W). Some examples inevitably are double coded such as

    (W) 'P. asks T. how to spell 'spoon' - T. asks her what it begins with and then helps pupil sound it out?

    This example has been coded both as:

    (B) Identify words by initial letter,

    and ...

    (C) Make links between sounds and letters.


    [page 142]

    (A) Play with language, rhyme and rhythm

    Teacher points out two words rhyming.
    Pupils join in rhymes and songs from video programme.
    Teacher says a rhyme
    Teacher reads a story which rhymes.
    Teacher points out rhyming words, children provide others.
    Teacher reads book of nursery rhymes, pupils join in with rhymes.
    Class recite poem.
    Group of children have to think of words, describing five that begin with the same letter and then to write a poem using them.
    Pupils have to clap the rhythm of syllables in each others' names.
    T reads the class a rhyming story and points out the rhyming words (in Hairy MacLeary Scatter Cat by Lynley Dodd).
    Teacher shows class some letters and pictures beginning with that letter - she teaches the pupils a song to go with each card.
    Class recite associated rhymes for each Letterland character.

    (B) Identify words by initial letter

    Teacher draws attention to 'qu' in 'queen'
    Picture - word matching with words beginning with 'qu'.
    Letterland worksheets focusing on the initial sound 'r'.
    Letterland worksheets focusing on the initial sound 'h'.
    Word and picture matching activities focusing on 'dr' and 'fr' and then putting these words into sentences.
    Pupils saying words beginning with 'r'.
    Teacher uses tongue-twisters from Letterland material to focus on initial letter 'w'.
    Teacher plays game 'What's in my pocket?' begins with 's' and ends in 'p'.
    Teacher asks pupils to think of words beginning with 's'.


    [page 143]

    Teacher writes words on board drawing attention to first and last letters.
    Teacher changes first letter for pupils to read words: lip, tip, sip.
    Pupils fill in initial letter which is missing from words.
    Pupils draw a picture of something beginning with a particular letter x 6.
    Pupil checks with teacher that 'ball' begins with 'b'
    Teacher continues work on initial letter sounds.
    Pupils use scrabble letters to change first and last letter of words.
    Teacher helps pupils distinguish between 'd' and 'th'.
    Teacher asks what letter and sound does 'pancake' being with.
    Teacher asks what letter and sound does 'flour' begin with.
    Pupils fill in a phonic worksheet - filling in missing words beginning with 'b' or 'sp' in a cloze exercise.
    Pupil asks for help in reading a word - Teacher tells her to look at the beginning of the word to help her.
    Group of children have to think of words describing five that begin with the same letter and then have to write a poem using them.
    Watching TV programme 'Words and Pictures' which concentrates on an initial letter - pupils shout out as words beginning with that letter are flashed on screen. (x3)
    Pupils work through a phonic worksheet - colouring in the pictures that begin with a particular letter.
    Teacher dismisses pupils for lunch by telling pupils whose names begin with a particular sound to go - then repeats with other sounds.
    Teacher asks group of pupils to think of words associated with breakfast that begin with 'E'.
    The class letter of the week is 't' and each morning pupils bring things from home beginning with the letter to show to the class.
    Teacher shows class some letters and pictures beginning with that letter - she teaches the pupils a song to go with each card.
    Teacher asks class to point out pupils whose name begins with 'a' sound.


    [page 144]

    As pupil reads to teacher, he hesitated over a couple of words - Teacher suggests he looks at the initial letter of the word to help him.

    In writing

    (W) Teacher tells pupil that 'space' starts with 'sp' for spelling.
    (W) Pupil asks for spelling of a word - teacher tells her to find the right page in her alphabet-ordered wordbook. (x2)
    (W) In writing a story, one pupil asks another how to spell 'grass' - other pupil tells him initial sound, so first pupil looks in his word book for the 'g' page.
    (W) Teacher points out that 'circle' beings with 'c' not 's' when pupil asks for help in spelling the word.
    (W) Pupils asks teacher how to spell 'spoon' - Teacher asks her what it begins with and then helps pupil sound it out.

    (C) Make links between sounds and letters

    Teacher distinguishes between letter names and sounds.
    Teacher gets pupils to sound out letters and then write them down.
    Work on 'sh', 'ch', and 'th' - Teacher dictates words with these sounds.
    In reading drop-in session, parents help pupils with difficult words by sounding them out.
    Teacher listens to pupil read a cloze passage he has completed, when he struggles over words - Teacher sounds them out for him.
    Pupil sounds out words on word-cards.
    Teacher helps pupil sound out word he is trying to read.
    Pupils working on a worksheet have to underline all the words with the sound 'ee' in one colour, and 'sh' in another colour. Teacher then helps the pupils sound out the words.
    In a withdrawal lesson for dyslexic pupils, one pupil who is blindfolded has to feel the shape of individual letters (made up of cloth material) and say the sound the letter makes.
    Teacher helps pupil sound out the word of the day ('pond') which is pinned on the wall.


    [page 145]

    Pupils sound out words when reading cards from word-tins to the teacher.
    In working on an alphabet jigsaw - pupil knows the letter names but not the sounds.
    Teacher helps by referring to the appropriate Letterland characters.

    In writing

    (W) Teacher or other adult sounds out spellings when pupils ask for help in their writing.
    (W) Teacher tells pupil that 'space' starts with 'sp' in spelling. (x6)
    (W) Pupils sound out words to aid spelling.
    (W) Teacher asks pupils to sound out words they want to spell.
    (W) Pupil spells 'would' - 'w-u-d'.
    (W) Teacher reminds pupils in a spelling lesson that the 'k' sound in 'stuck' is made up of a round 'c' and 'k'.
    (W) Pupils has written 'twee' instead of , tweet' - Teacher sounds out the end of the word for him.

    (D) Use letter names and sounds

    Teacher sounds out and relates letter names.
    Teacher distinguishes between letter names and sounds.
    In a withdrawal lesson for dyslexic pupils, one pupil who is blindfolded has to feel the shape of individual letters (made up of cloth material) and say the sound the letter makes.

    In writing

    (W) Teacher sounds out a spelling when pupil asks for help. (x2)
    (W) Teacher sounds out the spelling of 'foil'.
    (W) Teacher sounds out the spelling of 'fire' in context of pupil's writing.
    (W) Teacher sounds out the spelling of 'star'
    (W) Teacher reminds pupils in a spelling lesson that the 'k' sound in 'stuck' is made up of a round 'c' and a 'k'.


    [page 146]

    (E) Teach and use alphabetical order

    Teacher suggests children read alphabet (look at letter then whole word in alphabet order) as one of a range of reading activities.
    Pupils use alphabet card to find words.
    Class are writing a Big-Book on sounds - each pupil will have a page to write on - the pupils' names are arranged alphabetically - Teacher goes through the book page by page, reenforcing the alphabetical order.
    Teacher helps a pupil with an alphabet jigsaw - he knows the letter names but not the sounds - teacher talks about the Letterland characters to help emphasise the relationship between letter names and sounds.
    Pupils fill in worksheets that involve an alphabet-ordering exercise.
    As a 'filler' exercise at the end of the day, Teacher asks various pupils to recite the alphabet.

    In writing

    (W) Pupils find correct letter page in alphabet-ordered wordbook for spellings.

    (F) Look at patterns of letters and spellings of words

    Pupils invited to put in mid vowel to make C-V-C words.
    Teacher goes through letter sounds on worksheets with pupils.
    Teacher goes through sounds at ends of words '-ed' and magic 'e'.
    Teacher discusses Letterland diagrams of letters.
    Pupils work on magic 'e' and '-ed' words, and words beginning with 'dr' and 'fr'.
    Pupils find magic 'e' words in their story.
    Teacher writes words on board drawing attention to first and last letters.
    Pupils working on Letterland worksheets.
    Pupils make words from letters and talk about words they have made.
    When listening to a pupil read, Teacher points out that the 'c' in 'magic' is read as a 'k'.
    Work on 'sh', 'ch', 'th' - Teacher dictates words with these as either initial or final sounds.


    [page 147]

    Pupil asks for help in reading a word - Teacher tells her to look at the beginning of the word and work it out.
    In paired reading, one pupil helps another pupil read difficult words by sounding out the letters of the word.
    Pupils working on a worksheet. They have to underline all the words with the sound 'ee' in one colour, and 'sh' words in another colour. Teacher then helps them sound out the words.
    Pupils watch the TV programme 'Words and pictures' which focuses on words ending in 'ing' and on magic 'e'.
    Teacher works with a group of 4 pupils doing a card/word matching activity using GALT materials.

    In writing

    (W) In context of pupil's writing, Teacher explains 'fight' is one of the words that sounds like it should be spelt '-ite' but that it is spelt 'ight'.

    (G) Use term 'letter'

    Teacher points to and asks about letters.

    (H) Use phonic cues to read words

    Teacher listens to a pupil read a cloze passage he has completed - when he struggles over words - Teacher sounds them out for him.
    In reading drop-in session - parents help pupils with difficult words by sounding them out.
    Pupil asks Teacher for help in reading a word. Teacher tells her to look at the beginning of the word and try and work it out.
    In paired reading, one pupil helps another pupil read difficult words by sounding out the letters of the word.
    Teacher helps pupil sound out a word he is trying to read.
    Teacher helps pupil sound out the word of the day ('pond') which is pinned on the wall. Pupils sound out words when reading cards from word-tins to the teacher.


    [page 149]

    APPENDIX 4 - LIST OF DEVELOPING READING COMPETENCIES

    Moon, C. and Raban, B. (1992) A Question of Reading London: David Fulton.

    First Steps (NC Level 1)

    1. Talks about pictures in books.
    Asks questions about pictures in books.
    Listens to stories and offers to 'read' some.

    2. Makes up own story to print in a picture book.
    Uses pictures to cue meaning.

    3. Repeats sentence patterns remembered from texts read aloud.
    Self-corrects story retellings using pictures.
    Can predict outcomes using pictures.
    Cannot identify individual words.

    Early Stages (NC Level 1)

    4. Begins to show an interest in printed text.
    Asks for what the print says.
    Can accurately recall stories heard read aloud.
    Begins to talk like a book.

    5. Finger and voice pointing, trying to match text.
    Asks for unknown words.
    Picture cues will be important for interpretation of meaning.
    Begins to respond to the conventions of text:

    top/bottom of page,
    left/right tracking,
    one page after another.
    Beginning Reading (NC Level 2)

    6. Can predict sentence ends.
    Begins to understand one-to-one word correspondences.
    Begins to identify initial letters of words.
    Uses initial letters and pictures to interpret meaning.

    7. Re-reads to make sense of the text.
    Reads with word by word voice match.
    Uses some graphic cues; initial letters and word endings.


    [page 150]

    Reading (NC Level 2)

    8. Reads words in known text fluently.
    Monitors meaning and self-corrects.
    Asks for confirmation of words read.
    Semantic and syntactic cues override grapho-phonic cues.

    9. Finds known words in unknown words.
    Uses context and grapho-phonic cues.
    Reads word by word.
    Decoding often inaccurate.

    Developing Reading (NC Level 3)

    10. Reads known words and decodes unknown words.
    Scans ahead and monitors punctuation.
    Uses all available cue systems appropriately.
    Reads fluently with expression.
    Can read silently.




    [page 151]

    APPENDIX 5 - SURVEY OF LITERATURE RECOMMENDED BY TEACHERS AT KEY STAGES 2 and 3

    In the National Survey and during interviews in Schools, teachers were asked to list the novels, plays, poems and/or anthologies they and their colleagues made certain their pupils read in particular year groups. Up to ten titles could be specified.

    From these titles the following lists have been assembled. The information received was sparse in some cases. Therefore, there will be some bibliographic inaccuracies for which we apologise.

    The books are listed in each year group in sections of prose, poetry, picture books/miscellaneous and plays. Each title is supported by author information, date of original publication, full or abridged version where this was noted. The final column indicates the number of mentions each title received.





    [page 153]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED

    YEAR THREE

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    Ahlberg, I & A.The Jolly Postman1986F3
    Ahlberg, A.Mrs. Wobble the Waitress1985F1
    Ahlberg, A.Master Bun the Baker1988F1
    Ahlberg, J. & A.Burglar Bill1977F1
    Ahlberg, J. & A.Jeremiah in the Dark Woods1977F1
    Aiken, J.A Necklace of Raindrops1968F3
    Aiken, J.The Moon's Revenge1987F1
    Arkle, P.The Village Dinosaur1968F1
    Asquith, H.The ElephantF1
    Ashley, B.Dinner Ladies Don't Count1981F2
    Barrie, J.M.Peter Pan1904F2
    Blyton, E.Five have plenty of fun1950sF1
    Blyton, E.Famous Five, etc.1950sF1
    Bond, M.Paddington Bear Stories1958F1
    Bond, M.A Bear called Paddington1958F1
    Brown, J.Flat Stanley1974F2
    Brown, M. (ed)Sea LegendsF1
    Burnett, F.H.The Secret Garden1910F1
    Carroll, L.Alice in Wonderland1865A+F3
    Carroll, L.Jabberwocky and Alice selection18651
    Carpenter, M.Mr. Majeika and the Music Teacher1987F1
    Carpenter, R.Catweazle1970F1
    Cave, K.Dragonrise1992F1
    Cole, B.The Trouble with Mum1985F1
    Cole, B.Dad1987F1
    Cole, B.Trouble with Grandad1988F1
    Corbalis, TWrestling Princes1986A1
    Corrin, S. & S.Once upon a Rhyme1982F1
    Dahl, R.Fantastic Mr. Fox (Novel)1974F13
    Dahl, R.Charlie & the Chocolate Factory1968F14
    Dahl, R.Danny the Champion of the World1975F8
    Dahl, R.James and the Giant Peach1967F8
    Dahl, R.Fantastic Mr. Fox (Play)1991F6
    Dahl, R.Matilda1988F6
    Dahl, R.The Enormous Crocodile1978F3
    Dahl, R.George's Marvellous Medicine1981F4
    Dahl, R.The Twits1982F3
    Dahl, R.The Magic Finger1968F6
    Dahl, R.Boy1984F1
    Dahl, R.Esio Trot1990F1


    [page 154]

    YEAR THREE

    Dahl, R.BFG1984F1
    Derwent, L.The Tale of Greyfriars Bobby1985A2
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1837A1
    Doherty, B.'Tilly Mint' Books1980sF1
    Doherty, B.Spellhorn1990F1
    Feagles, A.Casey the Utterly Impossible1
    Feagles, A.Horse1981F1
    Fine, A.A Sudden Puff of Glittering1
    Fine, A.Smoke1991F1
    Garner, A.Weirdstone of Brisinghamen1974F1
    Grahame, K.Wind in the Willows1908A2
    Grimm BrothersFairy Tales1823F1
    Heide, F.P.The Shrinking of Treehorn1971F1
    Hewett, A.Mrs. Mopple's Washing Line1970F1
    Hughes, S.It's Too Frightening For Me1986F2
    Hughes, T.The Iron Man1971F16
    Hughes, T.How the Whale Became1963F1
    Jackson & Pepper (eds)The Green Storyhouse1976F1
    Jackson & Pepper (eds)The Blue Storyhouse1976F1
    Jansson, T.Finn Family Moomintroll1948F1
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F2
    Kemp, M.The Touch of Gold1991F1
    King, C.Stig of the Dump1963F7
    Kingsley, C.Water Babies1863F1
    King-Smith, D.Emily's Legs1988F1
    King-Smith, D.Magnus Power Mouse1988F1
    King-Smith, D.George Speaks1988F1
    King-Smith, D.The Hedgehog1987F4
    Kipling, R.Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and other animal stories1894F1
    Lane, S.The Three Trolls - scheme1991F1
    Lewis, C.S.Tales of Narnia1950sF1
    Lewis, C.S.The Lion, Witch & Wardrobe1950F2
    Lingham, B.Children's RamayanF1
    Lively, P.Dragon Trouble1984F1
    Manning, R.Green Smoke1957F1
    Milne, AA.Winnie the Pooh1926F4
    Milne, AA.House at Pooh Corner1928F2
    Muir, H.Wonder WitchF1
    Murphy, IThe Worst Witch1974F2
    Nicholson & WattsThe Vikings - Thor's SagaA1
    Nimmo, J.The Snow Spider19861
    O'Brien, R.The Secret of NIMH1970sF1
    Pearce, P.A Dog So Small1978F1


    [page 155]

    YEAR THREE

    Pearce, P.Tom's Midnight Garden1958F1
    Pearce, P.The Battle of Bubble & Squeek1978F1
    Proysen, A.Mrs. Pepperpot - series1960-F1
    RandleGrandpa's BalloonF1
    Ransome, A.Old Peter's Russian Folk Tales1916F1
    St. John, PTreasures of the Snow1980F1
    Samson, F.Josh's Panther1988F1
    Scieszka, J.True Story of the 3 Little Pigs1991F2
    Serraillier, I.The Silver Sword1956F2
    ShatanThere's Something in ThereF1
    Smucker, B.Jacob's Little GiantF1
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1883A1
    Sutcliffe, R.Beowulf: The Dragon Slayer1971F1
    Sutcliffe, R.The Eagle of the Ninth1954F1
    Tomlinson, J.Owl who was Afraid of the Dark1968F10
    Twain, M.Tom Sawyer1876A1
    West, C.Monty the Dog Wears Glasses1990F1
    Westall, R.Machine Gunners1975F1
    Westall, R.The Scarecrows1981F2
    White, E.B.Charlotte's Web1952F23
    Wilde, O.The Happy Prince1888F1
    Williams, M.GabbolineF1
    Wilson, J.The Killer TadpoleF1

    Poetry

    Ahlberg, A.The Mighty Slide1988F2
    Ahlberg, A.Please Mrs. Butler1983F15
    Ahlberg, A.Heard it in the Playground1989F1
    BBCPoetry Corner PamphletF1
    Belloc, H.'Moral' Poems1870F1
    Bennett, J.Noisy Poems1986F1
    Blake, W.Songs of Innocence and Experience1789-F1
    Brand, C.Naughty Children Anthology1962F1
    Browning, R.Poetry1812-F1
    Cadbury7th Book of Children's PoetryF3
    Edwards, G.'Caterpillar Stew' Poems1990F1
    Elliott Cannon, A.Travelling Light19621
    Foster, J. (ed)A First Poetry Book1979F4
    Foster, J. (ed)A Second Poetry Book1980F4
    Foster, J. (ed)A Third Book of Poetry1982F1
    Henri, A.Phantom Lollipop Lady1986A1
    Ireson, B.(The Complete) Rhyme Time19771
    Ireson, B.The Complete Rhyme Time1992F2


    [page 156]

    YEAR THREE

    McGough, R.Blazing Fruit - Selected Poems1990F1
    McGough, R.The Great Smile Robbery1982F1
    Milligan, S.Selected Poems1960-F1
    Murray MacBain, J.Book of 1000 Poems1942F4
    Nicoll, H. (ed)Poems for 7 Year Olds1983F1
    Patten, B.'Gargling with Jelly' Poems1985F3
    Rosen, M.Book of Children's Poetry1991F3
    Rosen, M.Kingfisher Book of Children's Poetry1985F1
    Royds, C. (ed)Read me a Poem (Anthology)1986F1
    Sheurat, N.Poetry 1/2F1
    Stevenson, R.L.Collected Poems1850-F1
    Tennyson, A.Lady of Shallot1832F1
    Waters, F.Golden Apples: Poems for Children1988F1
    Wright, K.Poems including 'Grandad'1980sF2
    Wright, K.Rabbitting OnF1
    Diary of Poems1
    Selection of First World War Poems1

    Picture Book/Miscellaneous

    Arnold, TNo Jumping on the Bed1987F1
    Armitage, R&D.The Lighthouse Keeper's Lunch1977F1
    Browne, A.Piggy Book1986F1
    George, J.My Side of the Mountain1970F1
    Graves, R.The Big Green Book1978F1
    Harker, J.My Best Friends1992A1
    Hedderwick, M.Katie Morag (series of stories)1980sF1
    Herriot, ].Only One Woof1986F1
    Hissey, J.Jolly Tall1990F2
    Hutchins, P.Curse of the Egyptian Mummy1985F1
    Hutchins, P.Follow that Bus1992F1
    King-Smith, D.Harry's Mad1993F1
    Mahy, M.Little Witch and other favourites1987F1
    Mare, de la, W.Mr. Nobody1873-01
    Nation, T.Rebecca's World1986F2
    Oakley, G.The Churchmice1970-F1
    O'Donnell, E.Elliott O'Donnell's Great Ghost Stories1985F1
    Palmer, S.et alCliffhangers 1 and 21983A1
    Peake, M.Captain Slaughterboard Drops Anchor1972F1


    [page 157]

    YEAR THREE

    Pearce, P.The Elm Street Lot1988F1
    Peterson, J.The Littles to the Rescue1990F1
    Storr, C.The Spy Before Yesterday1991F1
    Strong, J.Fatbag1983F1
    Swindells, R.Ice Palace1987F1
    Sylvestre, R.The Old Woman who Lived in a Roundabout1991F1
    Tolkein, J.R.R.F ather Christmas Letters1978F1
    TomJinson, J.The Gorilla who Wanted to Grow Up1991F1
    Tomlinson, J.The Cat who Wanted to go Home1991F1
    Turnball, A.The Summer of the Cats1988F1






    [page 158]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED
    YEAR FOUR

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    Ahlberg, A.Woof1986F2
    Ahlberg, A& J.Jeremiah in the Dark Woods1977F2
    Ahlberg, J & A.Burglar Bill1977F1
    Ahlberg, J & A.The Jolly Postman1986F3
    Ahlberg, J & A.The Jolly Christmas Postman1991F2
    Aiken, J.Midnight is a Place1974F2
    Aiken, J.A Necklace of Raindrops1968F2
    Aiken, J.The Kingdom under the Sea1971F1
    Anderson, H.C.Fairy Tales1846F1
    Bach, R.Jonathan Livingstone Seagull1970F1
    Banks, L.R.The Indian in the Cupboard1980F14
    Barrie, J.M.Peter Pan1904F1
    Bawden, N.The Runaway Summer1969F1
    Bawden, N.Carrie's War1987F1
    Benchley, N.Red Fox and his Canoe1964F1
    Berna, P.100 Million Francs1957F1
    Blume, J.Super Fudge1980F1
    Bond, M.Paddington1958F1
    Brown, J.Flat Stanley1974F1
    Browne, A.The Piggy Book1986F2
    Burnett, F.H.The Secret Garden1910A2
    Burningham, J.Come Away from the Water, Shirley1977F1
    Burton, H.When Beacons Blazed1978F1
    Byars, B.The Pinballs1977F1
    Carroll, L.Alice in Wonderland18654
    Cave, K.Dragonrise1992F1
    Cole, B.The Trouble with Mum1985F1
    Cole, B.Dad1987F1
    Cole, B.Grandad1988F1
    Corbalis, T.Wrestling Princes1986A1
    Crompton, R.William1930sA1
    Cross, G.The Demon Headmaster1982F1
    Crossley-Holland, K.Storm1985F1
    Crossley-Holland, K.Tales from Europe1991F1
    Dahl, R.The Magic Finger1968F3
    Dahl, R.George's Marvellous Medicine1981A/F8
    Dahl, R.Matilda1988F6
    Dahl, R.Esio Trot1990F3


    [page 159]

    YEAR FOUR

    Dahl, R.James and the Giant Peach1967F7
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory1968F7
    Dahl, R.Danny the Champion of the World1975F12
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator1973F3
    Dahl, R.Fantastic Mr. Fox1974F6
    Dahl, R.The Twits1982F6
    Dahl, R.The Enormous Crocodile1978F2
    Dahl, R.Boy19842
    Dahl, R.BFG1984F1
    Dann, C.Animals of Farthing Wood1979F1
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1837A1
    Dickens, C.A Christmas Carol1850A1
    Doherty, B.Spellhorn1990F1
    Doherty, B.Tilly Mint Books1980sF1
    Doyle, AC.The Hound of the Baskervilles1902A1
    Fisk, N.Space Hostages1970F1
    Garner, A.Weirdstone of Brinsinghamen1974F1
    Garnett, E.Family from One End Street1937F1
    Gordon, G. & Hughes, D. (eds)Short Stories1990s1
    Grahame, K.The Wind in the Willows1908A3
    Heide, F.P.The Shrinking of Treehorn1971F1
    Hughes, T.The Iron Man1971F17
    Hughes, T.How the Whale Became1963F1
    Jackson, D. & Pepper, D.The Green Storyhouse1976A1
    Jackson, D. & Pepper, D.The Blue Storyhouse1976A1
    Jacques, B.Redwall Trilogy1986F1
    Kaye, G.Kassim Goes Fishing1980-F1
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F2
    King, C.Stig of the Dump1963F12
    King Smith, D.The Hodgeheg1980sF2
    King Smith, D.Harry's Mad1993F1
    King Smith, D.George Speaks1988F1
    King Smith, D.The Sheep-Pig1983F1
    King Smith, D.Magnus Powermouse1988F1
    King Smith, D.Master Butcher2
    King Smith, D.Noah's Brother1986F2
    King Smith, D.Tumbleweed1987F1
    Kipling, R.Just So Stories1902F2
    Kipling, R.Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and other Animal Stories1894F1
    Latham, G.No Strings Puppet Theatre1989F1
    Lawrence, A.The Travels of OggyF1


    [page 160]

    YEAR FOUR

    Lewis, C.S.Narnia Series1950sF3
    Lewis, C.S.The Magician's Nephew1955F1
    Lewis, C.S.The Lion, Witch and Wardrobe1950F7
    Lobel, A.Frog and Toad Together1972F1
    Manning, R.Green Smoke1957F2
    Mark, J.The Dead Letter Box1982F1
    Milne, AA.Winnie the Pooh1926F1
    Milne, AA.House at Pooh Corner1928F1
    Muir, H.Wonderwitch1988F1
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906F2
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906A1
    Nimmo, J.Snow Spider19861
    Norton, M.Bed Knobs and Broomsticks1962F1
    Norton, M.The Borrowers1950sF5
    Oakley, G.The Churchmice series1970-1
    O'Brien, R.Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH1971F1
    O'Donnell, E.The Best StoriesF1
    Paton-Walsh, J.Dolphin Crossing1967F1
    Peake, M.Captain Slaughter Board Drops Anchor1972F1
    Pearce, P.Battle of Bubble and Squeak1978F3
    Pearce, P.Tom's Midnight Garden1958F2
    Pratchett, T.Diggers1990F1
    Proysen, A.Mrs. Pepperpot Strikes1960-F1
    Robinson, J.Teddy Robinson Stories1960-F1
    Scieszka, J.The True Story of the 3 Little Pigs1991F2
    Serraillier, I.The Silver Sword1956F3
    Sewell, A.Black Beauty1877A1
    Stevenson, R.L.From a Railway Carriage1
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1883A4
    Sutcliffe, R.The Queen Elizabeth Stories1950F1
    Sutcliffe, R.The Eagle of the Ninth1954F1
    Tolkien,lR.The Hobbit1937F1
    Tolkien, 1R.Father Christmas Letters1978F1
    T omJinson, J.Owl who was Afraid of oihe Dark1968F1
    Troughton, J.The Story of Rama & Sita1975F1
    Turvey, B.Biggest Jelly in the World1988F1
    Warner Hooke, J.The Snow Kitten1987F1
    Westall, R.Machine Gunners1975F1
    White, E.B.Charlotte's Web1952F16
    Wyss, J.D.The Swiss Family Robinson1818F1
    Bible StoriesA1
    Greek Mythology - various1


    [page 161]

    YEAR FOUR

    Poetry

    Ahlberg, A.Please Mrs. Butler1983F10
    Ahlberg, A.The Mighty Slide1988F1
    Belloc, H.'Moral' poems1870-1
    Bennett, J.Noisy Poems19861
    Bennett, J.Sound Patterns1
    Blake, W.Songs of Innocence and Experience1789-1
    Brand, C.Naughty Children Poems19621
    Browning, R.Poetry1812-1
    CadburySeventh book of Children's Poetry1
    Carroll, L.The Lobster Quadrille Poem18651
    Carroll, L.The Walrus and the Carpenter Poem18651
    Carroll, L.'J abberwocky' and others from 'Alice'18651
    Cawsley, C.Figgie Hobbin19701
    Clare, J.Nature Poets1793- 1
    ColeThe Clothes Line (poem)1
    Coleridge, S.T.The Ancient Mariner17891
    Dahl, R.Revolting Rymes1982F1
    Ewart, G.Caterpillar Stew1990F1
    Elliott Cannon, A.Travelling Light1962F1
    Foster, J. (ed)A First Poetry Book1979F2
    Foster, J. (ed)A Second Poetry Book1980F2
    Foster, J. (ed)A Third Poetry Book1982F1
    Henri, A.Phantom Lollipop Lady1986A1
    Ireson, B.(The Complete) Rhyme Time19771
    Magee, W.Puffin Book of Christmas Poems1990F1
    Mare, de la, W.Nicholas Nye1873-1
    Mare, de la W.Mr. Nobody1
    McGough, R.The Great Smile Robbery1982F1
    McGough, R.Blazing Fruit - Selected Poems1990F1
    Milligan, S.Selected Poems1960-1
    Patten, B.Gargling with Jelly19853
    Rosen, M.Don't put mustard in the custard1985F2
    Rosen, M.Book of Children's Poetry1991F2
    Roydes, C.Read me a Poem (Anthology)19861
    Sansom, C.Speech Figures1970s1
    Sherrat, N.Poetry 1/21
    Stevenson, R.L.Collected Poems1850-1
    Styles, M.I Like that Stuff1984F1
    Summerfield, G.Junior Voices1970s1
    Swift, J.Gulliver's Travels1709A1


    [page 162]

    YEAR FOUR

    Tennyson, A.Lady of Shallott1832F1
    Webb, K.Anthology - I Like this Poem1979F1
    Wright, K.Poems including 'Grandad'1980sF1

    Picture Book/Miscellaneous

    Arnold, T.No Jumping on the Bed1987F1
    George, J.My Side of the Mountain1970F1
    Harker, J.My Best Friends1992A1
    Hutchins, P.Curse of the Egyptian Mummy1985F2
    Palmer, S. et alCliff Hangers 1 and 21983A2

    Play

    Carew, J.Spiral Plays19911






    [page 163]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED
    YEAR FIVE

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    AesopFables1
    Ahlberg, A. & J.Jolly Postman (3D)1986F2
    Ahlberg, A.Woof1986F1
    Aiken, J.The Wolves of Willoughby Chase1962F1
    Aiken, J.Mortimer Says Nothing and other Stories1985F1
    Anderson, H.C.Fairy Tales1846F1
    Ashley, B.I'm Trying to Tell You1981F2
    Banks, L.R.Maura's Angel1984F2
    Banks, L.R.Indian in the Cupboard1980F1
    Bawden, N.Carrie's War1987F6
    Bawden, N.The Witch's Daughter1966F1
    Berna, P.100 million Francs1957F1
    Bevan, CMightier than the Sword1989F1
    Blume, J.Super Fudge1938F1
    Booney, B.It's Not FairF2
    Bradman, T.Smile Please1989F1
    Burt, R.Magic with Everything1990F1
    Browne, A.Piggy Book1986F1
    Burnett, F.H.The Secret Garden1910F4
    Byars, B.18th Emergency1973F5
    Byars, B.The Midnight Fox1970F3
    Byars, B.Pinballs1977F2
    Byars, B.Not-Just-Anybody Family1986F1
    Carpenter, R.Catweazle1970F2
    Carroll, L.Alice's Adventures in Wonderland1865A1
    Cheetham, C.Rebecca's World3
    Cole,BThe Trouble with Gran19911
    Creaves, M.Hetty Peglar - Half WitchF1
    Cresswell, H.Piemakers1967F2
    Crompton, R.William1930sA1
    Crossley-Holland, K.Folk Tales of the British Isles19851
    Dahl, R.BFG1984F2
    Dahl, R.Charlie & the Chocolate Factory1968F10
    Dahl, R.Charlie & the Great Glass Elevator1973F3
    Dahl, R.Danny the Champion of the World1975F13
    Dahl, R.Fantastic Mr. Fox1984F1
    Dahl, R.James and the Giant Peach1967F11
    Dahl, R.Magic Finger1968F2
    Dahl, R.Matilda1988F6
    Dahl, R.The Twits1982F2


    [page 164]

    YEAR FIVE

    Dahl, R.The Witches1983F6
    Dahl, R.The Wonderful World of Henry Sugar1977F1
    Dahl, R.George's Marvellous Medicine1981F2
    Dann, C.Animals of Farthing Wood1979F2
    Davies, A.Conrad's War1978F2
    Dejong, M.Wheel on the School19561
    Desai, A.The Peacock Garden19911
    Dickens, C.A Christmas Carol1843A4
    Dickens, C.Great Expectations1861A2
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1837A4
    Disney, W.101 Dalmations2
    Doherty, B.Tilly Mint Books1980sF1
    Doherty, B.Children of Winter1985F2
    Fine, A.Bill's New Frock1989F1
    Frank, A.Diary of Anne Frank1954F1
    Garfield, L.Smith1967F2
    Garner, A.Wierdstone of Brisingamen1974F4
    Garnett, E.The Family from One End Street1937F2
    Gee, M.Halfmen of O1982F1
    Gee, M.World Around the Corner1983F1
    GoscinnyAsterix The Gaul Books1960-F1
    Grahame, K.The Wind in the Willows1908A6
    Granger, M.The Summer House Cat1989F1
    Grimm BrothersFairy Tales1823A1
    Hall, W.Henry Hollins and the Dinosaur1988F1
    Heide, F.P.The Shrinking of Treehorn1971F1
    Hoban, R.A near thing for Captain Najork1970s1
    Hoffinan, M.Ip Dip Sky Blue1990F1
    Holm, A.I am David1965F5
    Hughes, T.The Iron Man1971F11
    Hughes, T.How the Whale Became1963F3
    Hunter, N.Professor Branestawm (various)1974F1
    Hutchins, P.The Curse of the Egyptian Mummy1985F4
    Hutchins, P.The Mona Lisa Mystery1987F1
    Hutchins, P.Follow that Bus1988F2
    Jacques, B.Redwall Trilogy1990sF1
    Jones, D.W.The Ogre Downstairs1990F1
    Jungman, A.Vlad the Drac1982F2
    Juster, N.The Phantom Tollbooth1962F1
    Kaye, G.Comfort Herself1984F1
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F6
    Kemp, G.Gowie Corby Plays Chicken1978F1
    Kimmel, E.A.Anansi and the Moss-Covered Rock1988F1
    King, C.Stig of the Dump1963F11
    King-Smith, D.The Fox Busters1989F1
    King-Smith, D.Daggie Dogfoot19901


    [page 165]

    YEAR FIVE

    King-Smith, D.Sheep Pig1983F2
    King-Smith, D.Emily's Legs1988F1
    King-Smith, D.Harry's Mad1993F1
    Kipling, R.The Just So Stories1902F2
    Kitamura, S.When Sheep Cannot Sleep1986F1
    Lawrence, A.The Travels of OggyF1
    Lewis, C.S.The Magician's Nephew1955F4
    Lewis, C.S.The Lion, Witch & Wardrobe1950F11
    Lewis, C.S.Namia Chronicles1950sF4
    Lewis, C.DayThe Otterbury Incident1966F2
    Limb, S.The Strange Case of Mr. Jupiter2
    Lively, P.The Ghost of Thomas Kempe1973F1
    LongmanLongman Classic SeriesF/A1
    Magorian, M.Goodnight Mr. Tom1981F4
    Manning, R.Green Smoke1957F1
    Milne, AA.Winnie the Pooh1926F1
    Moon, P.Earthling1
    Morpurgo, M.Little Foxes1984F1
    Morpurgo, M.Why the Whales Came1985F2
    Murphy, J.The Worst Witch1974F1
    Naidoo, B.Journey to Jo'Burg1985F1
    Naughton, B.The Goal Keeper's Revenge1961F1
    Nesbit, E.5 Children and It1902F1
    Nesbit, E.The Enchanted Castle1906F2
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906F4
    Nesbit, E.The Treasure Seekers1897F1
    Nimmo, J.The Snow Spider1986F2
    Norton, M.The Borrowers1950sF3
    Norton, M.Bedknobs and Broomsticks1962F1
    O'Brien, R. C.Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH1971F4
    O'Donnell, E.Time Ghost StoriesF1
    Palmer, S.Cliffhangers 31983F1
    Pearce, P.T om's Midnight Garden1958F3
    Pearce, P.The Elm Street Lot1988F1
    Pearce, P.The Battle of Bubble and Squeak1978F2
    Pratchett, T.Diggers1990F1
    Price, W. & Marriott, P.African Adventure1993F1
    Reeves, J.Heroes and Monsters1969F1
    Ridley, P.Krindlekrax1991F1
    Robinson, T.Odysseus 1 - 21986-F1
    Serraillier, I.The Silver Sword1956F12
    Sewell, A.Black Beauty1877A1
    Sleigh, B.Broomsticks and BeasticlesF1
    Sleigh, B.Carbonel1970F1


    [page 166]

    YEAR FIVE

    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1883F2
    Stoker, B.Dracula1897A1
    Storr, C.The Boy and the Swan1987F1
    Tolkien, J.R.R.F ather Christmas Letters1978F1
    Tolkien, J.R.R.The Hobbit1937A/F4
    Turnbull, A.The Queen Cat1992F1
    Twain, M.Tom Sawyer1876A1
    Unsworth, W.Whistling Clough1989F1
    Verne, J.Around the World in 80 Days1873A2
    Wakefield, S.A.Bottersnikes & Gumbles1984F1
    Welsh, P.Ignatius Goes Fishing and More Beastly Tales1984F1
    Westall, R.Machine Gunners1975F1
    White, E.B.Charlotte's Webb1952F11
    Wilde, O.Short Stories19th C.A1
    Wilder, L.Little house in the Big Woods1935F1
    Wilder, L.Little House Series1930sF1
    Wilmer, D.Bike Run1987F1
    Wiseman,Fate of Jeremy Vi sick1984F1
    Wynn Jones, D.Ogre Downstairs1977F1
    Young, H.What Difference Does it Make Danny?1980F1

    Poetry

    AgardI Din Do Nuttin1983F1
    Ahlberg, A.Please Mrs. Butler1983F10
    Ahlberg, A.Heard it in the Playground1989F1
    Aylen, L.Rhymoceros1989F1
    Blake, W.Tyger, Tyger1757-F1
    Brand, C.Naughty Children1962F1
    Coleridge, S.T.The Ancient Mariner17891
    Corrin, S.Once Upon a Rhyme1982F2
    Dahl, R.Revolting Rhymes1982F1
    Dahl, R.Rhyme Stew1989F3
    De La Mare, W.Poems18731
    Edwart, G.'Caterpillar Stew' Poems1990F1
    Eliot, T.S.Old Possum's book of Practical Cats1939F1
    Elliott Cannon, A.Travelling Light19621
    Foster, J.A First Poetry Book1979F5
    Foster, J.A Second Poetry Book1980F2
    Foster, J.A Third Poetry Book19824
    Graham, E.Puffin Book of Verse1969F1
    McGough, R.Blazing Fruit - Selected Poems1990F1
    McCall, P. & Palmeer, S.Presenting Poetry 1 - 419861


    [page 167]

    YEAR FIVE

    Noyes, A.The Highwayman1981F1
    Owen, G.Song of the City1985F1
    Patten, B.Gargling with Jelly1985F2
    Rosen, M.Don't Put Mustard in the Custard1985F1
    Rosen, M.Don't Do That1
    Rosen, M.You Can't Catch Me and other poems1981F2
    Royds, C.Read me a Poem (Anthology)1986F1
    Stevenson, R.L.Child's Garden of Verses1979F1
    Stevenson, R.L.Poems1
    Styles, M.I Like that Stuff19841
    Summerfield, G.Junior Voices1970s1
    Tuckey, J.BBC Radio Verse Universe1992F1
    Webb, K.I like this poem1979F2
    Wright, K.Cat among the Pigeons19871

    Picture Book/Miscellaneous

    Alcock, V.The Cuckoo Sister1980sF2
    Kestrel, V.Read Alone Series1991F1

    Plays

    Burgen, J.Take Part Plays19861
    Gorman, D.Short plays for assembliesF1
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605F2
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605A1
    Shakespeare, W.A Midsummer Night's Dream1595A2
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594F1
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594A1
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island (Play)1883A1
    Taylor, D.The Roses of Eyam1976A1




    [page 168]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED
    YEAR SIX

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    Adams, R.Watership Down1972F1
    Aiken J. & Lee, A.The Moon's Revenge1987F1
    Anderson, H.C.Fairy Tales1846F2
    Ashley, B.Dinner Ladies Don't Count1981F1
    Ashley, B.The Trouble with Donovan Croft1974F1
    Barrie, 1.M.Peter Pan1928A1
    Bawden, N.Carrie's War1987F9
    Bawden, N.Keeping Henry1988F1
    Bawden, N.On the Run1964F2
    Blackmore, R.D.Lorna Doone1910A1
    Blume, J.Superfudge1982F2
    Bronte, C.Jane Eyre (Abridged)1847F1
    Browne, A.Piggy Book1986F1
    Burnett, F.H.The Secret Garden1910A2
    Byars, B.18th Emergency1973F3
    Byars, B.The Midnight Fox1970F4
    Byars, B.Not-Just-Anybody Family1986F1
    Byars, B.Pinballs1977F1
    Carpenter, R.Catweazle1970F1
    Carroll, L.Alice in Wonderland1865F3
    Coolidge, S.What Katy Did1872F2
    Cooper, J.F.Last of the Mohicans1900F1
    Coppard, A.Who Has Poisoned the Sea1992F1
    Cresswell, H.The Bongle Weed1973F1
    Cresswell, H.The Beachcombers1972F2
    Cresswell, H.Ellie and the Hagwitch1984F1
    Cresswell, H.Lizzie Dripping1985F1
    Cresswell, H.The Piemakers1967F2
    Crossley-Holland, K.Norse Myths1980sF1
    Dahl, R.BFG.1984F2
    Dahl, R.Boy1984F2
    Dahl, R.Charlie & the Chocolate Factory1968F4
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator1973F1
    Dahl, R.Danny, Champion of the World1975F9
    Dahl, R.Esio Trot1990F1
    Dahl, R.Fantastic Mr. Fox1984F2
    Dahl, R.George's Marvellous Medicine1981F2
    Dahl, R.James and the Giant Peach1967F4
    Dahl, R.Matilda1988F3


    [page 169]

    YEAR SIX

    Dahl, R.The Twits1982F1
    Dahl, R.The Witches1983F5
    Dann, C.Animals of Farthing Wood1979F1
    Davies, A.Conrad's War1978F1
    Defoe, D.Robinson Crusoe1719AI
    Dickens, CA Christmas Carol1850A5
    Dickens, C.David Copperfield1850F1
    Dickens, C.Great Expectations1861A1
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1837A3
    Elliott-Cannon, A.Travelling Light1962F1
    Fisk, N.Grinny1990F1
    Frank, A.The Diary of Anne Frank1954A1
    Gallico, P.Snowflake Goose1952F1
    Garfield, L.Devil in the Fog1970F1
    Garfield, L.Smith1967F2
    Garfield, L. & Foreman, M.Shakespeare stories1985A1
    Garner, A.Elidor1973F2
    Garner, A.Wierdstone of Brisingamen1967F4
    Garnett, E.The Family from One End Street1937F2
    Godden, R.The Diddakoi1973F2
    Gough, L. (ed)Anthology from Shakespeare's plays1959F2
    Grahame, K.The Wind in the Willows1908F3
    GrantPrivate - Keep OutF2
    Hoffinan, M.Ip Dip Sky Blue1990F1
    Holm, A.I am David1965F9
    Hughes, S.Here comes Charlie Moon1980F2
    Hughes, T.How the Whale Became1963F1
    Hughes, T.Short StoriesF1
    Hughes, T.The Iron Man1971F4
    Hunter, N.Professor Branestawm1974F1
    Hutchins, P.Curse of the Egyptian Mummy1985F1
    Jacques, B.Redwall Trilogy1990sF1
    Juster, N.The Phantom Tollbooth1962F2
    Kastner, E.Emil and the Detectives1959F2
    Kaye, G.Comfort Herself1984F1
    Kemp, G.Gowie Corby Plays Chicken1978F1
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F12
    King, C.Ninny's Boat1980F1
    King, C.Stig of the Dump1963F8
    Kingsley, C.Water Babies1863A1
    King-Smith, D.Magnus Powermouse1988F1
    King-Smith, D.The Sheep Pig1983F1
    Kipling, R.Jungle Book1894A1
    Kipling, R.Just So Stories1902F1
    Kipling, R.Rikki Tikki Tavi and other animal stories1894F1


    [page 170]

    YEAR SIX

    Klein, R.Junk CastleF2
    Krailing, T.Miranda and Friends1991F2
    Lambarne, D.The Muscle ManF1
    Layton, G.The Fib and Other Stories1981F1
    Lewis, C.S.The Lion, Witch & Wardrobe1950F2
    Lewis, C.S.The Magician's Nephew1955F3
    Lewis, C.S.Namia Chronicles1950sF5
    Lewis, C. DayThe Otterbury Incident1961F2
    Lively, P.Astercote1970F1
    Lively, P.The Ghost of Thomas Kempe1973F3
    Mark, J.Handles1983F1
    McKee, D.Not Now Bernard1980F1
    Milne, A.A.Winnie the Pooh1926F1
    Magorian, M.Goodnight Mr. Tom1981F7
    Morpurgo, M.Friend or Foe1977F1
    Moyle, D.Language Patterns Anthologies Further Afield1989A1
    Moyle, D.Moving on1989A1
    Nesbit, E.5 Children and It1902F1
    Nesbit, E.The Enchanted Castle1906F1
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906F3
    Nimmo, J.The Snow Spider1986F2
    Norton, M.The Borrowers1950sF2
    Norton, M.Bedknobs and Broomsticks1962F1
    O'Brien, R.Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH1971F2
    O'Brien, R.The Secret of NIMH1970sF1
    O'DonnellTime Ghost StoriesF1
    Paton Walsh, J.The Butty Boy1975F2
    Paton Walsh, J.Gaffer Samson's Luck1984F1
    Paton Walsh, J.A Parcel of Patterns1983F2
    Pearce, P.Battle of Bubble and Squeak1978F2
    Pearce, P.Tom's Midnight Garden1958F1
    Pratchett, T.Diggers1990F1
    Robinson, T.Odysseus 1 and 21986/7F1
    Serraillier, I.The Silver Sword1956F12
    Shah, I. (ed)World Tales1991F2
    SherlockWest Indian Folk Tales1983F1
    Spyri, J.Heidi1881F1
    Stannard, R.Time and Space of Uncle Albert1990F1
    Stevenson, R.L.Kidnapped1886A1
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1883A1
    Stoker, B.Dracula1897A1
    Streatfield, N.Thursday's Child1970F1
    Sutcliffe, R.The Armourers House1951F2
    Sutcliffe, R.Queen Elizabeth's Story1950F1
    Sutcliffe, R.Warrior Scarlet1958F1


    [page 171]

    YEAR SIX

    Swift, J.Gulliver's Travels1709A1
    Swindellis, R.A Candle in the Dark1987F1
    Swindellis, R.Room 131989F1
    Theroux, P.A Christmas Card1978F1
    Tolkien, J.R.R.Father Christmas Letters1978F1
    Tolkien, J.R.R.The Hobbit1937F9
    Tolkien, J.R.R.The Lord of the Rings1954F1
    Townsend, J.R.Gumbles Yard1961F1
    Verne, J.A Journey to the Centre of the Earth1864A1
    Westall, R.The Machine Gunners1975F6
    White, E.B.Charlotte's Webb1952F6
    Williams, Y.M.Gobbalins, The Witch's Cat1969F2
    Wilmer, D.Bike Run1987F1
    Woodward, R.Boy on the HillF1

    Poetry

    Ahlberg, A.Please Mrs. Butler1983F4
    Aylen, L.Rhymoceros1989F1
    Brand, C.Naughty Children19621
    Corrin S. & S.Once upon a Ryme1982F2
    Cross, G.The Demon Headmaster1982F1
    Dahl, R.Revolting Rhymes1982F1
    Foster, IOxford - A Second Poetry Book1980F2
    Foster, J.Spaceways Poetry Anthology1976F1
    Foster, J.A Third Poetry Book1982F2
    Graham, E.Puffin Book of Verse1969F1
    MacBain, M.J.Anthology - Book of 1000 Poems1942F1
    McGough, R.Blazing Fruit - Selected Poems1990F1
    Moses, B. & Corbett, P.Catapaults and Kingfishers1986F1
    Moses, B.Leave your Teddy BehindF1
    OxfordOxford Book of VerseF1
    OxfordOxford Book of Yerse for Juniors1959F1
    OxfordJunior Readers (36 titles)
    Patten, B.Gargling with Jelly Poems1985F1
    RogersA Children's Book of VerseF1
    Rosen, M.Piggy Poems1992F3
    Rosen, M.Quick Let's Get Out of Here1983F1
    Rosen, M.You can't catch me1981F1
    Schiller, D.Sounding1989F1
    Summerfield, G.Voices1970sF1
    Summerfield, G.Junior Voices1970sF1
    Tennyson, A.The Lady of Shallot1832F1
    Webb, K.I Like this Poem1979F1


    [page 172]

    YEAR SIX

    Wordsworth, W.The Daffodils1807F1

    Picture Book/Miscellaneous

    Brown, K.Why Can't I Fly1990F1

    Plays

    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605A2
    Shakespeare, W.A Midsummer Night's Dream1595A/F4
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594A1






    [page 173]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED
    YEAR SEVEN

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    Adams, R.Watership Down1972F3
    AesopFables1484F1
    Aiken, J.Wolves of Willoughby Chase1962F2
    Alcock, V.The Monster Garden1988F3
    Allen, J.A waiting Developments1988F1
    Ashley, B.Break in the Sun1980F1
    Ashley, B.Terry on the Fence1975F1
    Ashley, B.Running Scared1986F4
    Ayckbourne, A.Ernie's Incredible Illucinations1969F2
    Babbitt, N.Tuck Everlasting1983F2
    Baldwin, M.Grandad with Snails1962F1
    Banks, L.R.Indian in the Cupboard1980F2
    Barber, A.The Ghosts1969F1
    Bawden, N.Carrie's War1987F20
    Bawden, N.The Finding1985F4
    Bawden, N.Kept in the Dark1982F2
    Bawden, N.On the Run1964F1
    Bawden, N.The Robbers1979F1
    Bellamy, D.How Green Are You?1991F1
    Berna, P.A Hundred Million Francs1957F1
    Berry, J.Thief in the Village1987F1
    Blume, J.Iggie's House1980sF1
    Bolt, R.Thwarting of Baron Bolligrew1966F3
    Bronte, C.Jane Eyre1847A1
    Burnett, F.H.The Secret Garden1910F5
    Byars, B.The 18th Emergency1973F14
    Byars, B.The Animal, The Vegetable and John D. Jones1982F1
    Byars, B.The Cartoonist1978F1
    Byars, B.Daniel, Reg and JohnF1
    Byars, B.The Midnight Fox1970F1
    Byars, B.House of Wings1972F1
    Byars, B.Midnight Fox1970F27
    Byars, B.The Night Summers1980F1
    Byars, B.Pinballs19775
    Byars, B.TV Kid1976F2
    Cameron, II.Explorers and Exploration1993F1
    Canning, V.The Flight of the Grey Goose1974F1
    Canning, V.The Runaways1974F1
    Chambers, A.Johnny Salter1966F1


    [page 174]

    YEAR SEVEN

    Chambers, A.Present Takers1983F2
    ChaucerCanterbury Tales1386-A15
    ChaucerPardonners, Franklyns1386-A2
    Chitham, E.Ghost in the Water1973F1
    Christopher, J.The Guardians1970F1
    Church, R.The Cave1950sF1
    Church, R.Choices (Stories)F1
    Conan Doyle, A.Hound of the Baskervilles1902F1
    Conoley, C.Timothy WintersF1
    Cooper, S.The Dark is Rising1973F2
    Cresswell, M.Moondial1987F4
    Cross, G.Dark behind the Curtain1982F1
    Cross, G.Demon Headmaster19825
    Culpin,J.Cowper1
    Dahl, R.BFG.1984F7
    Dahl, R.Boy1984F23
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory1968F1
    Dahl, R.Danny, The Champion of the World197520
    Dahl, R.George's Marvellous Medicine1981F1
    Dahl, R.Going Solo1986F1
    Dahl, R.Matilda1988F1
    Dahl, R.The Witches1983F3
    Dahl, R.Wonderful World of Henry Sugar1979F2
    Davidson, L.Under Plum Lake1988F3
    Davies, A.Conrad's War1978F2
    Dejong, M.House of 60 Fathers19581
    Desai, A.The Village by the Sea1982F1
    Dickens, C.A Christmas Carol1850F13
    Dickens, C.David Copperfield1850A1
    Dickens, C.Great Expectations1861A2
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1837A5
    Disney, W.101 DalmatiansF1
    Dumas, A.The Three Musketeers1850sA
    Du Maurier, D.The Birds1980F1
    Du Maurier, D.The Old ManF1
    Edwards, D.A Strong and Willing Girl1980F2
    Faulkner, 1.M.Moonfleet1965F3
    Fine, A.Goggle Eyes1989F2
    Fisk, N.Grinny1975F10
    Frank, A.The Diary of Anne Frank1954F2
    Garfield, L.Apprentices1982F1
    Garfield, L.Smith1967F3
    Garner, A.Elidor1965F4
    Garner, A.Wierdstone of Brisingamen1974F1


    [page 175]

    YEAR SEVEN

    George, T.My Side of the Mountain1970F1
    Gibson, W. W.All that MatteredF1
    Giles, B.'Giles' Cartoons1992F2
    Godden, R.The Diddakoi1973F5
    Golding, WLord of the Flies19621
    Gordon, J.Giant Under the Snow19711
    Grahame, K.Wind in the Willows1908F7
    Grant, G.Knock and Wait1981F2
    Grant, G.Private: Keep OutF1
    Graves, R.Greek Myths1993A1
    Green, R.L.King Arthur1963F1
    Green, RL.Robin Hood1956F2
    Gretz, S &10 Green Bottles1976A1
    William, K.Power Play1984F1
    GriffinSkulker Wheat1979F1
    GrimshawSci Fi Stories1
    Guy, R.Paris, PeeWee and Big Dog1984F1
    Harmer, Macmillan & WileyOverstone1988F2
    Hinton, N.Buddy1982F5
    Hinton, N.Collision Course1983F1
    Hinton, N.Playgirl 1, 2, 3F1
    Holm, A.I am David1965F14
    Howker, J.Badger on the Barge1984F1
    Hughes, T.How the Whale Became1963F1
    Hughes, T.The Iron Man1971F1
    Ibbotson, E.Which Witch1979F1
    Jackson, D. (ed)Springboard1985F1
    Jacobs, W.W.Cargoes19631
    Jacques, B.Strange and Ghostly Tales1991F2
    Jenkins, R.Five Green Bottles and The Whole Truth1975F1
    Jennings, P.Unbelievable1990F1
    Jennings, P.Uncanny1991F2
    KastnerEmil and the Detectives19591
    Kemp, G.Gowie Corby Plays Chicken1978F1
    Kemp, G.Jason Bodger and the Priory Ghost1985F1
    Kemp, G.Mr. Magus is waiting for you1986F1
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F34
    Kerr, J.When Hitler Stole Pink Rabbit1971F1
    King, C.Me and My Million1979F3
    King-Smith, D.Magnus Powermouse19881
    King-Smith, D.The Sheep Pig1983F2
    King, C.Stig of the Dump1963F3


    [page 176]

    YEAR SEVEN

    Kipling, R.Just So Stories (extracts)1902A2
    Kipling, R.Smugglers SongF2
    Layton, G.The Fib & Other Stories1981F2
    Layton, G.A Northern Childhood1991F2
    Lee, L.Cider with Rosie1959A2
    Leeson, R.Harold and Bella, Jammy and Me1980F3
    Leeson, R.Third Class Genie19753
    Lessing, D.Through the Tunnel (from SEAC Anthology)F1
    Lewis, C.S.Chronicles of Nania1950sF1
    Lewis, C.S.The Lion, Witch & Wardrobe1950F3
    Lewis, C.S.The Magician's Nephew1955F2
    Line, D.Run for Your Life1966F2
    Lively, P.Ghost of Thomas Kempe1973F13
    Lively, P.Whispering Knights1971F1
    London, J.White Fang1971A1
    Maddock, R.Dragon in the Garden1988F2
    Magorian, M.Goodnight Mr. Tom1981F5
    Mahy, M.The Haunting1982F1
    Mark, J.Izzy1
    Mark, J.Nothing to be Afraid Of1989F3
    Mark, J.Thunder and Lightnings1976F2
    Mark, J.Trouble HalfWay1985F1
    Marshall, J.Walkabout1959F1
    Maugham, S.Kite1963F1
    McCaughrean, G.The Canterbury Tales1984F1
    McCaughrean, G.A Little Lower than the Angels1987F2
    McLeish, K.Odysseus Returns1980sF2
    Morgan, E.Off Course1
    Morgan, E.The Computer's First Xmas CarolF1
    Morpurgo, M.Friend or Foe1977F1
    Naidoo, B.Journey to Jo'Burg198511
    Naughton, B.A Dog called Nelson1978F2
    Naughton, B.Goalkeeper's Revenge1961F14
    Naughton, B.My Pal Spadger1982F3
    Needle, J.Albeson and the Germans1977F2
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906F1
    Nostlinger, C.Conrad the Factory Made Boy1976F4
    Nye, R.BeowulfF4
    O'Brien, R.C.Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH1971F29
    O'Brien, R.C.The Silver Crown1983F2
    Odell, S.Island of the Blue Dolphins1961F2
    Orwell, G.Animal Farm1945F5
    Paterson, K.Bridge to Terabithia1978F2


    [page 177]

    YEAR SEVEN

    Paterson, K.The Great Jilly Hopkins1978F2
    Paton-Walsh, J.Gaffer Samson's Luck1984F1
    Pearce, P.Battle of Bubble and Squeak1978F2
    Pearce, P.A Dog so Small1978F1
    Pearce, P.Tom's Midnight Garden1958F6
    Pettersson, A.Frankenstein's Aunt1982F3
    Pilling, A.Henry's Leg1985F3
    Pilling, A.The Year of the Worm1985F1
    Pratchett, T.Trucker's Trilogy1989F1
    Ransome, A.Swallows and Amazons1930F1
    Reid Banks, L.One More River1973F2
    Richler, M.Jacob Two-Two1979F1
    SchoefferShameF1
    Seely, I.Only a Game and other stories1989F2
    Serraillier, I.Beowulf the WarrierF1
    Serraillier, I.The Clashing Rocks1963F2
    Serraillier, I.The Enchanted Island1964A4
    Serraillier, I.Greek MythsF1
    Serraillier, I.Men, Gods and MythsF1
    Serraillier, I.The Silver Sword1956F27
    Serraillier, I.The Way of Danger1962F2
    Shyer, M.Welcome Home Jelly Bean1980F3
    Slater, J. (?)Goldenwood (?)F1
    Smucker, B.Underground to Canada1978F1
    SoutheyBishop HattoF1
    Sperry, A.The Boy who was Afraid1942F1
    Steinbeck, J.The Pearl1954F2
    Stevenson, R.L.Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde1886A1
    Stevenson, R.LTreasure Island1883F4
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1990A1
    Stoker, B.Dracula1897F1
    Sutcliff, R.Beowulf Dragon Slayer1971A/F11
    Sutcliff, R.Warrior Scarlet19581
    Swindells, R.The Ghost Messengers1988F1
    Taylor, T.The Cay1973F3
    Thompson, A edStorylinesF1
    ThompsonBulls EyesF3
    Thurber, J.The Night the Ghost got in1993F1
    Tolkien, J.R.R.The Hobbit1937F/A5
    Treece, H..Bows Versus BaronsF1
    Treece, H.The Dream Time2
    Treece, H.Legions of the Eagle1954F2
    Twain, M.Huckleberry Finn1880sF2
    Twain, M.Tom Sawyer1876F1
    Ure, J.Tealeaf on the Roof1987F1
    Uttley, A.A Traveller in Time1977A1
    Warner, R.ChoughF1


    [page 178]

    YEAR SEVEN

    Warner, R.MallardF1
    Warner, R.Men and Gods1951F1
    Westall, R.The Kingdom by the Sea19901
    Westall, R.The Machine Gunners1975F4
    Westall, R.The Scarecrows1981F1
    White, E.Charlotte's Web1952F3
    WilsonWar of the ComputersF1
    Wiseman, D.Adam's Common1980F1
    Young, A.The SwallowsF1

    Poetry

    Ahlberg, A.Please Mrs. Butler1983F3
    Auden, W.H.The Ballad of James Honeyman1930sF2
    Auden, W.H.Night Mail1930sF1
    Benton, M. & P.Touchstone Selections Vol/Part 11987F5
    Benton, M. & P.Touchstone Selections Vol/Part 21987F4
    Benton, M. & P.Touchstone Selections Vol/Part 31988F4
    Benton, M. & P.Touchstone Selections Vol/Part 7,8,91988F1
    Browning, R.Pied Piper of Hamlin1845F4
    Boyle, B.What's in a Poem?1983F1
    Carroll, L.Jabberwoky1865F3
    Causley, C. et alPoems about People19911
    Coleridge, S.T.The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner1798F2
    Coleridge, S.T.The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner1798A1
    Conoley, C.Poems1
    Dahl, R.Nursery Rhymes and Beastly TalesF1
    De la Mare, W.HighF1
    De la Mare, W.The Listener19121
    De la Mare, W.London Poems2
    DunbarLondon Poems2
    Eliot, T.S.MaCavity and Other Cat Poems19391
    Eliot, T.S.Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats1939A1
    Fisher, R. (ed)Poems About People19911
    Foster, J. (ed)A Fourth Poetry Book1986F2
    Foster, J.Poetry 11986F2
    Foster, J.A 2nd, 3rd, 4th Poetry Book1986F1
    Foster, J. (ed)New Angles - Various Poets1987F1
    Frost, R.Selected Poems19631
    Frost, R. et alNature Poems Selected1
    Graves, R.Poems19921


    [page 179]

    YEAR SEVEN

    Graves, R. at alPoems about People19901
    Harrison, M. & Clark, C.S.New Dragon Book of Verse1977F3
    Harvey, A. (ed)Poems About People1990/12
    Higgins, P.Poetry Processor I & II1980sF1
    Hughes, T.Poems 20c1
    Hughes, T. et alSelected Nature Poems20c1
    Kitchen, D. (ed)Axed Between the Ears1987A6
    Kitchen, D.Earshot1988F10
    Larkin, P.Poems20c1
    Larkin, P. et alSelected Nature Poems20c1
    Lear, E.Nonsense Poems1991F1
    LongfellowHiawatha1858A1
    Magee, W.Read a Poem, Write a Poem1989F1
    Mare, de la, W. et alPoems about People19911
    Mare, de la, W.SilverF1
    Masefield, J.Sea Farer1
    McGough, R.First Day at School1
    McGough, R.Selected Poems1989F3
    McGough, R.Strictly Private1981F1
    McGough, R.You Tell Me (Selected Poems)19891
    McGough, R. & Rosen, M.You Tell Me19812
    Noyes, A.The Highwayman1981F3
    Orme, D., Sale, J.Poetry Street I - 319911
    Owen, W.Dulce et Decorum est1920F1
    Pearson, M.Winners and Losers1988F1
    Phinn, G.Barshots1
    Phinn, G.Lizard over Ice19904
    Phinn, G.Turning Tide Anthology19901
    Phinn, G.Perci1987F1
    Riley, M.Six Anthologies 1 - 6F1
    Riley, J.Nine O'clock Bell19851
    Rosen, M.Wouldn't you like to know1977A
    Sadler, N.P.Enjoying Poetry19813
    Shakespeare, W.Witches Chant from Macbeth1605A1
    SheldonBook of VerseF2


    [page 180]

    YEAR SEVEN

    Smith, J.Faber Book of Children's Verse 7/81
    Tennyson, A.Lady of Shallott1832F1
    Thomas, D.Christmas PoemsF1
    Tuckey, J.BBC Verse Universe19921
    Webb (ed)I like this Poem1979F1
    Wood, J & LPoetry Workshop1988F3
    Woolger, D. (ed)Poems about People1990F1
    WordsworthThe Daffodils1807A/F1
    WordsworthLondon Poems1793F2
    Wright, K.Hot Dog and other Poems1981F1

    Plays

    Adorian, S.The Ratz1991F3
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (play)1968F1
    Chambers, A.Chicken Run1968F1
    Eliot, T.S.Murder in the Cathedral1935A2
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F34
    Lambert, A.Junior Drama Workshop1987F1
    Lambert, A. & Mitchell, J.Themescripts19903
    Milne, A.Toad of Toad Hall1991F1
    Morgan, E.Treasure Island (Kingswood Plays)19542
    Parker, A.Bugsy Malone1984F1
    Phinn, G.Perci1987F1
    RobinsonDown Your Way1974F1
    Samuels, D.Monster Garden1992F1
    Shakespeare, W.As You Like It1599A1
    Shakespeare, W.Julius Caesar1600A/F4
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605A7
    Shakespeare, W.Merchant of Venice1596F3
    Shakespeare, W.A Midsummer Night's Dream1595F12
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594A8
    Shakespeare, W.The Tempest1611A1
    Sherry, S.A Pair of Jesus Boots1969F3
    Southworth, J.David CopperfieldF1
    Tordoff, B.Play it for Laughs1986F1
    Tordoff, B.Laughter Lines1988F1
    Wood, E.R. (ed)Windmill One Act Plays No. 81978F1


    [page 181]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED
    YEAR EIGHT

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    Adams, R.Watership Down1972F1
    Aiken, J.Midnight is a Place1974F2
    Aiken, J.The Wolves of Willoughby Chase1962F1
    Alcock, V.The Monster Garden1988F3
    Alcock, V.The Trial of Anna Cotman1989F1
    Allen, J.Awaiting Developments1988F1
    AshleyA Kind of Wild Justice1978F1
    AshleyRunning Scared1986F2
    AshleyTrouble with Donovan Croft1974F2
    Babbit, N.Tuck Everlasting1983F1
    Baldwin, M.Grandad with Snails1962F1
    Banks, R.One More River1988F1
    Banks, R. (ed)T en Ghost Stories1977F1
    Barlow, S. & Skidmore, S.Paper Tigers1991F1
    Barstow, S.Joby1964F1
    Batten, M.The Singing ForestF1
    Bawden, N.Carrie's War1987F32
    Bawden, N.The Finding1985F4
    Bawden, N.Handful of Thieves1980sF1
    Berry, J.A Thief in the Village1987F1
    Bolt, R.Thwarting of Baron Bolligrew1966F3
    Bradbury, R.And there will come soft rains1950sF1
    Branfield, J.The Fox in Winter1980F1
    Bronte, C.Jane Eyre1847A2
    Buiyon, L.For the FallenF1
    Byars, B.The Eighteenth Emergency19736
    Byars, B.The House of Wings1972F1
    Byars, B.Midnight Fox1970F4
    Byars, B.Mr. Pinballs1977F2
    Byars, B.The TV Kid19791
    Canning, V.The Flight of the Grey Goose1974F1
    Canning, V.The Runaways1974F2
    Carter, P.Under Goliath19771
    Chambers, A.Chicken Run1968F1
    Chambers, A.Present Takers19831
    Chambers, A.Johnny Salter1966F2
    Christopher, J.Empty World1977F3
    Christopher, J.Prince in Waiting1970sF1
    Clarke, A. C.Of Time and Stars1993F1


    [page 182]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Collins (ed)Choices - Friends and Enemies Short StoriesF1
    Conan Doyle, A.Hound of the Baskervilles1902A1
    Conan Doyle, A.Sherlock Holmes Casebook19271
    Cooper, S.The Dark is Rising1973F2
    Cross, G.Demon Headmaster1980sF3
    Cross, G.Dark behind the Curtains1982F2
    Dahl, R.The Big Friendly Giant1984F1
    Dahl, R.Boy198419
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory1968F1
    Dahl, R.The Club of the Grand High Witch (?)F1
    Dahl, R.Danny, Champion of the World1975F3
    Dahl, R.Going Solo1986F3
    Dahl, R.Matilda19882
    Dahl, R.The Witches1983F1
    Dahl, R.The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar1979A1
    Davies, A.Conrad's War19781
    De MaupassantPrisoner of War and other stories1969F1
    Desai, A.Village by the Sea1982F4
    Dickens, C.Christmas Carol1850A7
    Dickens, C.Great Expectations1861A/F2
    Dickens, C.Hard Times1854A1
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1837A2
    Doherty, B.Granny was a Buffer Girl1986F1
    Duncan, L.The Eyes of Karen Connors1986F1
    Durrell, G.My Family and other Animals1956A2
    Eliot, G.Silas Marner1861F2
    England, A.A Day in the Mind of Tich Oldfield1991F2
    Fine, A.The Granny Project1986F4
    Fine, A.Madame Doubtfire1987F1
    Fisk, N.Grinny1975F5
    Frank, A.The Diary of Anne Frank1954F2
    Gallico, P.The Snow Goose1969F2
    Garfield, L.Devil in the Fog1970F1
    Garfield, L.John Diamond1981F1
    Garfield, L.Lancelot and ElaineF1
    Garfield, L.Six Apprentices1982F2
    Garfield, L.Smith1967F9
    Garfield, L.Sound of WitchesF1
    Garner, A.EJidor1965F7
    Garner, A.The Owl Service1967F3
    Garner, A.Weirdstone ofBrisingamen1974F2
    Garnett, E.Further Adventures of the Family from One End Street1993F1
    Gates, S.The Burnhope Wheel1989F2


    [page 183]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Geeley, J.Only a Game and other stories1989F1
    George, J.My side of the Mountain1970F1
    George, J.C.Julie of the Wolves1973F1
    Golding, W.Lord of the Flies1962A1
    Godden, R.The Diddakoi1973F3
    Gordon, J.The Quelling Eye1986F1
    Grahame, K.The Wind in the Willows19081
    GrimmFairy Stories1823F1
    Hinton, N.Buddy1982F22
    Hinton, N.Playgirl 1, 2, 3F1
    Hinton, S.E.The Outsiders19701
    Hoban, R.The Mouse and his Child1967F2
    Holm, A.I am David1965F8
    HorowitzSilver CitadelF1
    Howker, J.Badger on the Barge198410
    Hughes, T.The Iron Man1971F3
    Ireson, B.In a Class of their Own19851
    Jackson, D. (ed)Springboard1985F1
    Jones, T.Fairy Tales19811
    Kaye, G.Comfort Herself1984F5
    Kemp, G.Gowie Corby1978F2
    Kemp, G.Mr. Magus is waiting for you1986F2
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F16
    Kennemore, T.Fortunate Few1981F2
    King, C.Me and My Million1979F3
    Kipling, R.Just So Stories1902F1
    Laird, E.Red Sky in the Morning1988F2
    Lambert, A. & Mitchell, J.Themescripts19903
    Layton, G.The Balaclava StoriesF2
    Layton, G.A Northern Childhood1991F2
    Leeson, R.Third Class Genie19752
    Leeson, R.Harold and Bella and Jammy and Me1980F1
    Le Guin, U.The Wizard of Earthsea1971F1
    Lewis, C.S.The Magician's Nephew1955F1
    Line, D.Run for your Life1966F6
    Line, D.Screaming High1985F1
    Lingard, J.Across the Barricades1980sF5
    Lively, P.Astercote19702
    Lively, P.Ghost of Thomas Kempe1973F16
    Lively, P.The House in Norman Gardens1974F1
    London, J.The Call of the Wild1963F1
    MacleishOdysseus ReturnsF1
    Maddocks, R.The Pit1988F2
    Maddock, R.Dragon in the Garden1988F1


    [page 184]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Magorian, M.Back Home1985F2
    Magorian, M.Goodnight Mr. Tom1981F20
    Magorian, M.Whale1980sF1
    Mahy, M.The Haunting1982F3
    Mahy, M.Memory1987F2
    Mark, J.Nothing to be Afraid Of1989F2
    Marshall, J.Walkabout1959F7
    McCaughrean, G.A Little Lower than the Angels1987F2
    Meade-Faulkner, J.Moonfleet1965F5
    Metlock, G.Green StrawberryF1
    Montgomery, L.M.Anne of Green Gables1925F1
    Mooney, B.The Stove Haunting1986F1
    Morpurgo, M.Friend or Foe1977F2
    Morpurgo, M.Warhorse1982F1
    Morpurgo, M.Why the Whales Came1985F1
    Naidoo, B.Journey to Joburg1985F1
    Naughton, B.Goalkeeper's Revenge1961F6
    Naughton, B.Mischief MakersF1
    Naughton, B.My Pal Spadger1982F3
    Needle, J.A Game of Soldiers1985F1
    Needle, J.Loosers Weepers1981F1
    Needle, J.My Mate Shofiq1978F2
    Needle, J.Rebels of Gas Street1986F1
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906F2
    Nimmo, J.The Snow Spider1986F1
    O'Brien, R.Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH1971F16
    O'Brien, R.Z for Zacharia1984F2
    Orwell, G.Animal Farm1945F4
    Park, R.Playing Beatie Bow1981F1
    Paterson, K.Bridge to Terabithia1978F7
    Paterson, K.The Great Gilly Hopkins1978F9
    Paton Walsh, J.Fireweed1969F6
    Patten, B.Mr. Moon's Last Case1988F2
    Pearce, P.Shadow Cage1978F1
    Pearce, P.Tom's Midnight Garden1958F4
    Perrault, C.Cinderella1697F1
    Philip, N.Tales of Sir Gawain1987F2
    Picard, B. L.Stories of King Arthur1955A1
    Pratchett, T.Truckers Trilogy1989F1
    Rees, D.The Exeter Blitz1978F1
    Richter, H.P.Friedrich1971F3
    Robinson, K.Short History of Brian Beck1
    Rockwell, T.How to Eat Fried Worms1979F1
    Rodgers, M.Freaky Friday1976F3
    Salway2nd on the Right1
    Seeley, J.From the Top Deck and Other Stories1989F2


    [page 185]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Serraillier, I.The Clashing Rocks19631
    Serraillier, I.The Enchanted Isle1964F5
    Serraillier, I.Road to Canterbury1979F3
    Serraillier, I.Selections (Round Two)A1
    Serraillier, I.Silver Sword1956F9
    Serraillier, I.The Windmill Book of Ballads1962F1
    Shelley, M.Frankenstein1818A3
    Sherry, S.A Pair of Jesus Boots1969F2
    Shyer, M.Welcome Home Jellybean1984F8
    Sleator, W.Interstellar Pig1984F1
    Smucker, B.Underground to Canada1978F8
    Southall, I.Hills End1970F1
    Sparks, W.Last of the Cockleshell Heroes1992F1
    Spender, S.My Parents Kept Me From People Who Were RoughF1
    Steinbeck, J.Of Mice and Men1937F1
    Steinbeck, J.The Pearl1947F1
    Steinbeck, J.The Red Pony1968F2
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1883F6
    Stoker, B.Dracula1897A1
    Storr, C.The Boy and the Swan1987F1
    Styles, M.I Like that Stuff1984F1
    Sutcliff, R.Dragon Slayer1971F4
    Sutcliff, R.Eagle of the Ninth1954F2
    Sutcliff, R.Sun Horse, Moon Horse1977F1
    Swindells, R.Ghost Messengers1988F2
    Swindells, R.Brother in the Land1984F1
    Taylor, M.Roll of Thunder Hear my Cry1976F1
    Taylor, T.The Cay1973F4
    Tolkien, J.R.R.The Hobbit19374
    Trease, G.Viking Down1940F1
    Trease, G.Cue for Treason1940F1
    Twain, M.Huckleberry Finn1880s1
    Twain, M.Tom Sawyer18763
    Warner, R.Men and Gods1950F3
    Westall, R.Blitzcat1989F1
    Westall, R.The Kingdom by the Sea19901
    Westall, R.The Machine Gunners1975F22
    Westall, R.The Scarecrows1981F1
    Wilson, D.H.There's a wolf in my pudding1986F1
    Wiseman, D.The Fate of Jeremy Vsick1981F1
    Wyndham, J.The Chrysalids1955F1
    Wyndham, J.Pre-20th Century Novel Extracts1
    Wyndham, J.20th Century NovelF1


    [page 186]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Anthologies:Dahl, R.1
    C.S. Lewis1
    R. Bradbury1
    C. Dickens1
    Sir Gawain and the Legends of King Arthur1
    Autobiographical Extracts:
    Heaney, Naughton, McGough
    1

    Poetry

    Baldwin, M.Billy the Kid Anthology of Tough Verse1
    Benton, P.Inside Stories19911
    Benton, P.Watchwords19791
    Benton, P. & M.Touchstones1980sF6
    Black, E.L. (ed)1914-18 in Poetry1970F1
    Browning, R.Pied Piper of Hamlin1842F1
    Brownjohn, A.The Rabbit1970sF1
    Carroll, L.Jabberwocky1865F2
    Causley, C.Charlotte Dymond1970/80sF3
    Chaucer, G.Canterbury Tales1386-A2
    Clark, C.S. & Harrison, M.Poems 219801
    Coleridge, S.T.The Ancient Mariner1798F4
    Cookson, P.A Selection of PoemsF1
    De la Mare, W.The Listeners19121
    Eliot, T.S.Macavity the Mystery Cat1939F1
    Foster, J.Poems One1986F1
    Foster, J.Poetry 21986F1
    Foster, J.2nd, 3rd, 4th Poetry Book1986F2
    Frost, R.Stopping by WoodsF2
    Garfield, LShakespeare Stories19851
    HangaardThe Little Fishes1
    HansonPoemsF1
    Harrison, M. & Clark, C.S.Dragon Book of Verse19771
    Higgins, P.Poetry Processes I & IIF1
    Kitchen, D. (ed)Axed Between the Ears1987F5
    Kitchen, D.Earshot1988F6
    Kitchen, D. (ed)Thin Ice1991F1
    Longfellow, H.Hiawatha1855A1
    Magee, I.Read a Poem Write a Poem1989F1
    McGough, R.Strictly Private1981F7
    Noyes, A.The Highwayman1981F5
    Blishen, E.Oxford Book of Poetry for Children19631
    Phinn, G.Lizard over Ice1990F2


    [page 187]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Phinn, G.Turning Tide Anthology19901
    Rosen, M. & McGough, R.You Tell Me1989F2
    Sadler, R. & Hayllar, T.A.S. (eds)Enjoying More Poetry19851
    Salter, R. Hayes and PowellEnjoying Poetry1983F1
    SheldonBook of VerseF2
    SummerfieldVoices I and II2
    Tennyson, A.The Lady of Shallott1832F4
    Tennyson, A.Victorian Poetry19thCA2
    Thiele, C.Danny's Eggs19911
    Thompson, A.Bulls Eyes1
    Thompson, A(ed)StorylinesF1
    Tucker, J.BBC Verse Universe19921
    Wood, L. and J.Poetry Workshop1988/911
    Wordsworth, W.Lucy Gray17981
    School produced Poetry Anthology2
    Pre-20th Century Poetry2
    Ballads - collected authors1
    Telesware/Tapestry, etc. Poetry Anthology1
    A Galaxy of Poems Old and New ed. Longman1
    Poetry Street 1-31
    Poetry Anthology1
    War Poets1

    Plays

    Adorian, S.The Ratz1991F1
    Ayckbourn, A.Ernie's Incredible Illucinations1969F3
    Brighouse, H.Hobson's Choice1916F1
    Burgess, J.Take Part Play Anthology19861
    Dahl, R.Charlie and the Chocolate Factory19681
    England, A.DramaramaF1
    Flynn, A.Demon Headmaster19901
    Frank, A.The Diary of Anne Frank1
    Gray, N.Black Harvest1986F2
    Hines, B.KES1968A1
    Mark. J.Interference1987F1
    Nicholls, D.The Goalkeeper's Revenge1960sF1
    Pick, J.Carrigan Street1972F1
    Platter, A.Excusions1969F1
    RobinsonDown Your Way1974F1
    Samuels, D.Play of the Monster Garden1980sF1
    Saunders, S.In Holland Stands a House1991F1
    Shakespeare, W.Comedy of Errors1592F1


    [page 188]

    YEAR EIGHT

    Shakespeare, W.Hamlet1600F1
    Shakespeare, W.Julius Caesar1600F5
    Shakespeare, W.Julius Caesar1600A2
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605F4
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605A3
    Shakespeare, W.Merchant of Venice1596F9
    Shakespeare, W.Midsummer Night's Dream1595F22
    Shakespeare, W.Midsummer Night's Dream1595A5
    Shakespeare, W.Othello1604F2
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594F18
    Shakespeare, W.The Tempest16112
    Shakespeare, W.Twelfth Night1599F5
    Southworth, J.David Copperfield1
    Twain, M.Tom Sawyer18761
    20th Century PlaysF1
    Frankenstein1





    [page 189]

    BOOKS RECOMMENDED
    YEAR NINE

    AuthorTitleDateA/FNo.

    Prose

    Alcock, V.The Trial of Anna Cotman1989F1
    Ashley, B.Break in the Sun1980F1
    Ashley, B.A Kind of Wild Justice19782
    Ashley, B.Running Scared1986F2
    Asimov, I.Fifty Short Science Fiction Stories1963F1
    Atwood, M.Bull SongF1
    Austen, J.Pride and Prejudice1848F2
    Avery, V.London Morning1969F1
    Babbitt, N.Luck Everlasting1983F1
    Ballard, M.Dockie1972F1
    Baldwin, M.Grandad with Snails1962F2
    Barstow, S.Joby1964F10
    Bawden, N.Carrie's War1987F7
    Bawden, N.The Witch's Daughter1966FI
    Bethell, A.Gregory's Girl1983A2
    Bleasdale, AlDetentionF1
    Blume, J.Its not the end of the World1972F2
    Bradbury, R.Golden Apples of the Sun1990F2
    Bradbury, R.And there will come Soft Rains1950sF1
    Braithwaite, E.R.To Sir With Love1959F1
    Branfield, J.The Fox in WinterA2
    Branfield, J.The Fox in Winter1980F3
    Bronte, C.Jane Eyre1847F5
    Bronte, C.Jane EyreA6
    BurtonInside Stories1
    Byars, B.The Pinballs1977F2
    Byars, B.TV Kid1976F1
    Canning, V.Flight of the Grey Goose19742
    Canning, V.The Runaways19741
    Carter, P.Under Goliath1929F2
    Causley, N.Battle of C. Diamond1
    Causley, N.Battle of Billy Rose1
    Chambers, A.Johnny Salter1966F1
    Chambers, A. edOut of Time (extracts)F1
    Christopher, J.Empty World1977F3
    Christopher, J.The Guardians1970F12
    Clare, J.Badger1
    Conan Doyle, A.The Hound of the Baskervilles1902F1
    Conan Doyle, A.Silver Blaze and other stories1987F1
    Cooper, SThe Dark is Rising1973F1
    Cray, R.The FriendsF1


    [page 190]

    YEAR NINE

    YEAR NINE

    Dahl, R.Boy1984F7
    Dahl, R.Wonderful World of Henry Sugar1979F2
    Dahl, R.Matilda1988F1
    Dahl, R.Short Story Collection1991F3
    Dahl, R.Tales of the Unexpected19792
    Darke, M.A Question of Courage1978F2
    Desai, A.A Village by the Sea1982F2
    Dickens, C.A Christmas Carol1850F2
    Dickens, C.David Copperfield1850A2
    Dickens, C.Great Expectations1861A3
    Dickens, C.Mystery of Edwin Drood18121
    Dickens, C.Oliver Twist1937F1
    Dickens, C.Oliver TwistA2
    Dickens, C.Signalman and other Ghost Stories19902
    Dickinson, P.The Gift1973F1
    Doherty, B.Tough Luck1987F1
    Durrell, G.My Family and other Animals1956F3
    Eliot, G.Silas Marner1878F4
    Fine, A.Goggle Eyes1989F1
    Fitzhugh, L.Nobody's Family is Going to Change1976F1
    Forrester, H.Twopence to Cross the Mersey1979F2
    Frank, A.The Diary of Anne Frank1954F2
    Gallico, P.The Snow Goose1969F1
    Garfield, L.Smith1967F8
    Garner, A.Elidor1965F1
    Garner, A.The Owl Service1967F2
    Garnett, E.The Adventures of the Family from One End Street1956F1
    George, J.My Side of the Mountain1970FI
    Godden, R.The Diddakoi1973F1
    Golding, W.Lord of the Flies1962F2
    Gordon, J.Giant under the Snow1971F2
    Gray, N.The Black Harvest1986F1
    Greene, B.Summer of my German Soldier1976F1
    GregoryTrigger of WarF1
    Guy, R.Disappearances1980F2
    Guy, R.The Friends1977F1
    Hall, W.The Long, the Short and the Tall1964F1
    Hardy, T.Selected Stories1966F1
    Hardy, T.The Withered Arm and other Wessex Tales18881
    Hill, S.I'm King of the Castle19741
    Hines, B.Kestrel for a Knave1968F2
    Hinton, N.Buddy1982F55
    Hinton, N.Friend or FoeF1


    [page 191]

    YEAR NINE

    Hinton, N.Playgirl 1, 2, 3F1
    Hinton, S.E.The Outsiders1970F5
    Hoban, R.The Mouse and His Child19671
    Holm, A.I am David1965F8
    Holm, A.Charlie Bates Treatment1
    HorowitzSilver CitadelF1
    Howker, J.Badger at the Barge19845
    Howker, J.Isaac Campion1986F3
    Howker, J.Nature of the Beast1985F7
    Hoy, L.Your Friend Rebecca1981F6
    Hughes, T.Jaguar1
    HughesOctober DawnF1
    HughesThought Fox19571
    Hunter, K.Soul Brothers and Sister Lou1987F2
    Iresin, B.In a class of their own1985F1
    Jackson, D. (ed)Springboard1985F1
    Jacobs, W.W.Cargoes1963F1
    Jasper, AS.A Hoxtan Childhood1969F1
    Johnston, J.Shadows on Our Skin1987F1
    Kaye, G.Comfort Herself1984F1
    Kemp, G.The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tyler1977F2
    Keyes, D.Flowers for Algernon1968F2
    Lawrence, D.H.Odour of Chrysanthemums20c.F1
    Lawrence, D.H.Snake20c.F1
    Layton, G.The Balaclava StoriesF1
    Layton, G.A Northern Childhood1991F1
    Lee, L.Cider with Rosie1957F3
    Leeson, R.It's my Life1983F1
    Leeson, R.The Third Class Genie1983F1
    Le Guin, V.Wizard of Earth sea1971F2
    Lester, J.The Basketball Game1982F1
    Lester, J.Long Journey Home1977F1
    Line, D.Run for your Life1966F1
    Lingard, J.Across the Barricades1980sF25
    Lingard, J.The Clearance1974F1
    Lingard, J.Into Exile1973F5
    Lingard, J.Proper Place1975F1
    Lingard, J.Rags to Riches1988F1
    Lingard, J.Twelfth Day of July1989F3
    Lively, P.Ghost of Thomas Kempe1973F1
    Magorian, M.Goodnight Mr. Tom1981F6
    Mahy, M.The Haunting1987F2
    Malorg, Sir, T.Morte d' Arthur1400sF1
    Mark, J.Hairs in the palm of your hand1981F1
    Mark, J.Nothing to be Afraid Of1987F3
    Marshall, J.Walkabout19774
    Maupassant, G.Prisoners of War and Other Stories1969F1


    [page 192]

    YEAR NINE

    Maupassant, G.Short Stories1971F1
    Maxwell, G.Ring of Bright Water1962F1
    Meade-Faulkner, J.Moonfleet1965F3
    Milne, P.SWALK1987F1
    Minies, B.Frankly Frank1
    Montgomery, L.M.Anne of Green Gables1925F1
    Mooney, B.The Flower of Jet1990F1
    Morpurgo, M.Friend or Foe1977F1
    Morpurgo, M.Why the Whales Came1985F4
    Morrow, K.Splendid Journey1950F1
    Naidoo, B.Free as I Know1987F1
    Naidoo, B.Journey to Jo'Burg1985F"
    Naughton, B.Goalkeeper's Revenge1961F3
    Naughton, B.My Pal Spadger19821
    Needle, J.The EvacueesF1
    Needle, J.A Game of Soldiers1985F4
    Needle, J.My Mate Shofiq1978F2
    Needle, J.Rebels of Gas Street1986F1
    Needle, J.The Thief1989F1
    Nesbit, E.The Railway Children1906F1
    O'Brien, R.Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of Nimh1971F3
    O'Brien, R.Z for Zachariah1984F9
    Orwell, G.198419492
    Orwell, G.Animal Farm1945F13
    Patterson, C.The Great Gilly Hopkins1978F1
    Paton-Walsh, J.Dolphin Crossing1967F1
    Paton-Walsh, J.Fireweed1975F3
    Paton-Walsh, J.Murder at End BarnF1
    Paton-Walsh, J.A Parcel of Patterns1987F1
    Plath, S.MushroomsF1
    Remarque, E.M.All Quiet on the Western Front19291
    Richter, H.P.Friedrich1971F17
    Rochman, M.Somehow Tenderness Survives1992F1
    Scannell, V.The Dangerous Ones1970F2
    SchaefferShoneF"
    Self, D. (ed)Love and Marriage1981F1
    Serraillier, I.Beowulf the WarriorF1
    Serraillier, I.The Clashing Rocks1963F1
    Serraillier, I.Enchanted Island1964F3
    Serraillier, I.Road to Canterbury1979F2
    Serraillier, I.The Silver Sword1956F2
    Shapiro, K.Autowreck1
    Sheldon, D.Haunted: Save the Last Dance for Me1993F1
    Shelly, M.Frankenstein1818A2


    [page 193]

    YEAR NINE

    Sherry, S.A Pair of Desert Wellies1986F2
    Sherry, S.A Pair of Jesus Boots1969F5
    Slater, J.Maria Marten1971F1
    Smith, R.Salt on the Snow19881
    SmuckerUnderground to Canada1978F4
    Steinbeck, J.The Pearl1947F8
    Steinbeck, J.Red Pony1968F7
    Stevenson, R.L.Treasure Island1883F2
    Stoker, B.Dracula1897F1
    Strachan, I.Moses Beech1981F2
    Stryer, F.Welcome Home Jellybean1984F4
    Styles, M.I Like That Stuff1984F1
    Sutcliffe, F.Dragon Slayer1971F1
    Sutcliffe, R.Eagle of the Ninth1954F1
    Swindells, R.Brother in the Land19845
    Taylor, T.The Cay1973F1
    Taylor, M.Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry1976F4
    Tey, J.Brat Farrar1987F1
    Thompson, A. edStorylinesF1
    Tolkien, J.R.R.The Hobbitt1937F1
    Townsend, S.Secret Diary of Adrian Mole1982F5
    Treece, H.Cue for Treason1940F3
    Waterhouse, K.There is a Happy Land1968F1
    Watson, J.Talking in Whispers19833
    Wells, H.G.The Time Machine1895F1
    West, M.Seven Detective Stories1969F1
    Westall, R.Blitzcat19891
    Westall, R.Brother in the HandF1
    Westall, R.Ghost MessengersF1
    Westall, R.The Kingdom by the Sea1990F2
    Westall, R.The Machine Gunners1975F21
    Westall, R.The Scarecrows1981F4
    Westall, R.The Watch House1977F1
    Zindel, P.The Pig Man1976F6
    Thirteen Ghosts (short stories)1
    Anthologies: R Dahl1
    C.S. Lewis1
    R Bradbury1
    C. Dickens1
    No titles given - Shakespeare SEAC List1993F2

    Poetry

    Alcorn, M. & Ebborn, A.Making Poems1991F1


    [page 194]

    YEAR NINE

    Baldwin, M.Billy the Kid Anthology of Tough Verse1
    Benton, P.Inside Stories1991A2
    Benton, P. & M.Touchstones1980sF17
    Benton, P. & M.Poetry Workshop1975F1
    Browning, R.Pied Piper of Hamlin1842F1
    Brownjohn, A.The Rabbit1970sF2
    Carroll, L.Jabberwocky1865F1
    Chaucer, G.The Pardoner's Tale1380sA1
    Clark, C.S. and Harrison, M.Poems Volume 21980F1
    Coleridge, S.T.Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner1798F4
    Foster, J.Poetry 31986F2
    Foster, J.New Angles Book 11987F1
    Graves, R.Welsh Incident1
    Harrison, M. & Clark, C.S.Young Dragon Book of Verse1989F1
    Harrison, M. & Clark, C.S.New Dragon Book of Verse19771
    Heaney, S.Death of a Naturalist19661
    KeatsOde to Autumn1819F1
    King, J.Poetry Workshop19901
    Kitchen, D. (ed)Axed between the Ears1987F6
    Kitchen, D.Earshot1988F7
    Kitchen, D. (ed)Thin Ice1991F1
    Knott, R.Wordlife1988F1
    McGough, R.Strictly Private1981F4
    Noyes, A.The Highwayman1981F2
    Owen, W.War Poems1920F1
    Pearson, M.Winners and Losers19881
    Phinn, G.Lizard Over Ice1990F1
    Phinn, G.Turning Tide Anthology19901
    Riley, M.Six AnthologiesF1
    Sadler, RK. & Hughes, P.Enjoying Poetry1981F2
    Tennyson, A.The Lady of Shallott1832F6
    Thomas, D.Holiday Memory1972F2
    Thompson, A.Bulls Eyes1
    Wood, L. & J.Poetry Workshop1988-3
    Poetry Anthology1
    Gawain and the Green Knight1
    Voices Book 31
    Going, going ... and other environmental poemsF1
    Poetry Street 1-31
    Modern PoetryF1


    [page 195]

    Poetry Anthology - SEAC list1993F2
    Sheldon Book of Verse1
    Down a Dark Street1

    Plays

    Adorian, S.The Ratz1991F1
    Bennitt, C. (ed)Humour and Horror19851
    BrighouseHobson's Choice1916F2
    Chambers, A.Chicken Run1968F4
    Cooper, G.Unman, Wittering and Zygo1971F2
    Delaney, S.A Taste of Honey1974F1
    Fine, A.The Granny Project1986F3
    Flynn, A.Demon Headmaster1990F1
    Frank, A.The Diary of Anne FrankF1
    Goldsmith, O.She Stoops to Conquer1773F1
    Hines, B.KES1968F4
    Hinton, N.TV Script of BuddyF1
    James, R. (ed)Themes in Drama1979F1
    Leland, D.Rhino1986F1
    Lane, S. & Kemp, M.Playmakers 1 and 219821
    Rosenthal, J.P'tang, Yang, Kipperbang1984F2
    Russell, W.Our Day Out1984F10
    Shakespeare, W.As You Like It1599F2
    Shakespeare, W.Hamlet1600A1
    Shakespeare, W.Henry V1599F1
    Shakespeare, W.Julius Caesar1600F22
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605A25
    Shakespeare, W.Macbeth1605F3
    Shakespeare, W.Merchant of Venice1596F13
    Shakespeare, W.A Midsummer Night's Dream1595F45
    Shakespeare, W.A Midsummer Night's Dream1595A6
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594F50
    Shakespeare, W.Romeo and Juliet1594A14
    Shakespeare, W.The Taming of the Shrew1593F3
    Shakespeare, W.Twelfth Night1599F3
    Shaw, G.B.Pygmalion1912F2
    SophoclesTheban Plays450BCF1
    Southworth, J.David CopperfieldF1
    Thomas, D.Under Milk Wood1954F1
    Townsend, S.Adrian MoleF3


    [page 197]

    APPENDIX 6 - KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LANGUAGE SoAs

    Which Statements on Knowledge about Language need re-organisation or reformulation and what should these be?

    Statements of Attainment for Knowledge about Language were reorganised, reformulated and, wherever appropriate, added, to form a strand within each Level from 1 to 10 of ATs 1 to 3. These Statements followed the pattern set by the Order in making the requirements for grammar occur in the context of pupils' own writing as well as taking into account the content for Knowledge about Language and the recursive nature of pupils' learning about language as far as was possible within a linear progression. The following statements are offered for the purpose of further discussion. These have been re-written taking account of the following:

    1. Programmes of Study at Key Stages 1, 2 and 3.

    2. Statements of Attainment already present below Level 5 which relate to Knowledge about Language as identified by the framework derived from the Order.

    3. Statements of Attainment from Levels 5-10 which relate to Knowledge about Language.

    4. The degree of complexity in Attainment Target 4 Handwriting, and Attainment Target 5 Spelling.

    5. Progression within a linear structure by increasing the complexity and difficulty of texts and pupils' own analysis and evaluation of texts.

    Where a statement has been reordered its present position in the list of Statement of Attainment is shown in brackets.

    Words in brackets show an alternative wording within a Statement of Attainment.


    [page 198]

    SPEAKING AND LISTENING

    Level 1 (Demonstrate) (in discussion) an (understanding) of contributions that facial expressions, gestures and tone of voice can make to a speaker's meaning (8 d).
    e.g. recognise from pictures of peoples' expression s in a story or film that they mean or do not mean what they say.

    Level 2 (Demonstrate) (in discussion) an (understanding) of the appropriate use of spoken communication according to topic, purpose and audience (7 d).
    e.g. recognise some examples of differences between the formal and informal modes of speech. For instance, identify some differences between the way one might speak to a teacher as opposed to a friend.

    Level 3 Demonstrate an understanding of their own use of language depending on topic, purpose and audience.
    e.g. identify some of the ways in which they might adjust their speech in talking to different people. For instance, examples of appropriate forms of address in talking to different people.

    Level 4 Demonstrate an understanding of general differences between spoken and written English.
    e.g. identify differences in permanence between the two modes; the ways in which speech can be restructured and takes account of audience; recognise how punctuation can function in writing to convey some of the effects of stress and intonation in speech.

    Level 5 (Demonstrate an understanding of) variations (in vocabulary and grammatical structures) between different regional or social groups, and relate this knowledge where appropriate to personal experience (5 e).
    e.g. identify examples of standard and non-standard vocabulary ; standard and non-standard grammar (e.g. in the use of the verb 'to be') (e.g. in the use of double negatives).

    Level 6 Demonstrate an understanding of ways in which spoken language functions within discussion.
    e.g. evaluate examples of turn taking, the contribution tone, gestures and expressions make to discussion.

    Level 7 Demonstrate an understanding of how speech can be adjusted in order to convey meaning more clearly.
    e.g. identify examples of the ways in which speech can be restructured to help a listener understand what is being said For instance, evaluate the use of repetition rephrasing and paraphrasing in speech.


    [page 199]

    Level 8 Demonstrate an understanding that spoken language changes in use of sound and meaning over time and understand why.
    e.g. identify examples of how cultural or other influences contribute to changing words of a similar meaning and make new additions to Standard English vocabulary; 'wireless' becomes 'radio' and 'yuppy' enters the English dictionary; recognise examples of pronunciation changes over time.

    Level 9 Demonstrate an understanding of ideas about appropriateness of register and how this relates to meaning.
    e.g. identify the function of Standard English. For instance evaluate why one might talk differently to a prospective employer than to a friend.

    Level 10 Demonstrate an ability to evaluate the structure and organisation between standard and non-standard forms of speech when these relate to purpose.
    e.g. compare and contrast examples of some of the ways in which a spoken conversation will be different depending on audience, context and purpose.




    [page 200]

    READING

    The following statements are offered for the purpose of discussion. These statements have been directly informed by the analysis undertaken in the first interim report (Warwick 1992). They reflect the content and emphasis concerning Knowledge about Language in the Order, as well as the need to be more specific concerning the place of grammar and punctuation in pupils' Knowledge about Language.

    Where a statement has been reordered, its present position in the list of Statement of Attainment is shown in brackets.

    Words in brackets show an alternative wording within a current Statement of Attainment.

    Level 1 Demonstrate an understanding of differences between writing and drawing.
    e.g. be able to differentiate between words and a picture on a page of a book.

    Level 2 (Demonstrate an) understanding of (the) ways stories (texts) are structured and organised according to their purpose (3 e).
    e.g. understand that some stories have a beginning, middle and an end; recognise the function of punctuation in their reading by drawing attention to the ways commas, speech marks, as well as capital letters and full stops are used in written texts.

    Level 3 Demonstrate, in talking about stories, poems, non fiction and other (texts), that they are developing their abilities to use inference, deduction and previous reading experience (to find and appreciate meaning) (4 c).
    e.g. recognise those clues in a text which help the reader predict events. For instance, recognise the use of vocabulary to signpost a reader through written text: Once upon a time; suddenly; the next day; etc.

    Level 4 Demonstrate an understanding that texts differ according to audience, context and purpose.
    e.g. show how simple and complex sentences function in different types of text, show haw paragraphs function to particular effect in different types of text. For instance, identify the differences and similarities in structure and organisation between a story and an encyclopaedia entry.


    [page 201]

    Level 5 (Demonstrate an understanding) of a writer's choice of particular words and phrases and their effect on a reader (5 e).
    e.g. recognise the use of verbs, nouns, adverbs and adjectives used to particular effect in written texts, For instance, recognise puns, word play, unconventional spellings and the placing together of pictures and text.

    Level 6 (Demonstrate an understanding) of writer's use of sound patterns and some other literary (stylistic) devices and their effect on the reader (7 e).
    e.g. identify how writers use rhyme, alliteration and figures of speech such as similes, metaphors and personification to achieve different effects.

    Level 7 Show in discussion or in writing an awareness that written language changes over time (6 e, 8 e, & 10 e) (and demonstrate reasons for such change).
    e.g. identify differences of vocabulary, grammar and organisation in texts from different historical periods. For instance, recognise that euphemism, contact with other languages and fashion all contribute to language change.

    Level 8 Demonstrate an understanding of the differences and similarities in structure and organisation between texts, discerning and evaluating how such differences contribute to the meaning of a text.
    e.g. be able to contrast pieces of written text in terms of their differences of vocabulary, grammar and organisation. For instance, understand the differences and similarities between the structure and organisation of an advert and a poem.

    Level 9 Demonstrate (an) understanding of the use of lexical and grammatical effects (in the use of language within texts). (9 e).
    e.g. evaluate the use of repetition of words or structures, the use of dialect forms, archaisms, etc.

    Level 10 Demonstrate the ability to evaluate the appropriateness of written language in different contexts for different purposes and how this relates to meaning. (10 e reworded).
    e.g. evaluate an issue of language usage in a newspaper or a short story.


    [page 202]

    WRITING

    The following statements are offered for the purpose of discussion. These statements have been directly informed by the analysis undertaken in the first interim report (Warwick 1992). They reflect the content and emphasis concerning Knowledge about Language in the Order, as well as the need to be more specific concerning the place of grammar and punctuation in pupils' Knowledge about Language. Knowledge about Language for spelling is currently covered by Attainment Target 4 Spelling.

    Where a statement has been reordered, its present position in the list of Statement of Attainment is shown in brackets.

    Words in brackets show an alternative wording within a current Statement of Attainment.

    Level 1 Demonstrate an understanding of differences between words and pictures.
    e.g. be able to distinguish in their own writing between words and pictures.

    Level 2 Demonstrate an understanding of the general differences between speech and writing.
    e.g. be able to understand conventions and functions of punctuation such as question marks, capital letters and full stops in their own writing; be able to understand that writing leaves gaps between words, is written from left to right and top to bottom of the page.

    Level 3 Demonstrate an understanding of how their own writing relates to audience, purpose and content.
    e.g. understand the organisation of different forms of writing, such as letters, poems and stories. For instance, most forms of writing have a beginning, middle and an end. These will differ according to audience, purpose and context.

    Level 4 Demonstrate an understanding of how the structure of their own writing is influenced by purpose, content and audience.
    e.g. understand the function of paragraphing in different forms of writing. For instance recognise that a list will be set out differently from a story.

    Level 5 Demonstrate an understanding of what is appropriate and inappropriate language use within their own different written texts.
    e.g. appreciate the need to take account of audience when choosing vocabulary items in writing a note to a friend or to their teacher. For instance, understand the appropriate use of verb tense, noun phrases, adjectives and adverbs, such as the use of present tense in a dictionary entry.


    [page 203]

    Level 6 Demonstrate an ability to explain the variety of sentence structures within different written formats (in their own writing) and how this structure is influenced by audience, purpose and context.
    e.g. understand that sentences are made up of clauses and recognise the use of coordinate and subordinate clauses used to particular effect within, for instance, newspaper articles and scientific reports.

    Level 7 Demonstrate an understanding of the differences in organisational structure within a variety of different written texts and how they relate to purpose.
    e.g. understand the difference between the use of direct speech in literary texts compared with reported speech in newspapers; understand how vocabulary and grammar is used within text to structure and organise writing.

    Level 8 Demonstrate an understanding of ways in which the structure of language varies between different types of text (in relation to their audience) (9 d).
    e.g. identify what is distinctive about the language used in personal letters, formal letters, printed instructions, reports in different newspapers, play scripts or films. For instance, within their own writing understand the use of appropriate grammatical structures and how these contribute to a particular effect within texts.

    Level 9 Demonstrate, in discussion and in writing, knowledge of criteria by which different types of written language can be judged (10 d).
    e.g. make use of criteria such as clarity, coherence, accuracy, appropriateness, effectiveness, vigour and awareness of purpose and audience.

    Level 10 Demonstrate, in discussion and in writing, the ability to evaluate and discriminate between the different criteria by which written language can be judged in their own writing.
    e.g. comment on their own writing in terms of clarity, coherence, appropriateness, effectiveness, vigour and awareness of purpose and audience.